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129 visualizzazioni76 pagineThree-phase induction motors convert three-phase ac electrical energy into mechanical energy.
The electrical energy will be transferred from one circuit to another circuit by electromagnetic induction process and the name of the motor is induction motor. Three-phase induction motor is the mostly used in industries. All over the word, above 80% of total energy conversion from electrical to mechanical is carried out by three-phase induction motors.

Jul 10, 2017

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT o leggi online da Scribd

Three-phase induction motors convert three-phase ac electrical energy into mechanical energy.
The electrical energy will be transferred from one circuit to another circuit by electromagnetic induction process and the name of the motor is induction motor. Three-phase induction motor is the mostly used in industries. All over the word, above 80% of total energy conversion from electrical to mechanical is carried out by three-phase induction motors.

© All Rights Reserved

129 visualizzazioni

Three-phase induction motors convert three-phase ac electrical energy into mechanical energy.
The electrical energy will be transferred from one circuit to another circuit by electromagnetic induction process and the name of the motor is induction motor. Three-phase induction motor is the mostly used in industries. All over the word, above 80% of total energy conversion from electrical to mechanical is carried out by three-phase induction motors.

© All Rights Reserved

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Assistant Professor

Department of Applied Physics

Electrical Engineering Section

University of Calcutta

92, APC Road, Kolkata - 9

1

THREE PHASE INDUCTION MOTORS

electrical energy into mechanical energy.

another circuit by electromagnetic induction process and

the name of the motor is induction motor.

industries.

from electrical to mechanical is carried out by three-phase

induction motors.

2

THREE PHASE INDUCTION MOTORS

3

SECTIONAL VIEW OF INDUCTION MOTOR

4

CONSTRUCTION OF THREE PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR

1. Stator and

2. Rotor

stator.

which range from 0.4 mm to 4 mm, depending on the power

of the motor.

5

STATOR AND ROTOR OF A 3- INDUCTION MOTOR

6

STATOR OF INDUCTION MOTOR

reduce hysterises and eddy current losses.

star or delta connected circuit.

of poles as per requirement of speed.

7

STATOR CORE AND STATOR WINDING OF 3-PH IM

8

STATOR WINDING OF 3-PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR

1. Three phase stator winding accommodated in a number of

slots on the periphery of the stator.

2. Number of slots depends upon the diameter of stator that is

the rating of the machine.

3. Stator winding are used double layer.

4. The emf of all phases are of equal magnitude and

frequency.

5. Emf all the phase have identical waveforms and

displacement by 120 electrical degrees.

6. Open slot and partially closed slots are used in stator

winding.

9

ROTOR OF 3-PH INDUCTION MOTOR

10

ROTOR OF INDUCTION MOTOR

Rotor core is laminated steel to reduce hysterises &

eddy current losses.

Rotor slots are punched out in the rotor core.

The rotor slots are generally skewed by a certain angle

with the shaft, to reduce magnetic noise, uniform torque

and to prevent magnetic locking of rotor with the stator.

i.e.

1. Squirrel cage rotor and

2. Wound rotor or slip ring rotor

11

SQUIRREL CAGE ROTOR OF A 3-PH IM

12

ROTOR BARS AND RINGS OF SQUIRREL CAGE ROTOR

13

DETAILS OF SQUIRREL CAGE ROTOR

14

SQUIRREL CAGE ROTOR

the rotor slots.

Rotor bars are short-circuited at each end by solid end

rings.

The end rings are made of copper, brass or aluminum.

The squirrel cage rotor has excellent running

performance.

But starting torque is low.

Starting torque of squirrel cage induction motor can be

increased by employing either a double cage rotor or

deep bar rotor.

15

WOUND ROTOR OR SLIP RING ROTOR 3-PH IM

16

DETAILS OF SLIP-RING ROTOR ASSEMBLY

17

WOUND ROTOR OF A LARGE 3-PH IM

18

WOUND ROTOR OR SLIP RING ROTOR

The slip ring rotor winding are similar to the stator winding.

Semi-closed slots are used in the rotor.

The number of rotor slots is less than the stator slots.

Cross-section rotor conductor are heavier.

Rotor winding is star connected.

Rotor winding are connected to the slip rings mounted on

the shaft.

Slip rings are located between the rotor core and the

bearing and properly insulated from the rotor shaft.

