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## Factorials and their applications

We will see some of the important properties of factorials.

A thorough understanding of Factorials is important because they play a pivotal role not only in the Concepts surrounding Numbers but also other
important topics like Permutation and Combination

## What is highest power?

Suppose you have a number N= x2y. here the highest power of x in N will be 2 and the highest power of y in N will be 1.

Questions based on this can be categorized based on the nature of the number whose highest power we are nding in the factorial, i.e.

Solution:

Solution:

## So highest power of 5 in 100! = 24

ALTERNATIVE METHOD

100/5+100/52 =20+4=24 (We take upto 52 as it is the highest power of 5 which is less than 100)

Solution:

## 1) Factorize the number into primes.

2) Find the highest power of all the prime numbers in that factorial using the previous method.

## 3) Take the least power.

ILLUSTRATION:
33) To find the highest power of 10 in 100!

Soltuion:

Factorize 10=5*2.

## 1.Highest power of 5 in 100! =24

2. Highest power of 2 in 100! =97 Therefore, the answer will be 24, because to get a 10, you need a pair of 2 and 5, and only 24 such pairs are
available.

Solution:

12=22 *3

## 100/2= 50;50/2= 25;25/2= 12;12/2= 6;6/2= 3;3/2= 1

Highest power of 2 = 50 + 25 + 12 + 6 + 3 + 1 = 97

## So highest power of 22=97/2= 48 (out of 97 2s only 48 can make 22)

Now for the highest power of 3 100/3= 33;33/3= 11;11/3= 3;3/3= 1; Highest power of 3 = 48

Highest power of 12 = 48

## II) Number of zeros in the end of a factorial or a product

In base 10, number of zeros in the end depends on the number of 10s; i.e. effectively, on the number of 5s (10=52.

if you see the previous example, you will get a lesser number of 5s than 2s.

that is why we need to calculate only the number of 5s) Similarly, for base 12, the number of zeros will depend on the number 12 itself.

In base N, number of zeroes in the end is nothing but the highest power of N in that product.

## We need to nd the highest power of 10 in 13! = highest power of 5 in 13!

This is because there will be lesser number of 5s present as compared to 2s (illustrated in eg _____ above)

## Number of 2s= 13/2=6;6/2=3 ;3/2=1.

total =6+3+1=10 Number of 5s =13/5=2. number of zeroes will thus depend only on the number of 5s = 2

Soluiton

## We need to nd the highest power of 10 in 25!

Highest power of 10 will be the highest power of 5 in 25! As explained in the previous example 25/5=5;5/5=1.

## number of zeroes = 5+1=6

37) Find the number of zeroes in the end of 15! in base 12.

Solution:

Solution

## 39) Find the number of factors of 6!

Solution:

STEP 1: Prime factorize 6! i.e. nd out the highest power of all prime factors till 6 ( i.e. 2,3 and 5). 6! = 24*32*51

STEP 2: Then use the formula N=amxbn (a, b are the prime factors).

Then number of factors= (m+1)(n+1) The number of factors= (4+1)(2+1)(1+1) =30 Answer=30

## 40) Find the number of factors of 12!

Solution:

STEP 1: Prime factorize 12! i.e. nd out the highest power of all prime factors till 12 ( i.e. 2,3,5,7,11). 12! = 210*35*52*7*11

STEP2: Then use the formula N=am*bn(a, b are the prime factors) Then number of factors= (m+1)(n+1)

Solution:

option (a)

## APPLICATION QUESTION BASED ON FACTORIAL

42) How many natural numbers are there such that their factorials are ending with 5 zeroes?

Soluiton

10! is 1x2x3x4x(5)x6x7x8x9x(25).

From this we can see that highest power of 5 till 10! is 2( as there are 2 ves) Continuing like this, 10!-14!, highest power of 5 will be 2.

The next 5 will be obtained at 15 = (53).

Therefore, from 15! To 19! The highest power of 5 will be 3. 20!-24! Highest Power = 4 In 25,

we are getting one extra ve, as 25=55. Therefore, 25! to 29!, we will get highest power of 5 as 6.

The answer to the question is therefore, 0. There are no natural numbers whose factorials end with 5 zeroes.

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