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THREE PHASE INDUCTION MOTORS

Dr. Amitava Biswas


Assistant Professor
Department of Applied Physics
Electrical Engineering Section
University of Calcutta
92, APC Road, Kolkata - 9

1
THREE PHASE INDUCTION MOTORS

1. Three-phase induction motors convert three-phase ac


electrical energy into mechanical energy.

2. The electrical energy will be transferred from one circuit to


another circuit by electromagnetic induction process and
the name of the motor is induction motor.

3. Three-phase induction motor is the mostly used in


industries.

4. All over the word, above 80% of total energy conversion


from electrical to mechanical is carried out by three-phase
induction motors.
2
THREE PHASE INDUCTION MOTORS

3
SECTIONAL VIEW OF INDUCTION MOTOR

4
CONSTRUCTION OF THREE PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR

A three phase induction motor has two main parts

1. Stator and
2. Rotor

The stationary member of the induction motor is called


stator.

The rotating member called as rotor.

The rotor is separated from the stator by a small air-gap


which range from 0.4 mm to 4 mm, depending on the power
of the motor.
5
STATOR AND ROTOR OF A 3- INDUCTION MOTOR

6
STATOR OF INDUCTION MOTOR

1. Stator is the stationary part

2. It consists of a hollow, cylindrical steel frame core.

3. Stator core is made up thin laminations of silicon steel to


reduce hysterises and eddy current losses.

4. The stator slots are connected to form a balanced 3-ph


star or delta connected circuit.

5. The 3-phase stator winding is wound for a definite number


of poles as per requirement of speed.

7
STATOR CORE AND STATOR WINDING OF 3-PH IM

8
STATOR WINDING OF 3-PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR
1. Three phase stator winding accommodated in a number of
slots on the periphery of the stator.
2. Number of slots depends upon the diameter of stator that is
the rating of the machine.
3. Stator winding are used double layer.
4. The emf of all phases are of equal magnitude and
frequency.
5. Emf all the phase have identical waveforms and
displacement by 120 electrical degrees.
6. Open slot and partially closed slots are used in stator
winding.
9
ROTOR OF 3-PH INDUCTION MOTOR

10
ROTOR OF INDUCTION MOTOR

The rotor is mounted on the shaft.


Rotor core is laminated steel to reduce hysterises &
eddy current losses.
Rotor slots are punched out in the rotor core.
The rotor slots are generally skewed by a certain angle
with the shaft, to reduce magnetic noise, uniform torque
and to prevent magnetic locking of rotor with the stator.

Two type of rotor connection are used for induction motor,


i.e.
1. Squirrel cage rotor and
2. Wound rotor or slip ring rotor
11
SQUIRREL CAGE ROTOR OF A 3-PH IM

12
ROTOR BARS AND RINGS OF SQUIRREL CAGE ROTOR

13
DETAILS OF SQUIRREL CAGE ROTOR

14
SQUIRREL CAGE ROTOR

A squirrel cage rotor consists of copper bars placed in


the rotor slots.
Rotor bars are short-circuited at each end by solid end
rings.
The end rings are made of copper, brass or aluminum.
The squirrel cage rotor has excellent running
performance.
But starting torque is low.
Starting torque of squirrel cage induction motor can be
increased by employing either a double cage rotor or
deep bar rotor.
15
WOUND ROTOR OR SLIP RING ROTOR 3-PH IM

16
DETAILS OF SLIP-RING ROTOR ASSEMBLY

17
WOUND ROTOR OF A LARGE 3-PH IM

18
WOUND ROTOR OR SLIP RING ROTOR
The slip ring rotor winding are similar to the stator winding.
Semi-closed slots are used in the rotor.
The number of rotor slots is less than the stator slots.
Cross-section rotor conductor are heavier.
Rotor winding is star connected.
Rotor winding are connected to the slip rings mounted on
the shaft.
Slip rings are located between the rotor core and the
bearing and properly insulated from the rotor shaft.
Starting torque can be increased with reduction of
starting current by connecting external resistance
between the slip rings and the winding ends. 19
ROTATING MAGNETIC FIELD OF 3-PHASE IM

A 3-phase, 2-pole stator of IM supply with 3-phase balance


alternating current shows in Fig. 1.

