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MANUAL OF ‘S1’ CLEARANCE DELIVERY AND GROUNG SERVICE

Second Edition – Nov 2010
Second Edition – Nov 2010

Vatsim – India

MANUAL OF ‘S1’ CLEARANCE DELIVERY AND GROUNG SERVICE Second Edition – Nov 2010 Vatsim – India

FOREWORD

Vatsim India is a division of VATSIM which is a non-profit organization operating a dedicated, worldwide, Internet-based flight-simulation network. Users can connect to the network to either fly online as a pilot using flight simulation software, or direct traffic as an air traffic controller (ATC) or participate in what has been described as a close approximation of real-life aviation procedures.

The purpose of this document is to provide the essential information for new S1 training ATC At VATSIM INDIA.

No information contained in this document should be use for real world flights or navigation

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Rajkoti Reddy (1098833)

VATIND MANAGEMENT:

As on Sep, 2010, the VATIND board members are:

1) Webmaster: Deepan Mehta (821011) deepan_mehta@rediffmail.com

Deepan Mehta (821011) deepan_mehta@rediffmail.com 2) Division Director: Rajkoti Reddy (1098833)

2) Division Director: Rajkoti Reddy (1098833) gondhirajkoti.reddy@gmail.com

3) Deputy Director: Tanveer Yasser (1098833) mdtanveer@gmail.com

4) Director Events: Jwalant Swadia (1153626)

5) Director Projects: Ashish Singh (1091853)

 Objectives of the Air Traffic Services ----------------------------------- 4  Divisions of the Air Traffic

Objectives of the Air Traffic Services ----------------------------------- 4

Divisions of the Air Traffic Services ------------------------------------- 4

Classification of Airspaces in India -------------------------------------- 4

Airways, VOR and NDB ----------------------------------------------------- 6

NDB ----------------------------------------------------- 6  Reading SID charts

Reading SID charts ----------------------------------------------------------- 8

ICAO phonetics ---------------------------------------------------------------10

Reading METAR ---------------------------------------------------------------11

Transmission of numbers in radiotelephony --------------------------12

Viewing and Editing Flight Plans ------------------------------------------13

Issue of IFR & VFR clearance and read-back requirements ------- 14

Visual Flight Rules Minima --------------------------------------------------16

Allocation of cruising levels ------------------------------------------------16

Taxi instructions ---------------------------------------------------------------17

 

Emergency Operations -------------------------------------------------------19

Special VFR -----------------------------------------------------------------------20

Objectives of the Air Traffic Services

The objectives of the air traffic services shall be to:

a) prevent collisions between aircraft

b) expedite and maintain an orderly flow of air traffic

c) Provide advice and information useful for the safe and efficient conduct of Flights.

Divisions of the Air Traffic Services

of Flights.  Divisions of the Air Traffic Services Air traffic control services have been divided

Air traffic control services have been divided in three parts as follows:

Area control service (CTR in VATIND): Provide air traffic control service for controlled flights, except for those under the control of Approach or Tower.

Approach control service (APP in VATIND): Provide air traffic control service for arriving or departing aircrafts.

Aerodrome control service (TWR in VATIND): Provide air traffic control service for aerodrome traffic, except for those parts of flights which are under control of Approach.

Classification of Airspaces in India

of Approach.  Classification of Airspaces in India ATS airspaces in India are classified and designated

ATS airspaces in India are classified and designated in accordance with following:

Class D: (TWR, DEP/APP Air Space)

IFR and VFR flights are permitted and all flights are provided with air traffic control service.

IFR flights are separated from other IFR flights and receive traffic information

in

respect of VFR flights.

VFR flights receive traffic information in respect of all other flights.

Class E: (Airspace outside class D where air traffic service is provided [by CTR in VATSIM] )

IFR and VFR flights are permitted.

IFR flights are provided with air traffic control service and are separated from other IFR flights.

IFR flights receive traffic information in respect of VFR flights; VFR flights receive traffic information in respect of all other flights, as far as is practical.

Class F: (Airspace outside class D where flight information service is provided [by CTR in VATSIM])

IFR and VFR flights are permitted. All IFR flights receive an air traffic advisory service.

All flights receive flight information service, if requested.

Class G: (Other than D, E and F)

IFR and VFR flights are permitted and receive flight information service if requested.

