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Contents

Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Reinforcement, Extension and Assessment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
1 Physical geography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2 World population. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
3 Cities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
4 The primary sector. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
5 Mining, energy and industry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
6 Services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
7 Development. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
8 Environmental sustainability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
9 The Age of Discovery. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
10 Renaissance and Reformation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
11 The Spanish Empire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
12 Baroque Europe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Students Book answer key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
Recording transcripts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
GEOGRAPHY
AND HISTORY 3
Geography and History forms part of an educational project aimed at promoting
the acquisition of key competences, the achievement of academic excellence and the
undertaking of global assessment. Traditionally, education meant teaching content:
it was essentially about knowing. However, todays citizens need to develop a range
of skills, and know how to interpret and communicate, deduce and hypothesize,
select and evaluate. In competency-based learning, the students apply critical
thinking and problem-solving skills to both classroom study and real-life situations.
This helps them to develop as individuals.
Geography and History is a multi-level secondary course covering the curricular
objectives for secondary education. In accordance with recent methodology in the field
of Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL), its approach is characterised by its
clarity of presentation and carefully controlled use of language. This provides a boost
to the students self-confidence, stimulates their capacity for autonomous learning
and makes it much easier for them to assimilate new concepts. The learner-centred
methodology of Geography and History places the individual students at the heart
of things asking questions, carrying out research and project work, cooperating
in pairs and groups. In this way, they can reach their own level of excellence.
KEY COMPETENCES
WHAT ARE THE KEY COMPETENCES?

KEY COMPETENCES are a combination of knowledge, skills and attitudes appropriate to


different contexts and situations. These competences have the following characteristics:

They encourage the development of skills rather than the assimilation of theoretical
content: individuals become competent when they learn how to solve problems
effectively.

Competences develop progressively and can be acquired in different learning situations


and institutions.

They are interdisciplinary because they integrate knowledge that originates in different
academic disciplines.

Linguistic competence Social and civic competence


This is the ability to interpret and use This competence refers to the ability to
language as a tool for oral and written understand and participate successfully in
communication. Verbal communication is the society in which we live and to analyse
fostered by the exchange of opinions, the historical events to understand how people
narration of personal experiences and oral lived in the past. Students learn about
expositions on different topics. The ability different societies, their history and culture.
to search for and understand information This competence promotes debate,
is reinforced. negotiation and conflict resolution. There
This competence is developed by reading are activities to promote civic and values
texts, maps and diagrams; writing texts; education: environmental awareness,
and making short oral presentations. healthy habits, responsible use of ICT,
democratic principles, tolerance and
respect towards others, multiculturalism,
Digital competence etc.

This is the ability to use computer Competences in Mathematics,


programs to obtain, process, exchange and Science and Technology
transmit information. Students learn how
to use lists, tables and graphs to classify These competences include the ability to
and present information accurately. use numbers, perform basic operations,
They develop confidence in, and a critical understand symbols and images related to
use of Information and Communication mathematical, scientific and technical
Technology (ICT). areas and solve problems in order to
interpret the physical world. They include
capacities and attitudes related to
mathematical processes, logical thinking,
Cultural awareness
 and the use of new technologies. These
and expression
competences develop the ability to interact
This competence involves the with the physical world and to explain
interpretation of different cultural natural phenomena by applying the
manifestations as well as the appreciation scientific method. This includes obtaining
of the visual arts, music and literature. It information from different sources, working
enables students to express themselves out solutions, analysing results and
through literature, art, music, etc. interpreting graphs and timelines.

4 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3


Learning to learn Initiative and entrepreneurship
This competence is acquired by learning Students are provided with the strategies
how to apply different techniques aimed at they need to plan, organize, communicate
selecting, organizing and interpreting texts and evaluate their own personal or social
of a social, geographical or historical projects. This competence develops
nature. Students have the opportunity to creativity, innovative thinking and the
summarize what they have learnt and put ability to turn ideas into strategies to solve
it into practice at the end of the unit. They specific problems.
reflect on and evaluate their own learning
process and their classmates through
group work and cooperative learning
techniques.

HOW ARE THE KEY COMPETENCES DEVELOPED IN GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3?

Linguistic competence. By studying this subject in a foreign language, students develop


their linguistic competence naturally and continuously. They use English as a tool for oral
and written communication, exchanging opinions and presenting the results of their
research.
Digital competence. Students carry out extensive research on the Internet to locate
reliable additional sources of information. This makes them familiar with the codes
and formats of scientific language: numerical and geometrical models, graphic
representations, etc. The teachers have an invaluable digital tool in the Libromedia.
Cultural awareness and expression. The cultural and artistic heritage of the
Early Modern period features prominently in Units 9-12. Not only do the students
examine these cultural achievements, they are also encouraged to reflect on our
historical legacy, and how we can preserve surviving monuments.
Social and civic competence. A key dimension of citizen culture is our awareness
of threats to the environment, and our ability to form opinions on the basis of reliable data.
Thus, students are asked to analyse a sustainable energy project in Unit 5 and reflect
on the causes of economic underdevelopment in Unit 7.
Competences in Mathematics, Science and Technology. The students employ
mathematical models to solve specific problems, for example by using graphs
and diagrams.
Learning to learn. The acquisition of this competence is based on the instrumental
character of a great deal of technical knowledge. Operating with theoretical models
helps students to develop their imagination, powers of analysis and observational skills.
This helps to promote autonomous learning.
Initiative and entrepreneurship. Students plan their methodology, select and handle
their resources, solve problems and check their results.

GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3 5


HOW IS GEOGRAPHY AND
HISTORY 3 ORGANIZED?
THE STUDENTS BOOK: A NEW APPROACH

The teaching sequence is learner-centred and designed to promote the acquisition of


competences and creative thinking. Most activities develop content through the use of
multiple language skills reading, listening, and so on thus making language acquisition
and content development mutually supportive. Content is developed through 12 units,
each of which has the following sections:
UNIT OPENER
The double-page colour image, with its recorded accompanying text, captures
the students attention and gets them to reflect on issues related to the subject
matter of the unit.
Work with the image. Guided activities elicit prior knowledge from the students
and encourage them, in pairs, to discuss the images. They use a variety of thinking
skills such as observing, comparing and giving opinions.
How do we know? This section focuses on geographical techniques and skills,
or historical sources and how we use and interpret them.

8
WHY IS POSIDONIA IMPORTANT TO THE MEDITERRANEAN?

Environmental sustainability PosidoniaisaMediterraneanmarineplant.Itisthehabitatforover400


speciesofplantsand1,000speciesofanimals.Itslongleavesprotectthe
coastfromerosioncausedbythewaves.Illegaltrawling,thecontamination
ofseawaterandtheconstructionofinfrastructuresonthecoasthaveavery
adverseeffectonitsgrowth.
FIND OUT ABOUT:
Its long
Environmentalawareness leaves protect
Themainproblemsaffectingthe the coast from
environment erosion caused
by the waves
Thereasonsfortheseproblems
Solutionsforprotectingthe
environment

KNOW HOW TO:


Its roots
Comparetheecologicalfootprint Posidonia is stabilize
oftwocountries the habitat of the sea bed
Analyseenvironmentalimpact around 400 species
usingsatelliteimages of plants and
1,000 especies of
animals

AGGRESSIVE ALGAE: CAULERPA


The Caulerpa is not toxic for human beings but it
is very aggressive with flora and fauna. This
invasive plant is currently colonising over 3,000
hectares of the Mediterranean Sea.

WE NEED TO TAKE ACTION TO PREVENT IT


FROM SPREADING MORE!

Divers should Sailors should check Fishermen should


clean their their anchors and clean their nets
material before chains before and before and after
and after each after anchoring. throwing them
dive. into the sea.
Local decision, global effects
In 1984 Monaco Oceanographic Museum imported
a dangerous invasive plant, a tropical alga called WORK WITH THE IMAGE
HOW DO WE KNOW?
Caulerpa.
WhatdoesPosidonialooklike?
The museum submerged some of its aquariums in Manynon-governmentalorganization(NGOs)areworkingtocontain
Whyisitimportanttothe
the sea to clean them. This had very serious environmentalproblems.Theymakeannualreportsonthestateofthe
environment? environment.
environmental consequences. The alga Caulerpa
Whatisadangertoit?Wheredid
spread throughout the Mediterranean and killed FindinformationontheInternetaboutanNGOwhichfocusesonthe
thiscomefrom?
many of the Posidonia fields in Italy, France, Spain, environment,likeGreenpeaceUK,FriendsoftheEarthorEarthwatch.
Monaco and Croatia. Doyouthinkindividualactions Makealistofsomeoftheecologicaldisasterstheymentionontheirwebsites.
canaffecttheenvironment?

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UNIT DEVELOPMENT
Carefully written texts present content with the utmost clarity, using grammar
and syntax that students at this level will have no difficulty in handling.
Abundant visual input, in the form of photos, diagrams, graphs and maps,
supports the textual information.

Environmental sustainability 8

1 Environmental degradation and green awareness


ECologICAl FooTprInT pEr CApITA oF proDuCTIon

Ecological DID You KnoW?


Ecological footprint
footprint of the
of Burkina Faso:
United States: 7.99
1.33 global hectares Compare ecological footprints
Human impact on the natural environment global hectares
ACTIVITIES An ecological footprint is a
Humans use the natural environment as a resource. measurement of human impact on
It provides us with our water and food, and the raw 1 What do the following the planet. It is calculated by adding
materials that we need for our economic activities. expressions mean? up the farmland, pastures, woods and
fishing areas that a territory or a
Several factors influence human impact on the environment: Natural environment
person needs in order to produce the
Ecological awareness
Population. Large populations need space for housing, food and elements they consume and
raw materials, land to grow food and transport Sustainable development to absorb the waste they produce.
infrastructures.
Technology. The use of advanced technologies makes Ecological footprint
it possible to modify vast areas of land. (In ha)
Over 7.5
Energy. Increased use of energy causes changes 7.5 to 4
in the environment. Ecological 4 to 1.5
ACTIVITIES
footprint of the Under 1.5
Consumption. The production of goods leads to an WORK WITH THE DIAGRAMS SOURCE: www.foodprintnetwork.org world: 2.7 global No data
3 Use the internet to identify
increased demand for raw materials and energy. hectares
2 Discuss the diagrams with a important international
Many people argue that we need to take measures to partner. agreements on the
conserve and protect our environment. We call this 711155_08_p155_leyenda_huella_ecologica
environment.
a Put the environmental problems How do we prevent environmental degradation?
concern green (or environmental) awareness. in order of importance. a Have all the countries in the
b Which solutions will be most There are alternative approaches to preventing the world signed each
Threats to the environment difficult to achieve? degradation of the environment: agreement?

Some people argue that it is possible to achieve b What has the attitude of the
The main threats to the environment are:
508877_08_p198_huella_ecolgica_GEODOS
sustainable development, which is a balance
United States been to these
Air pollution, which is so severe that scientists agreements? Why?
between economic growth and the conservation
believe that it is causing climate change.
of natural resources.
Water pollution and its excessive use.
Many ecological movements focus on the need
Deforestation, which affects the quality of the THInK AbouT IT to reduce consumption levels. They argue that
soil and alters ecosystems in many regions. strong economic growth is not compatible with
Endangered species: the survival of many species What do you think is the main respect for the environment.
environmental problem where you WORK WITH THE MAP
of animals and plants is threatened. This is a global problem that affects everybody.
live? What can we do to prevent it?
Erosion and desertification: the soil becomes less fertile. The United Nations has held several conferences 4 Does Burkina Faso have a larger
to promote international environmental policies. or smaller ecological footprint
However, its agreements have not been signed by than the United States? Is it a
FACTorS CAuSIng EnVIronmEnTAl problEmS poSSIblE SoluTIonS
all the countries in the world. developed country?

Lack of
Reduce
At a national level, policies have been implemented 5 Which regions have a smaller
Wasteful understanding Recover
consumer of the
human
deteriorated
with three goals: footprint? Is there a connection
Environmental impact on the
style environments environments Protection of spaces with great ecological value. between economic
problems environment
importance International development and the ecological
Water and air pollution action to create a Prevention of damage by evaluating the environmental footprint?
sustainable future
Climate change impact of human activities.
Loss of biodiversity Change 6 What would happen if all the
Soil degradation
Economic
human Recognise the
Recovery of degraded spaces by recycling waste,
Population activities like countries in the world left an
growth agriculture
activities to importance of treating water, etc.
make them ecosystems ecological footprint like the
and industry Many countries have created environmental agencies
sustainable United States?
to deal with these problems.

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6 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3


WORK WITH THE PAGE Environmental sustainability 8

Possible solutions

Activities. A wide range of activities develops


ACTIVITIES
Solutions to prevent the loss of biodiversity
need to be global and carried out by every 2 Work in a group with other classmates.
country. a You have inherited a large piece of land. At the

several levels of critical thinking, for example,


The Earth Summit, held in Rio de Janeiro in moment, there is only a small house and a few
1992, brought countries together for the first trees on it.
time in the fight to conserve biodiversity. The b Plan what to do with it and explain your
answers to the class.
following strategies were proposed:

remembering, comparing, classifying


c Listen to the other groups plans. Object if any
Make inventories of vulnerable and of their plans will have an adverse effect on
endangered species so that we understand biodiversity.
their situation and can adopt appropriate d Vote for the group with the best plan.
conservation measures.

and analysing. Develop protected areas to preserve


habitats and ecosystems which are
endangered or fundamental to the survival of WORK WITH THE MAP
vulnerable species.
3 Look on the Internet to find out the meaning of
Restore damaged habitats.

Listening activities. The opening presentation


Special Protection Area (SPA) and Site of
Pass laws that limit the negative impacts of Community Importance (SCI) on the map below.
economic activities on the natural
environment and prevent the

of each unit is recorded, along with additional


overexploitation of resources.
NATURA 2000 NETWORK, SPAIN 2013

Cantabrian Sea
DID YOU KNOW?

texts and the solutions to a number of matching Biodiversity in the EU and


Spain
The EU has developed the

and gap-fill activities.


United Nations initiatives
and has taken new ATLANTIC
measures to prevent the
loss of diversity. OCEAN

For instance, it created the


Natura 2000 network,

Think about it. Brief, thought-provoking nuggets


which includes all the
protected areas in EU
countries. In these areas,
a
human activity and nature Se
n
ea

of content stimulate higher order thinking skills


are compatible.
an
rr
Spain has very rich te
di
biodiversity. More than Me
2,000 species living here
are native to Spain, i.e. they

like making hypotheses, the capacity for creative are not found in other
places. Nearly 30% of
Spanish territory forms part
of the Natura 2000 Scale
Types of protection
SCI
SPA

thinking.
0 105
network. SCI and SPA
kilometres

155

Work with the image. The students analyse


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information in photos, maps and graphs.


Usually in pairs, they develop content
and language skills orally by formulating
questions, answers and statements.

FINAL UNIT PAGES


Activity round-up. A bank of activities at the end of each unit provides a review
of its content. Its concluding section encourages students to reflect on wider issues
in world geography, or consider the significance and cultural heritage of Prehistory
and the early civilisations.
Know how to. The students develop key skills in Geography and History
by analysing maps, photos, graphs or historical primary sources.
They become expert at problem-solving through research.

Environmental sustainability 8
ACTIVITY ROUND-UP

1 Explain each of the terms below. Then copy and complete the table. 3 Analyse the graph and answer the questions. 4 Compare the images of the Aral Sea and investigate.

Thermal variation (in C)


THE ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGE 1
1989 2008

Main environmental
Causes Consequences Preventive actions 0.5
problems

.. .. .. ..
0

.. .. .. ..
-0.5
.. .. .. .. 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000
Variation in temperatures
.. .. .. ..
Natural causes Human activity

.. .. .. ..
a What does the chart show?
Environment Desertification b How much has the Earths temperature increased in
the last hundred years? Do you think this is a moderate
Environmental awareness Smog
or a rapid increase?
Biodiversity Greenhouse effect
c Which factors had more to do with this increase What changes have occurred?
Sustainable development Acid rain
natural or human factors? Why did they occur?
d What could the consequences of global warming be? What could be the consequences of this?

2 Analyse the photographs.

SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION
A B

Today we produce and consume more than ever before. We consume


resources so quickly that we do not give the planet time to recover. Environmental sustainability 8
KNOW HOW TO Key Competences 5 The demand generated by
The massive use of resources has very serious consequences for the very low prices leads to the
environment. It leads to a loss of biodiversity, but it also affects the unsustainable use of
poorest people in the world because some essential resources are
PRACTICAL KNOWLEDGE. Analyse the environment
diminished.
resources, such as overfishing.
PRACTICAL KNOWLEDGE. The Sakurajima volcano
Look at the map. What will the
environmental consequences be
Satellite images are useful instruments for for this area?
Rondnia State (Brazil), 1986 Clean
analysing production
the evolution of the environment. Cloud of ash and
Design conceived for They enable us to observe large areas Ocean volcanic dust
C D the environment anywhere on the planet in very high that PAC IF IC O C EAN
Outlets
resolution. reflect demand PHILIPPINES
Ecologically The false colour technique is applied to MALAYSIA
friendly satellite images so that we can see some Equ ator

design Responsible
details better. This technique changes the
The consumption
goal: The following colour INDONESIA
original colours. code
zero waste
was used in the images on the left:
Sustainable INDIAN OC EAN
production Areas of
Responsible
manufacturers
The leafy green vegetation of the
6 Analyse the chart opposite and list the
Recycling tropical rainforest is shown in bright
Think of a title for each photograph. What measures could be taken to prevent each of measures proposed for sustainable
green. 711155_08_p165_leyenda_zonas_pesca_destructiva
What environmental problems could these human these problems? Waste collection consumption. Are these measures
Water courses are shown in dark fulfilled today?
activities cause? Will these activities have the same effects in a
blue.
In your opinion, which is the most serious developed country and in a less developed country?
Rondnia State (Brazil), 2001 Urban areas are shown in purple.
environmental problem? Why? Explain your answer.
Crater
156
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1 Compare the images. Sakurajima in Japan is one of the most active volcanoes Volcanic clouds contain natural contaminating agents. The
in the world. Explosions often occur but all that happens gases emitted, such as carbon dioxide, sulphur oxide and
List the main differences you see
is that small clouds of ash and volcanic dust are emitted chlorine, pollute the atmosphere. The volcanic ash remains
between the three photographs in
to the atmosphere. However, on 18 August 2013 there suspended in the air for a time. This prevents the Suns
Rondnia State (Brazil), 2011 relation to forests, water courses and
was a strong eruption and a large cloud of ash rose rays from reaching the Earth in the normal way. This, in
urban areas.
about 6 km into the air. turn, increases the greenhouse effect.
What happened to the forest between
1986 and 2011?
The systematic disappearance of 1 Read the text and say if the following sentences are b Where exactly is it in Japan?
vegetation occurred after a road was true or false. Correct the false sentences. c How often does it explode?
built. Can you see the road in any a Sakurajima is not active very often. d How long ago was the original caldera formed?
of the images? b Normally ash from the volcano rises high into the air.
3 Working in groups, think about the following
2 c Volcanic clouds are harmless.
In groups, make a list of the questions:
consequences of the growth of urban d The Suns rays cannot get through the atmosphere
easily because of the gases emitted by the volcano. a What are the disadvantages of living near
areas in the forest.
an active volcano?
3 Look on the Internet for more information 2 Look on the Internet for more information about b Why are people in many parts of the world
about deserts. Find out why new deserts the Sakurajima volcano. prepared to live near active volcanoes?
are being created. a What is the current state of the volcano? Present your answers to the class.

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GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3 7


CLASSROOM RESOURCES
ES0000000011375 608093_Geo-Hist_3_TB_ESO_43427

THE TEACHERS BOOK

Reinforcement sheets. This material can be photocopied


and distributed to the class. It includes maps and diagrams
for labelling and activities that revise key content from
the unit.
Extension sheets. Research activities, projects and
additional reading texts enable the students to carry out
an in-depth exploration of the subjects presented
in the Students Book.
Assessment sheets. Twelve tests, one for each unit, provide
a starting point for assessment, which can be adapted to www.santillana.es www.richmondelt.es

the requirements of specific groups of students. ES0000000011375 608093_Geo-Hist_3_TB_ESO_43427.indd 1 15/12/2015 8:52:11

EXTENSION SHEET EXTENSION


SHEET 9. THE AGE OF DISCOVERY 10. RENAISSANCE AND REFORMATION

5 4

Name: Course: Date: Name: Course: Date:

1 Before you read the text, think about the place of sport in our own society. 1 Investigate two techniques of Renaissance art: perspective and escorzo (or foreshortening).

