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International Journal of Computation and Applied Sciences IJOCAAS, Volume2, Issue 2, April 2017, ISSN: 2399-450

The Characteristic of Li-Fi Technology Comparing with Wi-Fi

Dr. Hussam Dheaa Kamel, Hadi Jameel Hadi

AbstractThe operation of widespread is currently wireless transmission methods, such as Wi-Fi, WiMAX, LTE, etc., based on the use of radio frequency channels. This mechanism has several disadvantages. In particular, band limitation, several interference sources in the same frequency band, data rate dependent on the number of users and others. These technologies have less widespread nowadays, but a promising alternative Li- Fi, which is based on the energy of light.

Optical communication equipment, Optical

transmitters, Optical

transceiver module, modulation, Visible light communication, OFDM.

receivers, Wi-Fi, Light Fidelity (Li-Fi),

Index Terms



W ireless technologies are relevant in various active at the present time. It is interesting to compare the wireless

Wi-Fi technology and Li-Fi to expand the areas of their application. Use of wireless data transfer increases in geometrical progression every year, but the range of available frequencies not fixable and becomes less. Li-Fi is a wireless communication system which used a light to bring a signal instead of customary radio frequencies in Wi-Fi Technology. Li-Fi is a technology which used light of LEDs for wireless data transfer. Visible Light Communication (VLC) uses superfast pulses of light for transfer information which remain imperceptible for human eyes. Most of us are familiar with the Wi-Fi, which operates at a frequency of 2.4 - 5 GHz, implementing wireless access to the Internet at home, schools, offices and in other public places. The Wi-Fi technology became are very dependent on this

ubiquitous technology. But, as well as the majority of technologies, it has restrictions. Wi-Fi can cover the whole house, otherwise its speed of connection is restricted 50-100 MB a second, using IEEE802.11n. It is a good index for many modern services, but there isn't enough for trensfer a huge data packets as HD movies, qualitative music and video games. What to become more dependent on "cloud" or "media services" for storage a personal files, including movies, music, photos and games, required high data transfer rate. Therefore, the technology based on radio frequency, such as, Wi-Fi - is not the best solution. Moreover, Wi-Fi may not be the most efficient solution to provide advanced features, such as Indoor positioning system and Gesture recognition.


Wi-Fi - a wireless data transmission technology over the air. The principles of Wi-Fi is closed as the following, Wi-Fi adapter converts flow data into an electric signal and transmits it through an antenna [1]. The router of Wi-Fi receives the radio signal and decodes it, sends the data via the physical, wired connection. And the signal conversion may also occur in the backwards direction. The router receives the information from the Internet and translates it into a radio signal, which is then transmitted to a wireless computer adapter. To use Wi-Fi must be the appropriate equipment wirelessly. All equipment is divided into two groups: Access point and a wireless router. In our University (University of Technology, Iraq) our researchers try hard to investigate in most/all branches of science [12-38] Optical wireless communications (OWC), and recently Li- Fi, offer absolutely new approach to wireless technologies from the point of view of data transmission rate, flexibility and comfort of operation.


Li-Fi - is a developed wireless data transmission technology using light. Li-Fi consists of four main components: an LED lamp, a radio frequency power amplifier, the printed circuit board and Cases [2]. The printed circuit board controls the electrical inputs and outputs of the microcontroller and the lamp is used for controlling a variety of lamp functions. The RF signal generated in the RF power amplifier and sent to the electric field of the lamp. The high concentration of energy in an electric field vaporizes the contents of the flask into a plasma state in the center of the lamp; the plasma generates an intense light source. All of them are contained in an aluminum casing. The principle of Li-Fi is to change the settings of the LED lamps with a very high speed, which is not visible to the human eye. The process controls the special microchip that encodes information. A particular photo-detector detects light beams and performs inverse data conversion. The Li-Fi technology used transceiver instead modems in Wi- Fi, it's equipped with LED lamps that can transmit and receive information, and at the same time be used for room lighting. LED lamps are the access point to any number of users. Currently, the transmission rate of this technology is 10Gbit/s; in laboratory conditions have reached 15Gbit/s [3]. But the data stream can be interrupted by any obstacle. This

