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Proceedings of the 2nd IFAC

Workshop on Fractional Differentiation and its Applications


Porto, Portugal, July 19-21, 2006

VARIABLE STRUCTURE CONTROL OF FRACTIONAL TIME-DELAY SYSTEMS

Reyad EL-Khazali and Wajdi H. Ahmad


Etisalat University College, University of Sharjah
Sharjah-UAE
khazali@euc.ac.ae, wajdi@sharjah.ac.ae

Abstract: In this paper, a variable structure control design is presented for a class of
fractional time-delay systems of incommensurate order. First, a stable switching
manifold, independent of the delay, is designed for a virtual integer-order system. Then, a
switched controller that guarantees convergence to the sliding surface is developed. The
premise of the design methodology is based on the fact that the stability region of the
integer system is a subset of the stability region of the corresponding fractional-order
system. An illustrative example is given to illustrate the main idea of this work.

Keywords: Fractional Systems, Sliding Mode Control, and Time-Delay Systems.

1. INTRODUCTION stabilization concerns for time-delay fractional


systems.
Time-delay systems (TDS) are systems described by
differential difference equations that belong to a Variable structure control (VSC) design has been
class of functional differential equations (Richard, utilized by many researchers (DeCarlo, et al., 2000,
2003, and ref. Therein). On the other hand, Edwards and Spurgeon, 1998, El-Khazali, et al.,
fractional-order systems are characterized by transfer 2004, Utkin, 1977, Xiaoqiu and DeCarlo, 2004). It
functions of non-integer order, arising from the has been applied successfully to integer-order
presence of one or more fractional-order elements in systems with time delay (El-Khazali, 1998, Xiaoqiu
the system. Such systems have attracted the attention and DeCarlo, 2004). In (EL-Khazali and DeCarlo,
of many researchers lately (Carpinteri, and Mainardi, 1998, and Sinha, et al., 1997) sufficient conditions
1997, El-Khazali, et al. 2004, Gorenflo and are developed for stability of uncertain time-delay
Mainardi, 1996, Matignon, 1996a and 1996b, Miller using sliding mode control. The development of the
and Ross, 1993, Oldham and Spanier, 1974, sliding mode control using both state and output
Pudlubny, 1999), and have been shown to be feedback controllers covered all possible types of
adequate models for various physical phenomena in perturbed linear and non-linear systems of integer
areas like damping laws, diffusion processes, and orders. The recent developments in fractional
Rheology (Carpinteri, and Mainardi, 1997, Oldham calculus are the motivation behind extending the
and Spanier, 1974, Podlubny, 1999), to name a few. principle of variable structure control to fractional
Systems that contain fractional derivatives of systems of incommensurate-order.
different orders are called incommensurate-order
fractional systems. The stability and stabilization of This work considers a class of fractional order
such systems was discussed by (El-Khazali, et al., systems with fixed delay and no uncertainties. Using
2004). Lyapunov method, and capitalizing on the stability of
fractional systems (EL-Khazali, et al., 2004,
Since most systems suffer from common state delay, Matignon, 1996a, and 1996b), the two-stage
which can give rise to instability problems, it controller design is developed for a virtual integer-
becomes imperative to address both stability and order system with the same model parameters of the
fractional system. Thus, stabilizing the integer order
system in the presence of delay guarantees the freedom to the switching surface design as will be
stability of the delayed fractional system. This explained later.
technique simplifies significantly the design method
for such a class of systems. The problem of interest is to stabilize the fractional
system states in two steps. First, a switching
This paper is organized as follows: In section 2, the manifold is designed so that the system states
model is described, and some preliminaries and restricted to the manifold have desirable
background are introduced. In section 3, the two characteristics. The second step is to design a
stages of variable structure design are developed. In switched controller to steer the system states to the
section 4, a numerical example is presented to sliding manifold and maintain them there for all
illustrate the main ideas of this work. Finally, in subsequent time (Edwards and Spurgeon 1998, El-
section 5, we draw conclusions. Khazali, et al., 2004, Xiaoqiu and DeCarlo, 2004).
Since it is required to stabilize system (1) using
switched feedback controller, the stability conditions
2. SYSTEM MODEL AND PROBLEM of the following fractional delayed-system:
STATEMENT ( )
x (t ) = Ao x(t ) + Ad x(t h) (4)
Consider a fractional time-delay system (FTDS) become necessary to successfully develop a
described by: stabilizing sliding mode control algorithm. However,
( ) this is an open problem and subject for further
x (t ) = Ao x(t ) + Ad x(t h) + Bu (t ) (1) investigation.
( ) T n
where x [ x1 1 , x 2 2 , L , x n n ] and It was shown in (EL-Khazali, et al., 2004) that the