Is sport different or similar to religion? And warfare? In what ways? Identify the main innovations, and find out if more than one type of perspective (linear and aerial)
was used by Renaissance artists.

and possessions of all the spectators as his Bring at least one illustration showing these techniques into the classroom.
reward. The early Spanish writers tell us that on a. Is there a sensation of depth in this painting? If so,
Most Maya cities have at least one square, the rare occasions when this happened the how has the artist achieved it?
enclosed on all sides by pyramids and mounds, spectators rushed to get away quickly so that they
where important religious rites were held. People didnt lose their clothes!
came to witness great religious ceremonies from
Among the Aztecs (and probably the Mayas, too),
the top of one of the neighbouring pyramids.
people gambled on the result of an important game. b. What other Renaissance characteristics can you see
In many Maya cities the ball court was in or near the There was also a religious side to the play, which in this painting?
main square. The court consisted of a space was connected to the sky gods. An Aztec player
between two mounds, and low terraces or ramps spent the night before a game praying to the gods.
bordered the central playing space. Stone or
J. Eric S. Thompson, Maya Archaeologist (1963)
wooden rings were fixed high on the walls of each
side of the playing space. The aim was to pass the
ball through the ring but this was extremely difficult c. Analyse the artists use of perspective and compare
because there was a rule that the player could only it to that of the other Renaissance paintings that
strike the ball with his knee, hip or bottom. you have found.
Early Spanish writers have left no account of the
game among the Mayas. But those who saw the
Aztecs play it were astonished at how quickly it
was played. To judge by their descriptions, the
game was as rapid and thrilling as ice hockey.
They report that players often collapsed from
exhaustion. It was so difficult to drive the ball Raphael, The Marriage of
through the narrow ring fixed high in each wall the Virgin (Raphael).

that a player who did so could claim the clothing


2 Study the two works of art below and answer the questions in your notebook.
a. How this the painter studying foreshortening in Drers artwork? Explain what he is doing.
2 Read the text, study the photo and answer the questions. b. Is Mantegna trying to produce the same effect as in the Drer artwork?
c. Compare Mantegnas painting to work by other Renaissance artists..
a. Where was the ball court? What did it look like?

b. Explain in your own words how the game was played.

c. Would it be possible to play this game near your school today? Explain your answer.

d. Can we work out anything about Aztec and Maya religion from this text?

Drer, Painter studying the laws of foreshortening Mantegna, Lamentation of Christ.


e. Write a title for this text at the top.. by means of threads and a frame.

GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L. 85 92 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L.

LIBROMEDIA

The Libromedia is much more than a digital version of the Students Book. It provides
a wealth of material in varied formats: images, videos, audios and PowerPoint-style
presentations.
Class presentations. Prior to work with the printed Students Book, the Libromedia
can be used as a digital whiteboard to project a units opening presentation to the whole
class. This provides a motivating point of entry into a range of subjects. Similarly,
the Libromedias gallery of images is an ideal platform from which to launch
class discussions.
Autonomous learning. The students have their own version of the Libromedia,
thus linking the classroom and home environments. They can use the Libromedia
on their tablets and computers to check their answers, do homework, and so on.

THE RECORDINGS

The transcripts (after page 161 in this Teachers Book) indicate which recorded tracks
are ideal for student self-study, and which ones are teacher-guided. For example, in some
instances the students use the recording individually to check their answers to a particular
activity. However, the teacher can use other tracks with the whole class, for example,
to elicit the students prior knowledge and develop their listening comprehension before
they open their books and work with the printed page.

8 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3


CLASSROOM TECHNIQUES
These techniques encourage students to observe, analyse, hypothesize, draw conclusions
and discuss content. As a result, students can take an active role in their learning.
Suggestions for applying these techniques when working with specific parts of the Student's
Book are offered below.

UNIT OPENER

Title and learning objectives.


Read the title of the unit. Ask the students what they think it will be about.
Have students read the Find out about and Know how to sections at the top of the page.
Have them rank the topics by order of interest or familiarity.
Main text.
Focus on the main image, using either the Students Book or the Libromedia, and get the
students to react to it. Elicit prior knowledge of the subject, and ask the students to
predict the language that they will need to study it. Write this vocabulary on the board.
Play the recording, and ask the students to relate to identify its subject matter and relate
it to the photo. Elicit some of the words and phrases that they have heard on the
recording, and add them to the vocabulary on the board.
Read the main text with the students. Complete the word map.
Work with the image.
Put students in groups or pairs to do the activities.
Set a time limit. Afterwards, volunteers share their responses or questions.
How do we know?
Encourage students to share their opinions in pairs or groups before opening up the
discussion to the whole class.

CONTENT PAGES

Images.
Students observe and describe the images, even in their native language, as a stress-free
first contact with the page.
Make sure that students know the meaning of terms like topographic map, pie chart,
timeline, table or climograph. Encourage them to use the correct term when describing
an illustration.
Focus attention on the caption and read it aloud. Then help students to rephrase the
information.
Section title.
Encourage students to relate the title to the images on the page, sharing any prior
knowledge. To exploit headings, ask the students to brainstorm similar terms.
The main text.
Read the text aloud or assign paragraphs to volunteers. It is helpful to vary reading
techniques from one lesson to another. For example, the students can be asked to skim
a text in response to a very general question so that they learn how to make out the
overall subject of a text at a glance. They can also scan a text to find the answer to a
specific question.

GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3 9


Activities on the content pages.
Select the activities that meet your goals and the specific needs, aptitudes and interests
of your class.
Clarify activity procedure and provide language support by highlighting the key
structures that they are likely to need.
If students work in pairs or groups, understanding is enhanced, and more language
practice s generated.
Students should first try to deduce the meaning of unfamiliar words from the context,
and only then use a dictionary. The words in bold are key terms. The students can
prepare a vocabulary file of important words from each unit using a vocabulary
organizer like the one on page 14 of this Teachers Book.
After reading a section, students can build up a mind map or outline to summarize
content in their notebooks. Build up a model on the whiteboard to guide them.
To check comprehension, students provide examples of key concepts.
Activity round-up.
This section is situated near the end of the unit, but specific activities can be
used as soon as the content has been presented.
Students can work individually, in pairs or in groups to encourage the sharing
of information and promote language use.
Know how to. RenaissanceandReformation 10

RELIGIOUS DIVISIONS IN THE WORLD TODAY

These final tasks are situated right at the


GROUP WORK. A visit to the Uffizi Gallery

Can you imagine a place where you can see many of the finest masterpieces of the Italian
ARCTIC OCEAN Renaissance? That place exists: its the Uffizi Gallery in Florence. You can pay it a virtual visit
by typing the keywords Uffizi Gallery Florence into an Internet search engine.

end of the unit. However, some of the


Greenwich Meridian

Arctic Circle

questions they raise should be presented


earlier on so that they form a natural
Tropic of Cancer
AT L A N T I C

OCEAN
PA C I F I C
OCEAN
Mining, energy and industry 5

s Solar power plant

continuation of the work that the


Equator PA CIFIC ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES. A sustainable energy project
OCEA N INDIAN 509798_05_p111_leyenda_solartec

The O C Eof
heat AN the desert. A hot What is Desertec? It is a project s s s ss

students have begun.


desert receives more energy from s s
Tropic of Capricorn whose objective is to generate ss s E
s
the Sun in just six hours than the clean sustainable energy using the s B s s s s s
C F
A s s
world consumes in a year. s s s D
Catholics solar potential of deserts. s s s
s
Protestants s ss
Orthodox Christians s s s ss s s
Muslims
Hindus Objective in the
Buddhists
Mediterranean. To
Others
install a network
A. Madonna of the of solar
Magnificat Solar thermal
SOUTHERN OCEAN energy plants in the technology. This works
Antarctic Circle B. Birth of Venus
Escala Sahara and the Arabian through concentrated
0 1.250 C. Pallas and the sufficient
Centaur
Peninsula, with solar power systems.
kilmetros capacity
D. Madonnato export
and Child and Two Angels
508877_05_p141_solartec
These systems use large
electricity to Europe. parabolic mirrors to direct
E. Allegory of Spring
the sunlight towards tanks
F. Adoration of the Magi of water. The water heated
to around 400 C produces
509798_10_p200_Division religiosa actual water
The Botticelli room in the Uffizi Gallery vapour, which
in Florence.
generates electricity.

1 Find out more about the Uffizi Gallery 2 The Uffizi Gallery is prepared to lend you ten of its
using the websites you have located. masterpieces so that you can organize an exhibition
For example: in your region.
WheredoesthenameUffiziGallery Ingroups,decidewhichworksofartyouwilldisplay.
comefrom? Forexample,willtheexhibitionincludemasterpieces
How would it affect the
Whatwastheoriginofthebuilding? fromdifferentperiods?Willyoushowasingletypeof
countries in the Sahara? painting(forexample,justportraitsorlandscapes)?
Howdidtheworksofartarrivethere?
They would have their own
WhichRenaissanceartistshavepaintings Together,prepareanillustratedexhibitioncatalogue,
clean energy supply.
intheUffiziGallery? providinginformationabouteachworkofart.
Solar energy for Europe. This project It would boost economic
Benefits for the environment. could satisfy 15% of electricity demand. development.
193
Large quantities of harmful The electricity would be transported The energy obtained could
gases will no longer be released through special transmission cables to be used to desalinate sea
into the atmosphere. prevent energy loss. water in desert countries.
ES0000000004054 509798_Unidad10_33353.indd 193 24/07/2015 13:25:15

1 Are the following statements true or false? Listen to 2 Investigate hydroelectric power stations on the
the recording and check your answers. Internet.
a The world consumes more energy in a year than a a When and where was the first hydroelectric power
desert receives in six hours. plant built?
b Desertec is a project aimed at using solar power to b What resources do hydroelectric power
produce clean energy. plants need?
c The energy would go to solar plants in Europe. c How can the construction of hydroelectric power
d Mirrors are used in concentrated solar power systems. stations affect people and wildlife?
e Thanks to the Desertec project, all the electricity d How did it affect the people of Riao in Len?
demand in Europe would be covered by solar energy.
f The project would be detrimental to Saharan countries. Present your findings to the class.

105

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10 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3


THE INTERNET AS A RESEARCH TOOL
Before starting. Explain that activities with this symbol require research on the Internet.
Collecting information.
To locate relevant information, students can input the questions posed in the activity
or formulate their own.
Guide the students towards an effective use of keywords. For example, the keyword
"Ice Age" will produce thousands of links towards the series of animated films,
while "Prehistory Ice Age" is far more useful.
Encourage the students to be critical about what they find on the Internet, and point out
that the websites of museums and educational institutions are often excellent sources
of information. They should visit a range of websites.
Students should keep a record of the sources of the information they collect, and include
it as the bibliography for any reports or projects.
Processing information.
Students need to express content in their own words. They should not copy and paste
chunks of text from Wikipedia; explain that it is better if they prepare much shorter texts
themselves.
It may be helpful to provide examples of how type size, headings, captions, correct
spelling and simple uncluttered layouts facilitate understanding.
Communicating information.
Rubrics can be used to clarify presentation goals and evaluation.
Set time limits and encourage students to rehearse their presentations beforehand.
Presenters should allow time to answer questions from the class after a presentation.

GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3 11


Geography index

Unit Introduction Contents Key Competences

1 Physical geography The highest peak in 1. Relief formation Use maps to link
the world 2. The Earths relief geographical features
3. The continents Tropical cyclones
4. Water
5. Rivers and lakes of the world
6. Climates and landscapes
7. The relief of Spain
8. Water in Spain
6 9. Climates and landscapes of Spain

2 World population Where does most of the 1. How do we study population? Analyse a text about ageing
worlds population live? 2. World population The populations of China
3. Population ageing and India
4. Migration
30 5. The population of Spain

3 Cities Oslo: a sustainable city 1. The structure and functions of cities Thegrowthofamegacity:
2. The spread of urbanisation Lagos (Nigeria)
3. The worldwide urban network Use Internet resources
4. Urban problems
46 5. Spanish cities

4 The primary sector The cultivation of 1. The primary sector today Interpret a topographic map
oranges 2. Agrarian landscapes
3. Human influence on the agrarian landscape
4. Agriculture in developed regions
5. Agriculture in less developed regions
6. Livestock farming and fishing
7. The primary sector in Spain
62 8. Agrarian landscapes in Spain

5 Mining, energy The strategic importance 1. Mining What is the best location
and industry of rare raw materials 2. Energy sources for an industry?
3. Non-renewable energy A sustainable energy
project
4. Renewable energy
5. The origins and development of industry
6. The characteristics of modern industry
7. The industrial powers
84 8. Mining, energy and industry in Spain

6 Services The northern sea routes 1. Services Analyse a tourist resort:


2. Trade Benidorm (Alicante)
3. Characteristics of world trade
4. Transport networks and land transport
5. Ship and air transport
6. Tourism
7. Other services
106 8. Trade, transport and tourism in Spain

7 Development Is education a universal 1. What is development? Compare the development


right? 2. The causes of economic underdevelopment of two countries
3. Types of inequality Is Africa taking off?
4. Overcoming underdevelopment
128 5. Poverty and exclusion in Spain

8 Environmental Local decision, global 1. Environmental degradation and green awareness Analyse the environment
sustainability effects 2. Air pollution and climate change The Sakurajima volcano
3. Water supply
4. Deforestation and soil degradation
144 5. The loss of biodiversity

2
12 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3
History index

Unit Introduction Contents Key Competences

9 The Age of How did we discover 1. The Age of Exploration Analyse sources
Discovery that the Earth was 2. The Portuguese expeditions The frieze of Holmul
round?
3. The Castilian expeditions
4. Pre-Columbian America
160 5. Social and economic change

10 Renaissance Leonardo da Vinci, 1. What was humanism? Religiousdivisionsinthe


and Reformation a universal genius 2. New ideas in science and art world today
3. The Quattrocento AvisittotheUffiziGallery
4. The High Renaissance
5. The spread of the Renaissance
176 6. The Reformation and Counter-Reformation

11 The Spanish Empire What were the tercios? 1. The emergence of the modern state Analyse historical clothing
2. The Catholic Monarchs Why did the Indian
3. The beginnings of the Spanish Empire population decrease?
4. The organisation of the empire
5. Spanish foreign policy
194 6. Spanish America

12 Baroque Europe The Palace of Versailles 1. A period of crisis Identify the symbols
2. The decline of the Hispanic Monarchy of absolutism
3. The end of Spanish hegemony in Europe Analyse symbols
4. Absolutism in France Baroque sculpture
5. The Dutch Republic
6. The rise of Parliament in England
7. The Scientific Revolution
8. Baroque culture
212 9. TheSpanishGoldenAge

3
GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3 13
Vocabulary organizer

Unit _______________________

English My language Pronunciation Association

GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S. L.

14 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3


Reinforcement,
Extension and Assessment
1
CONTENT AND RESOURCES

Physical geography

CONTENTS

FIND OUT ABOUT The formation of relief


Continental and oceanic relief
The relief and water of the continents
The climates and landscapes of the Earth
Spain: relief, water, climates and landscapes

KNOW HOW TO Understand relief formation: internal and external processes


Distinguish continental and oceanic relief
Identify the main relief features, rivers and lakes of the Earth and Spain
Identify the five main climate zones in the Earth
Identify the main climates and landscapes of each climate zone and Spain
Compare climates and landscapes
Interpret maps of relief, rivers and lakes, and climates of the Earth and Spain
Distinguish continental and marine water
Interpret charts, pie charts, diagrams and climographs
Analyse photos of landscapes
Organise and classify information in tables
Use maps to link geographical features to each other
Analyse the effects of marine currents
Analyse the effects of cyclones

BE ABLE TO Use an atlas


Find the main physical features, rivers and lakes of each continent in a map
Find the main physical features, watersheds and rivers of Spain in a map
Locate the different climates of the continents in a map
Locate the different climates of Spain in a map
Understand the importance of water in human life
Recognise the importance of properly managing fresh water resources
Reflect on the influence of climate on the distribution of world population

RESOURCES

Reinforcement and extension Digital resources


Relief: formation and features Libromedia. Physical geography
Water and climates of the Earth
Relief, water and climates of Spain Audio
The seven summits Track 1: pp. 6-7, 'The highest peak in the world' (students
Geographer's tools: graphs, photos and maps and teachers)
Track 2: p. 29, 'Tropical cyclones' (teachers)
Assessment
Test of Unit 1

16 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L.


SHEET REINFORCEMENT
1. Physical geography
1

Name: Course: Date:

1 Use the key to label the forms of continental and oceanic relief on the picture.

1. Mountain range 6. Continental shelf 11.Gulf


2.Plateau 7.Peninsula 12.Island
3.Valley 8.Beach 13. Continental slope
4.Plain 9.Cape 14. Ocean trench
5.Depression 10. Abyssal plain 15. Mid-ocean ridge

2 Use the key to label the forms of relief, rivers and lakes on the world map.

2,000 metres
500 metres
0 metres

Forms of relief Rivers and lakes

Rocky Mountains (1); Andes (2); Sahara Desert (3); Nile River (a); Lake Victoria (b); Yangtze River (c);
Matto Grosso (4); Drakensberg Mountains (5); Yellow River (d); Lake Baikal (e); Mississippi River (f);
Cape of Good Hope (6); Himalayas (7); Plateau of Tibet (8); Amazon River (g); Danube River (h); Volga River (i)
613233T02P003
Ural Mountains (9); Pyrenees (10); Great Dividing Range (11).

GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L. 17


SHEET REINFORCEMENT
1. Physical geography
2

Name: Course: Date:

1 Complete the table on continental water. Then, answer the question.

Continental water Definition Example

River

Lake

Groundwater

Ice

Why is fresh water a scarce resource? 

2 Read the sentences and write True (T) or False (F). Correct the false sentences in your notebook.
a. Oceans and seas hold about half of the Earths water.
b. Marine currents have an influence on the climate of coastal regions.
c. Tides are the monthly rise and fall of sea level caused by the seasons.
d. Waves are movements of the surface water of the sea caused by the tides.

3 Write the names of the continents and oceans in the right place on the map. Then, use the key to colour the Earths climates.

TEMPERATE CLIMATES COLD CLIMATES HOT CLIMATES


Orange Mediterranean Light blue Polar Red Equatorial Light yellow Desert
Light green Oceanic Dark blue High mountain Pink Tropical wet
Dark green Continental Dark yellow Tropical dry

18 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L.


SHEET REINFORCEMENT
1. Physical geography
3

Name: Course: Date:

1 Use the key to label the inland and coastal forms on the map of Spain.

Canary islands (1)


Balearic Islands (2)
Pyrenees (3)
Mountains of Toledo (4)
Iberian Mountain Chain (5)
Inner Plateau (6)
Galician Massif (7)
Baetic Chain (8)
Central Mountain Chain (9)
Ebro river basin (10)

2 List the four main rocky substrates found in Spain in your notebook. Then, write at least one inland or coastal form
(named in activity 1) corresponding to each rocky substrate.

3 Use the key to colour the watersheds on the map from649264_01_11_Espana


activity 1. Then, complete the table about the rivers of Spain
Fisico
in your notebook.

Yellow Mediterranean Green Cantabrian Purple Atlantic

Atlantic watershed Mediterranean watershed Cantabrian watershed

Characteristics

Rivers

4 Complete the table about the climates of Spain in your notebook. Then, answer the questions.

Climate Temperatures Precipitation

Oceanic

Mediterranean:
Typical
Continentalised
Semi-arid

Subtropical

Mountain

a. Which factors have an influence in the climate of Spain

b. Which is the most common climate in Spain?

c. Can you name an example of vegetation from each of the different landscapes of Spain?

GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L. 19


SHEET EXTENSION
1. Physical geography
4

Name: Course: Date:

1 Read the text. Complete the table with the information from the news article and other sources.

Reaching the top of the world at age 15 (5,642 m) in Russia, and the highest peak of South
America, Mount Aconcagua (6,960 m) in
The young American boy, Jordan Romero, climbed Argentina. When he was just 11 years old he
the highest mountain in Africa, Kilimanjaro (5,895 climbed Mount McKinley, now called Denali (6,194
m), in Tanzania when he was only ten years old. He m) in Alaska (USA), the highest peak in North
climbed it with his father and stepmother, who America, and Puncak Jaya (5,030 m) in Indonesia,
also accompanied him in 2011 when he reached the highest peak in Oceania.
the summit of Vinson Massif (4,897 m), the highest
peak in Antarctica. At the age of 15 Jordan then In May 2010, at the age of 13, he reached the
became the youngest climber to have reached the highest peak of Asia and the world, Mount Everest
highest peaks on all the continents. (8,850 m) in Nepal. This was another world record.
Jordan Romero had become the youngest climber
Jordan's first climbing record was set in June 2006 to see the world from the highest viewpoint on
when he climbed Kilimanjaro. At the same age each continent.
(only ten), Jordan was also the youngest person to
reach the highest summit of Europe, Mount Elbrus El Pas, 25 December 2011 (adapted)

Continent Country Mountain range Summit Height

Africa

North America

South America

Europe

Asia

Oceania

Antarctica

Think about it: do you consider that it is right that children as young as Jordan try to climb Everest?
Discuss your ideas in groups.

2 Search the Internet for a blank map of the world and print it.
Write the name of the continents on the map.
Find and label the names of the mountain ranges from activity 1.
Use a triangle symbol to label the summit of each mountain range and write the height next to it.

20 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L.


