FLUID MECHANICS  1
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Chapter 3: The Bernoulli Equation
• Newton’s Second Law •F=ma along a streamline •F=ma normal to a streamline •Physical interpretations
•Static, Stagnation, Dynamic and Total Pressure •Examples of use of the Bernoulli Equation
•The energy line and the hydraulic grade line
•Restrictions of use of the Bernoulli Equation
Newton’s 2 ^{n}^{d} Law
• The momentum of a rigid body of a mass m moving
with velocity V is mV.
• Newton second law states that the acceleration of
a body is proportional to the net force acting on it
and inversely proportional to its mass and that the
rate of changing of the momentum of a body is equal to the net force acting on the body.
• Therefore, the momentum of a system remains constant when the net force acting on it is zero and thus the momentum of such system is conserved.
• Hence, it is called the Conservation of Momentum
Newton’s 2 ^{n}^{d} Law
This means
The net force acting on the fluid particle must equal to its mass
multiplied by its acceleration.
F=ma A particle motion with a displacement S a long a curved stream line. The velocity of the particle is V = ds/dt (i.e. change of displacement with time).
Acceleration of a particle represents the change of velocity with time
a = dV/dt
The product of the mass and velocity of a body is called linear momentum, or momentum of the body.
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Acceleration of Fluid Particle
If a particle move in a radius curvature steam line. The velocity of the particle is related to the distance
V=ds/dt
In two dimensional flow, there will be two components for the acceleration, stream line acceleration a _{s} along the streamline and normal acceleration a _{n} which normal to the streamline
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Acceleration of Fluid Particle
Streamwise acceleration is due to a change in speed along a streamline.
Normal to the streamline acceleration is due to change in direction, for particles move along a straight path a _{n} = 0 due to no change in direction.
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Acceleration of Fluid Particle
Take velocity of a particle V to be function of displacement (S) and time (t).
The total differentiation is
Dividing by “dt” gives
Steady flow (velocity does not change with time)
Zero
The acceleration in the S direction becomes
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Bernoulli Equation
Assumptions made in deriving this equation:
•Inviscid fluid, we are assuming that the fluid motion is governed by pressure and gravity forces only. Inviscid means fluid viscosity is negligible.
•The flow is steady
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Bernoulli Equation
When friction forces are negligible, the significant forces acting in the S direction are the pressure (acting on both sides) and the weight component of the particle in the S direction
m= ρX(volume)= ρ dA ds is the mass,
W=mg= ρ g dA ds is the weight of the fluid particle, sinθ = dz/ds, substituting into the above equation
Canceling dA from each term
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Bernoulli Equation
dP gdz VdV 0
Noting that V dV = ½ d(V ^{2} ) and dividing each term by ρ gives
Integrating the above
Steady flow incompressible (ρ is constant)
This is the famous Bernoulli Equation
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Bernoulli Equation
The value of the constant can be evaluated at any point on the steamline. Hence Bernoulli equation can be used between two
points as follows:
P
1
1
2
V
1
2
gz
1
P
2
2
2
V
2
2
gz
2
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F=ma normal to a streamline
• For steady, inviscid, incompressible flow
p
V
2
R
dn
z
Constant across the streamline
F=ma normal to a streamline (cont.)
• When the fluid travels along a curved path, a
net force directed towards the center of
curvature is required, due to either gravity or
pressure or both.
• When the streamlines are straight, the
centrifugal effect is negligible and the pressure
variation across the streamline is due to
gravity alone even though the fluid is in motion.
Bernoulli equation
• Bernoulli equation was obtained from
integration of the equation of motion along a
coordinate in the direction of stream line.
