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Porto, Portugal, July 19-21, 2006

Etisalat University College, University of Sharjah

Sharjah-UAE

khazali@euc.ac.ae, wajdi@sharjah.ac.ae

Abstract: In this paper, a variable structure control design is presented for a class of

fractional time-delay systems of incommensurate order. First, a stable switching

manifold, independent of the delay, is designed for a virtual integer-order system. Then, a

switched controller that guarantees convergence to the sliding surface is developed. The

premise of the design methodology is based on the fact that the stability region of the

integer system is a subset of the stability region of the corresponding fractional-order

system. An illustrative example is given to illustrate the main idea of this work.

systems.

Time-delay systems (TDS) are systems described by

differential difference equations that belong to a Variable structure control (VSC) design has been

class of functional differential equations (Richard, utilized by many researchers (DeCarlo, et al., 2000,

2003, and ref. Therein). On the other hand, Edwards and Spurgeon, 1998, El-Khazali, et al.,

fractional-order systems are characterized by transfer 2004, Utkin, 1977, Xiaoqiu and DeCarlo, 2004). It

functions of non-integer order, arising from the has been applied successfully to integer-order

presence of one or more fractional-order elements in systems with time delay (El-Khazali, 1998, Xiaoqiu

the system. Such systems have attracted the attention and DeCarlo, 2004). In (EL-Khazali and DeCarlo,

of many researchers lately (Carpinteri, and Mainardi, 1998, and Sinha, et al., 1997) sufficient conditions

1997, El-Khazali, et al. 2004, Gorenflo and are developed for stability of uncertain time-delay

Mainardi, 1996, Matignon, 1996a and 1996b, Miller using sliding mode control. The development of the

and Ross, 1993, Oldham and Spanier, 1974, sliding mode control using both state and output

Pudlubny, 1999), and have been shown to be feedback controllers covered all possible types of

adequate models for various physical phenomena in perturbed linear and non-linear systems of integer

areas like damping laws, diffusion processes, and orders. The recent developments in fractional

Rheology (Carpinteri, and Mainardi, 1997, Oldham calculus are the motivation behind extending the

and Spanier, 1974, Podlubny, 1999), to name a few. principle of variable structure control to fractional

Systems that contain fractional derivatives of systems of incommensurate-order.

different orders are called incommensurate-order

fractional systems. The stability and stabilization of This work considers a class of fractional order

such systems was discussed by (El-Khazali, et al., systems with fixed delay and no uncertainties. Using

2004). Lyapunov method, and capitalizing on the stability of

fractional systems (EL-Khazali, et al., 2004,

Since most systems suffer from common state delay, Matignon, 1996a, and 1996b), the two-stage

which can give rise to instability problems, it controller design is developed for a virtual integer-

becomes imperative to address both stability and order system with the same model parameters of the

fractional system. Thus, stabilizing the integer order

system in the presence of delay guarantees the freedom to the switching surface design as will be

stability of the delayed fractional system. This explained later.

technique simplifies significantly the design method

for such a class of systems. The problem of interest is to stabilize the fractional

system states in two steps. First, a switching

This paper is organized as follows: In section 2, the manifold is designed so that the system states

model is described, and some preliminaries and restricted to the manifold have desirable

background are introduced. In section 3, the two characteristics. The second step is to design a

stages of variable structure design are developed. In switched controller to steer the system states to the

section 4, a numerical example is presented to sliding manifold and maintain them there for all

illustrate the main ideas of this work. Finally, in subsequent time (Edwards and Spurgeon 1998, El-

section 5, we draw conclusions. Khazali, et al., 2004, Xiaoqiu and DeCarlo, 2004).

Since it is required to stabilize system (1) using

switched feedback controller, the stability conditions

2. SYSTEM MODEL AND PROBLEM of the following fractional delayed-system:

STATEMENT ( )

x (t ) = Ao x(t ) + Ad x(t h) (4)

Consider a fractional time-delay system (FTDS) become necessary to successfully develop a

described by: stabilizing sliding mode control algorithm. However,

( ) this is an open problem and subject for further

x (t ) = Ao x(t ) + Ad x(t h) + Bu (t ) (1) investigation.

