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FLUID MECHANICS - 1 6/14/2016 1:24 PM 1
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FLUID MECHANICS - 1

FLUID MECHANICS - 1 6/14/2016 1:24 PM 1
FLUID MECHANICS - 1 6/14/2016 1:24 PM 1

6/14/2016 1:24 PM

1

FLUID MECHANICS - 1 6/14/2016 1:24 PM 1

Chapter 3: The Bernoulli Equation

Newton’s Second Law F=ma along a streamline F=ma normal to a streamline Physical interpretations

Static, Stagnation, Dynamic and Total Pressure Examples of use of the Bernoulli Equation

The energy line and the hydraulic grade line

Restrictions of use of the Bernoulli Equation

the Bernoulli Equation • The energy line and the hydraulic grade line • Restrictions of use

Newton’s 2 nd Law

The momentum of a rigid body of a mass m moving

with velocity V is mV.

Newton second law states that the acceleration of

a body is proportional to the net force acting on it

and inversely proportional to its mass and that the

rate of changing of the momentum of a body is equal to the net force acting on the body.

Therefore, the momentum of a system remains constant when the net force acting on it is zero and thus the momentum of such system is conserved.

Hence, it is called the Conservation of Momentum

on it is zero and thus the momentum of such system is conserved. • Hence, it

Newton’s 2 nd Law

This means

The net force acting on the fluid particle must equal to its mass

multiplied by its acceleration.

F=ma A particle motion with a displacement S a long a curved stream line. The velocity of the particle is V = ds/dt (i.e. change of displacement with time).

Acceleration of a particle represents the change of velocity with time

a = dV/dt

The product of the mass and velocity of a body is called linear momentum, or momentum of the body.

The product of the mass and velocity of a body is called linear momentum, or momentum

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Acceleration of Fluid Particle

If a particle move in a radius curvature steam line. The velocity of the particle is related to the distance

V=ds/dt

In two dimensional flow, there will be two components for the acceleration, stream line acceleration a s along the streamline and normal acceleration a n which normal to the streamline

s along the streamline and normal acceleration a n which normal to the streamline a a
a a n n
a
a
n
n

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Acceleration of Fluid Particle

a n
a n

Streamwise acceleration is due to a change in speed along a streamline.

acceleration is due to a change in speed along a streamline. Normal to the streamline acceleration

Normal to the streamline acceleration is due to change in direction, for particles move along a straight path a n = 0 due to no change in direction.

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Acceleration of Fluid Particle

Take velocity of a particle V to be function of displacement (S) and time (t).

particle V to be function of displacement (S) and time (t). The total differentiation is Dividing

The total differentiation is

displacement (S) and time (t). The total differentiation is Dividing by “dt” gives Steady flow (velocity

Dividing by “dt” gives

(t). The total differentiation is Dividing by “dt” gives Steady flow (velocity does not change with

Steady flow (velocity does not change with time)

gives Steady flow (velocity does not change with time) Zero The acceleration in the S direction

Zero

The acceleration in the S direction becomes

Steady flow (velocity does not change with time) Zero The acceleration in the S direction becomes
Steady flow (velocity does not change with time) Zero The acceleration in the S direction becomes

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Bernoulli Equation

Assumptions made in deriving this equation:

Inviscid fluid, we are assuming that the fluid motion is governed by pressure and gravity forces only. Inviscid means fluid viscosity is negligible.

gravity forces only. Inviscid means fluid viscosity is negligible . • The flow is steady dS

The flow is steady

gravity forces only. Inviscid means fluid viscosity is negligible . • The flow is steady dS
dS
dS
dx
dx
dz
dz

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Bernoulli Equation

Bernoulli Equation When friction forces are negligible, the significant forces acting in the S direction are

When friction forces are negligible, the significant forces acting in the S direction are the pressure (acting on both sides) and the weight component of the particle in the S direction

a s
a s
the weight component of the particle in the S direction a s m= ρ X(volume)= ρ

m= ρX(volume)= ρ dA ds is the mass,

W=mg= ρ g dA ds is the weight of the fluid particle, sinθ = dz/ds, substituting into the above equation

Canceling dA from each term

the fluid particle, sin θ = dz/ds, substituting into the above equation Canceling dA from each
the fluid particle, sin θ = dz/ds, substituting into the above equation Canceling dA from each