Back to Bernoulli Equation Physical Interpretation
2
V
1
2
P
2
2
V
2
gz
1
gz
2
2
2
• Bernoulli equation can be written
Total head
2
V
p
z H
Constant along a streamline
2 g
Elevation head – Potential Energy
related to potential energy of the particle
Kinetic Energy  Velocity head vertical
distance needed for the fluid to flow freely (neglecting
friction) if it is to reach V from rest
Flow energy  Pressure head
height of the column of fluid that is needed to produce the pressure p
Static, stagnation, Dynamic and
Total Pressure
This is what we derived in previous slides
•Bernoulli Equation also can be written as
P
1
1
V 2
1
2
P
2
2
V 2
2
2
gz
1
gz
2
Constant along a streamline
T
The sum of static pressure
and dynamic pressure is equal to total pressure (stagnation pressure)
provided the flow on the
same steam line (i.e. z=0) Total pressure or stagnation pressure
Static, stagnation, Dynamic and Total Pressure (cont.)
• For 2 points at the same height
Static, stagnation, Dynamic and
Total Pressure (cont.)
• Then, p
is called the
2
stagnation pressure. It
represents the pressure where flow velocity is zero
• The pressure at
stagnation point, p
greater than the static pressure, p _{1}
, is
2
• There is a stagnation
point on any stationary
body that is placed into a flowing fluid
I am confused, why so many terms in
Bernoulli equation & which one to use?
Same
This is what we derived originally
Multiply the above equation by ρ we will get
Divide above equation by (g) we get this equation, pressure head, velocity head, elevation head.
Static pressure, Dynamic pressure, Hydrostatic pressure, Total pressure
Answer: It depends on the application of the equation
head
Pitot Static Tube
• Fluid speed can be calculated if we know
the values of the static and stagnation pressures in a fluid.

Stagnation P ressure 

Static P ressure 
p
p
3
2
p
p
1
4
2
Dynamic P ressure
1
2
V
p
p
3
4
V
Pitot tube
Stagnation
pressure
Pitot tube in airplanes to determine
airplane velocity
•Investigator looked into the possibility that ice buildup on Pitot tube sensor of Air France
Airbus A330 Flight 447
from Rio de Janeiro to Paris which led to the May 31 2009 crash with 228 people on board.
•Why is measuring air
speed important? Planes have a certain operating envelope, and it's dangerous to fly at too low speed because it will stall (stop), and it's also dangerous to fly at too high speed because of structural reasons.
Examples of use of the Bernoulli
Equation: Free Jets
• Assumptions
– z _{1} =h, z _{2} =0
– Reservoir is large, V _{1} =0
– Reservoir is open to atmosphere, p _{1} =0 gage
– Fluid leaves as a free jet, p _{2} =0
– Once outside nozzle, the stream continues as a free jet, p _{5} =0
Free Jets (cont.)
v
v
5
2 g h H
Free Jets (cont.)
• This equation shows that fluid particles potential
energy completely converted to kinetic energy
p V z C
The elevation head at point (1) is completely converted into velocity head at point (2), remember that pressure at (1) & (2) atmospheric (i.e. P _{1} & P _{2} = 0)
Potential
energy
Pressure 
Kinetic 
energy 
energy 
Free Jets (cont.)
CC<1 means jet area is
less than hole area
– If exit of tank is not smooth, well contoured nozzle, the
diameter of the jet will
be less than the
diameter of the hole –
vena contracta effect
– Contraction
coeficient, C _{c} =A _{j} /A _{h}
jet
hole
Example
For the system in the figure, h= 11m and the diameter of the side opening is 0.05m. Find the
(a) Jet velocity in units of m/s (b) Volume flow rate in units of m ^{3} /s
Solution
0
^{0}
0
+ ½ ρV _{1} ^{2} + γZ _{1} = P _{2} + ½ ρV _{2} ^{2} + γz _{2}
Q=AV,
0
P _{1} = 0 V _{1} = 0 Z _{1} = h Z _{2} = 0 P _{2} = 0 d _{1} = 0.05m Note that: γ = ρg,
γ Z _{1} = ½ ρV _{2} ^{2} a)→ V = (2gh) ^{½} = (2 x 9.81 x 11m) ^{½} = 14m/s
thus: γ/ρ = g
b) Q=AV,
Q
D
2
4
V
0.05
2
4
14
0.027
3
/
m s
Example
A smooth plastic, 10m long garden hose with an inside diameter of 15 mm is used to drain a wading pool as shown. If viscous effects are neglected, what is the flowrate from the pool?