International Journal of Computation and Applied Sciences IJOCAAS, Volume2, Issue 2, April 2017, ISSN: 2399-450

disadvantage can be an advantage if you do not want the data network used by outsiders. While the operating range of frequencies of networks on the basis of Wi-fi and WiMax technologies is loaded by users, and congestion of any transmission channel leads to a natural speed reduction of data transfer on this channel, because of need of serial use of this channel, the Li-Fi networks can transmit a signal to unlimited number of users in a cover zone without negative interference at each other of the signals accepted by users. Clients of radio-frequency data communication networks can create noises in the network to other its users or create noises to other networks which are crossed on operating range of frequencies. Collisions of signals from different networks can result from such intersections. If signals of one network interfere with different productions of the enterprises or will put in data communication networks of medical institutions, transport and scientific organizations and on a network of mass media, then it can lead to serious negative consequences. that is quite possible because for example, the Wi-fi networks on the basis of standards 802.11b, 802.11g, 802.11n of 2,4 GHz which are on operating frequency can be crossed with the LTE networks which operating range of frequencies is defined in an interval from 0,7 GHz to 2,7 GHz in the Russian Federation today. The operating range of the Li-Fi networks is far beyond these limits therefore the VLC networks on the basis of LEDs of visible radiation are suitable for use in zones sensitive to radio waves. On the radio-frequency data communication networks there is a need of paid extension of admissible frequency band which is restricted, and for the Li- Fi networks separation of an additional band is free and doesn't require the procedure of licensing that simplifies use of Li-Fi technology. Besides, radio-frequency technologies of data transfer can exert a negative impact on a human body [11] and though influence of the Li-Fi networks isn't studied, there are researches showing that LED light is the most comfortable for human eyes. Radius of action of networks on Li-Fi technology allows covering completely with a signal the closed target location (an office, audience, the hall) and won't begin to quit out of its limits, unlike radio-frequency technologies that speaks about higher level of confidentiality of data, about easier way of their protection against illegal access. Engineers of institute of telecommunications of Fraunhofer are capable to transfer data with speed 800mbit/sec. in a sq. m zone 10 on this technology. It does Li- Fi technology by the excellent decision for deployment of wireless network in house conditions. Influence of the noise created by environmental light restricts use of technology in the locations which are well lit by a sunlight, on open spaces and creates need of observance of conditions for good transparency between a LED radiator and the photodiode, so, for example if in between there is a hand, then transmission will be interrupted. It is much simpler to Li-Fi network to build in the existing infrastructure, than the majority of data communication networks on the basis of other technologies. Exponentiation of base stations isn't required, and lighting engineering is present

everywhere and creation of the Li-Fi networks will require only use for lighting of LED lamps with coders (with modulators). At the same time there is need for big additional power expenses that also considerably reduces the price of its operation. The comparative characteristics of the considered technologies (Tab. I, II). According to the creator Harald Haas Li-Fi technology in a short time reach data transfer speeds of over 100 Gb/s, and completely replace Wi-Fi technology [4].


Li-Fi and Wi-Fi Technologies based on similar protocols IEEE 802.11.However, Li-Fi uses electromagnetic waves of visible light, while Wi-Fi - the radio waves. Due to this, the first technology gains an advantage in terms




Operating Modes


Data Rate


2.4 GHz

11-300Mbit / s


100 MHz,

10 Gbit / s








without paving the cable network

operation with 2.4 GHz



access to any network devices





ic capacity



the free movement of consumers, the creation of groups

low reliability

of users


cheap components

data transfer can be carried out only within the line of sight


radio access underwater and in the air

r module

safety effects on human health




of higher bandwidth. IEEE 802.15.7 standard defines for Li-Fi physical layer network model OSI PHY (Physical layer), and a MAC address (Media Access Control). Working version of the IEEE 802.15.7 identifies three the PHY with different bandwidth, which are presented in Table 3.


International Journal of Computation and Applied Sciences IJOCAAS, Volume2, Issue 2, April 2017, ISSN: 2399-450

Light Fidelity has a significantly higher data rate compared with Wi-Fi,. However, Li-Fi technology is able to distribute the signal a smaller range than radio waves. Most likely, complete extrusion of Wi-Fi Light Fidelity technology won't happen. Li-Fi developers assume that the product will come to the mass market not earlier, than in 3-4 years. LED routers will be used in a combination with Wi-Fi. It is caused by presence at luminous technology of data transfer of unresolved problems. In particular, it is difficult to Li-Fi to apply on the street

with a small
amount of data
Multiple sources
Mbit / s
≈ 0,012 – 0,268
1,25 - 96
12 - 96
Reed Solomen
Reed Solomen
OOK (On-off
OOK (On-off
CSK (Colour
n Types
shift keying)
(Variable pulse
pulse position

Fig. 2. Schematical representation of a local area network of Li-Fi

therefore this section can be serviced by Wi-fi. If Harald Haas's vision also is realized and any bulb will be able to distribute a signal, then you shouldn't expect it in the near future. The most probable scenario is complex use of Li-Fi and Wi-Fi. In the licensed and unlicensed frequency ranges (the technology HetNet, LWA, LAA, eLAA, Multefire and others) can get acquainted with technical features of functioning of networks of mobile communication in the book of "Mobile Communication on the Way to 6G".