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Bernoulli Equation

Bernoulli Equation  dP   gdz   VdV  0 Noting that V dV

dP gdz VdV 0

Bernoulli Equation  dP   gdz   VdV  0 Noting that V dV

Noting that V dV = ½ d(V 2 ) and dividing each term by ρ gives

V dV = ½ d(V 2 ) and dividing each term by ρ gives Integrating the

Integrating the above

) and dividing each term by ρ gives Integrating the above Steady flow incompressible ( ρ

Steady flow incompressible (ρ is constant)

the above Steady flow incompressible ( ρ is constant) This is the famous Bernoulli Equation 6/14/2016

This is the famous Bernoulli Equation

the above Steady flow incompressible ( ρ is constant) This is the famous Bernoulli Equation 6/14/2016

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Bernoulli Equation

Bernoulli Equation The value of the constant can be evaluated at any point on the steamline.

The value of the constant can be evaluated at any point on the steamline. Hence Bernoulli equation can be used between two

points as follows:

P

1

1

2

V

1

2

gz

1

P

2

2

2

V

2

2

gz

2

two points as follows: P 1  1  2 V 1 2  gz 1

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F=ma normal to a streamline

For steady, inviscid, incompressible flow

a streamline • For steady, inviscid, incompressible flow p    V 2 R dn

p

V

2

R

dn

z

Constant across the streamline

• For steady, inviscid, incompressible flow p    V 2 R dn  

F=ma normal to a streamline (cont.)

When the fluid travels along a curved path, a

net force directed towards the center of

curvature is required, due to either gravity or

pressure or both.

When the streamlines are straight, the

centrifugal effect is negligible and the pressure

variation across the streamline is due to

gravity alone even though the fluid is in motion.

negligible and the pressure variation across the streamline is due to gravity alone even though the

Bernoulli equation

Bernoulli equation was obtained from

integration of the equation of motion along a

coordinate in the direction of stream line.

equation was obtained from integration of the equation of motion along a coordinate in the direction

Back to Bernoulli Equation Physical Interpretation

This is what we derived in previous slides P 1  1
This is what we derived
in previous slides
P
1
1

2

V

1

2

P

2

2

V

2

gz

1

gz

2

2

2

Bernoulli equation can be written

2  2 2 • Bernoulli equation can be written Total head 2 V p 

Total head

2 2 • Bernoulli equation can be written Total head 2 V p   z

2

V

p

z H

can be written Total head 2 V p   z  H  Constant along

Constant along a streamline

2 g

Elevation head Potential Energy

-related to potential energy of the particle

Energy -related to potential energy of the particle Kinetic Energy - Velocity head -vertical distance needed

Kinetic Energy - Velocity head -vertical

distance needed for the fluid to flow freely (neglecting

friction) if it is to reach V from rest

Flow energy - Pressure head

-height of the column of fluid that is needed to produce the pressure p

Static, stagnation, Dynamic and

Total Pressure

This is what we derived in previous slides

Total Pressure This is what we derived in previous slides • Bernoulli Equation also can be

Bernoulli Equation also can be written as

P

1

1

V 2

1

2

P

2

2

V 2

2

2

gz

1

gz

2

2 p  1 V 2  z  p Static pressure Actual thermodynamic pressure
2
p
1 V
2
z
p
Static pressure
Actual thermodynamic pressure
Dynamic pressure
Hydrostatic pressure
pressure Dynamic pressure Hydrostatic pressure  Constant along a streamline T The sum of static pressure

Constant along a streamline

T

The sum of static pressure

and dynamic pressure is equal to total pressure (stagnation pressure)

provided the flow on the

same steam line (i.e. z=0) Total pressure or stagnation pressure

Static, stagnation, Dynamic and Total Pressure (cont.)

For 2 points at the same height

Zero 1 1 2 2 p   V z  p   V
Zero
1
1
2
2
p   V z  p   V z
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
Z 1 = Z 2
2
p  p 
2
1
1 V
2
1
Stagnation
pressure
Static
Dynamic
pressure
pressure

Static, stagnation, Dynamic and

Total Pressure (cont.)