( ) T n

where x [ x1 1 , x 2 2 , L , x n n ] and It was shown in (EL-Khazali, et al., 2004) that the

i stability region of the non-delayed integer-order

( ) d x(t )

x i (t ) denotes the fractional derivatives system x& = Ao x(t ) is a subset of the stability region

i

dt ( )

m

of the corresponding fractional one x = Ao x(t ) .

of orders i , i = 1,2, L , n ; 0 < i 1 , u (t ) is

Consequently, one would expect that the stability

the control, Ao , Ad , and B are known constant region of the following virtual integer-order delayed-

matrices with appropriate dimensions, and h is the system, (i.e., when = 1 = 2 = L = n = 1 ),

system time-delay. Define x t ( ) = x(t + ) for

[ h, 0] and assume that initial condition is given x& (t ) = Ao x(t ) + Ad x(t h) (5)

as x( ) x o ( ), [ h, 0] where x o is a real

is a subset of the stability region of its corresponding

continuous function over [ h, 0] . fractional one. Hence, the following remark follows:

For the development of a stable variable structure

controller, it is necessary to require that the pair Remark 2: Any stabilizing control algorithm for an

( Ao , B) is controllable, i.e., there exists a constant equivalent integer-order system described by

equation (5) guarantees the stability of the following

matrix K o such that A o = Ao BK o is stable. fractional-order time-delay system:

Clearly, when i = 1; i = 1,2,..., n , the integer order

( )

model is obtained, and the variable structure x (t ) = Ao x(t ) + Ad x(t h) (6)

controller is developed for a virtual integer-order

where 0 < i 1 , i , i = 1,2, L , n .

system with equilibrium point at the origin.

Remark 1 indicates that it is sufficient to develop

A variable structure controller of the following form: switched controllers for system (5) and apply it to

u + (t ) system (6). This procedure would simplify the

if ( x) > 0 development of the controller in (2) since the

u (t ) = (2)

fractional derivative of any typical Lyapunov

u (t ) if ( x) < 0

function is not straightforward and does not yield a

is selected that guarantees state convergence to a simple control structure.

sliding manifold, , of the form:

t t

3. SWITCHING SURFACE DESIGN

= ( x, t ) o x(q)dq d x(q h)dq = 0

0 0 (3)

The sliding manifold given by (3) is designed as the

( x, t ) = Sx(t ) intersection of m switching surfaces each of

mn dimension (n-1). In this work, we attempt to select

where o , d , S ; rank (S) = m, are matrices

the matrices S , o , and d so that the system states

to be designed.

are stable on the sliding manifold. The matrix d is

Remark 1: The class of sliding surface (3) does not to be chosen to either reduce the effect of delay or

yield a reduction of order in the sliding mode. This is make the system stable independent of the delay.

due to the integral terms introduced to add more Differentiating (3) with respect to time yields an

equivalent controller of the form (El-Khazali, 1998):

{ }

m / 2 ; m max 1 , 2 , L , n (El-Khazali, et

ueq (t ) = (SB) {(SAo o )x(t) + (SAd d )x(t h)}

1

{ }

al., 2004), then Re ( A o + A d ) < 0 lies off the cone

(7)

(SB) [o x(0) + d x(h)]

1

m / 2 , hence, system (12) is stable independent

of the delay.

To guarantee the existence of the equivalent control

defined in (7), one has to select the matrix S so that 4. CONTROLLER DESIGN

the product SB is non-singular. The constant

component in equation (7); The next step is to design a switched controller such

1 [

i.e., Q ( SB ) o x(0) + d x( h) , can ]

be that the fractional system state trajectories are

globally attracted to the switching surface. The

compensated for in the second phase of design. sliding surface is defined in (3). The matrices, S, o

Hence, the design method will assume a nominal and d are selected to satisfy (11).

equivalent system. T

Using the Lyapunov function V ( ( x)) = 0.5 ,

Substituting from (7) into (1) yields a fractional the goal is to derive a control law that satisfies

equivalent nominal system of the form: V& ( ( x)) < 0 for ( x) 0 (Gantmacher, 1989,

Utkin, 1977). The control vector consists of three

( )

x eq (t ) = A o x eq (t ) + A d x eq (t h) (8) components; i.e.,

where

u (t ) = ueq (t ) + u s (t ) + Q (13)

1

A o Ao B ( SB ) ( SAo o )

(9)

1

A d Ad B ( SB ) ( SAd d ) where Q = ( SB )

1

[o x(0) + d x(h)] , u eq (t ) is

defined in (7), while u s (t ) is the switched nonlinear

discontinuous control law of the form (2), and

The asymptotic stability of system (8) is guaranteed

guarantees attraction to = 0 in finite time

by the asymptotic stability of its integer model when

i = 1; i = 1,2, L , n. The following theorem due to 0 < t < t r , where tr is the first arrival time to the

switching surface. One should guarantee that any

[8] is necessary to develop a switching surface

design algorithm: controller must maintain & ( x) = 0 for t > t r . From

(1), (7) and (13), one concludes that:

