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Machinery Vibration Signals Analysis and Monitoring for Fault Diagnosis and Process Control

Juan Dai 1 , C.L. Philip Chen 2 , Xiao-Yan Xu 3 , Ying Huang 4 , Peng Hu 5 , Chi-Ping Hu 1 , and Tao Wu 1

1 The Faculty of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, 650091 China jdkust@yahoo.com.cn 2 The Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78249 USA 3 The Electrical Engineering Department, Shanghai Maritime University, Shanghai, 200135 China 4 Yunnan University of Traditional Chinese Madicine, Kunming, 650021 China 5 The Faculty of Applied Technology, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, 650091 China

Abstract. The vibration signals contain a wealth of complex information that characterizes the dynamic behavior of the machinery. Monitoring rotating ma- chinery is often accomplished with the aid of vibration sensors. Transforming this information into useful knowledge about the health of the machine can be challenging due to the presence of extraneous noise sources and variations in the vibration signal itself. This paper describes applying vibration theory to de- tect machinery fault, via the measurement of vibration and voice monitoring machinery working condition, also proposes a useful way of vibration analysis and source identification in complex machinery. An actual experiment case study has been conducted on a mill machine. The experiment results indicate that fewer sensors and less measurement and analysis time can achieve condi- tion monitoring, fault diagnosis, and damage forecasting. Further applications allow feedback to the process control on production line.

Keywords: Reliability, fault detection, condition monitoring, vibration analy- sis, process control.

1

Introduction

A developing fault in a machine or a structural component will always show up as an increasing vibration at a frequency associated with the fault; however the fault might be well developed before it affects either the overall vibration level or the peak level in the time. Noise signals measured at regions in proximity to, and vibration signals measured on the external surfaces of machines contain vital information about a ma- chine’s running condition [1.5]. When machines are in a good condition, their noise and vibration frequency spectra have characteristic shops. As faults begin to develop,

D.-S. Huang et al. (Eds.): ICIC 2008, LNCS 5226, pp. 696–703, 2008. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

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the frequency spectra change. This is the fundamental basis for using noise and vibra- tion measurement and analysis in condition monitoring [2]. A frequency analysis of the vibration will give a much earlier warning of the fault, since it is selective, and will allow the increasing vibration at the frequency associated with the fault to be identified. Machine condition, machine faults and on-going damage can be identified in operating machines by fault symptoms [3.4]. Therefore vibration analysis can iden- tify developing problem before they become too serious and cause breakage, using vibration and noise analysis, the condition of a machine can be constantly monitored and more detailed analyses can be made to determine the health of a machine and identify any faults that may be arising or that already exist. Comprehensive equipment condition-monitoring program is essential for ensuring maximum utility of assets in most industries. To effectively monitor large numbers of assets of various types, a scalable, flexible and usable approach to condition monitor- ing is warranted. It is becoming increasingly apparent that condition monitoring of machinery reduces operational and maintenance cost and provides a significant im- provement in plant availability. The obtained complex information from the meas- urement signals has to be reduced to the trend of few characteristic values to forecast the development of damages in the near future respectively to allow feedback to the process control.

2 Noise and Vibration Analysis Detected Typical Faults

Common machinery consists of a driver or a prime mover, such as an electric motor. Other prime movers include diesel engineers, gas engineers, steam turbines and gas turbines. The driven equipment could be pumps, compressors, mixers, agitators, fans, blowers and others, at time when the driver equipment has to be driven at speeds other than the prime mover, a gearbox or a belt is used. Each of these rotating parts is further comprised or simple components such as stator, rotors, seals, bearings and so on. When these components operate continuously at high speeds, wear and failure is imminent [7]. When defects are developed in these components, they give rise to higher vibration levels. It can be stated that whenever either one or more parts are unbalanced, misaligned, loose, eccentric, out of tolerance dimensionally, damaged or reacting to some external force, higher vibration levels will occur. The common noise and vibration sources include mechanical noise, electrical noise, aerodynamic, and impulsive noise. Mechanical noise is associated with fan/motor unbalance, bearing noise, structural vibration, reciprocating forces, etc. electrical noise is generally due to unbalance magnetic forces associated with flux density variations and air geometry, brush noise, electrical arcing, etc. Aerodynamic noise is related to vortex shedding, turbulence, acoustic modes inside ducts, pressure pulsations, etc. Finally, impact noise is generated by sharp, short, forceful contact between two or more bodies. Vibration monitor and analysis aim to correlate the vibration response the system with specific defects that occur in the machinery and its components, trains or even in its mechani- cal structures. Some of the more common faults or defects that can be detected using vibration or noise analysis are summarized in Table 1.