SHEET EXTENSION
1. Physical geography
5

Name: Course: Date:

1 Geographers use maps, graphs and other tools to work. Look at the tools and label them.

A
Seville (Spain) Kazan (Russia) Aberdeen (Scotland)

T C Pmm T C Pmm T C Pmm


40 80
40 80 40 80
30 60
30 60 20 40 30 60
20 40 10 20
20 40
0 0
10 20 -10 10 20
0 0 -20 0 0
J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D

B C

301688T1p9c_climograma_Sevilla 301688T1p9d_climograma_Kazn 301688T1p9e_climograma_Aberdeen

Tropic of Cancer

Equator

Main Greenwich Meridian


climates
Mediterranean

Oceanic
Continental

a.  562954_01_p21_leyenda_climas templados

b. 

c. 
562954_01_p21_climas templados

2 Analyse the graphs. 4 Analyse the map.


Which type of graphs are they? Which type of map is it?
Which information do they show? Which information does it show?
Describe temperatures and precipitation in each one. What would be a good title for this map?
Which climate does each graph represent? Explain the distribution of each climate and the
corresponding landscape.
3 Look at the photograph.
Is it an aerial or a satellite photograph? Explain your
5 Write a report.
answer. Write a report about temperate climates with the
What do you see in the photograph? Which natural information gathered in the previous activities.
features do you see? Do you see any human features?
Which type of climate does this landscape correspond to?
Do you think this landscape is densely or scarcely
populated? Why?

GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L. 21


1 ASSESSMENT

Name: Course: Date:

1 Identify the two basic processes of relief formation and explain how they are related.

2 Write three forms of continental relief and three forms of oceanic relief. Define each term.

3 Label the following forms of relief, rivers and lakes on the map.
Mountain ranges: Rocky Mountains, Himalayas, Caucasus Mountains, Andes, Ural Mountains, Alps, Atlas Mountains,
Drakensbberg Mountains, Great Dividing Range. Plains and plateaus: Plateau of Tibet, Great Plains, Mato Grosso Plateau,
East European Plain, Darfur Plateau. Rivers and lakes: Congo River, Yangtze River, Nile River, Yellow River, Amazon River,
Danube River, Mississippi River, Volga River, Darling River, Lake Victoria, Lake Baikal, Great Lakes, Lake Ladoga.

2,000 metres
500 metres
0 metres

4 Write about the percentages and distribution of continental and marine water on Earth.
Then, explain why marine water is in constant movement.

 613233T02P003


22 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L.


1. Physical geography

5 Complete the table about the climate zones of the Earth.

Hot climates Temperate climates Cold climates

Climate: Climate: Climate:


Temperatures: Temperatures: Temperatures:
Precipitation: Precipitation: Precipitation:

Climate: Climate: Climate:


Temperatures: Temperatures: Temperatures:
Precipitation: Precipitation: Precipitation:

Climate: Climate:
Temperatures: Temperatures:
Precipitation: Precipitation:

6 Look at the map.

a. Write the forms of relief the line goes through.


b. Write the main type of rocky substrate in:

the Galician Massif: 

the Pyrenees: 

the Ebro river basin 

7 Label the watersheds of Spain on the map from activity 6, and complete the table.

Cantabrian watershed Atlantic watershed Mediterranean watershed


649264_01_11_Espana Fisico
Characteristics: Characteristics: Characteristics:

Examples: Examples: Examples:

8 Write about the most common climate in Spain and its three sub-climates.

GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L. 23


2
CONTENT AND RESOURCES

World population

CONTENTS

FIND OUT ABOUT Population indicators


The growth of world population
Population ageing
Migrations: factors, consequences and trends
The population of Spain

KNOW HOW TO Understand the main concepts and indicators used to study population
Compare recent demographic trends in developed, emerging and less developed countries
Analyse the causes and consequences of ageing populations
Understand and analyse migration: types, causes and consequences of migration
Compare internal and international migration in developed countries and emerging
and less developed countries
Understand population growth and distribution in Spain
Explain migration trends in contemporary Spain
Interpret choropleth maps, population maps and graphs, pie charts and population pyramids
Analyse a text and graph about population ageing
Compare the populations of China and India

BE ABLE TO Use population indicators


Use maps, graphs, charts and the Internet as sources of information
Reflect on the importance of population studies for economic and social policies
Assess positive and negative effects of migration
Reflect critically on current demographic and social issues such as overpopulation,
ageing populations, obesity and cultural diversity

RESOURCES

Reinforcement and extension Digital resources


Population indicators Libromedia. World population
Population pyramids
Migration Audio
Population distribution and physical environment Track 3: pp. 30-1, 'Where does most of the world's
Natural growth of Spains population population live?' (students and teachers)
Track 4: p. 45, 'Birth control policies and population
Assessment growth' (teachers)

Test of Unit 2

24 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L.


SHEET REINFORCEMENT
2. World population
1

Name: Course: Date:

1 Write a definition for each demographic indicator. Then, answer the questions.

Indicator Definition

Crude birth rate

Total fertility rate

Generational replacement

Crude death rate

Child mortality rate

Life expectancy

Rate of natural increase

Net migration

Population density

a. What are the worlds recent demographic trends according to the following indicators?

Birth rate: 

Fertility rate: 

Death rate: 

Life expectancy: 

b. What does 'ageing population' refer to? 

c. Which types of country generally have an ageing population? 

2 Look at the map and answer the questions in your notebook.


a. How is information
represented on a
choropleth map?

Arctic Circle
b. Which variable
does the map
show?
c. Is world population
PACIFIC
distributed evenly
Tropic of Cancer
or unevenly?

ATLANTIC OCEAN d. Which areas of the


PACIFIC world are densely
Equator
I N D I A N
populated? And
OCEAN OCEAN
which ones are
OCEAN
Tropic of Capricorn sparsely
populated?
Greenwich Meridian

Density (inhabitants/km )2

Over 300 Explain your


300 to 150
answer.
Scale 150 to 25
0 1,650
Under 25
SOURCE: US Census Bureau, International Data Base, 2010. kilometres No data

711155_02_p33_leyenda_world_population_density

GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L. 25


SHEET REINFORCEMENT
2. World population
2

Name: Course: Date:

1 Study the three population pyramids and answer the questions.

A B C

a. How are population pyramids used? 

b. Which variable is included on the vertical axis? And on the horizontal axis? 

c. What does the left side of each graph show? And the right side? 

d. Complete the table:

Name Shape of the pyramid Characteristics of the population Type of country

Pyramid A

Pyramid B

Pyramid C

2 Complete the table about the population of Spain and draw the corresponding population pyramid based on the population
pyramids from activity 1. Then, answer the questions.

Indicator Description Population pyramid

Birth rate

Death rate

Life expectancy

Rate of natural increase

Net migration

a. What conclusion can you draw from the table about the population of Spain?


b. How is this population distributed geographically?

26 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L.


SHEET REINFORCEMENT
2. World population
3

Name: Course: Date:

1 Complete the mind map about migration. Tick () the positive effects of migration. Then, answer the question.


includes
Migration

factors

political or religious

 

economic 

consequences  

 

 

What are the main characteristics of international migration?

GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L. 27


SHEET EXTENSION
2. World population
4

Name: Course: Date:

THE EARTHS RELIEF


1 Compare the maps. Then, answer the questions in your notebook.
90 60 0 30 60 90 120

a. Which areas of the Earth are the


180 150 120 30 150 180

ARCTIC OCEAN

most densely populated?


80 80

Greenland
East Siberia
Sea MIR
TAY SULA Sea
Greenland IN
Beaufort Baffin
Kara PEN

b. Which ones are the least densely


Bay North Cape Sea
Sea
Barents
ait ns
M Str Norwegian ai Sea
nt ma
it

ait

ac ark CENTRAL SIBERIAN


g Stra

ou

Ve
Arctic Circle Sea Pobeda
nm ho

li
i s Str

rk
M PLATEAU
De

Ko
on Great Bear Iceland Mount Narodnaya ya 3,147 m
ke

n
Yuk Bering

populated?
WEST

nd
n sk
nz

Mount McKinley 1,894 m

ia
Lake l a
Berin

Sea

av
SIBERIAN Ye Up
v
ie

6,194 m EAST
Da

URAL
in
Great Slave a
river

ka Range PLAIN

nd
EUROPEAN ym
Alas

ni
Lake SCANDINAVIAN Ob l
Hudson Ko 60

a
60

se
PLAIN e

Sc
Bay ng

y
Bering Cape Farewell British PENINSULA N Volg
Gulf of iver AI a Ra

MOUNT
nr PL oy Sea of KAMCHATKA

a
Sea Isles North Lake
Alaska lso

Se
G

N ov
R

EA

c. Which relief forms encourage


Ne tic an Okhotsk PENINSULA
R

LABRADOR Sea Bal UROP Irt

ge
O

Baikal St

Dni e p
EA

TE ys

an
CK

Lake PENINSULA GREA CA h R


Ural

Don
Lake y
T

RP Sayan ov

AINS
Beluja

Am
Superior MO ATHRhi

RIA
Winnipeg Newfoundland n Cape Lopatka
bl o
Lake 3,492 m
Y

4,506 m

er
UN IA

u
Ya

ne
PL

TA N

CH U
r
Balkhash

high population density? Which


Lake s S INS Aral
MO

Mont Blanc
in ALP
Altai Mountai ns
A

Mount Elbrus

Da
nu
ta Cape Race 4,807 m Sea
M iss

Lake Huron PY

N
Cape
IN

n b e Black 5,642 m

Casp
GREAT REN an
ou
GOBI DESERT

MA
Michigan Finisterre ITALIAN CAU Tien Sh ns
UN

EES PENINSULA
MOU CASUS
BASIN M Sea tai
ow ri
ou

Cape Mendocino Moun

ian
IBERIAN
an
40 40
NTA
ri

Ismoil Somoni Peak Japan

ve
l
ountains
hi

Yel
ones discourage population
PENINSULA ANATOLIAN Z INS
TA

Mount i Mount 7,495 m lu n M KOREAN

r
Sea
Elbert
Whitney Etna Kun
p

Mulhacn ag PENINSULA
ac

4,399 m PLATEAU Indu K2


sip

sh
Cape Hatteras IRANIAN
INS M e diterranean S
3,349 m ro s 8,616 m PLATEAU
4,418 m 3,478 m
IN

Eu
al

NORTH CHINA
Missis

sM

Ku
Mount Fuji
TA ph HI
pp

Toubkal ea
UN ra ou PLATEAU MA OF TIBET 3,776 m
ze PLAIN
S

4,165

u
Canary
MO
nt
Si

te
Brav Sargasso Pe ains R L AY gt

nd
LIBYAN s
er

HA ERT

growth? Make a hypothesis


LOWER CALIFORNIA Islands A SAhaggar AS an

Ga
Sea L Mountains rs T

Hi
o

DESERT n Y
ra

PENINSULA Gulf of FLORIDA AT G


ulf ian 4.042 m S g es Mount Everest
M lat

Teide
DE
ex ea

Tibesti
p

Mexico PENINSULA
Ma

3,715 8,850 m
ic u

Tropic of Cancer ARABIAN


an

Mount Tahat Mountains


Re
Cuba
dr

Orizaba 3,003 m PENINSULA


Nile Formosa

dS
Hispaniola M
.
e

20

to explain this, and include


Cape 5,700 m YUCATAN
SAHARA Emi-koussi Arabian e
Bay of
PACIFIC Corrientes PENINSULA 3,415 m Sea
ea
Bengal

ko
Jamaica Puerto Rico Cape HINDUSTAN South China
MICRONESIA

ng
Lake DARFUR
Ni

INDOCHINA Sea
Tajamuco Caribbean Sea Verde Ras Dashen
PENINSULA
ge

Chad PLATEAU 4,620 m Cape Guardafui PENINSULA


OCEAN 4,217 m
r

Philippines

examples using information


SOMALI Ethiopian
S co H Gu
POLYNESIA O ig ia Plateau PENINSULA Cape MELANESIA
o

AN
Orin

hla na Mount Cameroon


Comorin
LL nd 4,070 m Lake
s
in

Chimborazo s Victoria
a

Borneo

from both maps and an atlas.


0 Equator Mount Kenya 0
New Guinea
nt

6,267 m Cape
A m az o n 5,199 m
ou

INDIAN Sumatra
go

BASIN Sao Roque Kilimanjaro Puncak Jaya


aM

N
ATLANTIC Lake
l l ey

AZO
on

5,895 m 5,030 m
C
a

AM MATO Tanganyika
e ir

mb

o
Va
ad

GROSSO OCEAN Java


c

Mitu
cis

ft Lake
OCEAN
M

Ri
Fran

d. How does water influence


PLATEAU
el

Malawi
LEY

GRE
Lake ezi
nn

CENTRAL
mb
AN

Titicaca Za BER U
San

ha

Altiplano PLATEAU KIM ATEA Coral Sea


ins

AT
eC
DES

20 Gulf of OF ANGOLA North West PL 20


n

DIV
a
iqu

Arica KALAHARI Cape GREAT SANDY


Para

unt

population distribution? Make


Tropic of Capricorn
mb

DESERT

IDING RANGE
DESERT
Ojos del Salado
Mo
za

6,880 m GRAN Cathkin Madagascar GREAT VICTORIA


Mo

3,660 m
CHACO DESERT ng
g

Orange
er

a hypothesis to explain this,

rli
b
Dr a k e n s
Cape

Da
Mount Aconcagua Great
6,960 m THE Leeuwin Australian Mur
River Cape of ray Mount Kosciusko
PAMPAS Bight
Plate Good Hope 2,230 m 40
40
New Zealand
Tasmania Mount
and include examples using
A

Cook
GONI

3,764 m

information from both maps


PATA

Cape Horn
ell of
an
ag it

and an atlas.
M Stra

ge
ssa
60 Pa 60
ke
Dra
SOUTHERN OCEAN
Antarctic Circle

e. Which other physical factor


is important in population
ANTARCTIC Weddell
PENINSULA Sea

Scale
80 80 0 880

kilometres distribution? Explain your answer.


180 150 120 90 60 30 0 30 60 90 120 150 180

509798_01_p18_19_mundi_fisico

Sparsely populated areas

Densely populated areas

28 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L.


SHEET EXTENSION
2. World population
5

Name: Course: Date:

1 Study the text, the graph and the table. Then, answer the questions.

Rate of natural increase in Spain


 In
In the future, Spains birth rate will continue to 20
Birth rate
decrease gradually. This decrease will be due to a
Death rate
decline of the fertility rate and a gradual reduction
Natural increase
in the number of women of fertile age.
15
Life expectancy reached 80 years for men and 85.6 years
for women in 2013. By 2029, it will be 84 years for men
and 88.7 years for women. However, the death rate will
continue to increase as a result of population ageing.
10
A falling birth rate and a higher death rate is leading to
a negative rate of natural increase of Spains population.
1975 1985 1995 2005 2012

Natural increase of the population of Spain Source: INE, 2012.

Number Number Natural


Years
of births of deaths increase

2012-2021 4,236,114 4,068,505 167,609

2022-2031 3,510,579 4,250,655 740,076

2032-2041 3,488,225 4,545,996 1,057,771

2042-2051 3,395,295 5,055,887 1,660,592

Source: Proyeccin de Poblacin a Largo Plazo, INE.

a. Think of a good title for this text and write it at the top.

b. Which are the main causes of a declining birth rate in Spain?

c. Why will the number of deaths continue to increase?

d. About when did (or will) the natural increase turn negative?

e. What does a negative natural increase mean for the population of Spain?

f. How much will life expectancy grow from 2013 to 2029 in men and women?

g. If the predictions are right, in which decade will the number of deaths in Spain be above 5 million?

GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L. 29


2 ASSESSMENT

Name: Course: Date:

1 Study the world population graph and answer the questions

World population by continents a. What percentage of the world population lives in Europe?
In millions of inhabitants
5,192 
2010 2050 b. Which continent will be the most densely populated in 2050?
4,138


c. Will the population of any continent decrease?
2,232


1,024
1,198 d. If so, in which continent and why?
927
738 701


34 48

Asia Africa America Europe Oceania

2 Complete the table about population ageing.

Population ageing

Birth Death Natural


Causes Consequences Type of country
rate rate increase

3 Study the population pyramids and complete the table.


Population
Population
pyramid
Population
pyramid
ofPopulation
Germany
pyramid
ChinaofPopulation
Germany
pyramid
ofPopulation
Germany
Population
Population
pyramid
Population
of
Population
Population
Population
Germany
pyramid
ofpyramid
pyramid
Germany
pyramid
pyramid
pyramid
Populationpyramid
of Germany
ofof
of
pyramidof
Germany
of
Germany
of
Germany
Germany
Germany
Germany
of Germany
India Population pyramid of Germany
80 y + 80 y +
Male population
Male population
Male population FemaleChina
Male population
75-79 Male population
Female
population
MaleMale population
Female
Male
population
MaleMale
Male
Male
population
population Female
population
Malepopulation
population
population
population population
Female populationFemale
75-79 Female
Femalepopulation
Female
Female
Femalepopulation
Female
Femalepopulation
population
populationIndia
population
population
population Male population Female population
70-74 70-74
80 y + 80+ 65-69
80+ 80+ 80+ 80+ 80+ 80+ 80+
80+
80+
80+
80 80+y80+
65-69 + 80+
75-79 75-79 60-64 75-79 75-79 75-79 75-79 75-79 75-79
75-79
75-79
75-79
75-79
75-79
75-79 75-79
60-64 75-79
70-74 70-74 55-59 70-74 70-74 70-74 70-74 70-74 70-74
70-74
70-74
70-74
70-74
70-74
70-74 70-74
55-59 70-74
65-69 65-69 50-54 65-69 65-69 65-69 65-69 65-69 65-69
65-69
65-69
65-69
65-69
65-69
50-54
65-69 65-69 65-69
60-64 60-64 45-49 60-64 60-64 60-64 60-64 60-64 60-64
60-64
60-64 45-49
60-64
60-64
60-64
60-64 60-64 60-64
40-44 55-59 40-44
55-59 55-59 55-59 55-59 55-59 55-59 55-59
55-59
55-59
55-59
55-59
55-59
55-59 55-59 55-59
35-39 35-39
50-54 50-54 30-34
50-54 50-54 50-54 50-54 50-54 50-54 50-54
50-54
50-54
50-54
50-54
50-5450-54
30-34 50-54
45-49 45-49 25-29 45-49 45-49 45-49 45-49 45-49 45-49 45-49
45-49
45-49
45-49
45-49
45-4945-49
25-29 45-49
40-44 40-44 20-24 40-44 40-44 40-44 40-44 40-44 40-44 40-44
40-44
40-44
40-44
40-44
40-44
20-24
40-44 40-44
35-39 35-39 15-19 35-39 35-39 35-39
Population pyramid of Germany 35-39 35-39 35-39 35-39
35-39
35-39 15-19
35-39
35-39
35-3935-39 35-39
30-34 30-34 10-14 30-34 30-34 30-34 30-34 30-34 30-34
30-34
30-34 10-14
30-34
30-34
30-34
30-3430-34 30-34
25-29 25-29 5-9 25-29 25-29 25-29 25-29 25-29 25-29 25-29
25-29
25-29
25-29
25-295-9
25-2925-29 25-29
0-4 Female population 0-4
20-24 20-24Male20-24 population 20-24 20-24 20-24 20-24 20-24 20-24
20-24
20-24
20-24
20-24
20-2420-24 20-24
5 4 3 2 1 0 En % 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 En % 0 1 2 3 4 5
15-19 15-19 15-19 15-19 15-19
80+ 15-19 15-19 15-19 15-19
15-19
15-19
15-19
15-19
15-1915-19 15-19
10-14 Bureau,
FUENTE: U. S. Census 10-14 10-14 10-14 10-14
75-79 10-14 10-14 10-14 10-14
10-14
10-14
10-14
10-14
10-1410-14 10-14
International Data Poblacin masculina Poblacin femenina
5-9Base. 2011.
5-9 5-9 5-9 5-9
70-74 5-9 5-9 5-9 5-9
5-95-9
5-9
5-9
5-9 5-9 5-9
0-4 0-4 0-4 0-4 0-4
65-69 0-4 0-4 0-4 0-4
0-40-4
0-4
0-4
0-4 0-4 0-4
54 34 52 3 14 2 05 3En 1 4%2 05 3 11 402 205 3113 40 22405 31 1553 54055225054 4356 2252021210241111103015000020En
144134435032423304332121333
60-64 40001%00300
51 120114112 2312225223 342333344453444455545555 5 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5
In %
55-59 In % In % In % In % In %InInIn%In
%In
%
In
%% %%
In
NTE: U. S. Census
Source: US Source:
Census US
Bureau, International
Source:
Census
Bureau, US International
Source:
Census
Bureau, Data
US CensusInternational
Base,
Source:
Bureau, Data
US Base,
Source:
Bureau,
2011.Census International
Data
Source:
Source:
Source:
Source:
US Source: 50-54
Base,
Source:
Census
Bureau,
2011. US US
PoblacinUSInternational
Data
Census
US
US
Census
Census
US Census
Census
Bureau,
2011.
Source: US Census Base,
Census
Bureau,International
Bureau, Data
Bureau,
Bureau,
Bureau,
masculina International
Bureau,
2011. International
International
International
International
International
Base, Data
2011.
Bureau, InternationalDataData
Data
Base,Data
Data
Data
Base,
Base,
Base,
2011.
Poblacin Base,
Base,
DataBase,
2011.
2011.
2011.
2011.
Base,2011.
2011.
femenina
2011.
Source: US Census Bureau, International Data Base, 2011.
In %
rnational Data Base. 2011.
45-49
40-44
35-39
30-34 Germany India
25-29
20-24
Shape of the pyramid 15-19
10-14
5-9

5 4 3 2
Birth rate1 0
0-4
0 1 2 3 4 5
In %
Source: US Census Bureau, International Data Base, 2011.
Life expectancy

Rate of natural increase

Degree of population ageing

30 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L.