Starting torque can be increased with reduction of

starting current by connecting external resistance

between the slip rings and the winding ends. 19

ROTATING MAGNETIC FIELD OF 3-PHASE IM

alternating current shows in Fig. 1.

Figure 1. 20

ROTATING MAGNETIC FIELD OF 3-PHASE IM

stator is the represent by displaced by from each other by

120 electrical degree.

The alternating current flows through the stator winding,

produces a sinusoidally distributed mmf wave in each

phase of the stator winding.

The mmfs in the stator phase can be represented as :

Fa Fmax sin t

Fb Fmax sin (t 1200 )

Fc Fmax sin (t 2400 )

21

ROTATING MAGNETIC FIELD OF 3-PHASE IM

a, b, and c, when the current flow through the respective

phase winding.

The phasor representation of the mmfs are shown in Figure 3.

Figure 2 Figure 3

22

RESULTANT PHASOR DIAGRAM OF STATOR MMFS

Fa Fmax sin t

Fb Fmax sin (t 1200 )

Fc Fmax sin (t 2400 )

23

CONCLUSIONS :

produced by one phase of the stator winding mmf that is

(FR = 1.5 Fmax).

The resultant mmfs or the field produced is rotating at

constant speed i.e. synchronous speed (Ns).

The synchronous speed of the rotating magnetic field

produced by the stator currents is given by

120 f

NS .

P

24

PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION OF 3-PHASE IM

25

PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION OF 3-PHASE IM

induction motor.

A rotating magnetic field is produced in the air gap and

rotates at synchronous speed.

Rotor winding of the induction motor is short-circuited.

An alternating emf is induced in the rotor conductors

because of the field is rotating.

The emf in the rotor conductor circulates a rotor current.

The effect of the circulating current in the rotor is to

strengthen the flux density on the right hand side and

weaken that on the left hand side.

A force (torque) will be developed and the rotor to rotate in

the direction of rotating magnetic field. 26

SLIP IN INDUCTION MOTOR

The relative speed between the rotating magnetic flux

and the rotor is represented as function of synchronous

speed, which is called slip. Slip is denoted by s.

The slip s may be expressed as

Ns N r

s p. u.

Ns

where, Ns = synchronous speed of rotating magnetic flux

and Nr = speed of the rotor in rpm .

Slip is expressed as a percentage,

Ns N r

% s 100

Ns

27

FREQUENCY OF ROTOR EMF AND CURRENT

rotating magnetic field is equal to (Ns - Nr) rpm. The

frequency of the rotor current is proportional to this relative

speed.

P ( Ns N r ) P Ns Ns N r

fr sf

120 120 Ns

28

INDUCED EMF IN STATOR WINDING

connected a 3-ph ac supply, a rotating magnetic field is

produced in the air gap at synchronous speed.

Faradays law of induction per phase is

d a

d

e1a T1ph

dt

where T1ph = the number of terns and

a = the flux for phase a.

The main flux can be expressed as a = cos t .

d

Then, e1a T1 ph ( cos t ) T1 ph sin t

dt 29

INDUCED EMF IN STATOR WINDING

E m T1 ph 2 f T1 ph

Em 2 f Tph

E1ph T1ph 4.44 f T1ph

2 2

The emf induced per phase in the stator winding of a

3-ph induction motor is

E1ph 4.44 f K w T1 ph

30

Distribution factor :

The ratio of the resultant emf to the arithmetic sum of

separate emfs is called the distribution factor and is

denoted by kd.

The stator coils may be short pitch which again

reduces the resultant emf by a factor kc, known as span

factor or pitch factor.

Winding factor :

Taking into account the both two effects, Kw

(Kw = kd kc) called the winding factor.

31

ROTOR INDUCED EMF OF 3-PH IM

currents, also induced emf in the rotor winding, which is

given by

E 2 ph 4.44 f r K w r T2 ph

where,

fr = rotor frequency,

T2ph = number of turns per phase and

Kwr = winding factor of the rotor winding

32

ROTOR INDUCED EMF OF 3-PH IM

T2 ph

E 2 ph E1 ph

T1 ph

ii. Rotor emf at Loaded Condition ( fr = sf )

loaded condition is given by,

E2 ph 4.44 s f K w r T2 ph s E 2 ph

33

EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT OF INDUCTION MOTOR

s E2 E2

I2

R 2 jsX 2 R 2 jX

s 2

34

MODIFIED EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

I2 a E2 E1

I 2 2

a a R2 ja 2 X R 2

s 2 s j X 2

where a is the ratio of T1ph/T2ph

35

EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT DIAGRAM REFERRED TO STATOR

36

SIMPLIFIED EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

37

APPROXIMATELY EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

simplifies the analysis and all performance calculation of

the three phase induction motor.

