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Audio Transistor Amplifier

Abel, Gianne Raika A.


gianneraikaabel0697@gmail.com
Bautista, Jessa L.
jessa27_bautista@yahoo.com
Dalawampu, Kate Louise H.
katelouisedalawampu@yahoo.com
Lubis, Laurence Joy H.
Lubislaurencejoy@yahoo.com

Abstract Introduction

The goal of the project is to be presented is to An amplifier is an electronic device that


design an amplifier with the following increases the voltage, current, or power of
specifications of gain, output power, a signal. It is the generic term used to
frequency range, load resistance, maximum describe a circuit which increases its input
input current and output swing. These signal, but not all amplifiers are the same as
specifications can be achieved by using the they are classified according to their circuit
configurations and methods of operation.
acquired knowledge gained from the
previous lectures covered in the whole The vacuum tube was the only amplifying
semester. device (besides specialized power devices
such as the magnetic
The amplifier to be produced is classified as
amplifier and amplidyne) for 40 years.
an audio amplifier containing 400-800 Power control circuitry used magnetic
amount of gain, an output swing of 4Vp-p and amplifiers until the latter half of the
a minimum power supply of 12V. The twentieth century when power
amplifier has been tested using the available semiconductor devices became more
laboratory equipment. Computations, economical, with higher operating speeds.
simulations, and thorough discussions were
Tubes dominated electronics until 1947,
also presented to further support the course when the first transistor, the BJT, was
project. invented. The replacement of bulky vacuum
This paper aims to discuss the obtained result tubes with transistors during the 1960s and
in a detailed and comprehensive manner with 1970s created another revolution in
all the available details and facts gathered electronics, making possible a large class of
through an intent and eager search for portable electronic devices, such as
accessible sources. the transistor radio developed in 1954.
Today most amplifiers use transistors, but
Objectives vacuum tubes are still used in some high
power applications such as radio
1. To design a transistor amplifier with transmitters.
a 300Hz-20kHz frequency to satisfy
An audio amplifier uses transistors to amplify
the human hearing range
power signals. BJTs and FETs are being
2. To meet the configuration required
used. BJT is concerned about the current
for the completion of the project
flowing through the transistor itself. FET is
3. To apply the knowledge acquired
voltage-controlled transistor. In some other
through discussions and research for
circuits, operational amplifiers are utilized to
the successful designing of the
provide high gain.
project
In constructing a circuit design of an once a choice but was disregarded for BJT
amplifier, the value of the components are was chosen because it provides more
being determined to produce the desired convenience in producing a high gain but
output. Coupling method is another factor in little noise since it can amplify, rectify and
completing the circuit. Capacitive, direct and filter signals when connected to resistors and
transformer coupling affects the entire output capacitors.
of the circuit.
The group undergone trial-and-error process
Materials and Methods in determining the final circuit design. They
used a cascaded system of circuit to attain the
Resistors in required gain which is 400 as the minimum
and 800 as the maximum. The output swing
50 50k 10k 4.7k 1.3k 50k required is 4Vpk-pk. After several weeks of
gathering information and enhancing our
12k 680 200 100 1k
knowledge about the different possible
Capacitors in F materials, the team constructed several circuit
designs to choose from. All considerations
2.2u 20u 2.2u are taken into account. Computations and
simulation of the whole design are carefully
2.2u 33u 20n performed.

Transistors FIRST ATTEMPT:

2N4401 2N4401

Breadboard
Connecting Wires

The methods used in the progression


of the amplifier are undergoing thorough
research about the facts of modelling an
audio amplifier, designing a circuit
appropriate for the project requirement,
computing the values of the components,
simulating the circuit design in MultiSim,
After gaining knowledge of the behavior and
securing the availability of materials needed
materials needed for the amplifier, the group
in the market and eventually, gathering these
learned that a cascaded system is to be
materials, and lastly, troubleshooting the
applied since a single stage amplifier will not
prototype in breadboard.
give a sufficient gain or bandwidth. This will
Results and Discussion also affect the output and input impedances
that will change the parameters of the entire
The research was mainly about the circuit.
characteristics of the possible materials that
will be used. Choosing between which In analog design, minimizing the distortion
transistor, BJT or FET, is an important cannot be achieved by a single transistor
consideration because they have different only. BJT common emitter amplifiers are not
controlled parameter, current for BJT and very linear without feedback, such as an
voltage for FET. Operational amplifier was emitter resistor. A single stage amplifier must
have a lower gain so that the feedback will
lessen the distortion. The resulted gain of that From the first attempt, we connected two
single stage will not reach the required value identical voltage divider biased transistor
for the project. circuit to produce a cascaded system.

Therefore, the first stage of the circuit is With thorough analysis, the circuit model is
constructed. We considered the minimum appropriate in making an amplifier. The next
value of supply voltage which is 12V. A consideration is the values of the
voltage divider bias circuit is chosen because components. The resistor, R1, R2, R6 and R7
it has few resistors to divide and distribute the are not in whole number. These values are not
voltage from transistor to transistor. One available in the market. Other than that, we
resistor, the emitter resistor, RE provides set the values of the Rsignal and the
stability against variations in that may exist capacitors. The load resistance of 1k is one
from transistor to transistor. requirement of the project.