2. World population

4 Study the map and answer the questions.

Greenwich meridian
Arctic Circle

A T L A N T I C

O C E A N P A C I F I C
Tropic of Cancer

O C E A N

P A C I F I C

Equator O C E A N

I N D I A N

O C E A N
Net migration
Tropic of Capricorn
(Migrants per 1,000)
Over 10
10 to 0
0 to -5
Under -5
Scale
0 1,200
Antarctic Circle No data
SOURCE: UNO. 2010. kilometres

a. How is information represented on this map? 


508877-02-071-a

b. Which variable does the map show?  711155_02_p38_leyenda_world_migrations

c. What does negative net migration mean?

d. Which continents show areas with negative net migration?

e. What does positive net migration mean?

f. Which continent has the highest positive net migration? 

g. What are the main causes of international migration?

h. What are its main consequences? 

5 Study the population pyramid of Spain and answer the questions.

Male population Female population


a. What is the shape of the population pyramid?

80+ 
75-79
70-74
b. What are the birth rate and the death rate like?
65-69
60-64

55-59
c. Which age groups are the largest?
50-54
45-49

40-44
35-39 d. What is the overall population of Spain like?
30-34
25-29 
20-24
15-19 e. What are the consequences and challenges
10-14
of having such a population?
5-9

5 4 3 2 1
0-4
0 In % 0 1 2 3 4 5

Source: INE, Espaa en cifras 2013.


GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L. 31


3
CONTENT AND RESOURCES

Cities

CONTENTS

FIND OUT ABOUT The structure and functions of cities


Urban growth and development
The urban network of the world
Urban problems
The urban network of Spain

KNOW HOW TO Identify functions and structure of cities


Analyse and compare graphs and maps
Analyse urban space from aerial photos and maps
Understand the location of cities
Analyse the growth of a megacity
Understand urban hierarchy
Identify urban problems
Understand the need of developing sustainable cities
Work with maps on the Internet
Work with the Worldview interface

BE ABLE TO Use maps, graphs, tables, photos and the Internet as sources of information
Reflect critically on the negative effects of urban growth
Understand and reflect on social exclusion in cities
Reflect on the importance of creating a balance between urban development
and environmental protection

RESOURCES

Reinforcement and extension Digital resources


Population and cities Libromedia. Cities
Urban growth and urban network
Interpreting an urban map Audio
The greenest cities of the planet Track 5: pp.46-7, 'Oslo: a sustainable city' (students
Population density and urban system in Spain and teachers)
Track 6: p. 59, 'Social exclusion in cities' (teachers)
Assessment
Test of Unit 3

32 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L.


SHEET REINFORCEMENT
3.Cities
1

Name: Course: Date:

1 Look at the graph and answer the questions.

In millions of people a. How much has world population grown between 1980 and 2011?
7,000

6,000 
5,000
b. Has the rural or urban population grown more? Explain your answer.
4,000

3,000 
2,000

1,000

0
1980 1990 2000 2011
c. Which population is higher today: rural or urban? Why?
Total population Urban population Rural population
SOURCE: World Bank, 2011. 

2 Complete the table on cities.

Cities

functions main areas

    outskirts

 cultural  

Can you name an example of

a political city? 

a cultural city? 

an industrial city? 

a tourist city? 

3 Complete the areas in the skyline of a typical old European city based on how it has changed over time.
Historic centre City extension Outskirts or suburbs

Central Business Modern residential


Industrial parks
District area

GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L. 33


SHEET EXTENSION
3.Cities
2

Name: Course: Date:

1 Study the graph and answer the questions.

Urban population by continents a. Which continents have the highest predictions for urban
In millions growth?
3,500
1950 2025 
3,000
2010 2050
2,500 ESTIMATED DATA 
FOR 2025 AND 2050
2,000
b. Which types of country usually have this rate of growth?
1,500

1,000

500 
0
ica a a
Afr Asi ope eric rica ani
a c. What are the causes of such a rapid rate of growth?
Eur Am me Oce
th r t hA
Source: ONU/ESA Prospects. Sou No
TRANSPORT NODES 

2 Use the map 245714-Tema15-p283.2


and other sources to complete the table in your notebook. Then, answer the questions.

Global cities Emerging cities


Anchorage
London Stockholm Name Main activities Name Main activities
Paris
Beijing San Francisco New York
Memphis Madrid
Tokyo Los Angeles Miami
Manila Honolulu Mexico Mumbai
City Bogot
a. Are all these places global cities or emerging cities? If not,
Rio de Janeiro explain why they are on the map.
Sydney Santiago
Buenos Aires

SOURCE: Le Monde Diplomatique, Atlas. 2013. b. Between which continents are the routes most
concentrated? Why?
FedEx air transport from Memphis node
To Canada To Europe and Asia 
To Latin America To Asia and Oceania


3 Study the graph and answer the questions.

Wealth generated by some cities and countries a. What does the graph show?
Thousands of millions of dollars
2,000 Country 
Mexico
Tokyo

b. Are the cities in the graph located in developed countries,


City
Spain

York
New

Los Angeles

1,500
509798_03_p58_FedEx_EEUU_mundo emerging countries or less developed countries?
London, Pars
Australia

South Africa

Osaka-Kobe

Philadelphia
Mexico City
Poland
Chicago

1,000

Sao Paulo
Colombia

Belgium

Sweden

500 
0 
Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers UK.

c. Are some of them considered global cities? If so, which ones? Why?

 367175T16p281h5 ingresos ciiudades

34 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L.


SHEET EXTENSION
3.Cities
3

Name: Course: Date:

1 Look at the map of Valencia and locate each photo in the corresponding urban area on the map.

DUy
LR %
(6&$/$ YG

0 D O Y D U U R V D
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A B C

%3

2 Explain your answer and look on the Internet for additional information about how the city of Valencia has expanded over time.

3 Make a list of the likely urban problems of this city. Write recommendations to control them and to make Valencia a more
sustainable city.

GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L. 35


SHEET EXTENSION
3.Cities
4

Name: Course: Date:

1 Read the text. Then, complete the table in your notebook with the information from the text and other sources.

The 'greenest' cities of the planet

Cities try to offer quality of life, but over


exploitation of natural resources due
to high population density causes an
increasein pollution and urban waste.
We need to fight for sustainable
solutions to make urban quality
of life healthier and more pleasant.
The following cities have done a great
deal to improve their environmental
quality.
1.Reykjavik, Iceland (photo). This city
has taken advantage of its natural
source of geothermal energy. Buses in
Reykjavik work on hydrogen energy.
2.Malm, Sweden. This city is a leader in 7.Copenhagen, Denmark. This city received
solutions for renewable energy and has the third the European Green Capital Award in 2014.
largest wind park in the world. It aims to be It is a pioneer in bicycle use.
'neutral' from a climatic point of view by 2020. 8.Stockholm, Sweden. This city allocates 40%
3.Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain. This city received the of its space to green areas. Carbon emissions
European Green Capital Award in 2012. Its Green are very low.
Ring, is home to various endangered species. 9.Hamburg, Germany. This city received
Vitoria-Gasteiz has 97 kilometres of bike lanes. the European Green Capital Award in 2011.
4.Vancouver, Canada. This city has over 200 Its central area is being remodelled
parks. It has low carbon emissions and 90% to meet sustainability standards.
of its energy comes from renewable sources. 10.Bogota, Colombia. This city has hundreds
5.Portland, United States. It is the first city of kilometres of bike lanes and over
in the United States to adopt a plan to stop 1,200 urban green spaces.
pollution and improve environmental quality.
6.Curitiba, Brazil. This city has 16 parks, 14 Source: http://www.concienciaeco.com/2012/09/27/
forests and over 1,000 green public spaces. las-11-ciudades-mas-verdes-del-mundo/. (Adapted)
It recycles 70% of its waste.

Environmental
Green city Country Continent Area Population
improvement

2 Make a poster of the greenest cities of the world.


Draw a world map.
Use a green symbol to label the greenest cities on the map and write an eco-friendly slogan describing each city.
Find a photo of each city on the Internet and glue it next to the corresponding label on the map.

36 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L.


SHEET EXTENSION
3.Cities
5

Name: Course: Date:

THE SPANISH URBAN SYSTEM


1 Study both maps and answer the questions in your notebook.

Cantabrian Sea To Paris


Asturian
Avils Gijn Marseille
A Corua
Oviedo Donostia-San Sebastin
Bilbao
Galician coast Santiago
de Compostela
Basque and Ebro Valley
Vigo

Barcelona
Zaragoza
Valladolid

Porto Catalonian
Madrid
AT L A N T I C

OCEAN Central

Valencia Palma

Lisbon
Balearic
Alicante/Alacant
Crdoba Levant Mediterranean
Murcia Sea
South-west

Sevilla
Jerez de
la Frontera

Canary Cdiz Mlaga

Sta. Cruz de Urban subsystem Metropolitan areas


Tenerife
Melilla Connections, flows Subsystems in the
Las Palmas de Mediterranean corridor
Gran Canaria

a. Do you think these


Cantabrian Sea two maps are related?
Explain your answer.
509798_03_p79_sistema_urbano
b. What is the population
density in the areas
where the main urban
subsystems are located?
Make a list of these
ATLANTIC subsystems and the main
cities in each of them.
OCEAN
c. Where are these main
urban subsystems
a located? Why?
Se
n d. What happens on the rest
n ea
ra of Spanish territory in
r
d ite terms of population
Me density and the urban
system? Why do you
think this happens? What
SOURCE: INE, 2012. are the consequences?

GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L. 37


3 ASSESSMENT

Name: Course: Date:

1 Complete the table about cities.

Characteristics Functions Main areas

2 Look at the map of Palma and locate each photo in the corresponding urban area on the map. Then, answer the questions.

A
Can Valero
Industrial Park
Shopping Centre

Son Moix
Sports Centre

Bullring

Theater Main
Square
C
Royal Palace
of La Almudaina
Arab
La Lonja
Baths
Cathedral

Port

MEDITERRANEAN SEA
PALMA

a. Describe the functions and economic activity of each of these urban areas.

 367175T17p293h1 plano Palma


b. Explain the urban growth of the city of Palma over time.

c. Do you think Palma can be considered a diffuse city? Explain your answer.

38 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L.


3.Cities

Greenwich Meridian
THE LARGEST CITIES IN THE WORLD

3 Study the map and answer the questions.

Arctic Circle

Tianjin
Moscow Lahore
10.9 Seoul
London 11
24.2
16.7 Beijing
14 Osaka-
Pars
Paris 19.9 Kobe
Chicago 10
11.2 Istanbul 17.8
10 New York Estambul Tehern Delhi Kolkata Tokyo
12 14 10
Los Angeles 21.8 25.3 15.8 39.4
Dhaka
17.3 Shanghai
Cairo Tehran 16.7
Tropic of Cancer 29.5
16.4 13.4 Shenzhen
Guangzhou
Karachi 10
Mexico City 32.6
23.2 Shenzhen
22.2 Bangkok Manila 12.1
Lagos
Mumbai
Madrs 14.9
16 22.610 22.5
Equator Lagos
13.5
Kinshasa Jakarta
Metropolitan areas 17 27
Rio de Janeiro
(millions of inhabitants) 12
Tropic of Capricorn Ro de Janeiro
More than 30 million 13
So Paulo
21.7
From 30 to 20 million Buenos Aires
15.7
From 20 to 10 million
Less than 10 million

a. In which type of country did urban growth start? Explain your answer. 
508877_03_p73_a_leyenda_areas_metropolitanas


509798_03_p57_areas_metropolitanas
b. In which countries is the rate of urban growth most rapid today? 

c. Which factor has affected the rate of urban growth in both developed and less developed countries?

d. What are megacities? 

e. What does the term urban hierarchy mean? 

f. What are cities at the head of the urban hierarchy called? Write the name of the main ones and their location. 

g. Which problems do large cities face today? What are possible measures to control them?

GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L. 39


4
CONTENT AND RESOURCES

The primary sector

CONTENTS

FIND OUT ABOUT The primary sector today: production and active population
Agrarian landscapes: natural and man-made features
Commercial, traditional and plantation agriculture: characteristics, benefits and problems
Livestock farming and fishing: characteristics and types
The primary sector in Spain
Agrarian landscapes in Spain

KNOW HOW TO Analyse the importance of agriculture, livestock farming, fishing and forestry in the global
economy
Understand the main natural and human factors that shape agrarian landscapes
Identify the main characteristics and effects of agricultural activities on developed countries
and in less developed countries
Identify the main characteristics and types of livestock farming and fishing
Analyse the importance of the primary sector in Spain
Differentiate Spanish agricultural landscapes: characteristics and location
Asses the impact of primary sector activities on the environment and human health
Interpret graphs and maps related to the primary sector
Interpret photos and drawings
Interpret a topographic map

BE ABLE TO Use maps, graphs, tables, photos and the Internet as sources of information
Reflect critically on the negative effects of commercial agriculture, intense livestock farming
and overfishing
Reflect on the importance of sustainable rural development
Assess the importance of adopting measures for sustainable fishing

RESOURCES

Reinforcement and extension Digital resources


The primary sector in the world Libromedia. The primary sector
Agriculture and natural environment
Agricultural activities and net migration Audio
Agricultural landscapes in Spain Track 7: pp. 62-3, 'The cultivation of oranges'
Livestock distribution in Spain (students and teachers)
Track 8: p. 80, activity 3 (students and teachers)
Assessment
Test of Unit 4

40 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L.


SHEET REINFORCEMENT
4. The primary sector
1

Name: Course: Date:

1 Identify the different agricultural landscapes in Spain. Write each type of agrarian landscape and its characteristics.

Landscape:  Landscape: 
Location:  Location: 
Natural factors:  Natural factors: 
Settlement:  Settlement: 
Type of cultivation:  Type of cultivation: 
 
 
Livestock farming and forestry:  Livestock farming and forestry: 
 
 

Cantabrian Sea

Landscape: 
io
M

Eb
Location: 
ro
D uero

AT L A N T I C
Natural factors: 

OCEAN Settlement: 
Ta j o
Type of cultivation: 
Tu r

a
i

G u adi
an a

Spanish agricultural

uivir
Segu
ra landscapes
Humid oceanic

alq (livestock and forestry)
ad
Gu Humid mountain
(livestock and forestry) Livestock farming and forestry: 
Continentalized
Mediterranean
(open fields and mixed

Greenwich Meridian

irrigation land)
ATLANTIC OCEAN
Warm Mediterranean
Mediterranean (orchards, rice and
Sea Scale
tropical crops) 
0 76 Canary Islands
(coastal irrigation and
SOURCE: R. Mndez y F. Molinero, dry interior)
kilometres
Geografa de Espaa.

509798_04_p85_paisajes_agrarios_espanoles

Landscape:  Landscape: 
Location:  Location: 
Natural factors:  Natural factors: 
Settlement:  Settlement: 
Type of cultivation:  Type of cultivation: 
 
 
Livestock farming and forestry:  Livestock farming and forestry: 
 
 

GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L. 41


SHEET REINFORCEMENT
4. The primary sector
2

Name: Course: Date:

1 DISTRIBUTION OF MARKET AGRICULTURE


Analyse the maps and graphs. Then, answer the questions in your notebook.

Agriculture Cr
cul 0
oP OCANO G
ola LACIAL RTICO
r
70
rtic
o
Production (% of total GDP)
65 Working population
(% of total population)
60

55
OC A NO
50 OCANO PA CF ICO
Trpico de Cncer ATLNTI CO
45 World average
42 %
0 Ecuador
40 OCANO

Meridiano de Greenwich
PACFICO OCA NO
35
ND I CO
Trpico de Capricornio
30

25

20
0
15 rtico
Ant Extensive agriculture Mediterranean agriculture
olar
10 Crc ulo P
World average Intensive agriculture Plantations
6,2 %
5

0
Asia and Latin America Near East Sub-saharan Developed Emerging
the Pacific and
North Africa
Africa countries countries Distribution of commercial agriculture.
Source: FAO 2004

Production and working population in different regions.

826932b5p134h2

In % 509798_04_p77_agricultura_mundi Arctic Circle

70

60

50
PA C I F I C AT L A N T I C Tropic of Cancer

40 OCEAN OCEAN

30 Equator

Working population INDIAN


20 (In %)
OCEAN
More than 75 Tropic of Capricorn
From 75 to 40
10
Greenwich Meridian

From 40 to 20

0 From 20 to 5
1980 1990 2000 2010
Less than 5

World Less developed countries Developed countries No data


Antarctic Circle SOURCE: FAO. 2013.

SOURCE: FAO, 2013.

Population working in the primary sector. Working population in the primary sector.
509798_04_p7_poblacion_activa_primario

Millions of tons

20,000
16,655

a. Which countries have economies that are mainly 15,902


based on agriculture? Find out where they are located. 15,000

b. Do you think agricultural productivity is high in these 10,000

countries? Explain your answer.


5,000
2,680
c. Which countries do you think have greater agricultural
productivity? Why? 0
USA Less developed European Union
SOURCE: FAO. 2013. countries
d. Does agriculture in developed countries contribute
greatly to the economy? Explain your answer. Use of fertilisers.

42 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L.


SHEET EXTENSION
4. The primary sector
3

Name: Course: Date:

1 Study and compare both maps. Then, answer the questions in your notebook.

AGRICULTURAL USES

Mainly farmland Other uses


Irrigation crops Meadows and pastures
Rainfed crops Forestry
Rice fields No human use
(deserts, ice, dense forest)
Mixed agriculture Dense urban areas

THE EARTHS CLIMATES


THE EARTHS CLIMATES a. In which regions is
Arcti
ARCTIC
less land used for
0
c Cir
cle OCEAN 508877T04_p126-127 Usos AGRARIOS LEYENDA
Arcti
ARCTIC
Escala
agriculture?
0
c Ci
rcle OCEAN 0 900

kilmetros
Climate zones
Climate zones Cold zones
b. Which types of climate
PA C I F I C Cold zones
Temperate zones and vegetation are
OPA
C ECAI FNI C
OCEAN
PA C I F I C Temperate zones
Hot zones found in these regions?
PA C I F I CO C E A N Hot zones
Hot climates
Tropic of Cancer
508877T04-p126-127
OCEAN Usos agrarios
Hot climates Equatorial c. Is agricultural
Tropic of Cancer Equatorial
Tropical wet development limited
Tropical wet
Tropical dry by one or more factors?
Equator Tropical dry
Equator Desert Make a list of these
ATLANTIC INDIAN Desert
ATLANTIC
OCEAN INDIAN
OCEAN
Temperate climates
Temperate climates
factors and explain how
OCEAN OCEAN
Tropic of Capricorn
Tropic of Capricorn
Mediterranean
Mediterranean they affect agriculture.
Continental
Greenwich Meridian

Continental
Greenwich Meridian

Oceanic Oceanic d. In which areas of the


Cold climates
Cold climates planet has vegetation
Polar Polar been most modified by
High mountain
High mountain
humans for agricultural
rclcele SOUTHERN
SOUTHERN
rctticicCCi ir
Annttaarc
A OCEAN
OCEAN use?

GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L. 43


SHEET EXTENSION
4. The primary sector
4

Name: Course: Date:

1 Study the map of the working population in the primary sector and answer the questions in your notebook.

a. Is it significant that a low or a high


proportion of a population is employed in Working population
(In %)
the primary sector? Explain your answer.
More than 75
b. Which European countries have a From 75 to 40
significant workforce in the primary From 40 to 20
sector? In which countries is the primary From 20 to 5
sector less important? Less than 5

c. Where are these groups of countries? No data

Use the cardinal points, the continents,


proximity to an ocean or sea, or other
criteria.

OCANO
2 Compare the maps and answer the questions in your notebook.

AT L N T I C O
a. Which information does the second map
show? Net migration
(Migrants per 1,000)
b. What do the positive and negative Over 10
numbers mean? 10 to 0
0 to -5
c. What is net migration in European regions
Under -5
with a strong primary sector? What about
No data
countries and regions with a less
significant primary sector? Explain your
answer.

711155_02_p38_leyenda_world_migrations
wich

44 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L.


SHEET EXTENSION
4. The primary sector
5

Name: Course: Date:

1 Use the table of livestock distribution in Spain by Autonomous Communities to answer the questions.

Main livestock species, farms and number of animals, 2013.