The heart of Li-fi technology is high brightness LED’s. These Light Emitting Diodes can be switched on and off very quickly which gives you the opportunities for transmitting data since operating speed of an LED is less than 1μs.Iimperceptible for a human eye therefore for the person will seem as if light works permanently. This invisible on/off switching allows transferring data with use of the binary code. Switching on logical "1", switching off logical "0". Such principle allows encoding data in light by change of speed of flicker of a LED. Modulation happens so quickly that a human eye doesn't manage to note it. The photo-sensor element receives a signal and will transform it back to basic data. This method is the use of fast light pulses to transmit information


via wireless technology refers to the OWC, its high capacity allows to compete with Wi-Fi technology. Li-Fi is faster and cheaper version of Wi-Fi, which operates in the visible wavelength range. The Visible light communication is a data communications medium using visible light between 400 THz (780 nm) and 800 THz (375 nm) at the same time as the optical medium of data and lighting of location [2].

Visible light is not harmful to vision. A typical example of use visible light communications is shown in Fig.2. Using a microlED lamp, it was succeeded to reach data transmission rate of 3, 5 Gbit/sec. through each of three flowers - red, green and blue, - which together make up the white light [9]. This means that the folding of the spectral channels can transfer data at a total rate of 10 Gbit / s. Reset signal from the LEDs and photodiodes used fast enough in order not to pause as for its reliable attenuation. For the organization of fedback data network based on Li-Fi technology requires the combined use with other transmission technologies such as PowerLAN(direct Lan, or PLC - Power Line Communication), the essence of which lies in the transmission of data on the power lines or high-speed infrared data transmission Very Fast Infrared (VFIR) or Ultra-Fast Infrared (UFIR). Fig. 2 shows schematically shown local data network based on a combination of technology Li-Fi technology and VFIR feedback where Li¬Fi-transmitter contains a photodiode

Server Streaming Lamp Lamp content Driver Led Internet Power Receiver Photo Dongle Detector Receiving
App Data
& Processing

Fig.1 Working of Li-Fi

International Journal of Computation and Applied Sciences IJOCAAS, Volume2, Issue 2, April 2017, ISSN: 2399-450

receiver, decoder, infrared emitter, as well as USB-interface.


The ancestor of luminous technology Haas believes that the advantages of Li-Fi will make a luminous network demanded in the digital world. According to him, Wi-Fi won't be able to conform to requirements of mobile data transfer which are imposed by the concept of the Internet of things. By 2020, each user will account for approximately three network devices. In real indices about 20,8 billion connections. If all devices begin to use the same frequencies of Wi-Fi, then on a network there will be noises that negatively will affect data transmission rates. For the second half of the third decade the situation will only become aggravated. An effective solution would be, according to Haas, Light Fidelity technology by which to distribute the signal to be adapted to any given function lamps.


Today the speech about commercial start of Li-Fi doesn't go. However the higher the frequency of use of LED lamps, the great opportunities open for distribution of luminous data transfer. Any LED can light at the same time location and broadcast arrays of binary data. According to the researches Grand View Research, by 2024 the market of luminous technology of data transfer will grow to 100 bln. dollars. PureLiF founded by Harald Haas is considered the main company which is engaged in a research, development and advance of Li-Fi. However interest in technology is shown by other commercial structures. For example, tests of Li-Fi carried out by Beam caster, having reached 1,25 Gbit\s, and the Sisoft company which transferred data with speed of 10 Gbit\s. In the fall of 2016 there was information that the Lucibel company specializing in LED lighting with which PureLiF cooperates is ready to realize the project on equipment of the first-ever office double-side data transfer on Li-Fi technology. It is planned to implement the decision in Paris. Other French company, Oledcomm, according to the

OFDM Frame (90ms) Channel Estimation Data and Pilots synchronizatio Training Sequence 4 Symbol 4 Symbol
OFDM Frame (90ms)
Data and Pilots
4 Symbol
4 Symbol OFDM


Fig. 4. OFDM frame structure

received tender, shall equip over 60 stations of the Parisian subway of 250 thousand LED light sources. In this project the

Li-Fi technology will use one-sided communication. For example, to transfer information on layout of objects. Also information on testing of data transfer by means of the luminous radiation of Li-Fi is found in a code of the iOS operating system of the Apple Company.