REQUIREMENTS
REQUIREMENTS

Airspaces other than those in Class D, E and F have been classified and designated as class G airspace

ATS AIRSPACE CLASSES SERVICES PROVIDED AND FLIGHT

G airspace ATS AIRSPACE CLASSES SERVICES PROVIDED AND FLIGHT Air traffic control service shall be provided:

Air traffic control service shall be provided:

a) to all IFR flights in airspace Classes D and E;

b) to all VFR flights in airspace Classes D.

c) to all special VFR flights.

d) to all aerodrome traffic at control

Airways, VOR and NDB

Airways:

An airway is a designated route in the air. Airways are laid out between navigational aids such as VORs, NDBs and Intersections.

Low altitude airways (below 18,000 feet) are designated by the letter "V" (pronounced Victor, hence Victor airways).

High altitude airways (above 18,000 ft), called jet routes, and designated by the letter "J".

called jet routes, and designated by the letter "J". VORs: • VOR stands for VHF Omni

VORs:

VOR stands for VHF Omni directional Range. VOR, simply put, is a type of radio navigation system for aircraft.

VORs broadcast a VHF radio signal encoding both the identity of the station and the angle to it, telling the pilot in what direction he lies from the VOR station, referred to as the radial.

For example, if you were to start at a VOR and fly on a heading of 350 from that VOR, you would be on the 350 radial.

VOR stations are used as intersections along airways.

VORs are always abbreviated with three letters in a flight plan EX- BBB Bombay VOR

NDBs:

An NDB is merely a radio broadcast station used as a navigational aid for aircraft.

• • •

Works similar in the way a VOR does

Can have a long range and are much less expensive to operate than VORs.

Unlike a VOR, an NDB is abbreviated with either a 2 or 3 letter identifier.

Intersection:

An intersection is a virtual navigational fix.

It is usually defined as the intersection (in the geometrical sense) of two VOR radials.

They are usually identified as major airway intersections where aircraft, operating under instrument flight rules, often change direction of flight while en route

EX – An Aircraft flying from VABB (Mumbai) to VAIDP (Delhi), the route is VABB
EX – An Aircraft flying from VABB (Mumbai) to VAIDP (Delhi), the route is VABB
EX – An Aircraft flying from VABB (Mumbai) to VAIDP (Delhi), the route is VABB

EX –

An Aircraft flying from VABB (Mumbai) to VAIDP (Delhi), the route is

VABB BODAR A347 UUD W13N JJP G333 AVGON VIDP

After takeoff pilot fly to BODAR (fix) then via an airway A347 reach the UUD (vor) then on to airway W13N to JJP (vor) from there via airway G333 to AVGON (fix) than he reach the VIDP

Reading SID charts

Standard Instrument Departure (SID) - SID is a preplanned route which connects terminal area (end of runway) of an aerodrome to En-route (waypoint, navaid or airway). Which pilots will follow (referring to charts) to meet their initial part of their route without the aid of vectors by ATC. All airports may not have SIDs.

the aid of vectors by ATC. All airports may not have SIDs. APANO SID is a

APANO SID is a pre published route which connects terminal area of VABB (end of 09/27, 14/32 runways) to APANO.

1,2 and 3 are runway designators if a pilot plane to fly APNO SID from runway 27 it is APANO1 SID , respectively APANO2 and APANO3 are for runway 09 and 32.

If you observe the chart above a pilot flying APNO1 SID will take off from runway 27 after takeoff while crossing the coastal lines turns right to meet 003 radial of BBB at 10 DME, then follows the 003 radial to APANO,

After APNO you can find three lines leading to three different waypoints these are called Transitions again all SIDs may not have transitions, in the chart above APANO SID have three transitions depicted as ‘A’ connects APANO to BVR ‘B’ to BODAR and ‘C’ to SASRO.

So a pilot using APANO1 B SID takes off from runway 27 to APANO then he will turn right 049 to reach BODAR, respectively APANO1 C pilot turns left 325 after APANO to SASRO

If you don’t find a SID in a flight plane, suggest an appropriate SID according to route, by asking “do you accept (name) departure?” acceptance is at pilot’s discretion. If pilot accept it add the SID to his route in flight plane.

Ex- AI001 is going to VIDP (Delhi) from VABB (Mumbai), and its route is VABB SID BODAR A347 UUD W13N JJP G333 AVGON STAR VIDP And active runway at VABB is 09

Suggest a SID which goes to BODAR from runway 09, and it is APNO2 B

a SID which goes to BODAR from runway 09, and it is APNO2 B AI001 do

AI001 do you accept APANO2 B departure?