Figure 1. 20
ROTATING MAGNETIC FIELD OF 3-PHASE IM

Three phase winding around the inner circumference of the


stator is the represent by displaced by from each other by
120 electrical degree.
The alternating current flows through the stator winding,
produces a sinusoidally distributed mmf wave in each
phase of the stator winding.
The mmfs in the stator phase can be represented as :

Fa Fmax sin t
Fb Fmax sin (t 1200 )
Fc Fmax sin (t 2400 )
21
ROTATING MAGNETIC FIELD OF 3-PHASE IM

Figure 2 shows the sinusoidal distributed mmf waves of phase


a, b, and c, when the current flow through the respective
phase winding.
The phasor representation of the mmfs are shown in Figure 3.

Figure 2 Figure 3
22
RESULTANT PHASOR DIAGRAM OF STATOR MMFS

Fa Fmax sin t
Fb Fmax sin (t 1200 )
Fc Fmax sin (t 2400 )

23
CONCLUSIONS :

The resultant mmf is equal to 1.5 times the maximum mmf


produced by one phase of the stator winding mmf that is
(FR = 1.5 Fmax).
The resultant mmfs or the field produced is rotating at
constant speed i.e. synchronous speed (Ns).
The synchronous speed of the rotating magnetic field
produced by the stator currents is given by

120 f
NS .
P

24
PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION OF 3-PHASE IM

25
PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION OF 3-PHASE IM

A 3-phase supply is connected to the stator winding of 3-ph


induction motor.
A rotating magnetic field is produced in the air gap and
rotates at synchronous speed.
Rotor winding of the induction motor is short-circuited.
An alternating emf is induced in the rotor conductors
because of the field is rotating.
The emf in the rotor conductor circulates a rotor current.
The effect of the circulating current in the rotor is to
strengthen the flux density on the right hand side and
weaken that on the left hand side.
A force (torque) will be developed and the rotor to rotate in
the direction of rotating magnetic field. 26
SLIP IN INDUCTION MOTOR
The relative speed between the rotating magnetic flux
and the rotor is represented as function of synchronous
speed, which is called slip. Slip is denoted by s.
The slip s may be expressed as
Ns N r
s p. u.
Ns
where, Ns = synchronous speed of rotating magnetic flux
and Nr = speed of the rotor in rpm .
Slip is expressed as a percentage,
Ns N r
% s 100
Ns
27
FREQUENCY OF ROTOR EMF AND CURRENT

The speed at which the rotor conductors are cut the


rotating magnetic field is equal to (Ns - Nr) rpm. The
frequency of the rotor current is proportional to this relative
speed.

The frequency of rotor current is given by


P ( Ns N r ) P Ns Ns N r
fr sf
120 120 Ns

Rotor frequency = Slip x stator frequency

28
INDUCED EMF IN STATOR WINDING

The 3-phase stator winding of induction motor are


connected a 3-ph ac supply, a rotating magnetic field is
produced in the air gap at synchronous speed.

The emf induced the stator winding accordin to the


Faradays law of induction per phase is
d a
d
e1a T1ph
dt
where T1ph = the number of terns and
a = the flux for phase a.
The main flux can be expressed as a = cos t .
d
Then, e1a T1 ph ( cos t ) T1 ph sin t
dt 29
INDUCED EMF IN STATOR WINDING

The maximum emf

E m T1 ph 2 f T1 ph

The rms value of the emf,

Em 2 f Tph
E1ph T1ph 4.44 f T1ph
2 2
The emf induced per phase in the stator winding of a
3-ph induction motor is
E1ph 4.44 f K w T1 ph

where, Kw is the winding factor of stator.


30
Distribution factor :
The ratio of the resultant emf to the arithmetic sum of
separate emfs is called the distribution factor and is
denoted by kd.