Cattle Sheep
Crculo
Pigs
Polar rtico
Poultry*

Farms Number Farms Number Farms Number Farms Number

Andalusia 5,370 517,324 7,999 1,984,518 4,752 1,993,153 4,132 26,107


Aragn 2,631 349,429 3,450 1,826,496 2,371 5,329,665 1,043 23,128
The Principality of Asturias 13,729 381,293 2,604 44,033 2,066 12,720 6,137 271
Balearic Islands 484 31,378 2,872 270,108 1,229 62,512 2,313 696

Canary Islands 578 14,422 1,007 65,189 358 54,532 940 2,702
Cantabria 6,441 278,964 1,886 52,125 579 2,363 2,854 170
Castile and Leon 13,124 1,199,541 8,356 3,353,597 5,363 3,055,924 4,777 22,045
Castile-La Mancha 2,286 342,819 5,347 2,595,868 942 1,346,642 1,673 25,470

Catalonia 4,106 545,350 2,158 579,825 4,321 6,705,208 2,965 44,735


The Community of 447 49,131 998 326,900 653 1,061,039 652 17,925
Valencia 7,582 711,208 8,842 3,162,378 5,956 1,013,876 2,753 5,540
Extremadura 34,311 928,312 10,566 168,416 21,232 1,109,710 40,533 20,528
Galicia

The Community of Madrid 1,163 87,135 297 82,423 47 20,781 271 2,028
The Region of Murcia 247 59,777 985 470,077
Trpico
759
de Cncer
1,596, 297 468 5,014
The Chartered Community 1,461 112,053 1,881 583,995 483 671,026 719 4,319
of Navarre
The Basque Country 5,286 128,111 4,534 259,593 561 18,982 6,255 1,575
Rioja 305 40,095 258 127,065 96 112,110 128 3,569

National total 99,550 5,776,381 64,043 15,952,621 51,767 24,166,539 78,615 205,822

Source: INE. * In thousands of birds


Ecuador
a. Which three Autonomous Communities have

OCANO the highest number of cattle farms? What do these Autonomous Autonomous
Autonomous Communities have in common? Livestock Communities Communities
with most farms with least farms
b. Which five Autonomous Communities have the highest
number of sheep? What do these Autonomous
Cattle
Communities have in common?
c. Which Autonomous Community has the highest

NDICO number of pigs?


d. Which Autonomous Community has the greatest
Sheep
Trpico de Capricornio
number of poultry farms? Does it also have the greatest
Pigs
number of chickens? How can you explain this?
e. Complete the table.
Poultry

GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L. 45


4 ASSESSMENT

Name: Course: Date:

1 Look at the map of the working population in the primary sector and answer the questions.

a. Which activities are included


in the primary sector? Which
one is the most important?
Arctic Circle


b. In which countries is the


PA C I F I C AT L A N T I C Tropic of Cancer working population involved
OCEAN
OCEAN in this sector greatest?
Equator

Working population INDIAN
(In %)
More than 75
OCEAN
Tropic of Capricorn

From 75 to 40
c. How important is the
Greenwich Meridian

From 40 to 20
From 20 to 5 working population of the
Less than 5 primary sector in Europe?
No data
Antarctic Circle SOURCE: FAO. 2013.


2 Analyse the map and answer the questions.


509798_04_p7_poblacion_activa_primario
a. Which type of agriculture is found in developed regions? 

b. Which type of agriculture is found in less developed regions? 

c. What are plantations?

d. Where are the large


areas of commercial
agriculture of cereal
crops located?

e. Which other primary


sector activities can be
developed in areas
AGRARIAN SPACES
unsuitable for
Traditional agriculture Subsistence agriculture Commercial agriculture Horticulture
agriculture? (sedentary and shifting) (mainly rice) of cereals

Itinerant grazing Commercial livestock Area unsuitable


 Plantation agriculture farming for agriculture
Subsistence agriculture Dairy farms
(polyculture) Mediterranean agriculture


46 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L.


4. The primary sector

3 Use the map from activity 2 to complete the table about the main agrarian spaces found in Europe and Spain.
Then, answer the question.

Europe Spain

Which natural factors influence European agricultural landscapes? Explain your answer.

4 Look at the photos and put the letter corresponding to each landscape in an appropriate place on the map.

Cantabrian Sea
io
M

Eb
ro
D uero

AT L A N T I C

OCEAN
Ta j o
Tu r

a
i

an a
G u adi

Spanish agricultural
Segu
ra landscapes
Humid oceanic
uivir
alq (livestock and forestry)
ad
Gu Humid mountain
(livestock and forestry)
Continentalized
Mediterranean
(open fields and mixed
Greenwich Meridian

irrigation land)
ATLANTIC OCEAN
Warm Mediterranean
Mediterranean (orchards, rice and
tropical crops)
Sea
Canary Islands
(coastal irrigation and
SOURCE: R. Mndez y F. Molinero, dry interior)
Geografa de Espaa.

A B C D
509798_04_p85_paisajes_agrarios_espanoles E

GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L. 47


5
CONTENT AND RESOURCES

Mining, energy and industry

CONTENTS

FIND OUT ABOUT Mining and energy: types, production and consumption
Industry: origins and development
The characteristics of modern industry
The industrial powers
Mining, energy and industry in Spain

KNOW HOW TO Examine mineral resources and their use


Analyse the production and consumption of energy and natural resources
Distinguish renewable and non-renewable energy sources
Understand the advantages and disadvantages of the different sources of energy
Explain the relationship between the industrial revolution and development
Understand the characteristics of modern industry
Locate the main industrial powers in the world today
Compare the evolution of industry in developed and less developed countries
Analyse mining, energy and industry in Spain
Asses the environmental problems caused by mining, energy and industry
Interpret graphs of energy production and consumption
Interpret maps, pie charts, tables, photos and diagrams
Asses the best location for an industry
Analyse a sustainable energy project

BE ABLE TO Use maps, graphs, pie charts, tables, photos and the Internet as sources of information
Asses the environmental, human, social and economic impact and consequences of mining
and energy related activities
Reflect critically on current world problems related to modern industry: overexploitation
of natural resources, violent conflict over natural resources, loss of jobs in developed
countries, labour conditions in less developed countries and environmental impact
Reflect on the importance of sustainable industrial development

RESOURCES

Reinforcement and extension Digital resources


Non-renewable and renewable energy sources Libromedia. Mining, energy and industry
Mineral deposits and industrialisation
Wind power: a renewable energy source Audio
Coal mining in Spain Track 9: pp. 84-5, 'The strategic importance of rare raw
Geographic distribution of industries in Spain materials' (students and teachers)
Track 10: p. 103, 'Energy poverty' (teachers)
Assessment Track 11: p. 105, 'A sustainable energy project', Activity 1
Test of Unit 5 (students and teachers)

48 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L.


SHEET REINFORCEMENT
5. Mining, energy and industry
1

Name: Course: Date:

1 Use the Venn Diagram to compare renewable and non-renewable energy.

Renewable energy Non-renewable energy

2 Look at the graph and answer the questions.

a. How has energy consumption changed over time? Why?


In exajoules
500
Renewable energies 
Nuclear energy Microchip
400

Natural gas
Commercial aviation
Oil nuclear energy b. Which are the main energy sources for consumption?
300 Coal

Biomass Television

Vacuum
c. Are they renewable or non-renewable?
200 lamp
Electric
engine 
Petrol
100
Steam
engine
engine d. When did energy consumption from renewable energy sources start to
increase?
0
1850 1900 1950 2000

SOURCE: UNO. e. Which renewable energy source has been used for the longest time?
Explain your answer.

3 Complete the table about renewable energy sources in your notebook. Then, answer the question.

Renewable energy Description Advantages Disadvantages

Explain the recent growth in energy production from renewable sources.

GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L. 49


SHEET REINFORCEMENT
5. Mining, energy and industry
2

Name: Course: Date:

1 Study the map and answer the questions in your notebook.


a. Which Autonomous Communities show the highest industrial production?
b. Which Autonomous Communities show the lowest industrial production?
c. Where are they locatedin inland or coastal areas?

C an t ab r i an Sea
THE BASQUE
Main industries THE PRINCIPALITY COUNTRY FRANCE
OF ASTURIAS CANTABRIA WINSLLOW

Food, drinks and tobacco GALICIA WINSLLOW

THE CHARTERED
WINSLLOW WINSLLOW

Motor vehicles WINSLLOW


COMMUNITY ANDORRA
Chemical industry OF NAVARRE
RIOJA WINSLLOW

Basic metals WINSLLOW


CATALONIA
CASTILE AND LEON
Metal products
WINSLLOW

Paper, publishing and graphic arts ARAGON


WINSLLOW

Non-ferrous mineral products WINSLLOW

THE COMMUNITY
Rubber and plastic
OF MADRID
Machinery and mechanical equipment WINSLLOW

Electrical machinery
AL

Textile and confection BALEARIC


THE COMMUNITY
TUG

Wood and cork ISLANDS


OF VALENCIA
Furniture manufacture EXTREMADURA CASTILE-LA MANCHA

a
Se
WINSLLOW

WINSLLOW
POR

Aeronautic construction WINSLLOW

n
ea
WINSLLOW

Electronics and ICT n


ra
Trains THE REGION t er
OF MURCIA e di
M
ANDALUSIA WINSLLOW

WINSLLOW

Value of industrial
production
(as % of the
CANARY ISLANDS national total)
Greenwich Meridian

AT L A N T I C
More than 10
OCEAN WINSLLOW

Ceuta Scale
From 10 to 5 0 120

Melilla From 5 to 2 kilometres


Less than 2
MOROCCO SOURCE: INE.

THE SPANISH URBAN SYSTEM

Cantabrian Sea
2 Compare both
To Paris
Asturian maps and answer
Avils
A Corua
Oviedo
Gijn
Donostia-San Sebastin
Marseille
the question in
Galician coast Santiago 509798_05_p107_industria_espana
Bilbao
your notebook.
de Compostela
Basque and Ebro Valley
Vigo

Barcelona Can you find


Zaragoza
Valladolid a relationship
Porto Catalonian between the most
AT L A N T I C
Madrid
industrialised
OCEAN Central Autonomous
Palma
Communities and
Valencia
the main urban
Balearic
Lisbon
subsystems?
Alicante/Alacant
Crdoba Levant Mediterranean Explain your
Sea
South-west
Murcia
answer. Include
Sevilla the reasons why
Jerez de
la Frontera industries are
Canary Cdiz Mlaga
always located next
Sta. Cruz de
Tenerife Scale
Urban subsystem Metropolitan areas to large urban areas.
Melilla 0 132 Connections, flows Subsystems in the
Las Palmas de Mediterranean corridor
Gran Canaria kilometres

509798_03_p79_sistema_urbano

50 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L.


SHEET EXTENSION
5. Mining, energy and industry
3

Name: Course: Date:

1 Study and compare both maps. Then, use the information from these maps and other sources to answer the questions
in your notebook.

Aluminio Nquel DEGREE OF INDUSTRIALISATION INDUSTRIAL AREAS


Antimonio Oro Very low or low Main industrial areas
Cobre Plata Medium Main industrial centres
Cromo Platino/Rodio High
Main industrial areas and
Estao Plomo centres in emerging countries
Fsforo Tntalo
Hafnio Uranio
Indio Zinc

Proportion of world production


a. Which are the most
88% 50%
industrialised regions
826932B7P201
and countries of the
25%
Arctic Circle world?
10%
RUSSIAN FEDERATION
b. Name some of the main
CANADA
POLAND industrial centres.
509798_05_p87_leyenda_yacimientos
KAZAKHSTAN
c. Which are the least
UNITED STATES ATLANTIC
OCEAN industrialised regions of
Tropic of Cancer CHINA
MOROCCO
MEXICO
CUBA
INDIA the world?
PA C IFIC JAMAICA NIGER PACIFIC

OCEAN GUINEA MALAYSIA OCEAN d. Name some of the main


Equator
INDIAN

OCEAN INDONESIA
industrial areas and
PERU
BRAZIL
NEW
CALEDONIA
centres in emerging
NAMIBIA
Tropic of Capricorn
BOLIVIA countries.
Aluminium Nickel
AUSTRALIA
e. Are the countries with
SOUTH AFRICA
Antimony Gold
Copper Silver
CHILE the most mineral
Chromite Platinum/Rhodium
Scale
deposits in the world also
Tin Lead 0 1,250
Phosphorus Tantalum kilometres the most industrialised?
Hafnium
Indium
Uranium
Zinc
Explain your answer.

Production as % of world total

GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable


88% material
50% Santillana Educacin, S. L. 51
509798_05_p93_yacimientos
SHEET EXTENSION
5. Mining, energy and industry
4

Name: Course: Date:

1 Read the text. Then, answer the questions in your notebook.


a. What is a wind farm?

b. Why is wind power considered to be a primary energy source?

c. Do you think it is a good idea to diversify the available primary energy sources? Why?

d. Explain how carbon dioxide emissions contribute to global warming and climate change.

e. Why does Panama have a dry season?

f. Why do you think this wind farm may help the sustainable development of Panama? Give at least two reasons.

Wind power: a renewable energy source

IFC (International Finance Corporation), a member


of the World Bank Group, has contributed $300
million in financing for the construction of Phase II
and Phase III of the Penonome wind power plant,
the largest wind farm in Central America. As soon
as they are operational, the 86 wind turbines are
expected to generate 448 GWh of energy per year,
roughly equivalent to 5 per cent of the countrys
total energy demand.
It is expected to diversify the countrys energy
sources, reduce the dependence on imported fossil
fuels, lower energy prices, and contribute to a
reduction in carbon emissions of about 400,000
tons of carbon dioxide per year. This is equivalent
to taking 84,000 cars off the road.
Panama is highly dependent on imported fossil
fuels, which represent more than a third of the
electricity generated. Another half of the countrys
electricity is generated from hydropower plants,
making the power sector vulnerable during the
dry season. This can result in rationing of power
and high electricity cost during droughts.
"Phase II and III of Penonome will add much-
needed electricity generation capacity to support
Panamas sustainable development," said Gabriel A wind turbine generator works in a similar way to wind
Goldschmidt, IFC Head for Infrastructure in Latin mills in the past. The energy from moving air makes the
blades spin, and a generator turns this mechanical energy
America and the Caribbean.
into electrical energy through a transmission system.
World Bank press release, This energy is sent into the national electrical grid, stored
16 December 2014 (adapted) in batteries, or used directly in industry and homes.

2 Prepare a report on the future creation of a new wind farm in your region. Think about both its advantages
and the disadvantages, such as the environmental impact and its effect on wildlife. Identify two or three areas
where it could be located.

52 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L.


SHEET EXTENSION
5. Mining, energy and industry
5

Name: Course: Date:

1 Read the text. Then, answer the questions in your 2 Look for information about thermal power plants on the
notebook. Internet. Visit http://www.endesaeduca.com/Endesa_
a. What percentage of electrical energy produced in Spain educa_Ingles/ and answer the questions.
in 2013 came from coal combustion? Is this percentage a. What is a thermal power plant? How does it produce
higher or lower than in 2012? Why do you think this electrical energy?
happened?
b. Locate the following coal mining areas of Spain on a
b. How many million tons of coal can Spain produce today map: Bierzo-Villablino, Central Asturiana, Norte de Len,
after upgrading its mines? Occidental Asturiana, Sabero-Guardo-Barruelo,
c. What does energy dependency mean? Can it be Puertollano and Teruel-Mequinenza.
reduced by using coal?
c. Is there any relationship between the location of these
d. Does the consumption of domestic coal have other mining areas and the location of the thermal power
advantages? plants? Explain the reasons.

Coal mining in Spain

Coal is the only domestic fossil fuel in Spain.


Its consumption contributes to a considerable
reduction in the negative trade balance of energy
sources: oil, gas, uranium and even imported coal,
and to reduce energy dependency.

Since 1990, the coal sector in Spain has undergone


a process of continuous upgrading and
restructuring. In the last three decades, this sector
has slightly reduced the number of employees
and some of its production, but it has gained in
competitiveness and modernization after heavy
investment in Research and Development (R & D).
This investment has resulted in greater
competitiveness and a significant reduction
of its environmental impact.
Today, domestic coal is an industrial sector with
the capacity to produce up to nine million tons.
It is used as fuel by the five large electrical
companies in the following nine thermal power
plants: Andorra (Teruel), Compostilla and Anllares
(both in Leon), Elcogas (Ciudad Real), Puentenuevo
3 (Crdoba), La Robla 2 (Len), Guardo 2 (Palencia),
Soto de Ribera 3 and Narcea 3 (both in Asturias).
According to data from the Red Elctrica
de Espaa, 15% of electrical energy in 2013
was generated by coal combustion compared
to 19% in 2012.

Source: "La situacin del carbn en Espaa",


CARBUNION (adapted)

GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L. 53


5 ASSESSMENT

Name: Course: Date:

1 Look at the map of the main mineral producers in the world and answer the questions.

a. Define mineral deposits


and mining.
Canada Russia
Zn Ni Cd
Belgium
Cd
Ni Fe

Fe Pb Cu

Germany

United States
Spain
Hg
Cd
Kazakstan
Pb
Japan 
Zn Cd Fe
China Cd

Pb Cu

Cuba
Argelia
Hg
Kirghizistan
Zn

Fe
Cd

Pb
Al

Sn

Mexico

b. Which countries have the most


Ni Hg
Pb
India
Jamaica

mineral deposits?
Fe Al
Al

Peru


Brazil Guinea
Zn Pb Sn

Al Fe Sn Al
Cu

Indonesia Australia


Bolivia Sn Cu
Ni
Zn Ni Al
Sn
Pb Fe

Chile
Cu
PRODUCTION OF NINE MAIN MINERALS BY COUNTRY
Zn Cd Pb

Zinc (Zn) Cadmium (Cd) Lead (Pb)
Hg Al Sn
Mercury (Hg) Bauxite (Al) Tin (Sn)
Ni
Nickell (Ni) Fe
Irono (Fe) Cu
Copper (Cu) 

2 Analyse the map and graph. Then, answer the questions.


826932B6P169

In exajoules
500
Renewable energies
Nuclear energy Microchip
11,9 %
400
Natural gas
3,8 % 3,9 % Russia Commercial aviation
Canada Norway Oil nuclear energy

300 Coal
Biomass Television
8,5 % Kuwait
United States 3,1 % 5,2 % 4,5 %
Iran China Vacuum
200 lamp
Electric
4,9 % 13,1 % 3,3 % engine
Saudi Arabia United Arab
Mexico Emirates Petrol
Steam engine
4,0 % 3,2 % 100
Venezuela Nigeria engine

0
OIL IN THE WORLD 1850 1900 1950 2000
Main producers SOURCE: UNO.

Main conumers
Percentage of total
world production
3,2 %

a. When did world energy consumption rise sharply? Why? 

 562954_05_p26_b_petroleo_mundi

b. Which countries are the main energy producers? And the main energy consumers? 

c. Which energy sources are the most consumed today? Are they renewable or non-renewable? 

d. What are renewable energy sources? Describe the main ones and explain how important they are today. 

54 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L.


5. Mining, energy and industry

3 Compare the photos and answer the question.

a. Which industrial landscape do you think was built first? Explain your answer.

b. Which factors have influenced the location of industries in each case?

4 Analyse the map and answer the questions.

Traditional industrial regions (19th and 20th centuries) a. What is industry?


Traditional industrial centres

Emerging industrial regions (late 20th and early 21st centuries) 


New industrial powers

New emerging industrial regions (21 century)



st

New industrial centres


Industrial relocation

Second phase of industrial relocation

b. Where are the traditional industrial


508877_05_p130_131_leyenda_deslocalizacion_mundo_GEODOS
powers found?

c. Which regions emerged in the late 20th and early 21st centuries? 

d. Which types of industries are found in traditional industrial countries? And in emerging industrial countries? 


508877_05_p130_131_deslocalizacion_mundo_GEODOS

e. Is industrialisation linked to development? How? 

f. Why is industrial relocation so important today? Explain why it happens and what its consequences are. 

GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L. 55


6
CONTENT AND RESOURCES

SERVICES

CONTENTS

FIND OUT ABOUT The nature of services


Trade: factors and types
World trade: characteristics and organisation
Land, sea and air transport
Tourism
Other services
Trade, transport and tourism in Spain

KNOW HOW TO Evaluate the importance of services in todays economy


Analyse the main activities of the tertiary sector: definition, types, distribution, flows,
and causes and effects
Understand the distribution of services in the world and assess the current process
of outsourcing
Understand major trade flows, global transport networks and main tourist flows
Interpret maps and graphs of trade, transport and tourism networks and flows
Compare transport networks
Analyse the service sector in Spain using graphs, tables and maps
Analyse a tourist resort: Benidorm

BE ABLE TO Use maps, graphs, pie charts, tables, photos and the Internet as sources of information
Asses the environmental impact of transport and tourism
Reflect critically on current world problems related to services, such as inadequate services
in less developed countries and the environmental impact of some services

RESOURCES

Reinforcement and extension Digital resources


Service sector: key concepts Libromedia. Services
Tertiarization
Trade: free trade areas and custom unions Audio
The railway system in Spain Track 12: pp. 108-9, The northern sea routes (students
Tourism in Spain today and teachers)
Track 13: p. 125, Fair international trade relations
Assessment (teachers)

Test of Unit 6 Track 14: p. 126, Analyse a tourist resort: Benidorm


(Alicante), Activity 3 (students and teachers)
SHEET REINFORCEMENT
6.SERVICES
1

Name: Course: Date:

1 Analyse the graph of the service sector in the world and answer
In % of GDP
the questions. 80

a. What does the graph show?

 70

b. Why does the term tertiarization refer to? 

 60

c. Where is tertiarization more common: developed or less developed


countries? Why?
50
2004 2006 2008 2010

SOURCE: World Bank, 2012.