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Table 1. Typical Faults Can Be Detected With Noise and Vibration Analysis

Item

Fault

Gears

tooth meshing faults, Eccentric gears

Rotors and shafts

Cracked and/or worn teeth Unbalance, Bent shafts

Rolling element bearings

Eccentric journals, Loose components Critical Speeds, Cracked shafts Pitting of race and ball/roller

Journal Bearing

Other Rolling Element Journal/bearing rub Defects, Oil whirl

Flexible couplings

Oval or barreled journals Misalignment, Unbalance

Electrical machines

Unbalanced magnetic pulls

Miscellaneous

Broken/damaged rotor bars Air gap geometer variations Structural and foundation faults

3 An Important Vibration Signal Process FFT Analysis

Numerous analysis techniques are available for condition monitoring of machinery or structural components with noise vibration signals. The commonly used signal analy- sis techniques are magnitude analysis, time domain analysis and frequency analysis. State of technology in vibration monitoring of rotating machines is related to the cal- culation of standard deviation and/or maximum values, their comparison with thresh- olds and their trend behavior to determine increased wear or changes in the operation conditions. Time domain averaging is applied to separate speed related information from superimposed resonances and stochastically excitations like mechanical or flow friction [6]. Spectrum analysis with special phase constant averaging routines allows determining machine specific signatures by magnitude and phasing relation. The measured vibrations and voices are always in analog form (time domain), however the time domain single is difficult to condition monitoring of machinery. Firstly, individual contributions from components in a machine to the overall machine vibration and noise radiation are generally very difficult to identify in the time do- main, especially if there are many frequency components involved. This becomes much easier in the frequency domain, since the frequencies of the major peaks can be readily associated with parameters such as rotation frequencies. Secondly, a develop- ing fault in a machine will always show up as an increasing vibration at a frequency associated with the fault. However, the fault might be well developed before it affects either the overall vibration level or the peak level in the fault in the time domain. A frequency analysis of the vibration will give a much earlier warning of the fault, since it is selective, and will allow the increasing vibration at the frequency associated with the fault to be identified. When using vibration and voice as a diagnostic tool, the measured analog signal needs to be transformed to frequency domain. As shown in Figure 1, the fast Fourier transform (FFT) is widely used both by commercially avail- able spectrum analysis and by computer based signal analysis systems [1].

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Signals Analysis and Monitoring for Fault Diagnosis 699 Fig. 1. Fourier Transform (Schematic illustration of time

Fig. 1. Fourier Transform (Schematic illustration of time and frequency components)

A general Fourier Transform pair, X (ω) and x (t), is

And,

X

(

ω

)

x

()

t

=

=

1

2

π

− ∞

− ∞

x (t )e

iω t

dt

X

(ω )

e

i

t

ω

d

ω

.

.

(1)

(2)

Because classical Fourier theory is only valid for functions which are absolutely in- tegrable and decay to zero, the transform X (ω) will only exist for a random signal which is restricted by a finite time interval. Thus, the concept of a finite Fourier trans- form, X (ω, T) is introduced. The finite transform of a time signal χ (t) is given by,

F {}x(t )

=

X

(

ω

, T

)

=

1

2

π

T

0

x(t )e

i

t

ω

dt

.

(3)

F{x (t) represents a forward Fourier transform, and F -1 x (t) represents an in- verse Fourier transform [5].

4 The Complex Machinery’s Vibration Monitoring System

Vibration or noise analysis in plant often is involved complex machinery, and a con- siderable amount of deterioration or damage may occur in there. Therefore vibration source identification and ranking in complex machinery is very important for the implementation condition monitoring and fault detection. The normal techniques use a lot of sensors, which consumes in life in every operation. The paper discusses a new useful way of vibration analysis and source identification in complex machinery based on advanced signal processing techniques. The vibration monitoring and diag- nostic method uses three of measurement intensity measurement techniques to

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identify vibration source in complex machinery shown in Figure 2. The vibration monitoring system only uses 6 sensors (3 microphones and 3 accelerometers). Among them, 2 microphones are used to measure sound intensity, one microphone and one accelerometer are used to measure surface intensity and 2 accelerometers are used to measure vibration intensity. Figure 2 shows a vibration monitoring and fault diagnosis system for complex machinery. In practice, care has got to be exercised with all inten- sity techniques and several procedures have been developed to reduce any phase er- rors between the two microphones. These include the usage of phase matched microphones, microphone switching procedures, which, in principle, eliminate the phase mismatch, and a frequency response function procedure which corrects the intensity data with the measured phase mismatch. With the surface intensity technique, an accelerometer is mounted on the surface of the vibration structure and a pressure microphone is held in close proximity to it. It is assumed that the velocity of the vibration surface is equal to the acoustic particle velocity and that the magnitude of the pressure does not vary significantly from the vibrating surface to the microphone [8]. The resultant surface intensity normal to the surface (sound intensity at the surface of the structure) is given as

x Microphones Filters FFT Amplifiers A/D Windows Accelerometer Filters Amplifiers FFT A/D Windows Microphon
x
Microphones
Filters
FFT
Amplifiers
A/D
Windows
Accelerometer
Filters
Amplifiers
FFT
A/D
Windows
Microphon
Filters
Amplifiers
FFT
A/D
Windows
Accelerometers

Fig. 2. Vibration monitoring and fault diagnosis for complex machinery

Ix

=

1

φ

f

0

Q

cos

ap

φ

+

C

PA

sin

2 Π

f

df

,

(4)

where Q pa the quadrature spectrum (imaginary part of the one-sided cross-spectral density), C pa is the coincident spectrum (real part of the one-sided cross-spectral density), and is the phase shift between the two signals due to the instrumentation

Machinery Vibration Signals Analysis and Monitoring for Fault Diagnosis

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and due to the separation distance between the microphone and the accelerometer. This phase shift has to be accounted for in the analysis. The time lag phase shift can be evaluated for each measurement point and the instrumentation phase shift has to be evaluated during the calibration procedure.