i stability region of the non-delayed integer-order
( ) d x(t )
x i (t ) denotes the fractional derivatives system x& = Ao x(t ) is a subset of the stability region
i
dt ( )
m
of the corresponding fractional one x = Ao x(t ) .
of orders i , i = 1,2, L , n ; 0 < i 1 , u (t ) is
Consequently, one would expect that the stability
the control, Ao , Ad , and B are known constant region of the following virtual integer-order delayed-
matrices with appropriate dimensions, and h is the system, (i.e., when = 1 = 2 = L = n = 1 ),
system time-delay. Define x t ( ) = x(t + ) for
[ h, 0] and assume that initial condition is given x& (t ) = Ao x(t ) + Ad x(t h) (5)
as x( ) x o ( ), [ h, 0] where x o is a real
is a subset of the stability region of its corresponding
continuous function over [ h, 0] . fractional one. Hence, the following remark follows:
For the development of a stable variable structure
controller, it is necessary to require that the pair Remark 2: Any stabilizing control algorithm for an
( Ao , B) is controllable, i.e., there exists a constant equivalent integer-order system described by
equation (5) guarantees the stability of the following
matrix K o such that A o = Ao BK o is stable. fractional-order time-delay system:
Clearly, when i = 1; i = 1,2,..., n , the integer order
( )
model is obtained, and the variable structure x (t ) = Ao x(t ) + Ad x(t h) (6)
controller is developed for a virtual integer-order
where 0 < i 1 , i , i = 1,2, L , n .
system with equilibrium point at the origin.
Remark 1 indicates that it is sufficient to develop
A variable structure controller of the following form: switched controllers for system (5) and apply it to
u + (t ) system (6). This procedure would simplify the
if ( x) > 0 development of the controller in (2) since the
u (t ) = (2)
fractional derivative of any typical Lyapunov
u (t ) if ( x) < 0
function is not straightforward and does not yield a
is selected that guarantees state convergence to a simple control structure.
sliding manifold, , of the form:
t t
3. SWITCHING SURFACE DESIGN
= ( x, t ) o x(q)dq d x(q h)dq = 0
0 0 (3)
The sliding manifold given by (3) is designed as the
( x, t ) = Sx(t ) intersection of m switching surfaces each of
mn dimension (n-1). In this work, we attempt to select
where o , d , S ; rank (S) = m, are matrices
the matrices S , o , and d so that the system states
to be designed.
are stable on the sliding manifold. The matrix d is
Remark 1: The class of sliding surface (3) does not to be chosen to either reduce the effect of delay or
yield a reduction of order in the sliding mode. This is make the system stable independent of the delay.
due to the integral terms introduced to add more Differentiating (3) with respect to time yields an
equivalent controller of the form (El-Khazali, 1998):
{ }
m / 2 ; m max 1 , 2 , L , n (El-Khazali, et
ueq (t ) = (SB) {(SAo o )x(t) + (SAd d )x(t h)}
1
{ }
al., 2004), then Re ( A o + A d ) < 0 lies off the cone
(7)
(SB) [o x(0) + d x(h)]
1
m / 2 , hence, system (12) is stable independent
of the delay.
To guarantee the existence of the equivalent control
defined in (7), one has to select the matrix S so that 4. CONTROLLER DESIGN
the product SB is non-singular. The constant
component in equation (7); The next step is to design a switched controller such
1 [
i.e., Q ( SB ) o x(0) + d x( h) , can ]
be that the fractional system state trajectories are
globally attracted to the switching surface. The
compensated for in the second phase of design. sliding surface is defined in (3). The matrices, S, o
Hence, the design method will assume a nominal and d are selected to satisfy (11).
equivalent system. T
Using the Lyapunov function V ( ( x)) = 0.5 ,
Substituting from (7) into (1) yields a fractional the goal is to derive a control law that satisfies
equivalent nominal system of the form: V& ( ( x)) < 0 for ( x) 0 (Gantmacher, 1989,
Utkin, 1977). The control vector consists of three
( )
x eq (t ) = A o x eq (t ) + A d x eq (t h) (8) components; i.e.,
where
u (t ) = ueq (t ) + u s (t ) + Q (13)
1
A o Ao B ( SB ) ( SAo o )

(9)
1
A d Ad B ( SB ) ( SAd d ) where Q = ( SB )
1
[o x(0) + d x(h)] , u eq (t ) is

defined in (7), while u s (t ) is the switched nonlinear
discontinuous control law of the form (2), and
The asymptotic stability of system (8) is guaranteed
guarantees attraction to = 0 in finite time
by the asymptotic stability of its integer model when
i = 1; i = 1,2, L , n. The following theorem due to 0 < t < t r , where tr is the first arrival time to the
switching surface. One should guarantee that any
[8] is necessary to develop a switching surface
design algorithm: controller must maintain & ( x) = 0 for t > t r . From
(1), (7) and (13), one concludes that:
Theorem 1: [8] The integer-order system
& ( x) = Sx& (t ) o ( x(t ) x(0) d ( x(t h) x( h))
x& eq (t ) = A o x eq (t ) + A d x eq (t h) (10) 1
(14)
= ( SB) us (t )
is asymptotically stable independent of the delay h if
and only if
{ }
Because B is of full rank, then, without loss of
Re ( A + A ) < 0o d (11) generality, one may always select ( SB) = I m . Hence,
sh the following theorem follows:
( s, z ) jR C, s 0, z = e = 1 P ( s, z ) 0.