RNAV - Standard Instrument Departure (SID): RNAV SID is same like a normal SID

but the RNAV charts are usually more detailed and contain more specific fixes and navigation information.

A V c h a r t s a r e usually more detailed and contain

To fly RNAV departure, specific equipment requirements exist to ensure that the aircraft can correctly fly the procedure. Typically GPS or DME equipment is required. An FMC or Flight Management Computer is also used for this.

You can know the kind of the equipment that aircraft have on board, by its equipment suffix.

an aircraft with equipment suffix /C,/E,/F,/G,/I,/J,/K,/L,/Q,/R,/Y,/W,/ means which have the area navigation capabilities .

an aircraft with equipment suffix /X , /T , /U, /D, /B, /A, /M, /N, /P,/ means which do not have any sort of GPS/FMS/IRU, so these aircrafts don’t fly RNAV SID, it reminds you when suggesting an RNAV SID for any aircraft check the equipment suffix first.

ICAO phonetics

Pronunciation of numbers:

 ICAO phonetics Pronunciation of numbers : Pronunciation of Spelling Alphabets:
 ICAO phonetics Pronunciation of numbers : Pronunciation of Spelling Alphabets:

Pronunciation of Spelling Alphabets:

 ICAO phonetics Pronunciation of numbers : Pronunciation of Spelling Alphabets:
 ICAO phonetics Pronunciation of numbers : Pronunciation of Spelling Alphabets:

Transmission of numbers in radiotelephony

All numbers except numbers used in the transmissions of altitude, cloud height, visibility and runway visual range (RVR) information, shall be transmitted by pronouncing each digit separately.

Component Example Transmitted As Air craft call signs AIC238 Air India two three eight Flight
Component
Example
Transmitted As
Air craft call signs
AIC238
Air India two three eight
Flight levels
FL 180
Flight level one eight zero
Headings
100 degrees
Heading one zeo zero
winds
200 degrees at 70 knots
Wind two zero zero
degree seven zero knots
• Numbers used in the transmissions of altitude, cloud height, visibility and
runway visual range (RVR) information, which contain whole hundreds and
whole thousands, shall be transmitted by pronouncing each digit in the number
of hundreds or thousands followed by the word HUNDRED or THOUSAND as
appropriate.
Component
Example
Transmitted As
Altitude
800
Eight hundred
Three thousand four hundred
3400
One two thousand
12,000
Cloud height
2200
Two thousand two hundred
Four thousand three hundred
4300
visibility
1000
Visibility one thousand
700
Visibility seven hundred
Runway visual range
1700
One thousand seven hundred

Reading METAR

The METAR is a report giving the actual weather conditions at an aerodrome at the time of the report. METAR's are issued every 30 minutes during the opening hours of the aerodrome

Let’s look at an example -

VABB

201710Z

35004KT

1600

R27/800

HZ

FEW020

BKN100

29/25

Q1009

NOSIG

HZ FEW020 BKN100 29/25 Q1009 NOSIG The first part is the location (airport ICAO code) where

The first part is the location (airport ICAO code) where this report belongs to the above METAR belongs to VABB (Mumbai airport)

The second part is date and time when this METAR delivered – above METAR released on 20 of the present month at 17:30 Zulu.

The third part is Wind Direction and Speed – the winds are coming from 350 degree magnitude at a speed of 04 knots, if you see like VRB5 means winds variable at 5 knots or 36015G25Kt means winds are from 360 at 15 knots gusting to 25 knots.

The forth part is visibility in meters – the visibility at VABB is 1600 meter according to above METAR

The fifth part of this METAR is RVR (runway visual range) – here for Runway 27 the visual range is 800 meter

The sixth part it weather HZ means Haze, if you find RA in this place it means Rain or SH – Showers, CB – Cumulonimbus is you see + in front means heavy and – light Ex - +Ra heavy rain or +SHRA heavy rain showers.

CB – Cumulonimbus is you see + in front means heavy and – light Ex -

This part of the MEATR is about CLOUD here Few clouds are at 2000ft and Broken at 10000ft, id you see OVC which means overcast and SCT indicates Scattered clouds. If you see as NSC means no significant cloud below 5000ft. SCT15CB indicates scattered at 1500 ft cumulonimbus clouds.

The next part is temperature and dew point in degree Celsius here in this METAR at VABB temperature is 29 degree Celsius and Dew point is 25 degree Celsius.