Span factor or Pitch Factor:


The stator coils may be short pitch which again
reduces the resultant emf by a factor kc, known as span
factor or pitch factor.

Winding factor :
Taking into account the both two effects, Kw
(Kw = kd kc) called the winding factor.
31
ROTOR INDUCED EMF OF 3-PH IM

The rotating field produced in the air gap due to stator


currents, also induced emf in the rotor winding, which is
given by

E 2 ph 4.44 f r K w r T2 ph

where,
fr = rotor frequency,
T2ph = number of turns per phase and
Kwr = winding factor of the rotor winding

32
ROTOR INDUCED EMF OF 3-PH IM

i. Rotor emf at Standstill ( fr = f ) :

The rotor emf, E 2 ph 4.44 f K w r T2 ph

The rotor emf per phase at stand still,


T2 ph
E 2 ph E1 ph
T1 ph
ii. Rotor emf at Loaded Condition ( fr = sf )

The induced emf per phase in the rotor winding under


loaded condition is given by,
E2 ph 4.44 s f K w r T2 ph s E 2 ph
33
EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT OF INDUCTION MOTOR

Per phase rotor current,


s E2 E2
I2
R 2 jsX 2 R 2 jX
s 2
34
MODIFIED EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

Rotor current referred to stator side is


I2 a E2 E1
I 2 2
a a R2 ja 2 X R 2
s 2 s j X 2
where a is the ratio of T1ph/T2ph
35
EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT DIAGRAM REFERRED TO STATOR

36
SIMPLIFIED EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

37
APPROXIMATELY EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

The approximate equivalent circuit is used as it


simplifies the analysis and all performance calculation of
the three phase induction motor.
38
PHASOR DIAGRAM OF 3-PH INDUCTION MOTOR

39
LOSSES OF 3-PH INDUCTION MOTOR

Different losses in 3-phase induction motor are

1. Stator loses
i. Copper losses in the stator winding
ii. Iron losses in the stator core

2. Rotor loses
i. Rotor copper losses in rotor winding
ii. Iron losses in the rotor core, which is negligible
because low rotor frequency.

3. Mechanical losses
i. Friction and windage losses
40
POWER FLOW DIAGRAM OF 3-PH INDUCTION MOTOR

41
EFFICIENCY OF 3-PH INDUCTION MOTOR

The efficiency of a 3-phase induction motor is defined


as the ratio of output shaft power to input power.

Psh
% 100
Psh Pc Poh

where, Psh = output or shaft power of motor


Pc = constant losses
= core loss + friction & windage losses
Poh = stator and rotor ohmic losses

42
POWER RELATION BETWEEN PG, PM & PRCU WITH SLIP

From the equivalent circuit diagram,

Prcu 3 I2 R 2

2
1. Rotor copper loss,

2. Mechanical power developed, Pm 3 I2 2 R 2 1s s


3. Air gap power, P 3 I 2 R 1s 3 I 2 R 3 I2 R 2
2

2 s
s
g 2 2 2

4. Now, Rotor copper loss, Prcu 3 I2 R 2 s Pg


2


5. Mechanical power developed, Pm 3 I2 2 R 2 1s s Pg (1 s)

6. The relation between, PG, PM & PRCU with s is


Pg : Pm : Prcu 1 : (1 s) : s 43
ELECTROMAGNETIC TORQUE IN INDUCTION MOTOR
3I2 R 2
2
Power input to the motor, Pg s Te
s
sE 2
The rotor current, I 2
R 2 (sX 2 ) 2
2

s E2 R2
2 2
Now, s Te 3
R2 2
(sX 2 ) 2 s
The torque developed by the rotor is
3 s E2 R 2
2
Te 2
s R 2 (sX 2 ) 2
This is the generalized equation for electromagnetic torque.
44
ELECTROMAGNETIC TORQUE IN INDUCTION MOTOR

The torque equation can be rewrite as follows

3E 2 2 s R 2 / X2 s
Te Kt 2 2
s X 2 R 2 sX
2
s
2 2
X2 X2
where, R2/X2 is represented by .