We set the values of R3 as 6k and R4 as There is no bypass capacitor in this circuit.


1k. For R1 and R2, the values are computed Thus this circuit is more prone to distortion
as with respect to R3 and R4 considering the or noise. The main function of bypass
desired gain of the first stage. General capacitor is to short or bypass AC signals to
purpose bipolar junction transistor, 2N3904, the ground removing the AC noise on a DC
is used in the circuit. Other values of the signal. It actually filters AC making it pure.
components are decided in the next attempt
of completing the circuit design. We rejected the values of the said resistors.
We moved to changing these values but the
SECOND ATTEMPT: circuit itself is our pattern.

THIRD ATTEMPT:

The first stage being computed in the first


attempt is used to complete the next stage.
We decided to use cascade two transistors
since it will already reach the desired gain. In After rejecting the previous attempt, we came
estimate, the required overall gain could be up to the same circuit pattern but different
attained considering that a single BJT can values of components. But the assumptions
produce 100-300 gain range. dont satisfy the required configurations.
The above figure showed the AC sweep of
the circuit. The group need to reject this
circuit because it does not give a smooth AC
sweep which affects the bandwidth and gain Gain: 400 to 800
of the entire system. The bandwidth of this circuit is:
FINAL ATTEMPT:

After careful adjustments and considerations,


the team finally realized the circuit to be used.
Attaining the required configurations is the
main goal and this circuit met those
requirements. To test the parameters, we
simulated the circuit in Multisim and in using
oscilloscope and function generator.

This circuit is far from the previous attempt.


We placed bypass capacitors for both stages.
We also use 2N4401, npn BJT.
Frequency Range: 300Hz to 20kHz
Measured Value:
The output swing of this circuit is:
The gain of this circuit is:
DC Analysis

1 1 1
= ( + )
50 10
=

Output Swing: 4Vpp =

The input current of this circuit is: =



=

=

KVL

( + 1) = 0

= =

= ( + 1) =
Maximum Input Current: 10uA
AC Analysis
Computed Values

First Stage
1 =
DC Analysis
( + 1) =
1 1 1
1 = = = ( + )
50 12
=
=
=

=

=
KVL
( + 1)
=0

=
= =
= ( + 1) =

AC Analysis
1
1 =
( + 1)

Second Stage
2 =
2 =

Low Cut-Off Frequency


Coupling Capacitor


2 =

Two Port Model 1
=
2( + )

1
1 2 =
1 = 2( + )
1 + 2

2 ()
2 =
+ 2
= 1 2

1
=
+ 1

% Difference of Gain:
Measured =

% Difference =
* 100 %

Frequency Response:
higher gain but the transient and output swing
will be at stake.

The capacitors that used are electrolytic and


ceramic. The capacitors are coupled for DC
signal from AC input to be blocked. The team
also learned that capacitors must be
bypassed. This will give a better frequency
response because it affects much of the low
1 cut-off frequency.
=
2( + ) We also used 2N4401 or an NPN Bipolar
Bypass capacitor (First Stage) Junction Transistor. The team used this
transistor for both stages. Theoretically,
cascading transistors can give them high
overall gain. When they computed for the
gain, they reached the required value.

In testing the project with the oscilloscope


and function generator, the wave appeared to
be:

|||| + ( + 1)
=
( + 1)

DISCUSSION

This audio transistor amplifier has required


configurations. Setting the values of each
components are done carefully because of the
specified requirements of the project. There is a little distortion due to noise. But it
was lessen due to the high filter capacitor
In the measured value, we used MultiSim to which is 20nF.
simulate the parameters.

In the computed values, every components


are considered. The steps in DC biasing,
small signal analysis, systems approach and
frequency response are used to calculate the
overall gain of the system and the frequency
at low cut-off.

The resistors in the circuit gave much effect


to the overall gain. If the values of the
resistors are lowered, the circuit will have
Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory,
Seventh Edition

[2] Electronics Tutorials Available:


http://www.electronics-
tutorials.ws/amplifier/amp_1.html

[3]Learning about Electronics Available:


http://www.learningaboutelectronics.com/Ar
ticles/Voltage-divider-bias-of-a-BJT-
transistor

[4] Elprocus Available:


https://www.elprocus.com/bypass-capacitor-
This is the circuit which is assembled in a its-functions-and-applications/
breadboard.

The project is complete and is ready to be


presented.

CONCLUSION

Therefore,

1. The transistor amplifier that has been


constructed has a frequency range
that covers the human hearing range.
The project has a frequency range of
342 Hz to 18.1660 kHz.
2. The constructed circuit meets the
required configuration like the gain
of at least 400 to 800, maximum
input current of 10uA at output swing
of 4Vpp.
3. The knowledge acquired through
discussion of lectures inside the class
and the gathered data from the
Internet and books are applied in
developing this circuit and the
project itself.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This project was made by the students of


Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering
for the final requirement in the course
subject, ECE 303, Electronic Circuit
Analysis and Design.

REFERENCE

[1] Robert Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky,


BJT and JFET Frequency Response,