Then, p

is called the

2

stagnation pressure. It

represents the pressure where flow velocity is zero

The pressure at

stagnation point, p

greater than the static pressure, p 1

, is

2

There is a stagnation

point on any stationary

body that is placed into a flowing fluid

static pressure, p 1 , is 2 • There is a stagnation point on any stationary
static pressure, p 1 , is 2 • There is a stagnation point on any stationary

I am confused, why so many terms in

Bernoulli equation & which one to use?

Same

in Bernoulli equation & which one to use?  Same 2 P V   gz
2 P V   gz  C  2 2  V P 
2
P
V
gz
 C
2
2
V
P 
 
z
C
2
2
p
V
 z 
2 g
1
2
p  V z  C
2

This is what we derived originally

Multiply the above equation by ρ we will get

Divide above equation by (g) we get this equation, pressure head, velocity head, elevation head.

Static pressure, Dynamic pressure, Hydrostatic pressure, Total pressure

Answer: It depends on the application of the equation

For head calculation p  Pressure
For head calculation
p
Pressure

head

Elevation head 2 V   z  2 g Velocity head
Elevation head
2
V
 z 
2 g
Velocity head
Elevation head 2 V   z  2 g Velocity head For pressure & velocity
For pressure & velocity 1 2 p  V z  C calculation (Pitot tube)
For pressure & velocity
1
2
p  V z  C
calculation (Pitot tube)
2
Dynamic
Static
Hydrostatic
pressure pressure pressure 1 Energy calculation 2 p  V z  C 2 Pressure
pressure
pressure
pressure
1
Energy calculation
2
p  V z  C
2
Pressure
Potential
energy
Kinetic
energy
energy

Pitot Static Tube

Fluid speed can be calculated if we know

the values of the static and stagnation pressures in a fluid.

values of the static and stagnation pressures in a fluid.  Stagnation P ressure  Static
values of the static and stagnation pressures in a fluid.  Stagnation P ressure  Static

Stagnation P ressure

Static P ressure

p

p

3

2

p

p

1

4

2

Dynamic P ressure

1

2

V

p

p

3

4

2  p  p   3 4
2
p
p
 
3
4

V

Pitot tube Static pressure Stagnation pressure

Pitot tube

Static pressure
Static
pressure

Stagnation

pressure

Pitot tube in airplanes to determine

airplane velocity

Investigator looked into the possibility that ice build-up on Pitot tube sensor of Air France

Airbus A330 Flight 447

from Rio de Janeiro to Paris which led to the May 31 2009 crash with 228 people on board.

Why is measuring air

speed important? Planes have a certain operating envelope, and it's dangerous to fly at too low speed because it will stall (stop), and it's also dangerous to fly at too high speed because of structural reasons.

speed because it will stall (stop), and it's also dangerous to fly at too high speed

Examples of use of the Bernoulli

Equation: Free Jets

Examples of use of the Bernoulli Equation: Free Jets • Assumptions – z 1 =h, z

Assumptions

z 1 =h, z 2 =0

Reservoir is large, V 1 =0

Reservoir is open to atmosphere, p 1 =0 gage

Fluid leaves as a free jet, p 2 =0

Once outside nozzle, the stream continues as a free jet, p 5 =0

Fluid leaves as a free jet,  p 2 =0 – Once outside nozzle, the stream

Free Jets (cont.)

v

 h 2  2 gh 2  
 h
2
2 gh
2 

v

5

Free Jets (cont.) v  h 2  2 gh 2   v 5 
Free Jets (cont.) v  h 2  2 gh 2   v 5 
Free Jets (cont.) v  h 2  2 gh 2   v 5 

2 g h H

Free Jets (cont.)

This equation shows that fluid particles potential

energy completely converted to kinetic energy

potential energy completely converted to kinetic energy  h v 2  2   2
 h v 2  2  
 h
v 2 
2
2 gh
2 gh
1 2 2
1
2
2
to kinetic energy  h v 2  2   2 gh 1 2 2
to kinetic energy  h v 2  2   2 gh 1 2 2

p V z C

The elevation head at point (1) is completely converted into velocity head at point (2), remember that pressure at (1) & (2) atmospheric (i.e. P 1 & P 2 = 0)

Potential

energy

Pressure

Kinetic

energy

energy

at (1) & (2) atmospheric (i.e. P 1 & P 2 = 0) Potential energy Pressure

Free Jets (cont.)