3E 2 3 60 E 2
2 2
and Kt
s X 2 2 Ns X 2
= constant for a particular induction motor.

45
STARTING TORQUE OF 3-PH IM

At stand still, that is starting of the motor, slip s = 1.


3 E 2
R2 R2
Starting torque, Te 2
2 K
s R 2 X2 2
R 22 X22
The starting torque of an IM depends upon the resistance
and reactance rotor winding.
Reactance, at stand still is quit large compared to rotor
resistance and as such the starting torque is small.
Starting torque of an induction motor can be increased by
including an external resistance in the rotor circuit at the
instant of starting.
At starting, the starting torque is not equals to zero, then we
can say the 3-ph IM is self starting. 46
CONDITION FOR MAXIMUM TORQUE
3E 22 s
Torque developed by the induction motor, Te 2 2
s X 2 s
dT d s
For maximum torque, Kt 2 2
0
dt dt s
or ( 2 s 2 ) 0
when, R 2 / X2 0 R2 0
For R2 = 0, torque developed in the induction motor is zero.
Again, s R 2 / X2
This is the condition for the maximum torque of the 3-ph IM.
3E 2 2 1
Maximum torque of the motor is Tmax
s 2 X 2
The maximum torque is independent of rotor resistance. 47
RELATION BETWEEN FULL LOAD TORQUE & MAXIMUM TORQUE
3E22 sf R 2
Full load torque of the IM, Tf 2
s R 2 sf 2X22
3E 2 1
2
R2
Maximum torque of the IM, Tmax s m
s 2 X2 X 2

3 E22 sf R 2 R2
2 2 sf
Now, Tf s R 2 sf 2X 22 sf R 2 2 X 2 X2

Tmax 3E 2 1 R 2 sf X 2 R2
2 2 2 2 2
s f 2
s 2 X 2 X2
Tf 2s ms f 2

Tmax sm sf
2 2 s m sf

sf sm 48
TORQUE-SLIP OR TORQUE-SPEED CHARACTERISTICS
The torque developed by the induction rotor is

2 E 2 V1
3 s E 22 R 2 s R2
Te 2 K
s R 2 (sX 2 ) 2
R 2 (sX 2 )
2

The torque-slip characteristic is to be taken between


standstill and synchronous speed. The slip limits 1 to 0.

1. For very small value of slip, say s = 0.01 to 0.1


The term (sX 2 ) can be neglected as compared with R 2
2
2

in the torque equation. Hence, the torque is


s
Te K s
R2
The torque-slip characteristic is a straight line in the low
value of slip. 49
2. For large value of slip, say from 0.1 to 1
The term R 2 can be neglected as compared with (sX 2 )
2 2

in the torque equation. Hence, the torque is


s R2 R2 1 1
Te K K .
(s X 2 ) 2
X2 s s
The torque is inversely proportional to slip. The nature of
torque-slip characteristic is a rectangular hyperbola in
this region.
3. At maximum torque
At maximum torque the value of the slip is s R 2 / X2
For lower values of slip, the torque-slip characteristic as a
straight line and for higher values of slip the torque -slip
characteristic is represented as a rectangular hyperbola.
50
TORQUE-SLIP CHARACTERISTIC OF 3-PH IM

TORQUE-SPEED CHARACTERISTIC OF 3-PH IM

51
TORQUE-SLIP CHARACTERISTIC OF 3-PH IM WITH DIFFERENT
ROTOR RESISTANCES.

52
STARTING OF THREE PHASE INDUCTION MOTORS

At the starting of 3-ph induction motor, the rotor is


stationary, thus the slip being unity, the frequency of
the rotor emf equals to supply frequency and the rotor
emf induced.
The magnitude of rotor induced emf is quite large and
the rotor current is very high because it is equivalent
to a short-circuit winding.
The stator winding current is drawn 5 to 7 times the
full load current at the starting, which would create lot
of heat inside the motor due to high copper losses in
the windings and might damage the insulation of the
winding. 53
STARTING OF SQUIRREL CAGE INDUCTION MOTOR

There are two methods of starting of squirrel-cage


induction motors:
1. Full-voltage starting
2. Reduced-voltage starting

The full-voltage starting consists of direct on line


(DOL) starting only.