Π

=

n

n

∑ ∑

j =

1

i

=

1

(

Q

pa

cos

φ

j

+

C

pa

ij

sin

φ

j

)

A

i

Δ f

2

f

π

j

,

(5)

where n is the number of data points in the frequency domain, N is the number of area increments (A i )on the whole surface, and f is the frequency resolution (i. e. f = f/n ). The main advantage of the surface intensity is that information is not required about the radiation ratio of a vibrating surface. It is also useful in highly reverberant spaces where a reverberant field exists very close to the surface of a machine. It is main disadvantage is that the phase difference between the microphone and the accel- erometer has to be accurately accounted for. The vibration intensity measurement technique is used to identify free-field energy flow due to bending waves in a solid body. It can be shown that the vibration inten- sity, I v , in a given direction is

I

v

=

( ) 1 B 2 P s 2 π f Δ x
(
)
1
B
2
P
s
2
π f
Δ
x

T

0

(

a

1

2

2

+

a

)

(a 2

a

1

)d

τ

⎬ ⎫ dt

,

(6)

where B is the bending stiffness of the structure, P s is the mass per unit area, x is the separation between the two accelerometers, and a 1 and a 2 are the two accelerome- ter signals. It is noted that the scaling factor is frequency dependent.

5 Condition Monitoring and Fault Detection on Mill Machine

The vibration monitoring method designed in this paper, are applied on a mill ma- chine. The mill machine and its vibration condition monitor system are shown in Figure 2. In this system, 3 accelerometers and 3 microphones are mounted in close critical areas. In the actual experiment, continuously monitors signals come from the accelerometers and microphones. High pass filtering increases significantly the prob- ability of fault detection, too. These piezoelectric sensors generate analog signals that measure the component vibration. The analyses system uses National Instruments Lab VIEW developing a PC-based monitoring system with accelerometers and micro- phones to predict failure of the complex mill machine components. In this case, sound intensity and vibration intensity calculate was applied to analysis where the signal consists of the general descriptive values of the time information (variance, kurtosis) in certain specific frequency ranges as well as peak analysis known from the evalua- tion of signals. A reference normal operation of all values are normalized to “one”. The actual signatures can then be calculated as differences for comparison purposes. The difference to the reference frequency spectra then is detected with a developing fault. Figure 3 shows the measurement result with sound intensity measurement with vibration fault source. For comparison purposes, of different operation conditions, the actual signals frequency, amplitude and the difference to the reference normal running signals are calculated. The signal classes can be separated depending on the

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702 J. Dai et al. Fig. 3. Determination of failure source using intensity measurement analysis running

Fig. 3. Determination of failure source using intensity measurement analysis

running condition. The vibration condition monitoring system of the mill machines can select various levels of response when registering anomalies or impending failure. Figure 4 is a typical frequency spectrum vibration signals with different degrees of bearing housing looseness on the mill machine. This setup can alert the maintenance supervisor immediately for diagnosis or repair. The visualized signatures in time and frequency domains have to be summarized to obtain an actual condition classifiers of normal operation to get an automatically feedback for process regulation.

to get an automatically feedback for process regulation. Fig. 4. Frequency spectra under different degrees of

Fig. 4. Frequency spectra under different degrees of bearing housing looseness on mill machine

6

Conclusion

The experiment results show that vibration, sound and acoustic emission combined with intensity technique like sound intensity and vibration intensity measurement

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techniques are more convenient and reliable for condition monitoring in complex machinery and quality control than most of the standard methods, like heat, current, force and normal vibration measurements as well as power consumption, used in commercially available systems. The proposed monitoring system presents using fewer sensors and takes less measure and analysis time. The obtained information from the measurement signals is able to forecast the development of damage. The proposed techniques have a great potential to improve industrial production lines utilization rate and product quality by machines condition monitoring. As a result, lower in running operation and maintenance costs and increased in productivity and efficiency can be achieved, further application allow feedback to the process control on production line.

Acknowledgments

This research is supported by the P.R. China Ministry of Education and the authors acknowledge financial support The China Scholarship Council (C.S.C).

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4. Norton, M.P., Denis, K.: Fundamentals of Noise and Vibration Analysis for Engineers, Cambridge, UK (2003)

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(1999)

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