2 Define the following terms in your notebook.


Public services Domestic trade Outsourcing
Private services Foreign trade Balance of trade

3 Complete the table about types of transport.

Advantages Disadvantages

Road transport

Rail transport

Ship transport

Air transport

GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L. 57


SHEET EXTENSION
6.SERVICES
2

Name: Course: Date:

1 Read the text. Then, do the activities in your notebook.


a. Make a list of the factors causing the growth of the tertiary sector.
b. Give examples of services which have developed as a result of the overall increase in income in Spain.
c. Explain the relationship between globalisation and tertiarization.
d. Which activities in the service sector contribute most to GDP? Which factors of tertiarization are they related to?
e. Which activities are related to the welfare state? How important are they in the service sector?

Tertiarization

Several factors are responsible for


tertiarization:
1.An increase in overall income in society
has had the following consequences:
Individuals and companies pay more
taxes which enables governments to
fund and organise the public services
known as the welfare state.
Individuals allocate less time to work
and more time to leisure, so other
people or companies can do the jobs
or activities that they did before.
Once the income of a society reaches
a particular level, the percentage of
money spent on basic products,
such as food, decreases. The
percentage spent on other products
and services increases. These products
and services include housing, personal
care and leisure which belong to the
tertiary sector.
2.More women now form part of the labour
force, so there has been an increase in
family income. However, as a result many
domestic or child care activities are now
performed by companies or institutions
of the service sector.
3.As a result of globalisation, trade,
transport, financial services and
marketing have all grown rapidly.
4.The new forms of business organization,
such as relocation have led to growth
in the areas of the tertiary sector
responsible for communications,
organisation of companies, services
to companies, etc.

58 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L.


SHEET EXTENSION
6.SERVICES
3

Name: MAIN WORLD TRADING BLOCS


Course: Date:

1 Use the information from the maps and other sources to answer the questions in your notebook.

Arctic Circle

PACIFIC
Tropic of Cancer

North OCEAN
2000
P A C I FAmerica
IC
Equator 1,058
39.8%
INDIAN
OCEAN Eastern Europe
and former USSR Asia
271 26.6% A T L A N T 1,649
IC OCEAN
Tropic of Capricorn
Western 48.9%
Europe OCEAN
2,441 67.8%
6.5%

South 17.3% Persian Gulf


America countries
Greenwich Meridian

359 7.6% 263


ASEAN MERCOSUR APTA OPEC
Antarctic Circle
Africa CARICOM NAFTA/TLCAN SACU
CAN
145
Scale COMESA EU CIS
0 1,600

SOURCE: WTO, 2013. kilometres

508877_06_p147_leyenda_Bloques_comerciales_GEODOS
a. What is a free trade area?

2010 b. Which are the main free trade areas in the


North
America world? Which countries do they include?
1,965
CIS c. What is a customs union?
48.7% 588 Asia
509798_06_p117_Bloques_comerciales
18.6% d. Which are the main customs unions in the
4,686
world? Which countries do they include?
52.6%
Western e. Which trade bloc is specific to the trade of just
Europe
5,632 petroleum? Which countries does it include?
71%
10% f. W
 hich main free
25.6% Volume of trade
South and (in thousands of millions of $) trade areas and
Central America Persian Gulf 5,500 customs unions
577 12.3% countries
895 2,500 are part of the
Africa 1,500
508 1,000
main trade flows?
500
300 g. Which customs
100 union has the
Share of exchanges
SOURCE: WTO, 2011. highest volume
Inside the area
of trade inside
To other regions
the area?

509798_06_p119_leyenda_comercio_mundi_comparacion
GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L. 59
SHEET EXTENSION
6.SERVICES
4

Name: Course: Date:

1 Read the text and study the table. Then, use this information and other sources to answer the questions in your notebook.
a. On which rail networks has the volume of passengers increased most? Why?
b. Which type of rail network is most popular for Spanish passengers today?
c. What is the name of the project to develop Spanish railway infrastructures, 2012-2024?
d. What is the core network of the Spanish rail network like?
e. Where does the Spanish rail network connect with the European high speed train network today?

The railway system in Spain

Rail transport can be analysed from two different The commuter transport which connects big
perspectives. Infrastructures, such as railways and cities to the suburbs and surrounding towns.
stations, are managed by the Administrador de The regional network which connects big cities
Infraestructuras Ferroviarias (ADIF), a public with provincial capitals and other relatively close
company under the responsibility of the Ministry towns with a demand for rail transport.
of Public Works and Transport. The transport of
people and goods is carried out by companies that The high speed network with radial structure
provide trains and pay to use the infrastructures and peripheral nodes which reaches the coasts
managed by ADIF. and the valley of the River Ebro. It is considered
the core network because it has links with the
Until 2005, the company Red Nacional de other networks.
Ferrocarriles Espaoles (RENFE) had the
monopoly of rail transport in Spain. In that year The high speed network is still under construction
the sector was deregulated and today other and the goal is to connect Madrid to the other
companies are also in operation. However, large Spanish cities. The regional trains will
they have a lower volume of transport of transport passengers and goods from this network
goods and people than RENFE. to the rest of the Spanish territory. In addition,
this network will connect with the European rail
In 2013 the rail network run by ADIF was 14,370 network.
kilometres long, and in 2014 another 1,000
kilometres were added. This network can
be classified into three large groups:

Passengers (millions), 1990-2012

1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012

Number of 385.9 476.4 573.2 609.3 638.4 653.7 600 683.6 700.5 695.3 691.5 590.3 576.6 590.3 578.7
passengers

High speed 3.9 5.6 6 6.3 6 6.2 7.2 8.7 9.1 16.3 17 16.8 18.6 18
trains

Long 11.6 13.6 13.6 13.3 12.8 12.4 12.6 12.8 13 11.8 11.8 11.3 10.3 10.4
distance
trains

Regional 0.7 21.8 26.2 26.7 26.7 27.3 26.5 28 28.7 28.3 28.4 27.1 26 16.8 26
trains

Commuter 111.2 439.1 527.8 563 592.1 607.6 554.9 635.8 650.3 644.9 635 534.4 522.5 544.6 524.3
trains

Source: INE.

60 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L.


SHEET EXTENSION
6.SERVICES
5

Name: Course: Date:


MAIN TOURISTS AREAS IN SPAIN

1 Analyse the data from the tables and study the map on tourism in Spain.
Then, answer the questions.

Foreign visitors by destination (2014)


Cantabrian Sea
Gijn Santander Donostia- F R A N C E
Catalonia 16,814,199 Rias Altas
San Sebastin
Santiago
Bilbao
Canary Islands 11,475,211 de Compostela ANDORRA
Len Burgos
Rias Bajas
Balearic Islands 11,367,224 Valladolid Calella
Zaragoza Lloret de Mar
Andalusia 8,501,991 Segovia Tarragona

A L
Salamanca Madrid Salou

N
Community of Valencia 6,233,881 vila Alcal B a lea ric

OCEA
de Henares Islands

T U G
Toledo
Cceres Cuenca
Community of Madrid 4,546,559 Palma a
Se
Ibiza n
Basque Country 1,569,745 ea

P O R
NTIC
Mrida
Benidorm an
Crdoba e rr
Galicia 1,050,417 it
REAS TURSTICAS
ed
AT L A

Seville La DE ESPAA
Granada Manga M
Castile and Len 996,065
Densidad alta
Mlaga Densidad media
Tourist areas in Spain
Torremolinos
Region of Murcia 805,658
Densidad baja
Marbella High density
Zonas menos tursticas
Medium density
Cantabria 369,138
ANDALUCAComunidades
ATLANTIC OCEAN especialmente tursticas
Low density
Puerto Canary Islands Catalua Comunidades tursticas
de la Cruz
Aragn 327,028 Las Palmas Scale
Less
de tourism
temporada
Ciudades histricas del interior
0 150 Historic cities inland
Costa Adeje Centros tursticos costeros
Navarra 261,717 Maspalomas kilometres
Coastal resorts

Asturias 236,523
Extremadura 196,283 a. Are the data from the first table consistent with the information
shown on the map? Explain your answer.
Castile-La Mancha 182,612
Rioja 61,024 
509798_06_p129_turismo_espana
Total 64,995,275 

b. What type of tourism is mainly found in the high density tourist areas?
Foreign visitors by country of origin (2014) Can you name some of the resorts?

United Kingdom 15,006,744 

France 10,615,746 c. Which are some of the cultural destinations for tourists in Spain?
Germany 10,422,055 
Nordic countries 5,044,539 d. Which country of origin are most visitors from? Which do you think
Italy 3,697,702 are their main destinations?

Netherlands 2,767,130 

Belgium 2,180,457 

Portugal 1,876,524 e. Do you think tourism in Spain is well distributed throughout


the country? Explain your answer.
Switzerland 1,632,011
Russia 1,420,647 

Irland 1,291,435 f. Which factor makes tourism in Spain inconsistent throughout


the year?
United States 1,218,617

Total 64,995,275

Source: Turespaa. Frontur

GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L. 61


6 ASSESSMENT

Name: Course: Date:

1 Analyse the graph showing the growth of the service sector in the world, and look at the map.

a. Define tertiarization and explain how it is represented on the map. 

b. Explain how the development of a country influences the process of tertiarization. 

 PRODUCTION OF THE TERTIARY SECTOR IN THE WORLD

Arctic Circle

AT L A N T I C
Tropic of Cancer
In % of GDP
80 PACIFIC OCEAN

OCEAN Equator

70 INDIAN
Production of the
tertiary sector OCEAN
(% of GDP) Tropic of Capricorn

More than 70
60
From 70 to 58
From 58 to 48
Greenwich Meridian

Less than 48
50 No data Scale
2004 2006 2008 2010 0 1,600

kilometres SOURCE: World Bank, 2010.


SOURCE: World Bank, 2012.

2 Study the data in the table and answer the questions.

a. Which is the leading export country in the world? And the leading
Main export and import countries (2013)
import509798_06_p114_Produccion_servicios_mundi
country?
% of % of
Export Import 
total total
countries countries
exports imports b. Do you think a countrys size has a major influence on its exports
and imports? Explain your answer.
China 11.7 China 10.3

United States 8.4 United States 12.3

Germany 7.7 Germany 6.3

Japan 3.8 Japan 4.4
c. How has globalisation affected world trade? Explain and give an
Netherlands 3.6 Netherlands 3.1 example.
France 3.1 France 3.6 
South Korea 3.0 South Korea 2.7 
United Kingdom 2.9 United Kingdom 3.5 

Hong Kong 2.8 Hong Kong 3.3 d. Which countries have benefited most from globalisation?
(China) (China)

Russia 2.8 Russia 1.8


Source: OMC. 

62 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L.


North
2000 America 6.SERVICES
1,058
39.8%

Eastern Europe
and former USSR Asia
271 26.6% 1,649

Western 48.9%
Europe
2,441 67.8%
6.5%

South 17.3% Persian Gulf


America countries
359 7.6% 263
Africa
145

3 Use the map to answer the questions.


Volume of trade
(in thousands of millions of $)
a. Which regions of the world control most of world trade?
5,500

2010
2,500
1,500

North 1,000
America 500
1,965
48.7%
CIS
300
100 
588 Asia Share of exchanges
18.6% 4,686 Inside the area

52.6%
To other regions 
Western
Europe
5,632 71%
b. What are the main trade flows? Where do they start and end?
10% 509798_06_p119_leyenda_comercio_mundi_comparacion
25.6%
South and
Central America Persian Gulf

577 12.3% countries
895
Africa
508



SOURCE: WTO, 2011.

4 Study and compare these tables. Then, answer the questions.

a. Which data are included in these tables?


Arrivals of international tourists (millions)
509798_06_p119_comercio_mundi_comparacion
Countries 2012 2013* 

France 83.0 
United States 66.7 69.8 
Spain 57.5 60.7 b. Which three countries receive most tourists?
China 57.7 55.7 
Italy 46.4 47.7

Turkey 35.7 37.8
c. Are the countries with most international visitors the ones with the
Germany 30.4 31.5 highest revenues? How can you explain this?
United Kingdom 29.3 31.2 
Russia 25.7 28.4

Tailandia 22.4 26.5


International tourism revenues (billions of $) d. Which tourist attractions do each of these countries offer? Group the
countries by continent.
Countries and/or
2012 2013*
territories 
United States 126.2 139.6 
Spain 56.3 60.4 
France 53.6 56.1

China 50.0 51.7

Macao (China) 43.7 51.6

Italy 41.2 43.9
e. What are some of the negative effects of this large volume of tourism?
Thailand 33.8 42.1

Germany 38.1 41.2

United Kingdom 36.2 40.6 

Hong Kong (China) 33.1 38.9 

Source: World Tourism Organization. *Provisional figures. 

GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L. 63


7
CONTENT AND RESOURCES

Development

CONTENTS

FIND OUT ABOUT The nature of development


Causes of economic underdevelopment in less developed countries
Types of inequality
How to promote international development
Poverty and social exclusion in Spain

KNOW HOW TO Understand the concept of development and identify its principal indicators
Classify a country in terms of its human development
Identify and explain causes of underdevelopment
Compare inequalities of developed, emerging and less developed countries
Identify actions and solutions to fight economic underdevelopment
Analyse poverty and social exclusion in Spain
Interpret maps and graphs
Compare the development of two countries
Assess development in Africa

BE ABLE TO Use maps, graphs, pie charts, tables, photos and the Internet as sources of information
Assess the importance of internal and external factors in explaining the underdevelopment
of a country such as the colonial legacy, the technological gap and the external debt
Reflect critically on the problem of underdevelopment in the world
Discuss and assess the progress of the Millennium Development Goals

RESOURCES

Reinforcement and extension Digital resources


Development: basic concepts Libromedia. Development
The problem of external debt
GDP and poverty Audio
Deserts: wealth and poverty Track 15: pp. 128-9, 'Is education a universal right?'
Poverty risk in Spain (students and teachers)
Track 16: p. 141, 'The Millennium Development Goals'
Assessment (teachers)

Test of Unit 7

64 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L.


SHEET REINFORCEMENT
7.Development
1

Name: Course: Date:

1 Complete the table about the characteristics of countries based on their development.

Type of country Per capita income Industries Infrastructures Services

2 Define the following terms in your notebook.


Human Development Index (HDI) External debt
Human Poverty Index (HPI) Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

3 Complete the mind map about types of inequality.

 GDP per capita

consumption goods and services

Types of inequality illnesses

health care 

 

child exploitation

GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L. 65


SHEET EXTENSION
7.Development
2

Name: Course: Date:

1 Study the maps and read the text. Then, answer the questions in your notebook.

During his inauguration


ceremony, the new president
of Ecuador, Lucio Gutierrez,
raised "a desperate cry to
the developed world, we
cannot develop our country
by paying around 40% of our
national budget in external
debt The external debt is
killing our dreams, our
hopes, the right to a dignified
life of millions of children
that havent had breakfast
or gone to school this
Debt (In % of GDP)
morning", he said
High He mentioned that in 1953
during an assembly in
Low
SOURCE: TheEconomist
SOURCE: The Economist , 2012.
, 2012. London, Germany requested
to be allowed to grow and
then pay its external debt.
509978_07_p139-a_leyenda_deuda_GEODOS "The creditor nations were
sensitive and accepted this
request, and today the world
508877_07_p179a_deuda admires the development of
this great nation".
508877_07_p179a_deuda
"Lucio Gutirrez lanza
un 'grito desperado'",
El Pas, 15 January 2003
[revised 2014], adapted

Evolution of debt
Growth

SOURCE: The Economist , 2012.


Decrease
SOURCE: The Economist , 2012.

a. Which509798-07-139-b_leyenda
countries of the world have the highest external debt?
b. How is the external debt in less developed countries?
508877_07_179b_Evolucin de la deuda_ GEODOS
c. In which countries is external debt growing most?
508877_07_p179a_deuda
d. Why is external debt such a burden for less developed countries?
e. What has been done to alleviate their debt?

66 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L.


SHEET EXTENSION
7.Development
3

Name: Course: Date:

1 Compare the maps and answer the questions in your notebook.

GDP per capita


(in dollars)
More than 25,000
From 25,000 to 5,000
From 5,000 to 1,000
Less than 1,000
No data SOURCE:SOURCE:
WorldWorld Bank, 2012.
Bank, 2012.

a. What information
509798-11-140_leyenda_PIB_GEODOS does the first map
show? What about
509798_07_p140_PIB_Mundi the second map?
b. What is extreme
poverty?
509798_07_p140_PIB_Mundi
c. Which continents,
regions and
countries have
the highest GDP
per capita?
d. Which continents,
regions and
countries have
the highest
percentages of
people in extreme
poverty?

People whose income is less e. Is there always a


than $1.25/day (in %) direct connection
More than 35 From 6.7 to 0.5 between GDP per
From 43 to 21 Less than 0.5 capita and
From 20 to 6.8 No data SOURCE: World Bank, Atlas of Global Development. extreme poverty?
SOURCE: World Bank, Atlas of Global Development. Explain your
answer.

GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L. 67


SHEET EXTENSION
7.Development
4

Name: Course: Date:

1 Interpret the maps and use other sources of information to answer the questions.
a. Locate the deserts and polar areas
180 150 120 90 60 30 0 30 60 90 120 150 180

60
of the world on the map. 60

b. Are these areas suitable for human


life? Explain your answer.
40
40

 20
20

 0 0

 20 20

c. Do these areas include societies Desert


with a high level of development?
40

High mountain

Explain your answer. Polar areas

Cold climate areas

 Rainforest

150 120 90 60 30 0 30 60 90 120 150 180


367175T13p229h2_pobl segun factores fisicos



 

d. Do they include countries with high


GDP per capita? Which ones?


  





 


2,/,17+(:25/'
 0DLQSURGXFHUV
0DLQFRQVXPHUV
3HUFHQWDJHRISURGXFWLRQ
e. Which areas and countries have the RIWKHZRUOGWRWDO


main oil reserves in the world?


%3
f. Can you explain how certain areas
non-suitable for human life have a
high GDP per capita?

 GDP per capita


(in dollars)
More than 25,000
 From 25,000 to 5,000
From 5,000 to 1,000

 Less than 1,000


No data SOURCE: World Bank, 2012.

509798-11-140_leyenda_PIB_GEODOS

68 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L.


SHEET EXTENSION
7.Development
5

Name: Course: Date:

1 Analyse the data in the table and study the graph and map. Then, answer the questions.

Autonomous GDP
Communities per capita
Cantabrian Sea
Andalusia 16,884
Aragn 24,957 9.9% 20.3%
10.8%
18.8%
Asturias 20,334 8.8%

Balearic Islands 23.931 ATLANTIC


23.5%
24.4%
16.6%
Basque Country 29.683 16.6%

Canary Islands 19,581 OCEAN


15.9%
Cantabria 20,855
18.5%
Castile-La Mancha 18,307 31.9% 31.7% 19%

Castile and Leon 21,727


Catalonia 26,996 26.4%
Se
a
31.7% n
Ceuta 18,550 ea
an
rr
Community of Madrid 31,004 d ite
Me
33.8% 26.5% Poverty risk
Community of Valencia 20,073 30.9% (in %)
More than 30
Extremadura 15,752
From 30 to 20
Galicia 19,954 From 20 to 10

Melilla 16,941 SOURCE: INE, Survey on living conditions, 2012.


Less than 10

Navarra 28,124
Region of Murcia 18,529
Rioja 24,998

509798_07_p144_pobreza
a. Which are the Autonomous Communities or Cities with high percentages In % Poverty risk in Spain

of poverty risk? And low percentages? 25

b. Do Autonomous Communities with high GDP per capita have low 20


percentages of poverty risk? And the other way around? Why?


15 2004
 2006 2008 2010 2012

SOURCE: INE, 2012.




c. Has the economic crisis that started in 2007 influenced poverty risk?

d. Which initiatives could be adopted to alleviate this problem?

GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L. 69


7 ASSESSMENT

Name: Course: Date:

1 Read the text and study the graph and map. Then, answer the questions.
As explained in the United Nations Differences in consumption
Development Programme (UNDP), "Poverty
is not only defined in economic terms (), Mobile phones
980

but also means malnutrition, reduced life 20

expectancy, lack of access to drinking water


962
Televisions
17
and sanitation, illnesses, illiteracy, lack 807
of access to schooling, culture, health care, Automobiles
3
credit or certain goods". () 766
Phone lines
However, contrasts in consumption may
80
630
provide the data that show the inequalities Internet users
7
Sweden
more clearly: for each unit of fish that is 619 Somalia
consumed in a poor country, 7 are consumed
Personal computers
2
in a rich country. The ratio is 1:11 for meat, Per 1,000 inhabitants 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1.000

1:17 for energy, 1:145 for automobiles. ()


A particularly striking piece of data about
consumption, that summarises inequalities
effectively, is: a child in an industrialized
country will consume throughout his life as 826932B9p247h2
much as 50 children do in a less developed
country.

http://www.oei.es/decada/accion.php?accion=o1

a. Which types of inequality are described in the text?

 Undernourished people (in %) Escala


More than 35 From 14 to 5 0 2.500

 From 34 to 25 Less than 5 kilmetros


From 24 to 15 No data SOURCE:
FUENTE:UN, World
ONU, Food Programme
Programa Mundial de Alimentos.


b. Among the contrasts in consumption shown in the text and graph, which do you think are the most significant?