38

PHASOR DIAGRAM OF 3-PH INDUCTION MOTOR

39

LOSSES OF 3-PH INDUCTION MOTOR

1. Stator loses

i. Copper losses in the stator winding

ii. Iron losses in the stator core

2. Rotor loses

i. Rotor copper losses in rotor winding

ii. Iron losses in the rotor core, which is negligible

because low rotor frequency.

3. Mechanical losses

i. Friction and windage losses

40

POWER FLOW DIAGRAM OF 3-PH INDUCTION MOTOR

41

EFFICIENCY OF 3-PH INDUCTION MOTOR

as the ratio of output shaft power to input power.

Psh

% 100

Psh Pc Poh

Pc = constant losses

= core loss + friction & windage losses

Poh = stator and rotor ohmic losses

42

POWER RELATION BETWEEN PG, PM & PRCU WITH SLIP

Prcu 3 I2 R 2

2

1. Rotor copper loss,

3. Air gap power, P 3 I 2 R 1s 3 I 2 R 3 I2 R 2

2

2 s

s

g 2 2 2

2

5. Mechanical power developed, Pm 3 I2 2 R 2 1s s Pg (1 s)

Pg : Pm : Prcu 1 : (1 s) : s 43

ELECTROMAGNETIC TORQUE IN INDUCTION MOTOR

3I2 R 2

2

Power input to the motor, Pg s Te

s

sE 2

The rotor current, I 2

R 2 (sX 2 ) 2

2

s E2 R2

2 2

Now, s Te 3

R2 2

(sX 2 ) 2 s

The torque developed by the rotor is

3 s E2 R 2

2

Te 2

s R 2 (sX 2 ) 2

This is the generalized equation for electromagnetic torque.

44

ELECTROMAGNETIC TORQUE IN INDUCTION MOTOR

3E 2 2 s R 2 / X2 s

Te Kt 2 2

s X 2 R 2 sX

2

s

2 2

X2 X2

where, R2/X2 is represented by .

3E 2 3 60 E 2

2 2

and Kt

s X 2 2 Ns X 2

= constant for a particular induction motor.

45

STARTING TORQUE OF 3-PH IM

3 E 2

R2 R2

Starting torque, Te 2

2 K

s R 2 X2 2

R 22 X22

The starting torque of an IM depends upon the resistance

and reactance rotor winding.

Reactance, at stand still is quit large compared to rotor

resistance and as such the starting torque is small.

Starting torque of an induction motor can be increased by

including an external resistance in the rotor circuit at the

instant of starting.

At starting, the starting torque is not equals to zero, then we

can say the 3-ph IM is self starting. 46

CONDITION FOR MAXIMUM TORQUE

3E 22 s

Torque developed by the induction motor, Te 2 2

s X 2 s

dT d s

For maximum torque, Kt 2 2

0

dt dt s

or ( 2 s 2 ) 0

when, R 2 / X2 0 R2 0

For R2 = 0, torque developed in the induction motor is zero.

Again, s R 2 / X2

This is the condition for the maximum torque of the 3-ph IM.

3E 2 2 1

Maximum torque of the motor is Tmax

s 2 X 2

The maximum torque is independent of rotor resistance. 47

RELATION BETWEEN FULL LOAD TORQUE & MAXIMUM TORQUE

3E22 sf R 2

Full load torque of the IM, Tf 2

s R 2 sf 2X22

3E 2 1

2

R2

Maximum torque of the IM, Tmax s m

s 2 X2 X 2

3 E22 sf R 2 R2

2 2 sf

Now, Tf s R 2 sf 2X 22 sf R 2 2 X 2 X2

Tmax 3E 2 1 R 2 sf X 2 R2

2 2 2 2 2

s f 2

s 2 X 2 X2

Tf 2s ms f 2

Tmax sm sf

2 2 s m sf

sf sm 48

TORQUE-SLIP OR TORQUE-SPEED CHARACTERISTICS

The torque developed by the induction rotor is

2 E 2 V1

3 s E 22 R 2 s R2

Te 2 K

s R 2 (sX 2 ) 2

R 2 (sX 2 )

2

standstill and synchronous speed. The slip limits 1 to 0.