Solution
Examples of use of the Bernoulli Equation:
Confined Flows
– In many cases, fluid is confined within a device (such as in pipes connected to each other with different diameters) and its pressure cannot be prescribed as was done for in previous slides in free jet examples. Hence, we need to use the
concept of conservation of mass (continuity
equation) along with Bernoulli equation.
Confined Flows (cont.)
– In such case, mass is conserved, i.e. inflow rate must equal to the outflow rate (V: velocity m/s, A: area m ^{2} , ρ kg/m ^{3} )
_{Q} _{} _{A}_{V} _{,} _{m}_{} _{}_{}_{A}_{V}
Mass flowrate (kg/s)
Volume flowrate (m ^{3} /s)
A V A V A V A V
1
1
1
2
2
2
or
1
1
2
(if incompressible)
Increase in velocity causes decrease in pressure
In general, following Bernoulli, an increase in velocity
(could be due to reduction of flow area) is accompanied by a decrease in pressure.
V _{2} : 5m/s
P
_{2} :?
Example
P _{1} + ½ ρV _{1} ^{2} + γZ _{1} = P _{2} + ½ ρV _{2} ^{2} + γz _{2} P _{2} =P _{1} + ½ ρ(V _{1} ^{2} V _{2} ^{2} )=101 + ½ X 1X (1 25 )
V _{1} : 1m/s
P
ρ: 1kg/m ^{3}
_{1} :101kPa
P _{2} = 101 – 12.5 =88.5kPa
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Test your understanding
• It is not surprising that a wind blowing directly on an open
door can make the door slam shut.
• Use Bernoulli’s principle to explain how a wind blowing across a doorway (that is parallel to the opening) can
make the door close. (Assume that the door open inwards.)
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Answer
• From Bernoulli’s equation, an increase in the
flow speed v corresponds to a decrease in the
air pressure P. The reduced air pressure on
the “outdoor” side of the door makes the door
swing toward that side, closing it.
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In general, an increase in velocity (could be due to
reduction of flow area) is accompanied by a decrease in pressure.
Air flowing over the top surface of an airplane wing is faster than that flowing under the bottom surface. Thus the net pressure force is greater on the bottom and generate the lift which lifts the airplane.
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Cavitation
•Cavitation is potentially dangerous situation that results when liquid pressure is reduced to the vapor pressure which causes the liquid to boil and form bubbles.
•For flows of liquids, this may result in cavitation, a potentially dangerous situation that results when liquid pressure is reduced to vapor pressure and the liquid “boils”.
•Cavitation is the formation and then immediate implosion of cavities in a liquid – i.e. small liquidfree zones ("bubbles") – that are the consequence of forces
acting upon the liquid.
• It usually occurs when a liquid is subjected to rapid changes of pressure that cause the formation of cavities where the pressure is relatively low.
•When fluid flow with high velocity it will low pressure which may reach the
vapor pressure and cause cavitation.
•When the bubble move to high pressure region, it will collapse. Pressure as large as 690000 kPa are believed to occur when the bubble collapse. If the bubble collapsed close to a surface, it cause serious damage to the surface
Cavitation
After
cavitation
Before
cavitation
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Example
Water is siphoned from the tank as shown. The water barometer
indicates a reading of 9.2 m.
Determine the maximum value of h
allowed without cavitation occurring. Note that the pressure of the vapor in the closed end of the barometer
equals the vapor pressure.
12.7cm diameter
9.2m
9.2m9.2m
9.2m
9.2m
9.2m
Example
Water flows from a large tank as shown. Atmospheric pressure is 100kPa and the vapor pressure is 11kPa (absolute). If viscous effects are neglected, at
what height, h, will cavitation begin?