C C =1 means jet area is equal to hole area
C C =1 means jet area
is equal to hole area

CC<1 means jet area is

less than hole area

If exit of tank is not smooth, well contoured nozzle, the

diameter of the jet will

be less than the

diameter of the hole

vena contracta effect

Contraction

coeficient, C c =A j /A h

than the diameter of the hole – vena contracta effect – Contraction coeficient, C c =A
than the diameter of the hole – vena contracta effect – Contraction coeficient, C c =A

jet

than the diameter of the hole – vena contracta effect – Contraction coeficient, C c =A

hole

Example

For the system in the figure, h= 11m and the diameter of the side opening is 0.05m. Find the

11m and the diameter of the side opening is 0.05m. Find the (a) Jet velocity in

(a) Jet velocity in units of m/s (b) Volume flow rate in units of m 3 /s

h
h

Solution

0

P 1
P 1

0

0

Solution 0 P 1 0 0 + ½ ρ V 1 2 + γ Z 1
Solution 0 P 1 0 0 + ½ ρ V 1 2 + γ Z 1
Solution 0 P 1 0 0 + ½ ρ V 1 2 + γ Z 1

+ ½ ρV 1 2 + γZ 1 = P 2 + ½ ρV 2 2 + γz 2

Q=AV,

0

P 1 = 0 V 1 = 0 Z 1 = h Z 2 = 0 P 2 = 0 d 1 = 0.05m Note that: γ = ρg,

γ Z 1 = ½ ρV 2 2 a)V = (2gh) ½ = (2 x 9.81 x 11m) ½ = 14m/s

thus: γ/ρ = g

b) Q=AV,

h
h

Q

= (2 x 9.81 x 11m) ½ = 14m/s thus: γ/ρ = g b) Q=AV, h

D

2

4

V

0.05

2

4

14

0.027

3

/

m s

Example

A smooth plastic, 10-m long garden hose with an inside diameter of 15 mm is used to drain a wading pool as shown. If viscous effects are neglected, what is the flowrate from the pool?

of 15 mm is used to drain a wading pool as shown. If viscous effects are
of 15 mm is used to drain a wading pool as shown. If viscous effects are

Solution

Point 1 Point 2
Point 1
Point 2
Solution Point 1 Point 2
Solution Point 1 Point 2

Examples of use of the Bernoulli Equation:

Confined Flows

In many cases, fluid is confined within a device (such as in pipes connected to each other with different diameters) and its pressure cannot be prescribed as was done for in previous slides in free jet examples. Hence, we need to use the

concept of conservation of mass (continuity

equation) along with Bernoulli equation.

examples. Hence, we need to use the concept of conservation of mass (continuity equation) along with
examples. Hence, we need to use the concept of conservation of mass (continuity equation) along with

Confined Flows (cont.)

Confined Flows (cont.) – In such case, mass is conserved, i.e. inflow rate must equal to

In such case, mass is conserved, i.e. inflow rate must equal to the outflow rate (V: velocity m/s, A: area m 2 , ρ kg/m 3 )

rate (V: velocity m/s, A: area m 2 , ρ kg/m 3 ) Q  A
rate (V: velocity m/s, A: area m 2 , ρ kg/m 3 ) Q  A

Q AV , m AV

Mass flowrate (kg/s)

Volume flowrate (m 3 /s)

A V A V A V A V

1

1

1

2

2

2

or

1

1

2

(if incompressible)

Increase in velocity causes decrease in pressure

In general, following Bernoulli, an increase in velocity

(could be due to reduction of flow area) is accompanied by a decrease in pressure.

of flow area) is accompanied by a decrease in pressure. V 2 : 5m/s P 2

V 2 : 5m/s

P

2 :?

Example

by a decrease in pressure. V 2 : 5m/s P 2 :? Example P 1 +
by a decrease in pressure. V 2 : 5m/s P 2 :? Example P 1 +

P 1 + ½ ρV 1 2 + γZ 1 = P 2 + ½ ρV 2 2 + γz 2 P 2 =P 1 + ½ ρ(V 1 2 -V 2 2 )=101 + ½ X 1X (1- 25 )

V 1 : 1m/s

P

ρ: 1kg/m 3

1 :101kPa

P 2 = 101 12.5 =88.5kPa

+ ½ X 1 X (1- 25 ) V 1 : 1m/s P ρ : 1kg/m

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Test your understanding

It is not surprising that a wind blowing directly on an open

door can make the door slam shut.