The term (sX 2 ) can be neglected as compared with R 2

2

2

s

Te K s

R2

The torque-slip characteristic is a straight line in the low

value of slip. 49

2. For large value of slip, say from 0.1 to 1

The term R 2 can be neglected as compared with (sX 2 )

2 2

s R2 R2 1 1

Te K K .

(s X 2 ) 2

X2 s s

The torque is inversely proportional to slip. The nature of

torque-slip characteristic is a rectangular hyperbola in

this region.

3. At maximum torque

At maximum torque the value of the slip is s R 2 / X2

For lower values of slip, the torque-slip characteristic as a

straight line and for higher values of slip the torque -slip

characteristic is represented as a rectangular hyperbola.

50

TORQUE-SLIP CHARACTERISTIC OF 3-PH IM

51

TORQUE-SLIP CHARACTERISTIC OF 3-PH IM WITH DIFFERENT

ROTOR RESISTANCES.

52

STARTING OF THREE PHASE INDUCTION MOTORS

stationary, thus the slip being unity, the frequency of

the rotor emf equals to supply frequency and the rotor

emf induced.

The magnitude of rotor induced emf is quite large and

the rotor current is very high because it is equivalent

to a short-circuit winding.

The stator winding current is drawn 5 to 7 times the

full load current at the starting, which would create lot

of heat inside the motor due to high copper losses in

the windings and might damage the insulation of the

winding. 53

STARTING OF SQUIRREL CAGE INDUCTION MOTOR

induction motors:

1. Full-voltage starting

2. Reduced-voltage starting

(DOL) starting only.

a. Stator resistance (reactor) starting

b. Auto-transformer starting

c. Star-delta starting 54

DIRECT ON LINE (DOL) STARTING

55

The electromagnetic torque per phase is given by

1 I2 R 2

2

T

s s

R2

Tst I 2

I 2.st

2

I st

2

2.st 1 s fl s fl

Tf R

I 2.fl 2 s 2 I 2.fl I fl

fl

If V1 is the per phase stator voltage and Zsc is the

standstill per phase impedance referred to stator, then

per phase short-circuit current at standstill is,

V1

I sc

Z sc

V1

For direct switching, I st I sc

Z sc

Tst I sc

2

s fl

Tf I fl

56

STATOR RESISTANCE STARTING

At starting, some voltage drop occurs across the

starting resistor and a fraction x (x<1) of the supply

voltage appears across the current (Ist) drawn by the

motor from the supply mains.

Per phase voltage is reduced to xV1 and the per

phase starting current is given by

57

The starting current,

xV1

I st x I sc

Z sc

The relation between starting torque and full-load torque

Tst I st x I sc 2 I sc

2 2 2

s f s f x s f

Tf I f If If

T V2

xV1

2

Starting torque with reactor starting

x 2

Starting torque with direct switching V1 58

AUTO-TRANSFORMER STARTING

A fraction xV1 of the supply voltage is applied to the

stator terminals at the time of starting.

Per phase starting current in the stator winding is

xV1

I st x I sc

Z sc

59

Power both side of the auto-transformer is equal. Then

I st V1 ( x V1 ) ( x I sc )

Per phase starting current from the supply mains,

I st x 2 I sc

The relation between starting torque and full-load torque

Tst I st x I sc

2 I sc

2 2 2

s f s f x s f

Tf I f If If

Starting torque with an auto transformer xV1

2

x 2

Starting torque with direct switching V1

An auto-transformer the starting current from the

mains and starting torque Tst are reduced to x2 time with

direct-on-line starting.

60

STAR-DELTA STARTING

TPDT

=

3-pole

double

Through

switch

61

Let, VL be the line voltage of the stator winding.

Then per phase motor starting current Ist-y with stator

winding in star is

VL

I sty

3 Z sc

If the stator winding were delta-connected, then with

direct switching, the per phase motor starting current

VL

I std I sc d

Z sc

Starting line current with direct switching is

3VL / Zsc 3 I std 3 I sc d

Starting current with stator winding in star is

1

I sty I std

3

62

Starting line current with star delta starter I sty I std 1

Starting line current with direct switching in delta 3 I std 3 3 I std 3

mains is one-third of that with direct switching in delta.

In an IM, torque is proportional to the squire of voltage

T V2

The relation between starting torque with star-delta

starter and direct switching in delta is

Starting torque with star delta starter VL / 3

2

1

Starting torque with direct switching in delta VL 3

third of that produced by direct switching in delta.