508877-07-181-a_Salud_GEODOS


c. What are the main causes of economic underdevelopment in emerging and less developed countries?

d. Which measures have been put in place for these countries to further development?

70 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L.


7.Development

2 Study the map and answer the questions.


a. What is extreme poverty?


b. Which continents and/or
regions have populations
affected by extreme
poverty?


People whose income is less
than $1.25/day (in %) 
More than 43 From 6.7 to 0.5
From 43 to 21 Less than 0.5 
From 20 to 6.8 No data
SOURCE: World Bank, Atlas of Global Development.


c. Which are the most affected groups?  508877_07_p180_pobreza leyenda GEODOS


508877_07_p180b_ingresos_inferiores_GEODOS
d. Which types of social inequality may affect children in these circumstances? 

3 Analyse the map and answer the questions.


a. Which are the Autonomous Communities
and Cities with a high percentage of people
Cantabrian Sea at risk of poverty?


9.9% 20.3%
10.8%
18.8%
8.8% 
ATLANTIC 24.4%
23.5% 
16.6%
16.6%
b. Which are the Autonomous Communities
OCEAN
15.9% and Cities with a low percentage of people
at risk of poverty?
19% 18.5%
31.7%
31.9% 


26.4% a
Se
31.7% 
an
a ne
rr
d ite c. Who is at the highest risk of poverty?
Me
33.8% 26.5% Poverty risk
30.9% (in %) 
More than 30
From 30 to 20 
From 20 to 10
Less than 10 
SOURCE: INE, Survey on living conditions, 2012.

GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L. 71


8
CONTENT AND RESOURCES

ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY

CONTENTS

FIND OUT ABOUT Environmental awareness


Main problems affecting the environment
Factors causing these problems
Solutions for protecting the environment

KNOW HOW TO Describe the major environmental problems


Analyse causes and effects of environmental problems
Compare the ecological footprint of two countries
Interpret maps, images and graphs
Explain why the environment has deteriorated more in recent decades
Understand the need for international policies as a way to prevent environmental problems
Analyse environmental impact using satellite images
Present the environmental consequences of a volcanic eruption

BE ABLE TO Use maps, images, graphs, and the Internet as sources of information
Reflect critically on the negative effects of human activity on the environment
Assess the importance of promoting sustainable development

RESOURCES

Reinforcement and extension Digital resources


Environmental problems: basic concepts Libromedia. Environmental sustainability
Water scarcity
Global warming and climate change Audio
Erosion, climate and population density in Spain Track 17: pp. 144-5, 'Local decisions, global effects'
Fresh water pollution in Spain (students and teachers)
Track 18: p. 149, Activity 2 (students and teachers)
Assessment Track 19: p. 151, Activity 4 (teachers)
Test of Unit 8

72 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L.


SHEET REINFORCEMENT
8. ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY
1

Name: Course: Date:

1 Define the following terms in your notebook.


Air pollution Soil degradation Deforestation
Water scarcity Desertification Biodiversity

2 Complete the table about air pollution.

Environmental problem Causes Effects

3 Look at the diagram and table. Then, answer the questions in your notebook.

GASES HUMAN ACTIVITIES

Carbon dioxide Burning fossil fuels; gas, oil and coal.

Sulphuric acid Burning coal and heavy fuel oils.

Nitrogen oxides Burning of fossil fuels.


Use of fertilizers.

Methane Rice cultivation.


Livestock farming.

CFCs Aerosols.
Refrigerator coolants.
Air conditioners.

Ozone Chemical reactions of sunlight with


gases from vehicles, industry and
heating systems.

a. Use the diagram to explain the greenhouse effect.

b. What are greenhouse gases?

c. Which are the main greenhouse gases?

d. What are the main sources of greenhouse gas emissions?

e. Which are the main consequences of climate change?

f. What can you do to reduce greenhouse gas emissions?

GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L. 73


SHEET EXTENSION
8. ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY
2

Name: Course: Date:

1 Read the text and answer the questions.


a. Which portion of the world population
does not have access to drinking water The UN Secretary-General, Ban Ki-moon, said today in
and lives without a waste water Budapest it is "shameful" that more than a third of the world
treatment system?
population has no drinking water to consume and lives without
 a waste water treatment system, and he asked for "urgent
measures" to improve this situation.
b. Which do you think are the causes
for the water demand predicted Ban indicated that diarrhea is the second cause of infant
by the UN? mortality and stated that any expenses related to this problem
"are investments for the future".

"Our societies cannot live without clean and healthy water,"

noted the UN Secretary-General.
 The UN estimates that by 2030, 40% of the population will suffer
c. How do you think saving water can from water scarcity based on a 40% increase over the present
help to increase water resources? demand.

 Ban added that everybody underestimates the value of fresh


water, from industry to agriculture and population, in general.

"We all have a chance to save the world by saving water" the
 Secretary-General insisted.
d. What other policies could help to Meanwhile, the president of Hungary, Janos Ader, stated that
increase water resources? "the situation cannot continue like this" and he asked for strong
 international cooperation in policies related to water.

 Adapted from "Ban Ki-moon denuncia


que mil millones de personas carecen

de agua potable", El Pas, October 8, 2013


2 Analyse the pie charts about water consumption in Spain and answer the questions in your notebook.

a. Which activity consumes the highest percentage of water


Distribution of water consumption in Spain?
Urban 13%
b. In which Autonomous Communities do you think water
Industrial 6% consumption for farming is highest? Explain your answer.
Farming 81% c. What do you think can be done to reduce this consumption?
d. How could water consumption be reduced in the cities?
e. Which overall measures could be adopted?
f. What could you do to save water?
Urban water consumption
Leaks from broken Illegal tapping 7.8%
pipes, etc.17.9%
Municipal use 3.7%

Businesses, industries,
etc. 11.2%

Homes 59.4%

74 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L.


SHEET EXTENSION
8. ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY
3

Name: Course: Date:

1 Read the texts and answer the questions in your notebook.

2014, the warmest year since 1880 Climate change in Europe

"The warmest since 1880". This is how NASA, in In Europe, the greatest increases in temperature
collaboration with NOAA (National Oceanic and are found in the south of the continent and in
Atmospheric Administration), has described the the Arctic region, while the major decreases
year 2014. The study revealed the following in precipitation are registered in the south,
alarming data: except for 1998, the last ten years while increases happened in the north and
with the highest temperatures recorded have all northwest. The predicted increase in the intensity
been in the 21st century. and frequency of heat waves and flooding, as well
as changes in the distribution of pollen and some
The video, found on the NASA web page or on infectious diseases, negatively affects human
their YouTube channel, shows graphs and health.
information in audiovisual format and leaves
no doubt of the sharp temperature increases Climate change puts additional pressure on
for the last 135 years, which are reflected when ecosystems and results in the relocation of
calculating the average temperature every numerous animal and plant species towards
five years () the north and to higher altitude areas ()

Since 1880, the average temperature of the Earths Some of the European regions particularly
surface has increased almost 1.4 degrees susceptible to climate change are:
Fahrenheit (0.8 degrees Celsius), a trend mainly Southern Europe and the Mediterranean basin
triggered by an increase of carbon dioxide and (as a result of an increase in heat waves and
other emissions into the atmosphere as a result of drought).
human activity. It is worth highlighting that most Mountainous regions (as a result of an increase
of the process of global warming has happened in snow and ice melting).
in the last three decades.
Coastal areas, deltas and alluvial plains (as a
Adapted from El Confidencial, 2015 result of rising sea levels, as well as an increase
in heavy precipitation, storms and flooding).
The northernmost part of Europe and the Arctic
(as a result of an increase in temperatures and
ice melting).
Adapted from http://www.eea.europa.eu/
es/themes/climate/intro

a. According to data from NASA, how have temperatures changed on the Earths surface?
b. According to the EEA report, which European regions will be most affected by negative environmental impact
due to climate change?
c. What climate do these regions have? Do you find a relationship between this type of climate and the negative
environmental impact? Explain your answer.
d. Will any region be affected by positive environmental impact?
e. Which European regions will suffer negative economic consequences? Explain your answer.
f. Is there any European region that could have positive economic consequences? What is their climate like?
Do you find a relationship between this type of climate and a potential positive environmental impact?
Explain your answer.
g. Are the regions with negative environmental impact the same as the ones with negative economic consequences?
Explain your answer.

GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L. 75


SHEET EXTENSION
8. ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY
4

Name: Course: Date:

1 Analyse and compare the maps. Then, use the information from these maps and other sources to answer the questions in
your notebook.
a. Locate the areas of Spain with high risk of
desertification.

b. What is the climate like in areas with high


risk of desertification? Explain the
relationship between climate, soil erosion
Risk of
and desertification. desertification
High
 Medium
Low CLIMATES OF SPAIN



Cantabrian Sea

508877_08_p209_desertificacin_GEODOS
508877_08_P209_desertificacion_GEODOS


c. Compare population density and


ATLANTIC
desertification. Do areas with high
OCEAN
population density have higher risk of
desertification? Explain your answer.
Climate
 Oceanic
a
Se Mountain
 a n Subtropical
ATLANTIC OCEAN
a ne Mediterranean
CANARY ISLANDS e rr
 Medi
t Typical
Continentalised

 Semi-arid

Cantabrian Sea

Density
d. Look at the population density in areas (Inhabitants/km2) 509798_01_p31_climas_Espana
where there is no strong relationship Over 500
500 to 100
between erosion and desertification. 100 to 50

How do you think human activities can Under 50

eventually cause soil desertification


ATLANTIC
in these areas? 711155_02_p40_leyenda_pop_density_spain
OCEAN


 a
Se
 e an
an
rr
 d ite
Me


 SOURCE: INE, 2012.

76 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L.


SHEET EXTENSION
8. ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY
5

Name: Course: Date:

1 Analyse and compare the maps. Then, answer the questions.


a. Which areas show more risk of not reaching their
goals for river water quality?

b. Where are irrigation crops grown in Spain?


RIVER WATER QUALITY
c. Can you find a relationship between these areas Good, very good
and the areas with higher risk of water pollution? and excellent
Usable
Explain your answer. Poor
Very poor


d. Do you think there is a relationship between the


M729094U01P019b

distribution of poor river water quality and


population density? Explain your answer.

e. How do cities fight river water pollution? LAND USE


Irrigation crops
 Rice elds


Cantabrian Sea
f. Which measures can you suggest to stop river 833630 T10 p16.1
Density
water pollution? (Inhabitants/km2)
Over 500
 500 to 100
100 to 50

 Under 50

ATLANTIC
 711155_02_p40_leyenda_pop_density_spain
OCEAN
g. What are the consequences of fresh water
pollution? a
Se
 an
ne
r ra
 d ite
Me


 SOURCE: INE, 2012.

GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L. 77


8 ASSESSMENT

Name: Course: Date:

1 Define the following terms.

Natural environment: 

Acid rain: 

Global warming: 

Deforestation: 

Erosion: 

Biodiversity: 

2 Look at the photos. Explain the type of pollution shown, how it will impact on the natural environment and how it will also,
directly or indirectly, affect human beings.

A 


B


78 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L.


8. ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY

3 Answer the questions.

a. Why is fresh water a scarce resource? 

b. How can water consumption be reduced? 

c. How are deforestation, soil degradation and desertification related? 

d. Why is human activity the major threat to biodiversity? 

4 Analyse the data in the table and answer the questions.

Surface of soil affected by erosion. 2002-2012 (%) a. Which Autonomous Communities have suffered from
Autonomous Light Medium High
the most intense erosion? If one is in the north of Spain
Communities erosion erosion erosion and the other one in the south, what are the causes
of this erosion?
Cantabria 59.91 22.39 17.70

Asturias 61.64 21.67 16.42

Navarre 65.64 18.79 15.57

Region of Murcia 66.41 18.13 15.46

Rioja 65.84 20.43 13.72

Galicia 74.34 13.06 12.61

Balearic Islands 76.62 13.69 9.70

Madrid 81.28 10.89 7.83
b. Which factor has most influence on soil degradation in the
Catalonia 54.41 24.86 20.74
Balearic Islands: farming, climate or urban development?
Extremadura 83.75 9.81 6.44 What about in Cantabria? Explain your answers.

Canary Islands 69.25 21.86 8.89 

Andalusia 57.61 19.76 22.63




Community 
70.12 16.04 13.83
of Valencia

Castile and Leon (*) 88.79 8.19 3.02


*Data presented for Castile and Leon refer to the provinces of Leon, 
Valladolid, Zamora, Avila, Palencia and Salamanca.
Source: MAGRAMA. 

GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L. 79


9
CONTENT AND RESOURCES

THE AGE OF DISCOVERY

CONTENTS

FIND OUT ABOUT The causes of the great geographical discoveries


The Portuguese voyages of discovery
The Castilian voyages of discovery
The beginning of the overseas empires
Pre-Columbian America
Social and economic change at the beginning of the Early Modern period

KNOW HOW TO Analyse 15th and 16th century diaries and journals
Compare historical maps to modern atlases
Use tables, graphs and timelines to interpret historical information
Investigate historical figures on the Internet
Analyse the early development of banking and trade
Investigate pre-Columbian peoples on the Internet
Analyse archaeological remains

BE ABLE TO Reflect on our changing geographic knowledge of the shape and size of the world
Discuss the importance of technical advances in human history
Reflect critically on the consequences of the interaction between different cultures
Understand the importance of our world-wide cultural heritage

RESOURCES

Reinforcement and extension Digital resources


The pre-Columbian civilisations Libromedia. The Age of Discovery
The Portuguese voyages of discovery
The Castilian voyages of discovery Audio
Improvements in cartography Track 20: pp. 160-1, How did we discover that the Earth
The Aztec and Maya ball game was round? (students and teachers)
Track 21: p. 173, Activity 10 (students and teachers)
Assessment Track 22: p. 174, Extracts from Christopher Columbus
Test of Unit 9 Journal (1492) (teachers)
SHEET REINFORCEMENT
9. The Age of Discovery
1

Name: Course: Date:

PRE-COLUMBIAN CIVILIZATIONS
1 Study the map and answer the questions.
a. Where were the Aztec and Inca civilisations located?


an cer
Tropic of C
 Tenochtitln

b. Summarise the main characteristics of their political Chichn Itz ATLANTIC


organisation, society and religion.
OCEAN
 Equa
tor
 Amazon River

 PACIFIC
Cuzco

OCEAN

n
apricor
c of C
 Tropi

c. What were their main cities?

2 Look at the photo and answer the questions.

Temple of
Inscriptions

509798_09_p176_civilizaciones_precolombinas

Palace

Temple of the Sun

a. Which civilisation did these ruins belong to?

b. Describe the buildings. What kind of social or religious function did they probably have?

GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L. 81


SHEET REINFORCEMENT
9. The Age of Discovery
2

Name: Course: Date:


PORTUGUESE DISCOVERIES AND EXPEDITIONS

1 Study the map of the main Portuguese voyages of discovery and complete the table.

Greenwich Meridian
Circ le
Arctic

Azores Is. (1431) JAPAN

Madeira (1419) Ceuta (1415) CHINESE


PACIFIC
Islamic World EMPIRE
Tropic of Cancer Canary Is.
Macau
AZTEC MAYA Cape Bojador (1434) OCEAN
EMPIRE CIVILIZATION Philippines Is.
Calcutta (1498)

Cape Verde Is. o


(1446) o ng Ceylon
Equator Gulf rC
ive )
of Guinea R 1482
PACIFIC
( INDIAN
(1460) Maluku Is.

INCA Porto Seguro OCEAN


OCEAN EMPIRE (1500) ATLANTIC
Tropic of Capricorn

OCEAN

Cape of
Good Hope
(1487)

Diogo Co 1482 Vasco da Gama 1497-99


Bartolomeu Dias 1487-88 lvares Cabral 1500

Explorers Dates Places they discovered


509798_09_p173_leyenda_expediciones_portuguesa
509798_09_p173_expediciones_portuguesas

82 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L.


SHEET REINFORCEMENT
9. The Age of Discovery
3

Name: Course: Date:


MAIN CASTILIAN EXPEDITIONS

1 Study the map of the main Spanish voyages of discovery and complete the table.

Magellan-Elcano voyage Columbus voyages


Azores Is.

Greenwich Meridian
Columbus voyages
First voyage (1492-1493) Third voyage (1498-1500)
San Salvador Canary Is.
Cuba Second voyage (1493-1496) Fourth voyage (1502-1504)

Hispaniola

509798_09_p167_leyenda_expediciones_castellanas_GEO
JAPAN

CHINESE PACIFIC
Islamic World EMPIRE
Tropic of Cancer
Macau
AZTEC Cape Bojador OCEAN
EMPIRE Philippines Is.
MAYA Calcutta
CIVILIZATION Maluku
go
on Ceylon Is.
Equator Gulf of erC
Guinea Riv
INDIAN
PACIFIC
INCA Porto Seguro OCEAN
OCEAN EMPIRE ATLANTIC

Tropic of Capricorn
OCEAN

Cape of
Good Hope
508877_09_p231_leyenda_expediciones_castellanas_GEODOS
Strait of Magellan

Explorers Dates Places they discovered

508877_09_p231_expediciones_castellanas_GEODOS

GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L. 83


SHEET EXTENSION
9. The Age of Discovery
4

Name: Course: Date:

European expansion in the 15th and 16th century contributed to a far greater understanding of the size
and shape of the Earth. It led to the discovery of two new continents: America and Oceania.
The discoveries were accompanied by important developments in cartography.

1 Study the maps and answer the questions in your notebook.

Look at map A. What type of map is it?


A Explain your answer.

Map B is called an islario. What do you


think this type of map represented?
Was it similar to a portolan chart?

B
C

Compare the map of America from the late 16th century (C) with the satellite image.
Why do you think it is more accurate for some regions than others? Which areas are less accurately represented?

2 Look for information about the conquistadores on the Internet.

What role did their expeditions play in the discovery and colonisation of new territories in America?

84 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L.


SHEET EXTENSION
9. The Age of Discovery
5

Name: Course: Date:

1 Before you read the text, think about the place of sport in our own society.
Is sport different or similar to religion? And warfare? In what ways?

and possessions of all the spectators as his



reward. The early Spanish writers tell us that on
Most Maya cities have at least one square, the rare occasions when this happened the
enclosed on all sides by pyramids and mounds, spectators rushed to get away quickly so that they
where important religious rites were held. People didnt lose their clothes!
came to witness great religious ceremonies from
Among the Aztecs (and probably the Mayas, too),
the top of one of the neighbouring pyramids.
people gambled on the result of an important game.
In many Maya cities the ball court was in or near the There was also a religious side to the play, which
main square. The court consisted of a space was connected to the sky gods. An Aztec player
between two mounds, and low terraces or ramps spent the night before a game praying to the gods.
bordered the central playing space. Stone or
J. Eric S. Thompson, Maya Archaeologist (1963)
wooden rings were fixed high on the walls of each
side of the playing space. The aim was to pass the
ball through the ring but this was extremely difficult
because there was a rule that the player could only
strike the ball with his knee, hip or bottom.
Early Spanish writers have left no account of the
game among the Mayas. But those who saw the
Aztecs play it were astonished at how quickly it
was played. To judge by their descriptions, the
game was as rapid and thrilling as ice hockey.
They report that players often collapsed from
exhaustion. It was so difficult to drive the ball
through the narrow ring fixed high in each wall
that a player who did so could claim the clothing

2 Read the text, study the photo and answer the questions.

a. Where was the ball court? What did it look like?

b. Explain in your own words how the game was played.

c. Would it be possible to play this game near your school today? Explain your answer.

d. Can we work out anything about Aztec and Maya religion from this text?

e. Write a title for this text at the top..

GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L. 85


9 ASSESSMENT

Name: Course: Date:

1 Explain the following terms.

Portolan chart: 

Caravel: 

Bill of exchange: 

2 What was the background to the first journey round the world. Explain how and when it took place.

3 Look at the map and complete the table. PORTUGUESE DISCOVERIES AND EXPEDITIONS

Explorer
Discovery
and date
Greenwich Meridian

C ircle
Arctic

Azores Is. (1431) JAPAN

Madeira (1419) Ceuta (1415) CHINESE


PACIFIC
Islamic World EMPIRE
Tropic of Cancer Canary Is.
Macau
AZTEC MAYA Cape Bojador (1434) OCEAN
EMPIRE CIVILIZATION Philippines Is.
Calcutta (1498)

Cape Verde Is. o


(1446) o ng Ceylon
Equator Gulf rC
ive )
of Guinea R 1482
PACIFIC
( INDIAN
(1460) Maluku Is.

INCA Porto Seguro OCEAN


OCEAN EMPIRE (1500) ATLANTIC
Tropic of Capricorn

OCEAN

Cape of
Good Hope
(1487)

Diogo Co 1482 Vasco da Gama 1497-99


Bartolomeu Dias 1487-88 lvares Cabral 1500

509798_09_p173_expediciones_portuguesas

509798_09_p173_leyenda_expediciones_portu

4 What was the Treaty of Tordesillas (1494)? What were its consequences?

86 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L.