Theorem 2: Consider system (1) with i = 1,


( )
where P ( s, z ) sI Ao zAd , and where ( A) is for i = 1,2,L, n . Let u s = sgn{ } , where > 0 is
the set of eigenvalues of A. positive real number, then the system is globally
asymptotically stable using the control law given by
Remark 3: One may choose S and o to satisfy the (13).
condition in (10) and d to minimize the effect of Proof: Consider the following Lyapunov function
the delay during sliding. 1 T
V ( ( x)) = ( x ) ( x )
2
Corollary 1: Let (11) be satisfied, then the equivalent The integer-order time derivative is given as:
fractional system T
V& ( ( x)) = ( x)& ( x)
( ) ( SAo o ) x(t ) + ( SAd d ) x(t h) +
x eq = A o x eq (t ) + A d x eq (t h) (12) T
= ( x)
(o x(0) + d ) + SB (ueq + us + Q)

is stable independent of the delay. = T ( x )sgn{ ( x )} < < 0.

Proof: Since, by Theorem 1, system (10) is stable Hence, the system state trajectory will reach the
independent of the delay, and since the left-half sliding manifold in finite time (El-Khazali, 1998,
plane (the stability region of system (10)) is a subset Utkin, 1977, Xiaoqiu and DeCarlo, 2004).
of the region off the cone
5. NUMERICAL EXAMPLE
7
x 10 System States
2
To illustrate the proposed method, consider a
fractional system as in (1), with model matrices 0

given as:
-2
0 1 0 0.1 0 0.1 0
Ao = 0 0 1 , Ad = 0 0.2 0 , B = 0 -4

Amplitude
a a a 0 0 0.1 1
Let 1 = 0.7, 2 = 0.8, and 3 = 0.9 and a = 0.1 -6

Notice that the eigenvalues of (Ao + Ad) are equal to -8

( Ao + Ad ) = { 0.6482,- 0.1741 i 0.3247}, then -10 x1


x2
condition (11) is not satisfied. x3
-12
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Time ( s )
Now choose S = [ s1 s2 1] , then (SB) = 1. Since Ao
Fig. 1. Uncontrolled system states.
is in the canonical form, one may
choose (SAo o ) = [k1 k2 k3 ] , it follows that System State Response
20
o = [(a k1 ) ( s1 + a k 2 ) ( s 2 + a k 3 )] . The x1
x2
gains, k1, k2, and k3 are chosen so that condition (11) 15 x3

is met. 10
Let d = [ f1 f 2 f3 ] then, g1 = (0.1s1 f1), CA

g 2 = (0.2 s2 f 2 ), and g3 = (0.2 s3 f3 0.1) 5

Amplitude
If one selects S = [6 5 1], and o = [2 2 2], 0

d = [0.6 0.6 0.3], then from (9) one obtains: -5

-10
0 1 0 0.1 0 0.1
A o = 0 0 1 , A d = 0 0.2 0 -15

2 4 3 0 0.4 0.3
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Time (s)

Fig. 2. Controlled system states with controller


The given choices satisfy condition (11), i.e., applied (CA) after 20 seconds.
( A o + A d ) = -0.9307, - 1.0347 0.7960 i . The
Control Signal

switched controller then takes the structure: 120

100

[2.1 4.1 3.1]x(t )


[0 0.4 0.2]x(t h) + 80

u= [2 2 2]x(0)
[0.6 0.6 0.3]xo ( ) sgn( )
60
Amplitude

40
The system response of this model without control is
shown in Figure 1 and with a delay time h = 1 20

seconds. Figure 2 shows the controlled system 0


response when applying a control signal after 20
seconds. Clearly, the system with the switched -20
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

control signal managed to have a bounded response. Time ( s )

One could improve the system performance by Fig. 3. Control signal applied after 20 seconds.
increasing the value of the switched gain, . The
values of the control signal and the switching surface
are both depicted in Figures 3 and 4, respectively. 20
Switching Surface

6. CONCLUSIONS 0

-20

The theory of sliding mode control has been applied


-40
to time-delay systems of fractional incommensurate
Amplitude

order. The design technique is based on stabilizing a -60

virtual equivalent integer order delayed system -80


during the sliding mode independent of the delay.
This would guarantee a stable system on the sliding -100

manifold. A switched controller is also derived to -120


direct the state trajectories toward the surface and
approach it in a finite time. The sliding on the -140
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

surface is guaranteed by the negative derivative of an Time (s)

appropriate positive definite Lyapunov function Figure 4. Switching surface


chosen for the integer order system.
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