The last but one is altimeter setting QNH in millibar in this METAR QNH is 1009

The last one is about any significant changes in weather, NOSIG indicate no significant changes in weather.

Viewing and Editing Flight Plans

As a controller, a large part of your job involves reviewing and editing aircraft flight plans. In VRC, this is done through the Flight Plan Editor window, shown here:

is done through the Flight Plan Editor window, shown here: To open an aircraft's flight plan
is done through the Flight Plan Editor window, shown here: To open an aircraft's flight plan

To open an aircraft's flight plan in the Flight Plan Editor, press F6 and then slew the target. Or, if you already have the aircraft selected, press F6 followed by your ASEL key. Another way is to hold the CTRL key and slew the target.

All fields in the flight plan window are editable, except for the call sign. The only way for a pilot to change his call sign is to disconnect and reconnect with the new one.

After making changes to any of the information on the screen, press the "Amend Plan" button to save your changes and submit the amended flight plan to the network.

Note that if you include "/v/", "/t/" or "/r/" in the remarks field, VRC (and ASRC) will automatically show the appropriate voice type tag in the data block for the aircraft.

voice type tag in the data block for the aircraft. To retrieve a fresh copy of

To retrieve a fresh copy of the flight plan from the server, press the "Refresh Plan" button.

You can also assign a squawk code to the aircraft using the Flight Plan Editor window. If you enter a new squawk code while revising other fields in window, followed by pressing the "Amend Plan" button, the new squawk code will be assigned to the aircraft. Alternatively, you can just assign a squawk code without making any changes to the flight plan. To do so, enter the squawk code and press the "Assign Squawk" button. This will assign the squawk code you typed into the field, without amending the flight plan. You can also just press the Assign Squawk button without typing a code into the box, and VRC will choose a new squawk code for you, based on the code range specified for your position in the currently- loaded POF file.

To close the Flight Plan Editor window, press Esc or click the X icon in the top right corner.

Note that you cannot amend the flight plan for an aircraft if another controller is tracking it.

Issue of clearance and read-back requirements

Controller should pass a clearance slowly and clearly since the pilot needs to write it down and wasteful repetition will thus be avoided.

ATC route clearances are not an instruction to takeoff or enter an active runway. The words “TAKE OFF” are used only when an aircraft is cleared for takeoff, or when canceling a take-off clearance. At other times the word DEPARTURE” or “AIRBORNE” is used.

The flight crew shall read back to the air traffic controller safety-related parts of the clearances and instructions which are transmitted.

of the clearances and instructions which are transmitted. Following items shall always be read-back : •

Following items shall always be read-back:

ATC route clearance;

Clearances and instructions to enter, land on, take off on, hold short of, cross taxi and back track on any runway; and

Runway-in-use, altimeter settings, SSR codes.

IFR Clearances

Unless a Delivery position is established and on line it is not important when the IFR clearance is issued; it could be given before or after taxi instructions, as long as it is issued before takeoff. Generally the IFR clearance is issued at the very beginning as most sim pilots are better able to write down the clearance details when not trying to taxi the aircraft.

The usual sequence will be;

1. Clearance 2. Read back 3. 4. Taxi
1.
Clearance
2.
Read back
3.
4.
Taxi

Push Back and Engine start up

Some pilots, dependent on the aircraft type, will require Engine Start-up and then push back. Both forms are correct.

The initial clearance issued will normally not be to final cruise level. It will be the responsibility of other controllers to clear the aircraft to its final level.

The elements of an IFR clearance are;

Acronym “CRAFT

Clearance Limit: This is almost always the destination airport.

Route:

In most cases a Standard Instrument Departure Route (SID) is used.

If you are not certain that an aircraft can follow a SID (new Pilot etc.) ask if the pilot can accept a named SID

e.g. "Are you able to accept a APAN 1E SID?"

If the answer is negative then do not issue the SID clearance but advise the pilot that vectors will be issued. You MUST advise Tower of this fact so that Tower (and then DEP, APP or CTR Controllers) know to issue vectors to this particular aircraft.

I - international
I - international

Along with the charts you should have copies of the SIDS for your respective Airport. These are downloadable from VATIND site.

Altitude:

An initial altitude or Flight level. to which flight will fly and maintain after takeoff until get the further climb clearance from DEP/APP

Most of the major Indian airports initial FL is 70

Frequency:

It is the departure frequency that the aircraft has to contact once airborne, it is usually APP, If APP is not available next priority is CTR >TWR.