The methods of reduced voltage are as follows


a. Stator resistance (reactor) starting
b. Auto-transformer starting
c. Star-delta starting 54
DIRECT ON LINE (DOL) STARTING

55
The electromagnetic torque per phase is given by
1 I2 R 2
2
T
s s
R2
Tst I 2
I 2.st
2
I st
2


2.st 1 s fl s fl
Tf R
I 2.fl 2 s 2 I 2.fl I fl
fl
If V1 is the per phase stator voltage and Zsc is the
standstill per phase impedance referred to stator, then
per phase short-circuit current at standstill is,
V1
I sc
Z sc
V1
For direct switching, I st I sc
Z sc
Tst I sc
2

s fl
Tf I fl
56
STATOR RESISTANCE STARTING

The supply voltage per phase is V1.


At starting, some voltage drop occurs across the
starting resistor and a fraction x (x<1) of the supply
voltage appears across the current (Ist) drawn by the
motor from the supply mains.
Per phase voltage is reduced to xV1 and the per
phase starting current is given by
57
The starting current,
xV1
I st x I sc
Z sc
The relation between starting torque and full-load torque

Tst I st x I sc 2 I sc
2 2 2

s f s f x s f
Tf I f If If

In an IM, torque is proportional to the squire of voltage


T V2
xV1
2
Starting torque with reactor starting
x 2
Starting torque with direct switching V1 58
AUTO-TRANSFORMER STARTING

Per phase voltage of the auto-transformer is V1.


A fraction xV1 of the supply voltage is applied to the
stator terminals at the time of starting.
Per phase starting current in the stator winding is
xV1
I st x I sc
Z sc
59
Power both side of the auto-transformer is equal. Then
I st V1 ( x V1 ) ( x I sc )
Per phase starting current from the supply mains,
I st x 2 I sc
The relation between starting torque and full-load torque
Tst I st x I sc
2 I sc
2 2 2

s f s f x s f
Tf I f If If
Starting torque with an auto transformer xV1
2


x 2
Starting torque with direct switching V1
An auto-transformer the starting current from the
mains and starting torque Tst are reduced to x2 time with
direct-on-line starting.
60
STAR-DELTA STARTING

TPDT
=
3-pole
double
Through
switch
61
Let, VL be the line voltage of the stator winding.
Then per phase motor starting current Ist-y with stator
winding in star is
VL
I sty
3 Z sc
If the stator winding were delta-connected, then with
direct switching, the per phase motor starting current
VL
I std I sc d
Z sc
Starting line current with direct switching is
3VL / Zsc 3 I std 3 I sc d
Starting current with stator winding in star is
1
I sty I std
3
62
Starting line current with star delta starter I sty I std 1

Starting line current with direct switching in delta 3 I std 3 3 I std 3

Using star-delta starter, the starting current from the


mains is one-third of that with direct switching in delta.
In an IM, torque is proportional to the squire of voltage
T V2
The relation between starting torque with star-delta
starter and direct switching in delta is
Starting torque with star delta starter VL / 3
2
1

Starting torque with direct switching in delta VL 3

Star-delta starter reduces the starting torque to one-


third of that produced by direct switching in delta.
63
The ratio of starting torque to full load torque is
Istd
2
1 2 r2
Tst ( s ) (I sty ) ( 1 ) 3 1 I scd
2

sf sf
r
Tf ( 1 )(I f d ) ( 2 ) I f d 3 I f d
s
2
sf

In auto-transformer, if the ratio of output voltage to
supply voltage is 1/3, then both the starting line current,
and motor starting torque are reduced to one third of
their corresponding values with direct switching in delta.