Use Bernoulli’s principle to explain how a wind blowing across a door-way (that is parallel to the opening) can

make the door close. (Assume that the door open inwards.)

(that is parallel to the opening) can make the door close. (Assume that the door open
(that is parallel to the opening) can make the door close. (Assume that the door open
(that is parallel to the opening) can make the door close. (Assume that the door open

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35

Answer

From Bernoulli’s equation, an increase in the

flow speed v corresponds to a decrease in the

air pressure P. The reduced air pressure on

the “outdoor” side of the door makes the door

swing toward that side, closing it.

pressure on the “outdoor” side of the door makes the door swing toward that side, closing
pressure on the “outdoor” side of the door makes the door swing toward that side, closing
pressure on the “outdoor” side of the door makes the door swing toward that side, closing
pressure on the “outdoor” side of the door makes the door swing toward that side, closing

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36

In general, an increase in velocity (could be due to

reduction of flow area) is accompanied by a decrease in pressure.

of flow area) is accompanied by a decrease in pressure. Air flowing over the top surface
of flow area) is accompanied by a decrease in pressure. Air flowing over the top surface

Air flowing over the top surface of an airplane wing is faster than that flowing under the bottom surface. Thus the net pressure force is greater on the bottom and generate the lift which lifts the airplane.

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37

Cavitation

Cavitation is potentially dangerous situation that results when liquid pressure is reduced to the vapor pressure which causes the liquid to boil and form bubbles.

For flows of liquids, this may result in cavitation, a potentially dangerous situation that results when liquid pressure is reduced to vapor pressure and the liquid “boils”.

Cavitation is the formation and then immediate implosion of cavities in a liquid i.e. small liquid-free zones ("bubbles") that are the consequence of forces

acting upon the liquid.

It usually occurs when a liquid is subjected to rapid changes of pressure that cause the formation of cavities where the pressure is relatively low.

When fluid flow with high velocity it will low pressure which may reach the

vapor pressure and cause cavitation.

which may reach the vapor pressure and cause cavitation. • When the bubble move to high

When the bubble move to high pressure region, it will collapse. Pressure as large as 690000 kPa are believed to occur when the bubble collapse. If the bubble collapsed close to a surface, it cause serious damage to the surface

Cavitation After cavitation Before cavitation 6/14/2016 1:24 PM 39
Cavitation After cavitation Before cavitation 6/14/2016 1:24 PM 39
Cavitation After cavitation Before cavitation 6/14/2016 1:24 PM 39
Cavitation After cavitation Before cavitation 6/14/2016 1:24 PM 39

Cavitation

After

cavitation

Before

cavitation

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39

Example

Water is siphoned from the tank as shown. The water barometer

indicates a reading of 9.2 m.

Determine the maximum value of h

allowed without cavitation occurring. Note that the pressure of the vapor in the closed end of the barometer

equals the vapor pressure.

7.6cm 7.6cm 7.6cm 7.6cm 7.6cm 7.6cm 7.6cm 7.6cm 7.6cm 7.6cm 7.6cm 7.6cm 2m 2m 2m
7.6cm
7.6cm
7.6cm
7.6cm
7.6cm
7.6cm
7.6cm
7.6cm
7.6cm
7.6cm
7.6cm
7.6cm
2m
2m
2m
2m
2m
2m
2m
2m
2m
12.7cm diameter
12.7cm diameter
12.7cm diameter
12.7cm diameter
12.7cm diameter
12.7cm diameter
12.7cm diameter
12.7cm diameter

12.7cm diameter

9.2m

9.2m9.2m

9.2m

9.2m

9.2m

diameter 12.7cm diameter 12.7cm diameter 12.7cm diameter 12.7cm diameter 12.7cm diameter 9.2m 9.2m9.2m 9.2m 9.2m 9.2m
Solution . O 0 0 2 2 7.6cm P V 0 V P 1 1
Solution
. O
0
0
2
2
7.6cm
P
V
0 V
P
1
1
2
2
z
 z
1 
.
9.2m
2
2
g
2 g
1
2
2
2m
.
P 2 = barometer, Z 2 = 2m
A V
A V
1
2
2
3
3
P
V 2
vapour
2
0 
 2 m
A
2
2 g
V
V
2
3
2
A
.
3
But
12.7cm diameter
2
2
3
D
0.076
P
9.2
m
P
0(
abs
) &
P
P
2
o
1
o
vapour
V
V
11.9
4.7
m
/
s
3
2
2
2
D
0.127
P
/