Transponder Code: D-domestic

once airborne, it is usually APP, If APP is not available next priority is CTR >TWR.

Phraseology of departure clearance: (IFR, VFR and TRAFFIC CIRCUITE)

IFR CLEARNS:

1) Flight Planned Route: when amendments of route in a flight plane

(Aircraft call sign) CLEARED TO (location), VIA FLIGHT PLANNED ROUTE, RUNWAY (number), CLIMB TO AND MAINTAIN INITIAL (level), DEPATURE FREQUENCY (number), SQUAWK (number)

Example:

AI001 cleared to VIDP via flight planned route, runway 27 climb to and maintain initial FL 70, departure frequency 125.90, squawk 0240.

initial FL 70, departure frequency 125.90, squawk 0240. 2) SID Route: where in case you suggested

2) SID Route: where in case you suggested an SID for pilot and added it to route in flight plane

(Aircraft call sign) CLEARED TO (location), VIA (SID) FLIGHT PLANNED ROUTE, RUNWAY (number), CLIMB TO AND MAINTAIN INITIAL (level), DEPATURE FREQUENCY (number), SQUAWK(number)

Example:

AI001 cleared to VIDP via APANO1B departure flight planned route, runway 27 climb to and maintain initial FL 70, departure frequency 125.90, squawk 0240.

3) Radar Vector Route: when a pilot unable to fly a SID gives radar vector clearance to initial way point in the route of his flight plane

(Aircraft call sign) CLEARED TO (location), VIA radar vectors to (first waypoint) FLIGHT PLANNED ROUTE, RUNWAY (number), CLIMB TO AND MAINTAIN INITIAL (level), DEPATURE FREQUENCY (number), SQUAWK (number)

RUNWAY (number), CLIMB TO AND MAINTAIN INITIAL ( level), DEPATURE FREQUENCY (number) , SQUAWK (number) Example:

Example:

AI001 cleared to VIDP via radar vectors to BODAR flight planned route, runway 27, climb to and maintain initial FL 70, departure frequency 125.90, squawk 0241.

VFR CLEARNS:

AI001 western zone boundaries, runway 27, VFR not above 3000ft, squawk 0242

TRAFFIC CIRCUITE:

AI001 cleared for LEFT/RIGHT hand traffic circuit, runway 27, maintain 3600 ft , squawk 0243

Visual Flight Rules Minima

VFR Flights shall not be takeoff, land, and enter an aerodrome or traffic pattern:

a) When ceiling is less than 450M(1550FT)

b) When ground visibility is less than 5K(5000M)

VFR Flights shall not be operated:

a) Above FL50

b) At transonic and supersonic speed

operated: a) Above FL50 b) At transonic and supersonic speed  Allocation of cruising levels Up

Allocation of cruising levels

Up to FL 410 Odd levels for Eastbound (000 – 180), Even levels for Westbound (180- 360), Above Fl410 with 2000ft separation, 430, 470, 510, 550 and 590 are Westbound. 450, 490, 530, 570 are Eastbound.

Cruising levels at or above FL290 up to FL410 within RVSM airspace Aircraft filing for incorrect altitudes for direction of flight should be issued corrected final altitudes.

RVSM airspace Aircraft filing for incorrect altitudes for direction of flight should be issued corrected final
RVSM airspace Aircraft filing for incorrect altitudes for direction of flight should be issued corrected final

Taxi instructions

At many airports aircraft are parked nose-in to the terminal in order do save parking space. Aircraft have to be pushed backwards before they can taxi for departure. Requests for pushback are made to the Ground Controller and will normally ask for start at the same time so that the engines can be started as the aircraft is pushing back.

Moving aircraft from one place to another is what ground control is all about. Always remember to be courteous and helpful. The skill comes from being able to keep the aircraft apart and moving WITHOUT excessive delays

Taxi instructions issued by a controller will always contain a clearance limit, which is the point at which the aircraft must stop until further permission to proceed is given. For departing aircraft the clearance limit will normally be the holding point of the departing runway

will normally be the holding point of the departing runway Do not use the word "CLEARED"

Do not use the word "CLEARED" to authorize an aircraft to taxi or for vehicle operations. Use the words "TAXI" "PROCEED" or "HOLD" for aircraft and "PROCEED" or "HOLD" for vehicles

You must obtain approval from Tower before authorizing an aircraft or vehicle to enter any part of an active runway

Progressive taxi: It usually isn’t necessary to issue taxi route or progressive taxi information. If you choose to do so, issue it in concise and easy to understand terms e.g. “TAXI STRAIGHT AHEAD, TURN LEFT AT THE NEXT INTERSECTION.” This is particularly important in PC because many SB pilots don’t have airport diagrams and most FS airports don’t have taxiway markings.

diagrams and most FS airports don’t have taxiway markings. Phraseology: AI001: VABB GROUND request push and

Phraseology:

AI001: VABB GROUND request push and start.

