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jp/~otsukilab/lecture/advanced%20con silica and alumina of Class F fly ash requires a cementing

crete%20technology/11-1%20Wan- agent, such as Portland cement, quicklime, or hydrated lime,
brief%20intro%20Use%20of%20Mineral%20Admixture%20in with the presence of water in order to react and produce
%20Concrete.pdf cementitious compounds.

Class C Fly Ash:

Fly ash produced from the burning of younger lignite or
Cementitous subbituminous coal, in addition to having pozzolanic
These have cementing properties themselves. properties, also has some self-cementing properties. In the
presence of water, Class C fly ash will harden and gain
strength over time. Class C fly ash generally contains more
than 20% lime (CaO). Unlike Class F, self-cementing Class C
Siliceous or siliceous and aluminous materials which in fly ash does not require an activator. Alkali and sulfate (SO4)
themselves possess little or no cementitious value but will, in contents are generally higher in Class C fly ashes.
finely divided form and in the presence of moisture, chemical
react with Ca(OH)2 at ordinary temperatures to form Blast Furnace Slag
compounds possessing cementitious properties. Blast furnace slag is a by-product of pig iron manufacture.
The pozzolanic reaction is slow, so the rate of the strength When quenched rapidly with water or air to a glassy state and
development and the heat of hydration associated with this finely ground, it develops the property of latent hydraulicity.
reaction are low. It may be noted that the pozzolanic reactions Blast furnace slag has chemical component similar to that of
can be accelerated by temperature. Portland cement. Due to hydraulicity, therefore, its use
contributes not only to improvement in concrete performance,
Conditions to Declare a Material Pozzolan: but also to resource and energy savings.

Having silica + Alumina oxide+ ferrous oxide more Concrete containing slag as a mineral admixtures generally
than 70%. offers better chemical resistance due to improved
Surface area on normal admixture is more than watertightness, since the concrete texture becomes dense.
Surface area should be more than cement used Ground granulated blast-furnace (GGBF) slag is the granular
material formed when molten iron blast furnace slag (a by-
product of iron and steel making) is rapidly chilled (quenched)
by immersion in water. It is a granular product, highly
cementitious in nature and, ground to cement fineness,
Fly Ash hydrates like Portland cement.

Fly ash is a by-product of the combustion of pulverized coal in Concrete made with GGBFS cement sets more slowly than
thermal power plants. The dust collection system removes the concrete made with ordinary Portland cement, depending on
fly ash, as a fine particulate residue, from the combustion the amount of GGBFS in the cementitious material, but also
gases before they are discharged into the atmosphere. continues to gain strength over a longer period in production
conditions. This results in lower heat of hydration and lower
One of the important characteristics of fly ash is the spherical temperature rises, and makes avoiding cold joints easier,
form of the particles that contributes in improvement of but may also affect construction schedules where quick setting
concrete flowability. is required.
Concrete using fly ash is generally reported to show reduced Silica Fume
segregation and bleeding and to be more satisfactory than - Silica fume is an industrial by-product consisting of ultrafine
plain concrete when placed by pumping. particle(0.01m). It is recovered from electric furnace by
means of dust collectors from the waste gas emitted during
In contrast to the loss of strength that occurs with ordinary
the production of ferro-silicon metal.
portland cement, fly ash concrete show strength gains as a
- Silica fume is a highly pozzolanic materials.
consequence of heating.
- Difficult to handle so necessary to use (highrange) water-
Fly Ash commonly used: reducing admixture
Class F Fly Ash: In mortar and concrete containing silica fumes shows
outstanding characteristics in development of strength, this
The burning of harder, older anthracite and bituminous coal property is explained as resulting from the decrease in the
typically produces Class F fly ash. This fly ash is pozzolanic in volume of large pores in concrete, hence making the concrete
nature, and contains less than 10% lime (CaO). The glassy texture dense.
It has been found that Silica Fume improves compressive
strength, bond strength, and abrasion resistance; reduces
permeability of concrete to chloride ions; and therefore helps in
protecting reinforcing steel from corrosion, especially in
chloride-rich environments such as coastal regions.

Rice Husk Ash

- Rice husk ash is obtained by burning rice husk.
- Highly pozzolanic characteristic.
- The properties are greatly affected by the burning conditions.
The large amount of unburnt carbon due to the incomplete
combustion exist and make the color of rice husk ash is black,
whereas, the burning is done under enough air supply
condition the rice husk ash become gray and white.
- The white rice husk ash has better quality compared to the
black rice husk ash due to the existence of carbon affecting
adversely on the reactivity.