9.2
m
0
3
vapour
0
0
2
2
P
V
P
V
V 2
2
1
1
3
3
0

9.2 m
 2 m
z
 z
1 
3
2 g
2
g
2 g
1
3
V
 11.9
m
/
s
V
2 gh
2
9.81
h
4.2
m s
/
2
3
h
 0.92
m

Example

Water flows from a large tank as shown. Atmospheric pressure is 100kPa and the vapor pressure is 11kPa (absolute). If viscous effects are neglected, at

what height, h, will cavitation begin?

10cm 10cm 10cm 2.5cm 2.5cm 2.5cm 2.5cm 5cm 5cm 5cm 5cm
10cm
10cm
10cm
2.5cm
2.5cm
2.5cm
2.5cm
5cm
5cm
5cm
5cm
are neglected, at what height, h, will cavitation begin? 10cm 10cm 10cm 2.5cm 2.5cm 2.5cm 2.5cm

Solution:

0 large tank 2 2 P V P V 0 0 1 1  
0 large tank
2
2
P
V
P
V
0
0
1
1
z
 z
0 
1
2
g
2 g
0
1

0

P 0 =100kPa (absolute) & P1 =11kPa (absolute)

• 0

3

10cm

• 1

• 2

2.5cm 5cm =h Z 0 or 2 P  P V D 1 0 1
2.5cm
5cm
=h
Z 0
or
2
P
P
V
D
1
0
1
2
h 
V
 [
]
2
V
1
2
 2 g
D
1
However ,
zero
where
0 large tank
2
2
A V
A V
1
1
2
2
P
V
P
V
0
0
2
2
z
(
h
)
 z
0
2
2 g
2 g
0
2
Because open to environment
P
P
0
2
Z
 0
2

Solution:

2 V 2  h 10cm 2 g V 2 ( 1 D 2 /
2
V
2
 h
10cm
2 g
V
2
(
1
D
2
/
D
)
4
V
2
D
1
2
2
 (
)
4
h
2.5cm
5cm
From previous slide
2 g
2 g
D
From this equation, it
1
P
 P
V 2
1
0
1
Combine equations
h 
 2 g
P
P
D
1
0
2
h
 (
)
4
h
D
1
3
2
seems that h increases by
increasing D 1 &
decreasing D 2 thus to
avoid cavitation (h small),
D 1 should be increased
and D 2 should be
decreased
P
P
(100
11)
10
N
/
m
0
1
h
 0.61 m
D
5 cm
4
3
4
2
 [(
)
 1]
9800
N
/
m
[(
)
 1]
D
2.5 cm
1

Examples of use of Bernoulli Equation (Flowrate measurement)

Assumptions steady, inviscid and

Examples of use of Bernoulli Equation (Flowrate measurement) Assumptions – steady, inviscid and incompressible

incompressible

Examples of use of Bernoulli Equation (Flowrate measurement) Assumptions – steady, inviscid and incompressible

Flowrate measurement (cont.)

Between points (1 & 2) (1-high pressure low velocity) and (2 high velocity low pressure)

High

pressure

Low

pressure

– high velocity low pressure) High pressure Low pressure 2 2 1 1 p  
2 2 1 1 p   V  p   V 1 1
2
2
1
1
p
V
p
V
1
1
2
2
2
2
and
Q 
A V
A V
1
1
2
2
Subsitute
2
2
Q
Q
1
1
p
(
) 
p
(
)
1
2
2
2
A
A
1
2
hence
2( p
p
)
1
2
Q
 A
2
1 
A
2
A  2
1

Flowrate measurement (cont.)

The actual measured flowrate, Q actual will be smaller than this theoretical results because of the assumptions made in deriving the Bernoulli Equation.

Other flowmeters based on Bernoulli equation are used to measure flowrates in open channels such as flumes and irrigation ditches.

based on Bernoulli equation are used to measure flowrates in open channels such as flumes and

Sluice gate flow measurement

Sluice gate flow measurement 6/14/2016 1:24 PM 48
Sluice gate flow measurement 6/14/2016 1:24 PM 48

6/14/2016 1:24 PM

48

Sluice gate flow measurement (cont.