VABB GROUND: AI001 push and start approved

VABB GROUND: AI001 standby expect 10 minutes delay due to (reason)

(OR)

VABB GROUND: AI001 start and push at own discretion

AI001: VABB GROUND request Taxi.

VABB GROUND: AI001 Taxi to holding position runway 27 via (route) L, N, N1. [Hold short of runway 14]

VABB GROUND: AI001 cross runway 14, continue taxi via N, N1.

Instructions to expedite a taxing aircraft may be necessary in some instances. If need be you may instruct a pilot to expedite taxiing or to expedite across a runway.

VABB GROUND: AI001 expedite taxi (reason). [When aircraft reach holding point, hand over it to TOWER.] VABB GROUND: AI001 contact VABB tower 118.10, bye.

Helicopter Taxi:

For a helicopter to proceed at a slow speed above the surface, normally below 20 knots and in ground effect use the term “HOVER TAXI”

20 knots and in ground effect use the term “HOVER TAXI” Ex: BELL001 hover taxi to

Ex: BELL001 hover taxi to runway 27 via N, N1

For a helicopter to proceed expeditiously from one point to another, normally below 100 AGL and at airspeeds above 20 knots use the term “AIR TAXI”

Ex: BELL001 air taxi to runway 27 via N, N1

Emergency Operations

Simulation of a Hijack and/or use of transponder beacon code 7500, radio failure/or use of transponder beacon 7600 and a bomb threat is PROHIBITED ON VATSIM.

Emergency Situation Procedures:

Aircraft should not declare an emergency without first obtaining approval from the controller. If the pilot requests to declare an emergency, or even if he doesn’t, you are completely within your rights to state “UNABLE EMERGENCY”.

within your rights to state “UNABLE EMERGENCY”. A pilot who encounters a Distress condition should declare

A pilot who encounters a Distress condition should declare an emergency by beginning the initial communication with the words “MAYDAY-MAYDAY- MAYDAY”.

For an Urgency condition, the pilot should use the words “PAN-PAN-PAN”. If these words are not used and you are in doubt that a situation constitutes an emergency or potential emergency, the controller should ask “(aircraft ident), are you declaring an emergency?”.

Because of the infinite variety of possible emergency situations, specific procedures cannot be prescribed. However, when you believe an emergency

exists or is imminent, select and pursue a course of action which appears to be most appropriate under the circumstances.

a) Consider that an aircraft emergency exists when an emergency is declared by the pilot or air traffic control personnel, or when an emergency radar beacon code (7700) is observed.

b) Start assistance as soon as enough information has been obtained upon

which to act. Information requirements will vary, depending on the existing situation.

Special VFR

vary, depending on the existing situation.  Special VFR A Special VFR Flight is any flight

A Special VFR Flight is any flight within a Control Zone which is permitted to proceed in accordance with special instructions issued by the appropriate ATC unit during conditions (either by way of airspace classification, weather or time of day) which would otherwise require compliance with IFR.

Note: that SVFR is ONLY permitted within a Control Zone - NOWHERE ELSE.

This means that in any CTR at night or if the weather is below VFR minima (5,000 meters visibility OR cloud ceiling less than 1,500 above aerodrome level) aircfraft which cannot comply with IFR will require a SVFR clearance.

SVFR flights must be provided with Standard Separation against all IFR traffic and against all other SVFR flights and so any SVFR clearances must be requested from APP for departing flights prior to the aircraft getting airborne.

SVFR arrivals will be sequenced into the arrival stream by APP prior to being transferred to TWR.

the arrival stream by APP prior to being transferred to TWR. Subject to APP approval aircraft

Subject to APP approval aircraft may be permitted to conduct circuits under SVFR.

NEXT:

MANUAL OF ‘S2’

AERODROME CONTROL SERVICE

Comments and feedback are welcome, and may be sent to

Rajkoti Reddy(1098833) Division Director VATIND