The main building blocks of an OFDM-based transmitter and receiver systems are illustrated in Fig. 3. Since OFDM is based on IFFT and FFT algorithms, the implementation on the DSP is straightforward. On the OFDM Tx board, FEC coding is implemented. This is based on a rate 1/2 convolution encoder. A time interleave is applied. At the receiver, Viterbi decoding with hard decision output is used. In general a time varying, flat fading channel is assumed. It is further assumed that the channel remains constant within one OFDM frame. Since, however, no well established models for this particular propagation system exist, some overprovisioning in the system design is accepted. With this approach the above made assumptions are to be confirmed. For the purpose of channel estimation and synchronisation, training sequences and pilots are used [6]. Concretely, the OFDM frame as implemented in the experimental system is formed by a time synchronization signal (sinusoidal signal), four OFDM symbols for the training sequence, and 20 OFDM symbols with data sub-channels carrying the modulated information (see Fig. 4). The channel transfer factors are obtained using the training sequence and averaging over the four training sequence periods for every subcarrier [7, 8]. In the Fig. 4, OFDM frame structure: Four OFDM symbols carrying a training sequence are used for channel estimation. The data symbols are transmitted in the consecutive 20 OFDM symbols. Each of these symbols uses four subcarriers for pilot transmission. Maximum speed of switching of LEDs is restricted to a method of their production which defines their resistance to burnout; the same stability doesn't allow using luminescent lamps and glow lamps for data transfer on VLC technology. QPSK modulation on the luminous flux radiated by white LEDs superimposing of data by means of modulations happens by method of optical multiplexing to orthogonal frequency de-multiplication of channels Optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (O-OFDM) with the quadrature phase manipulation. In practice the O-OFDM method is implemented by means of an algorithm of FFT, that is the discrete transform of Fourier.



The Li-Fi technology uses the visible light instead of radio waves, it has a high data transmission rate. If to take as a basis 224 GB/S, then Li-Fi exceeds the speed limit of the IEEE 802.11ax Wi-Fi-standard by 22,4 times, and IEEE 802.11ac by 30 times. The Li-Fi technology is its rather high security from hacker penetration. The matter is that light which is been the basis for transmission doesn't pass through walls. Therefore for


International Journal of Computation and Applied Sciences IJOCAAS, Volume2, Issue 2, April 2017, ISSN: 2399-450

Pilots Transmitter Assemble OFDM Training Binary rate Channel interleaving Symbol data source Encoder QAM
Binary rate
data source
Optical Channel
Modulator OFDM D/A Modulator Converter Optical Channel Binary Data Channel Decoder Receiver A/D converter
Binary Data Channel Decoder
Binary Data
Receiver A/D converter Frequency De- OFDM Domain Synchronisation Interleaving Demodulator Equalisation Pilots
A/D converter

Fig. 3 Visible light OFDM transmission model

cracking of the Li-Fi network the malefactor shall be in close proximity to a signal source, thereby losing the anonymity. Promotes optimization of energy consumption integrating system of lighting and hot spots.Li-Fi-devices do not create interference to each other on the network.


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Processing & Power Applications, Malaysia, 2016. 56 in Baghdad, Iraq, in 1986. He received the B.S.


Baghdad, Iraq, in 1986. He received the B.S. degree in Computer communications Engineering form Al- Rafidain University College, in 2008, MSc degree in Telecommunication and Network Engineering from Kharkiv National University of radio electronics (KNURE), in 2010 and the Ph.D. degree in Telecommunication and Network Engineering, from Kharkiv National University of Radio electronics (KNURE), in 2013. His research interests are Wireless Communications, MIMO, WiMAX, LTE, Visible Light Communication, Control System, and Wireless sensor networks







Hadi Jameel was born in Baghdad, Iraq in 1988. He received BSc degree from electrical engineering department, Al Mustansiriya University, Iraq in 2010. Received MSc degree from Electronic and communication engineering in Al Mustansiriya University, Iraq in 2013. His research interests are Antenna, Wireless Communications, and Radar, Control System, and Wireless sensor networks.Hadi Jameel