1

1

P V z P V z

1

2

1

1

2

2

2

2

2

2

Q=A 1 V 1 =bV 1 z 1 =A 2 V 2 =bV 2 z 2

A

1 =bZ 1 and A 2 =bZ 2

P

1 =P 2 =0

Combine the above equations and rearrange to get the flowrate

the above equations and rearrange to get the flowrate See example 3.12 in the text book
the above equations and rearrange to get the flowrate See example 3.12 in the text book

See example 3.12 in the text book for application of the above equation

rearrange to get the flowrate See example 3.12 in the text book for application of the

6/14/2016 1:24 PM

49

The Energy Line and the Hydraulic Grade Line

As discussed previously, the Bernoulli equation is in

fact an energy equation.

The sum of various energies of fluid remains

constant (flow energy, kinetic energy & potential

energy) as the fluid flows from one section to another).

A useful interpretation of the Bernoulli equation can be obtained through the use of the concept of hydraulic grade line (HGL) and energy line (EL).

the Bernoulli equation can be obtained through the use of the concept of hydraulic grade line

The Energy Line and the Hydraulic Grade Line (cont.)

The hydraulic grade line (HGL) and energy line (EL) represent a geometrical interpretation of a flow and can be effective to better understand the fundamental process and Bernoulli equation involved.

If we want to get energy values in term of head (m) so

that we can plot it in a graph, we can use the following

Bernoulli equation.

plot it in a graph, we can use the following Bernoulli equation. p  V 2

p

V

2

2 g

z

C

6/14/2016 1:24 PM

51

The Energy Line and the Hydraulic Grade Line (cont.)

The Energy Line and the Hydraulic Grade Line (cont.) Measures the sum of the pressure head

Measures the sum of the pressure head and the elevation head. The sum is also called piezometric head

Grade Line (cont.) Measures the sum of the pressure head and the elevation head. The sum

The Energy Line and the Hydraulic Grade Line (cont.)

By implementing the above equation we will represent the energy in Bernoulli

equation in terms of head, Bernoulli equation states that the sum of pressure head

+ velocity head + elevation head = total head.

Energy line is a line that represents the total head available to the fluid Under the assumptions of the Bernoulli equation, the energy line is horizontal.

According to this equation

p

V

2

2 g

z

C

The total head remains constant along streamline (provided that the assumption made for Bernoulli equation is valid.

The velocity head, elevation head and pressure head may vary along the stream line.

is valid. The velocity head, elevation head and pressure head may vary along the stream line.

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53

The Energy Line and the Hydraulic Grade Line (cont.)

If the fluid velocity changes along stream line, the hydraulic grade line will not be horizontal.

If the flow is steady, invicid , incompressible, the energy line will be horizontal. The hydraulic grade line lies in a distance of velocity head V 2 /2g below the energy line.

of velocity head V 2 /2g below the energy line. Thus change in in fluid velocity

Thus change in in fluid velocity due to change in pipe diameter results in a change in the elevation of the hydraulic grade line. At the pipe outlet, the

pressure head is zero (gage) so the pipe elevation and hydraulic grade line

match.

pipe outlet, the pressure head is zero (gage) so the pipe elevation and hydraulic grade line

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54

The Energy Line and the Hydraulic Grade Line (cont.)

The distance from the pipe to HGL indicates the pressure within

the pipe.

Energy Line and the Hydraulic Grade Line (cont.) The distance from the pipe to HGL indicates
Energy Line and the Hydraulic Grade Line (cont.) The distance from the pipe to HGL indicates

The Energy Line and the Hydraulic

Grade Line (cont.)

If the pipe lies below HGL the pressure within the

– If the pipe lies below HGL the pressure within the pipe is positive – If

pipe is positive

If the pipe lies above HGL the pressure is negative

the pipe lies below HGL the pressure within the pipe is positive – If the pipe

Restrictions of use of the Bernoulli

Equation

Assumptions involved in deriving the Bernoulli equation

Fluid is incompressible ok with liquids

Flow is steady

Inviscid flow

In the absence of viscous effects, the total energy of the system remains constant

There are no mechanical devices in the system between the two points along the streamline to which the equation is applied

There are no mechanical devices in the system between the two points along the streamline to