This shows with star-delta started, a motor behaves


as if it were started by an auto-transformer starter with

x 1 / 3 0.58
that is with 58% tapping of the auto transformer. 64
SPEED CONTROL OF 3-PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR

The rotor speed (Nr) of an induction motor is


depend on the pole (P), supply frequency (f) and
relative speed (slip, s). The rotor speed of the motor is
120f
N r (1 s) N s (1 s)
P
The different method of speed control of 3-phase
induction motor are given as follows
1. Stator voltage control
2. Pole changing control
3. Supply frequency control 65
1. STATOR VOLTAGE CONTROL

66
2. POLE CHANGING CONTROL

67
3. SUPPLY FREQUENCY CONTROL

The emf induced in the stator winding per phase,


E1 = 4.44 f T1 Kw

The induction motor should be operated at rated air


gap flux, to avoid saturation & minimize the losses.
Keep, E1/f or V1/f constant, in order to operate the
motor at different speeds by varying the frequency,
to keep the air gap flux constant.
In the figure shows the torque-speed characteristics
of 3-phase induction motor with variable frequency,
variable voltage (V/f = constant) applied to the stator
winding. 68
TORQUE-SPEED CHARACTERISTICS WITH VARIABLE FREQUENCY

DIAGRAM FOR VARIABLE VOLTAGE & VARIABLE FREQUENCY CONTROL

69
STARTING AND SPEED CONTROL OF SLIP RING IM

ROTOR RESISTANCE CONTROL

Schematic diagram of rotor resistance control 70


Torque-speed characteristics with different rotor circuit
resistances control

71
CRAWLING IN INDUCTION MOTOR

P = 4, f = 60 Hz, Ns = 1800 rpm,


For 7-th Harmonics, Ns(7-th-har) = 257 rpm
For 5-th Harmonics, Ns(5-th-har) = 360 rpm
72
The effects of harmonics are significant.
The fundamental torque and harmonic torques are
also developed.
The synchronous speeds of the harmonic torques are
(1/n)th of speed for fundamental torque i.e. Ns/n.
Third harmonic are absent in a balanced 3-ph system
The seventh harmonic flux rotates in the same
direction as the fundamental flux and 7-th harmonic
rotating at a speed of (1/7) of synchronous speed.
The seventh harmonic produces a dip in the torque-
speed characteristic at 1/7 of the synchronous speed.
The seventh harmonic torque aids the fundamental
component torque.
73
The fifth harmonic flux rotates in the opposite direction
of the fundamental flux and fifth harmonic rotating
at a speed of (1/5) of synchronous speed.
The fifth harmonic produces a dip in the torque-speed
characteristic at one-fifth of the synchronous speed in
opposite direction of the fundamental torque.
This dip occurs at a slip which is grater than unity, i.e.
in the negative direction of motor rotation.
The resultant torque-speed characteristic will be the
combination of the fundamental, fifth and seventh
harmonic characteristics of a 4-pole, 60 Hz induction
motor as shown in Figure.
Due to the presence of seventh harmonic flux torque,
the load torque curve intersects the motor torque- 74
speed characteristic at point A.
The seventh harmonic flux torque curve has a negative
slop at point A stable running condition over the torque
range.
The motor torque falls below the load torque.
At this condition the motor will not accelerate up to its
normal speed.
Motor will running at a speed which is nearly (1/7) of its
normal speed.
This tendency of the motor to run at a stable speed as low
as (1/7)-th of the synchronous speed and being unable to
pick up its normal speed is called as crawling of the motor.
Crawling can be reduced by reducing fifth and seventh
harmonics in the induction motor.
Crawling are reduced by using a chorded or short
pitched winding in stator of the induction motor.
75
COGGING OF INDUCTION MOTOR
If the number of stator and rotor slots of an induction motor
are equal, the rotor may fail to start.
With the number of stator slots equal to an integral multiple
of rotor slots, there would exist a starting alignment force
between the stator and the rotor at standstill condition
because of the pronounced variation of air-gap reluctance.
The alignment force at the instant of start may become
stronger than the starting torque resulting in failure of
the motor to start.
This phenomenon of motor referring to start is known as
cogging.
To avoid cogging the numbers of stator and rotor slots are
never made to be equal or have an integral ratio. 76