9. The Age of Discovery

PRE-COLUMBIAN CIVILIZATIONS

5 Discuss this map, explaining the main characteristics of the pre-Columbian civilizations.


 ancer
Tropic of C
Tenochtitln

Chichn Itz ATLANTIC


 OCEAN
Equa
tor

Amazon River

PACIFIC
 Cuzco
OCEAN

icorn
 co f Capr
Tropi


6 What were the main social changes that took place in the late 15th and 16th centuries?


509798_09_p176_civilizaciones_precolombinas

7 Study this graph of population in Europe, and explain how it changed in the 15th and 16th centuries.

In millions of inhabitants
100



80 
Bla
ck

uguesas 
De

60
ath

40 


20


0 
1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600


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10
CONTENT AND RESOURCES

Renaissance and Reformation

CONTENTS

FIND OUT ABOUT The spread of humanism


The Renaissance
Scientific knowledge and experimentation
The art of the Quattrocento
The High Renaissance
The spread of the Renaissance through Europe
The causes and spread of the Reformation
The Counter-Reformation

KNOW HOW TO Analyse biographies as a source of historical information


Investigate the history of medicine on the Internet
Write a biographical profile
Analyse Renaissance works of art
Look for information about Renaissance artists on the Internet
Work in groups to prepare an exhibition catalogue

BE ABLE TO Reflect on the achievements of Renaissance figures like Leonardo da Vinci


Understand the crucial importance of the invention of the printing press in human history
Discuss the nature of humanism in the Early Modern period and its equivalent today
Think about the artistic legacy of the Renaissance
Understand the origins of religious divisions in the world today
Appreciate the cultural importance of museums

RESOURCES

Reinforcement and extension Digital resources


Renaissance architecture Libromedia. Renaissance and Reformation
Renaissance painting
The main ideas of Protestantism and Catholicism Audio
New techniques in Renaissance art Track 23: pp. 176-7, Leonardo da Vinci, a universal
Thomas More, Utopia genius (students and teachers)
Track 24: p. 190, Activity 3 (students and teachers)
Assessment
Test of Unit 10
SHEET REINFORCEMENT AND EXTENSION
10. Renaissance and Reformation
1

Name: Course: Date:

1 Look on the Internet for an illustration of each of the architectural terms. Then complete the labels.

BALUSTRADE

CORNICE

ARCH

FRIEZE

COLUMN

CAPITAL

PEDIMENT

2 Now label this with the architectural features that you have identified.

Villa Rotonda (Vicenza) by Palladio.

3 Describe the Villa Rotonda in Vicenza.

GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L. 89


SHEET REINFORCEMENT
10. Renaissance and Reformation
2

Name: Course: Date:

1 Complete the information about this painting.


Then, look for illustrations and information about six other Renaissance paintings or sculptures.
Prepare six similar cards with an illustration on one side and the text on the other.
In groups, display the illustrated side of the cards to your classmates. They try to identify the art work
and its main characteristics before you give them the information.

Artist: 

Period: 

Subject 

Renaissance characteristics: 

2 Study the three paintings and answer the questions.

A B C

a. Which of these three paintings is not a Renaissance work of art? Explain your answer.

b. What were the main characteristics of Renaissance painting?

c. What are the differences between paintings B and C? How does each painter achieve an impression of depth?

90 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L.


SHEET REINFORCEMENT AND EXTENSION
10. Renaissance and Reformation
3

Name: Course: Date:

1 Complete this table comparing the main ideas of Protestantism and Catholicism.

Doctrine Protestantism (Lutheranism) Catholicism

Authority of the Pope

Way to achieve salvation

Interpretation of the Bible

The sacraments

The Virgin and the saints

2 Look for information about Martin Luther on the Internet and write a short biography.
Follow the model for biographical profiles given on page 181 of your Students Book.




3 Investigate either Anglicanism or Calvinism on the Internet and explain its origins.

GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L. 91


SHEET EXTENSION
10. Renaissance and Reformation
4

Name: Course: Date:

1 Investigate two techniques of Renaissance art: perspective and escorzo (or foreshortening).
Identify the main innovations, and find out if more than one type of perspective (linear and aerial)
was used by Renaissance artists.
Bring at least one illustration showing these techniques into the classroom.

a. Is there a sensation of depth in this painting? If so,


how has the artist achieved it?

b. What other Renaissance characteristics can you see


in this painting?

c. Analyse the artists use of perspective and compare


it to that of the other Renaissance paintings that
you have found.


Raphael, The Marriage of
the Virgin (Raphael).

2 Study the two works of art below and answer the questions in your notebook.
a. How this the painter studying foreshortening in Drers artwork? Explain what he is doing.
b. Is Mantegna trying to produce the same effect as in the Drer artwork?
c. Compare Mantegnas painting to work by other Renaissance artists..

Drer, Painter studying the laws of foreshortening Mantegna, Lamentation of Christ.


by means of threads and a frame.

92 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L.


SHEET EXTENSION
10. Renaissance and Reformation
5

Name: Course: Date:

1 Before you read the text, think about the word Utopia. Is this word still used today? What does it mean?
Then, find out when and how the word was first used.

Royal government in Utopia

The honour, and also the safety of a king, consists amount of money would be enough for the prince
more in his peoples wealth than in his own. A to deal with difficulties like fighting against rebels
people chooses a king for their own sake and not or protecting the kingdom against a foreign
for his so that by his efforts, they may be both enemy. On the other hand, a prince should not
safe and live well. And so a prince should take have so much wealth that he was tempted to
more care of his peoples happiness than of his invade other mens rights. This king also thought
own, as a shepherd will take more care of his flock that his law would help to guarantee the free
of sheep than of himself. People are wrong if they circulation of money, which was so necessary
believe that the poverty of a nation promotes the for business and trade.
public interest. Nobody quarrels more than When a king gives away the excess of resources that
beggars. If a king is the object of such contempt or makes him too wealthy, this makes him less likely to
envy that he cannot make his subjects carry out oppress his subjects. Such a king will be the terror
their duties except by oppression and by making of all bad men, and will be loved by all good men.
them poor and miserable, then it would be better
if he abandoned his kingdom. Thomas More, Utopia.

Let the king live from what belongs to him without


doing harm to other people, and make his
expenses match his income. He should punish
crimes, and try to prevent them happening
through wise behaviour, rather than by acting
harshly when the crimes have already been
committed. He should not apply laws that existed
many years ago and have been long forgotten.
There is a law among the Macarians (a people
that live not far from Utopia) by which their king,
on the first day of his reign, is tied by an oath,
confirmed by solemn sacrifices, never to have
more than a thousand pounds of gold in his
treasury. This law, according to the Macarians,
was made by an excellent king who was more
concerned about the wealth of his country than his
own wealth. He therefore made sure that a ruler
would not accumulate so much treasure that his
people became poor. He thought that a moderate Thomas More.

2 Read the text and summarize its main ideas in your notebook (in 80 to 100 words).

3 Choose one of the following works. Find out more about the author and what the book is about.
In what ways does it reflect humanist and Renaissance ideals?
Thomas More, Utopia.
Tommaso Campanella, The City of the Sun.
Francis Bacon, New Atlantis.

GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L. 93


10 ASSESSMENT

Name: Course: Date:

1 Define the following terms.

Patrons:

Anthropocentric: 

Heliocentic: 

Quattrocento:

2 Why was the printing press such an important invention?

3 Complete the table about Protestantism in Europe.

Type Leader Where? Characteristics

Lutheranism

Calvinism

Anglicanism

4 What was humanism? How did it change peoples ideas about the world?

94 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L.


10. Renaissance and Reformation

5 Explain what the three main styles of Spanish Renaissance architecture were like.

6 Analyse this sculpture as an example of the ideals of the Renaissance.




7 What was the Council of Trent? What were its main consequences?

GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L. 95


11
CONTENT AND RESOURCES

THE SPANISH EMPIRE

CONTENTS

FIND OUT ABOUT The emergence of the authoritarian monarchies in Europe


The Catholic Monarchs
The government of Carlos V
Felipe II and the Hispanic Monarchy
Society and the economy in Early Modern Spain
Imperial foreign policy in the 16th century
The conquest and colonisation of the Spanish Empire
The organisation of Spains New World empire

KNOW HOW TO Use museums as a resource with valuable objects and information
Compare historical maps to modern atlases
Use maps, graphs and timelines to interpret historical information
Investigate different cultures on the Internet
Interpret a family tree
Analyse historical clothing
Analyse texts on the decline of the Indian population of America

BE ABLE TO Discuss the role of diplomacy in the Early Modern period and today
Understand the Spanish legacy in America
Understand how clothes reflected social position in Early Modern Europe
and think about what they indicate in modern society
Reflect critically on the positive and negative results of the Spanish conquest
of America

RESOURCES

Reinforcement and extension Digital resources


The territories of Carlos V and Felipe II Libromedia. The Spanish Empire
Territory and society in Latin America
The authoritarian monarchies Audio
The union of two kingdoms Track 25: Pages 194-5: What were the tercios?
The expulsion of the Moriscos (students and teachers)
Track 26: Page 211, Two views of the treatment
Assessment of the Indians (teachers)

Test of Unit 11

96 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L.


SHEET REINFORCEMENT
11. The Spanish Empire
1

Name: Course: Date:

1 Study the map and do the activities.


Find out the names of Carlos V and Felipe IIs European territories and add them to the maps.
Colour the map on the left to show the territory that Carlos V inherited from his grandparents.
Indicate the territory that he inherited from each grandparent.
Colour the map on the right to show the territory that Felipe II inherited from his father,
and also the territories that he added to his empire.

Inherited by Felipe II
Blue
from his father

Orange Acquired by Felipe II

from Maximilian from Fernando


Orange Green
of Habsburg of Aragn
Grey
from Mary
Blue from Isabel of Castilla
of Burgundy

2 Answer the questions.

a. Look at the map showing the inheritance of Carlos V. There is a country that is almost completely surrounded
by Carloss territories. Which one is it?

 M775401U02F01RP144HA

b. Did this geographical factor play a role in relations between the countries? M775401U02F01RP144HB

c. Which of Carlos Vs European territories did Felipe II not inherit from his father? Who received them?

d. Felipe II became the monarch of a European country that he did not inherit from his father. Which one?
What was its importance?

3 Draw a map of the world in your notebook and colour the territories that formed part of the empire of Felipe II.

GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L. 97


SHEET REINFORCEMENT
11. The Spanish Empire
2

Name: Course: Date:

1 Study this map. With a partner, look on the Internet for historical and recent maps of Spanish America.
a. Write the following in the right place on the map.
Viceroyalty of New Spain Viceroyalty of Peru

b. Write the names of the historical cities indicated by dots.


(They include the mining cities: Huancavelica and Potos.)

c. Write the names of the present-day countries that


belonged to the Viceroyalty of New Spain.

d. Write the names of the present-day countries that


belonged to the Viceroyalty of Peru.

508877_11_p286_Virreinatos_GEOTECNET
2 Complete the social pyramid of Spanish America with the names of the four social or racial groups.
Then, describe the social position of each group, beginning with those at the bottom of the pyramid.

Indians Spaniards Blacks Mestizos

a. 



b. 



c. 



d. 



98 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L.


SHEET REINFORCEMENT
11. The Spanish Empire
3

Name: Course: Date:

1 Look in your textbook and on the Internet for information about the authoritarian monarchies and complete this table.

State Monarch (with dates) Main developments

Spain

Henry VIII (1509-1547)

He unified the country and conquered new territories.


Later, the title of czar (emperor) was adopted.

2 Complete the following table. Look for information in your textbook about the problems that Carlos V faced and explain
the policies that he adopted.

Problems that Carlos V faced Carlos Vs policies

Government
of his territories

Defence of
Catholicism

Leading role in
Europe

GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L. 99


SHEET EXTENSION
11. The Spanish Empire
4

Name: Course: Date:

The union of two kingdoms But there were also enemies nearer home. Many
of the powerful Castilian grandees were bitterly
On the morning of 19 October 1469 Ferdinand, opposed to a matrimonial alliance which promised
King of Sicily and heir to the throne of Aragon, to strengthen the Crown's authority in Castile.
and Isabella, the heiress of Castile, were married Hoping to dispossess Isabella, they were now
at a private residence in Valladolid. rallying to the cause of Henry IV's alleged daughter,
The events leading up to the wedding were, to say Juana la Beltraneja, whose claims to the throne
the least, unusual. The eighteen-year-old Princess, had recently been set aside in favour of those of his
threatened with arrest by her brother, Henry IV sister, Isabella. While Henry himself had been
of Castile, had been rescued from her home at induced by the Isabelline faction in September 1468,
Madrigal by the Archbishop of Toledo and a body as the price of peace, to recognize Isabella as his
of horses, and conveyed to a city where she would heiress in place of the daughter whose paternity
be safe among friends. Her bridegroom, a year was universally doubted, he was a vacillating and
younger than herself, had reached Valladolid unreliable character, fully capable of going back
only a few days before the ceremony after on his word; and the pressures upon him were
an even more eventful journey. With a handful great. The Prince and Princess were therefore
of attendants disguised as merchants, he had wise to seize the earliest possible opportunity
travelled from Zaragoza by night through the of formalizing a union which would do much
hostile country, and had narrowly escaped death to strengthen Isabella's position in Castile.
from a stone hurled by a sentinel from the J.H. Elliott, Imperial Spain
battlements of Burgo de Osma. After reaching
Valladolid he met his bride for the first time
on 15 October, four days before the ceremony.
The couple were so poor that they were compelled
to borrow to meet the wedding expenses; and since
they were marrying within the prohibited degrees,
they required, and duly received, a papal bull
of dispensation, later discovered to be a spurious
document concocted by the King of Aragon,
the Archbishop of Toledo, and Ferdinand himself.
There was some excuse for both the secrecy and
the deceit. Many people were anxious to prevent
the ceremony from taking place. Among them
was Louis XI of France, who saw a grave threat
to his own country in a union of the reigning
houses of Castile and Aragon.

1 Read the text and with a classmate try to work out the meaning of difficult words from their context.
Then, answer the questions.
a. Why did the wedding take place in this way?
b. Why did a marriage between the heirs of the two kingdoms seem a good idea?
c. Who was opposed to this wedding?
d. Write an account of the wedding (80-100 words) for the Society section of a magazine.

2 Look at the photo. Why do you think both of the Catholic Monarchs are holding the sceptre?

100 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L.


SHEET EXTENSION
11. The Spanish Empire
5

Name: Course: Date:

The expulsion of the Moriscos of the nobles, who were dependent on Morisco
labour for their income.
The expulsion of the Moriscos, carefully prepared,
and carefully executed between 1608 and 1614, The balance of forces in Valencia suggests that,
was to some extent the act of a weak Government if the kingdom had been left to itself the Moriscos
anxious for easy popularity at a time of widespread would have remained. But the presence of Moriscos
national discontent. But although the Government in Castile had set up a whole new series of pressures
acted in response to pressures from beneath, which did much to strengthen the hand of those
there was a complexity about the whole Morisco in favour of their total expulsion from the peninsula.
problem which conferred a certain plausibility The Castilian Moriscos, unlike their Valencian
on the assumption that expulsion was the only brethren, were rootless and scattered; and where
remaining solution. Fundamentally, the Morisco the Valencian Moriscos were largely agricultural
question was that of an unassimilated and labourers, those of Castile had drifted to the towns
possibly unassimilable racial minority which and taken up a wide variety of fairly menial
had given endless trouble ever since the conquest occupations, as carriers, muleteers, and small
of Granada. The dispersion of the Moriscos through craftsmen. Since they were so widely dispersed,
Castile after the suppression of the second rebellion they hardly represented a very serious danger,
of the Alpujarras in 1570 had only complicated but they were disliked by many Old Christians for
the problem by extending it to areas which had spending too little, working too hard, and breeding
previously been free of Morisco inhabitants. too fast. In such a climate it was not difficult to
From 1570 the Morisco problem was Castilian, whip up popular feeling by rhetorical arguments
as well as Valencian and Aragonese, although to the effect that Spain's recent misfortunes could be
it varied in character from one region to another. attributed to the continuing presence of unbelievers
It was in Valencia that the problem appeared in a country that called itself Catholic.
most serious. There were some 135,000 Moriscos Once the populace was aroused, the supporters
in Valencia in 1609 perhaps a third of the total of the Moriscos no longer dared raise their voices
population of the kingdom; and the proportion was in protest, and the case against expulsion went
increasing, since there had been a 70 per cent by default. The vast bureaucratic machine was duly
increase in the Morisco population between 1563 set in motion; the Moriscos were shepherded
and 1609, against only a 45 per cent increase among towards the frontiers and the ports, and the
the Old Christians. These Moriscos formed a closely majority eventually found their way to North Africa,
knit community, significantly known as la nacin where many died of hunger and exhaustion,
de los cristianos nuevos de moros del reino de or were massacred by their unfriendly brethren.
Valencia. The very extent of their organization The total number leaving Spain is now reckoned
aroused widespread fears at a time when the danger at some 275,000 out of a probable Morisco
of a Turkish attack on the Levantine coast still population of rather over 300,000.
appeared very real.[...] But the Valencian Moriscos
had powerful protectors in the majority J. H. Elliot, Imperial Spain.

1 Read the text and try to work out the meaning of difficult words and phrases from their context. Underline the key ideas.
Then, write a short summary of the text (80-100 words) that answers the following questions:
What was the 'Morisco Question'?
What was the difference between the situations in Valencia and Castile?
How were the Moriscos expelled?

2 Look for more information about the expulsion of the Moriscos. What were its consequences?

GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L. 101


11 ASSESSMENT

Name: Course: Date:

1 Explain the following terms.

The tercios: 

The Revolt of the Brotherhoods: 

The Spanish Armada: 

The mita: 

2 What were the authoritarian monarchies? What measures did they take to strengthen their power?

MARRIAGE POLICY OF THE CATHOLIC MONARCHS


3 Explain this map of the matrimonial alliances of the Catholic Monarchs. Give details of each alliance and its consequences.



N
EA

KINGDOM
 OF ENGLAND
OC


IC

THE HOLY
 ROMAN EMPIRE
AT L A N T

KINGDOM
 OF FRANCE
SAVOY VE
 MILAN NI
CE
F

NAVARRA GENOA ITALIAN


POR OM O
AL

STATES

TUG

PAPAL
KINGDOM
GD

STATES
OF SPAIN
KIN

 SARDINIA
KINGDOM
OF NAPLES

errane
 Medit an SICILY


Se

Marriage alliance
a

4 How did the Catholic Monarchs impose religious unity?

 509798_11_p206_alianzas_matrimoniales

102 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L.


11. The Spanish Empire

5 Analyse the graph of the imports of precious metals and explain the consequences for Spanish society.

 In millions of pesos Index = 100*


 150 30

125 25

100 20

75 15

50 10

25 5

0 0
 1500 1525 1550 1575 1600 1625 1650
*100 = prices in 1571-1580
 Precious metals Prices

6 Explain the rivalry between France and Spain during the reigns of Carlos V and Felipe II.

7 Complete the social pyramid and explain what society was like in Spanish America.




GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L. 103


12
CONTENT AND RESOURCES

BAROQUE EUROPE

CONTENTS

FIND OUT ABOUT The nature of the 17th century crisis in Europe
The decline of the Hispanic Monarchy
The Thirty Years War and the end of Spanish hegemony in Europe
Louis XIV and royal absolutism in France
The commercial success of the Dutch Republic
The rise of Parliament in England
The Scientific Revolution
Baroque architecture and painting
The Spanish Golden Age in literature, architecture, sculpture and painting

KNOW HOW TO Appreciate the value of great buildings like the Palace of Versailles as sources
of historical information
Interpret maps, graphs and timelines
Write short biographical essays
Analyse Baroque paintings
Analyse the symbols of royal absolutism
Investigate Baroque sculpture

BE ABLE TO Work in groups to investigate the Scientific Revolution


Discuss the political systems in England and France
Reflect on the links between great artists from Velzquez to Picasso

RESOURCES

Reinforcement and extension Digital resources


th
A timeline of 17 century history Libromedia. Baroque Europe
Demographic crisis in 17th century Europe
Baroque architecture Audio
Diego Velzquez and Baroque painting Track 27: pp. 214-5: The Palace of Versailles
The Bill of Rights (1689) (students and teachers)
Track 28: p. 223, Activity 2 (students and teachers)
Assessment
Test of Unit 12

104 GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 3. Photocopiable material Santillana Educacin, S. L.


SHEET REINFORCEMENT
12. Baroque Europe
1

Name: Course: Date:

1 Look for information in your Students Book and on the Internet and complete the timeline.

1598 becomes king after the death of his


father . He delegates authority to his
valido .
Foundation of Jamestown, the first 1607
English settlement in North America.  Peace with England.

 The  is signed with the United Provinces.


Expulsion of the  .

1618 Beginning of the  War.


The  arrive in America and 1620
found Plymouth. 1621
 becomes king. Like his father he delegates
authority to a valido,  .

 The Union of Arms.


Death of Richelieu.
Pascals calculator. 
1642 Rebellion in Catalonia and  .

Beginning of the reign of Louis XIV.

1648 Peace of  , ends


 ..

1659

The English acquire 


1664
from the Dutch and call it New York.  Death of  , painter of Las Meninas.

 becomes king although at first his mother


Death of  painter of The 1665
1669 rules as regent.
Night Watch.

Death of  sculptor of
1680
The Ecstasy of Saint Teresa.

The death o