Theorem 1: [8] The integer-order system

& ( x) = Sx& (t ) o ( x(t ) x(0) d ( x(t h) x( h))

x& eq (t ) = A o x eq (t ) + A d x eq (t h) (10) 1

(14)

= ( SB) us (t )

is asymptotically stable independent of the delay h if

and only if

{ }

Because B is of full rank, then, without loss of

Re ( A + A ) < 0o d (11) generality, one may always select ( SB) = I m . Hence,

sh the following theorem follows:

( s, z ) jR C, s 0, z = e = 1 P ( s, z ) 0.

( )

where P ( s, z ) sI Ao zAd , and where ( A) is for i = 1,2,L, n . Let u s = sgn{ } , where > 0 is

the set of eigenvalues of A. positive real number, then the system is globally

asymptotically stable using the control law given by

Remark 3: One may choose S and o to satisfy the (13).

condition in (10) and d to minimize the effect of Proof: Consider the following Lyapunov function

the delay during sliding. 1 T

V ( ( x)) = ( x ) ( x )

2

Corollary 1: Let (11) be satisfied, then the equivalent The integer-order time derivative is given as:

fractional system T

V& ( ( x)) = ( x)& ( x)

( ) ( SAo o ) x(t ) + ( SAd d ) x(t h) +

x eq = A o x eq (t ) + A d x eq (t h) (12) T

= ( x)

(o x(0) + d ) + SB (ueq + us + Q)

Proof: Since, by Theorem 1, system (10) is stable Hence, the system state trajectory will reach the

independent of the delay, and since the left-half sliding manifold in finite time (El-Khazali, 1998,

plane (the stability region of system (10)) is a subset Utkin, 1977, Xiaoqiu and DeCarlo, 2004).

of the region off the cone

5. NUMERICAL EXAMPLE

7

x 10 System States

2

To illustrate the proposed method, consider a

fractional system as in (1), with model matrices 0

given as:

-2

0 1 0 0.1 0 0.1 0

Ao = 0 0 1 , Ad = 0 0.2 0 , B = 0 -4

Amplitude

a a a 0 0 0.1 1

Let 1 = 0.7, 2 = 0.8, and 3 = 0.9 and a = 0.1 -6

x2

condition (11) is not satisfied. x3

-12

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Time ( s )

Now choose S = [ s1 s2 1] , then (SB) = 1. Since Ao

Fig. 1. Uncontrolled system states.

is in the canonical form, one may

choose (SAo o ) = [k1 k2 k3 ] , it follows that System State Response

20

o = [(a k1 ) ( s1 + a k 2 ) ( s 2 + a k 3 )] . The x1

x2

gains, k1, k2, and k3 are chosen so that condition (11) 15 x3

is met. 10

Let d = [ f1 f 2 f3 ] then, g1 = (0.1s1 f1), CA

Amplitude

If one selects S = [6 5 1], and o = [2 2 2], 0

-10

0 1 0 0.1 0 0.1

A o = 0 0 1 , A d = 0 0.2 0 -15

2 4 3 0 0.4 0.3

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Time (s)

The given choices satisfy condition (11), i.e., applied (CA) after 20 seconds.

( A o + A d ) = -0.9307, - 1.0347 0.7960 i . The

Control Signal

100

[0 0.4 0.2]x(t h) + 80

u= [2 2 2]x(0)

[0.6 0.6 0.3]xo ( ) sgn( )

60

Amplitude

40

The system response of this model without control is

shown in Figure 1 and with a delay time h = 1 20

response when applying a control signal after 20

seconds. Clearly, the system with the switched -20

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

One could improve the system performance by Fig. 3. Control signal applied after 20 seconds.

increasing the value of the switched gain, . The

values of the control signal and the switching surface

are both depicted in Figures 3 and 4, respectively. 20

Switching Surface

6. CONCLUSIONS 0

-20

-40

to time-delay systems of fractional incommensurate

Amplitude

during the sliding mode independent of the delay.

This would guarantee a stable system on the sliding -100

direct the state trajectories toward the surface and

approach it in a finite time. The sliding on the -140

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

chosen for the integer order system.

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DeCarlo, R.A., Drakunov,S., and Li, X., (2000). A

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Edwards, C. and Spergeon, S. (1998). Sliding Mode

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El-Khazali, R., (1998). Variable Structure Robust

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