63

The ratio of starting torque to full load torque is

Istd

2

1 2 r2

Tst ( s ) (I sty ) ( 1 ) 3 1 I scd

2

sf sf

r

Tf ( 1 )(I f d ) ( 2 ) I f d 3 I f d

s

2

sf

In auto-transformer, if the ratio of output voltage to

supply voltage is 1/3, then both the starting line current,

and motor starting torque are reduced to one third of

their corresponding values with direct switching in delta.

as if it were started by an auto-transformer starter with

x 1 / 3 0.58

that is with 58% tapping of the auto transformer. 64

SPEED CONTROL OF 3-PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR

depend on the pole (P), supply frequency (f) and

relative speed (slip, s). The rotor speed of the motor is

120f

N r (1 s) N s (1 s)

P

The different method of speed control of 3-phase

induction motor are given as follows

1. Stator voltage control

2. Pole changing control

3. Supply frequency control 65

1. STATOR VOLTAGE CONTROL

66

2. POLE CHANGING CONTROL

67

3. SUPPLY FREQUENCY CONTROL

E1 = 4.44 f T1 Kw

gap flux, to avoid saturation & minimize the losses.

Keep, E1/f or V1/f constant, in order to operate the

motor at different speeds by varying the frequency,

to keep the air gap flux constant.

In the figure shows the torque-speed characteristics

of 3-phase induction motor with variable frequency,

variable voltage (V/f = constant) applied to the stator

winding. 68

TORQUE-SPEED CHARACTERISTICS WITH VARIABLE FREQUENCY

69

STARTING AND SPEED CONTROL OF SLIP RING IM

Torque-speed characteristics with different rotor circuit

resistances control

71

CRAWLING IN INDUCTION MOTOR

For 7-th Harmonics, Ns(7-th-har) = 257 rpm

For 5-th Harmonics, Ns(5-th-har) = 360 rpm

72

The effects of harmonics are significant.

The fundamental torque and harmonic torques are

also developed.

The synchronous speeds of the harmonic torques are

(1/n)th of speed for fundamental torque i.e. Ns/n.

Third harmonic are absent in a balanced 3-ph system

The seventh harmonic flux rotates in the same

direction as the fundamental flux and 7-th harmonic

rotating at a speed of (1/7) of synchronous speed.

The seventh harmonic produces a dip in the torque-

speed characteristic at 1/7 of the synchronous speed.

The seventh harmonic torque aids the fundamental

component torque.

73

The fifth harmonic flux rotates in the opposite direction

of the fundamental flux and fifth harmonic rotating

at a speed of (1/5) of synchronous speed.

The fifth harmonic produces a dip in the torque-speed

characteristic at one-fifth of the synchronous speed in

opposite direction of the fundamental torque.

This dip occurs at a slip which is grater than unity, i.e.

in the negative direction of motor rotation.

The resultant torque-speed characteristic will be the

combination of the fundamental, fifth and seventh

harmonic characteristics of a 4-pole, 60 Hz induction

motor as shown in Figure.

Due to the presence of seventh harmonic flux torque,

the load torque curve intersects the motor torque- 74

speed characteristic at point A.

The seventh harmonic flux torque curve has a negative

slop at point A stable running condition over the torque

range.

The motor torque falls below the load torque.

At this condition the motor will not accelerate up to its

normal speed.

Motor will running at a speed which is nearly (1/7) of its

normal speed.

This tendency of the motor to run at a stable speed as low

as (1/7)-th of the synchronous speed and being unable to

pick up its normal speed is called as crawling of the motor.

Crawling can be reduced by reducing fifth and seventh

harmonics in the induction motor.

Crawling are reduced by using a chorded or short

pitched winding in stator of the induction motor.

75

COGGING OF INDUCTION MOTOR

If the number of stator and rotor slots of an induction motor

are equal, the rotor may fail to start.

With the number of stator slots equal to an integral multiple

of rotor slots, there would exist a starting alignment force

between the stator and the rotor at standstill condition

because of the pronounced variation of air-gap reluctance.

The alignment force at the instant of start may become

stronger than the starting torque resulting in failure of

the motor to start.

This phenomenon of motor referring to start is known as

cogging.

To avoid cogging the numbers of stator and rotor slots are

never made to be equal or have an integral ratio. 76

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