Solution:
0
P _{0} =100kPa (absolute) & P1 =11kPa (absolute)
• 0
^{•} ^{3}
10cm
• 1
• 2
Solution:
Examples of use of Bernoulli Equation (Flowrate measurement)
Assumptions – steady, inviscid and
incompressible
Flowrate measurement (cont.)
Between points (1 & 2) (1high pressure low velocity) and (2 – high velocity low pressure)
High
pressure
Low
pressure
Flowrate measurement (cont.)
– The actual measured flowrate, Q _{a}_{c}_{t}_{u}_{a}_{l} will be smaller than this theoretical results because of the assumptions made in deriving the Bernoulli Equation.
– Other flowmeters based on Bernoulli equation are used to measure flowrates in open channels such as flumes and irrigation ditches.
Sluice gate flow measurement
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Sluice gate flow measurement (cont.
1
1
P V z P V z
1
2
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
Q=A _{1} V _{1} =bV _{1} z _{1} =A _{2} V _{2} =bV _{2} z _{2}
A 
_{1} =bZ _{1} and A _{2} =bZ _{2} 
P 
_{1} =P _{2} =0 
Combine the above equations and rearrange to get the flowrate
See example 3.12 in the text book for application of the above equation
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The Energy Line and the Hydraulic Grade Line
• As discussed previously, the Bernoulli equation is in
fact an energy equation.
• The sum of various energies of fluid remains
constant (flow energy, kinetic energy & potential
energy) as the fluid flows from one section to another).
• A useful interpretation of the Bernoulli equation can be obtained through the use of the concept of hydraulic grade line (HGL) and energy line (EL).
The Energy Line and the Hydraulic Grade Line (cont.)
The hydraulic grade line (HGL) and energy line (EL) represent a geometrical interpretation of a flow and can be effective to better understand the fundamental process and Bernoulli equation involved.
If we want to get energy values in term of head (m) so
that we can plot it in a graph, we can use the following
Bernoulli equation.
p
V
2
2 g
z
C
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The Energy Line and the Hydraulic Grade Line (cont.)
Measures the sum of the pressure head and the elevation head. The sum is also called piezometric head
The Energy Line and the Hydraulic Grade Line (cont.)
By implementing the above equation we will represent the energy in Bernoulli
equation in terms of head, Bernoulli equation states that the sum of pressure head
+ velocity head + elevation head = total head.
Energy line is a line that represents the total head available to the fluid Under the assumptions of the Bernoulli equation, the energy line is horizontal.
According to this equation
p
V
2
2 g
z
C
The total head remains constant along streamline (provided that the assumption made for Bernoulli equation is valid.
The velocity head, elevation head and pressure head may vary along the stream line.
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The Energy Line and the Hydraulic Grade Line (cont.)
If the fluid velocity changes along stream line, the hydraulic grade line will not be horizontal.
If the flow is steady, invicid , incompressible, the energy line will be horizontal. The hydraulic grade line lies in a distance of velocity head V ^{2} /2g below the energy line.
Thus change in in fluid velocity due to change in pipe diameter results in a change in the elevation of the hydraulic grade line. At the pipe outlet, the
pressure head is zero (gage) so the pipe elevation and hydraulic grade line
match.
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The Energy Line and the Hydraulic Grade Line (cont.)
The distance from the pipe to HGL indicates the pressure within
the pipe.
The Energy Line and the Hydraulic
Grade Line (cont.)
– If the pipe lies below HGL the pressure within the
pipe is positive
– If the pipe lies above HGL the pressure is negative
Restrictions of use of the Bernoulli
Equation
• Assumptions involved in deriving the Bernoulli equation
– Fluid is incompressible – ok with liquids
– Flow is steady
– Inviscid flow
• In the absence of viscous effects, the total energy of the system remains constant
– There are no mechanical devices in the system between the two points along the streamline to which the equation is applied
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