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Riah Kim Ms. Heykoop DP Math HL 11 7 June 2017

Mini IA - Mathematical Exploration

PART 1 : Finding the imaginary friend of Quadratic Polynomials

1 = (x a) 2 + b 2 , where

a, bR

. The

vertex of the basic model is (a, b ) and the values of the zeros are imaginary since its concavity

is upwards. To find out the value of imaginary zeros, I came up with another function,

y

substituting different values ina and b .

2

(x a) 2 + b 2

2 =

. To find the pattern of zeros of

y 1

and

y 2

, I’ve tested the functions by

 **y 1 is red​, y 2 is blue​ and y m (the generating function) is green​. Quadratic Polynomials y 1 y 2 Zeros of y 2 Zeros of y 1 Graphs (x − 3) 2 + 2 2 − (x − 3) 2 + 2 2 3 ± 2 3 ± 2i (x − 9) 2 + 3 2 − (x − 9) 2 + 3 2 9 ± 3 9 ± 3i (x 7 ) 2 + 3 2 − (x − 7 ) 2 + 3 2 2 7 ± 3 2 7 ± 3 i − 2 2

From this data, we can see the pattern between y and

zero of y

with one another; they’re symmetrical. With this pattern, we now know that we can use the zeros

of y

y 2

: If the zero of

y 2

is

a ± b

, then the

1

1

is

a ± bi

. This happens because the two graphs are reflected upon a single line(

y 1

i

after

b

.

y

m

)

2

in order to find the zeros of

During the process, I also got to know how y would look like when it’s expressed in terms of

and y

negative. To make this b

at the end also becomes

2

y 1

y 2

(x a) 2 + b 2

,

y 1 = (x a) 2 + b 2

1

y m = b 2

m

.

y

2 =

and

. What we do first to make

b 2

y 1

y m = b 2

into

2y m

.

2 positive, we need to add

2b 2 . And since

Therefore, if we were to express y

2

in terms of

y 1

and

y m

, it would look like this:

y 2 =

y 1 + 2y m

PART 2 : Finding the imaginary friend of Cubic Polynomials

For this task, I was given an example, y

can be rewritten as y

1 = (

) .

x

1 = (

x

+ 2

)((x

− 3) 2 + 2 2

+ 2

)(x

− (

3

+ 2

i))(x

− (

3

− 2

i)) . If we expand this, it

has zero values that are imaginary.

y

intersecting points. y

and y .

1

2

y 1

and

y 2

have opposite concavities and have two

m

, the generating function, passes through the points of intersection of

The zeros of y

2

are

− 2

and

3 ± 2

.

y 1

I generalized the function so that it’s in the form of y

1 = (

x

+ a

)(x

− (

b

+ c

i))(x

− (

b

c

i)) .

This function can be rewritten as y

From this form of y , and by using our knowledge from the previous part with quadratic

1 = (

x

+ a

)((x

b) 2 + c 2

) .

1

polynomials, we can figure out that y

2 = (x + a)(− (x b)

2 + c 2

) .

**y

1

is red,

y 2

is blueand

y m

(the generating function) is green.

Cubic Polynomials

y 1

y 2

y m

Points of

Intersection

Graphs

 (x + 3)((x − 5) 2 + 3 2 ) (x + 3)(− (x − 5) 2 + 3 2 ) 9x + 27 (− 3, 0), (5, 72) (x + 4)((x − 3) 2 + 2 2 ) (x + 4)(− (x − 3) 2 + 2 2 ) 4x + 16 (− 4, 0), (3, 28) (x + 2)((x − 10) 2 + 5 2 ) (x + 2)(− (x − 10) 2 + 5 2 ) 25x + 50 (− 2, 0), (10, 300) (x + 2)((x − 10) 2 + 5 2 ) (x + 4)((x − 10) 2 + 6 2 ) 36x + 144 (− 4, 0), (10, 504) From this, I could conclude that y m = c 2 x + a · c 2 . Once we expand y , we get 1 x 3 + ( a − 2 b)x 2 + ( b 2 + c 2 − 2 ab)x + a b 2 + a c 2 . Once we expand y 2 , we

ab)x

like y , so we add

get x

2

3 − (

a

− 2

b)x

2 − (

2y m

b

2 c 2 − 2

.

b

2 + a

a

c

2

. To make

y 1

look like

2

y 2

+ 2 ac

2 in order for it to look

Therefore, if we were to express y

y 2 =

y 1 + 2y m

2

in terms of

y 1

and

y m

, it would look like this:

Let’s verify if this is correct.

− (x

=− x

=− x

3 + (

a

3

3

− (

− (

a

a

− 2

b)x

2 + (

b

2 + c 2 − 2

ab)x

− 2

− 2

b)x

b)x

2 − ( 2 − (

b

b

2 + c 2 − 2 2 c 2 − 2

ab)x

ab)x

+ a

a

a

b

2 + a

2

c )

b

b

2 a 2 + a

c

c

+ 2

2 + 2

2

2

(cx

2

cx

+ a · c 2

ac

+ 2

2

)

The zeros of y are

2

a

and

b ± c

. From our knowledge and findings from this part of our task and

the previous part, we can conclude that the complex zeros of y are

1

a b

and

±

ci

. Although the

graphs of the two cubic functions don’t reflect on one another, the zeros are related to each

other, just like they were in part 1. We know that part 1 and 2 have similar features(including

zeros), since in both cases the relationships between y and

y 2

are the same. (

y 2 =

y 1 + 2y m

1

)

CONCLUSION:

Were there any limitations?

- From these findings of imaginary friend, we could conclude that the relationship between

in any type of polynomials(quadratic, cubic) is the same. The

the functions y ,

1

y 2

and

y m

relationship would have been clearer and more reliable if I had tried quartic or quintic

polynomials as well, since two trials can’t really be enough to generalize a rule or a function; it might be just a common feature of those two.

How would I compare my previous knowledge with my knowledge now? How can it be used?

- Before this assessment, I did not really know about the complex zeros nor what they were nor how I find them. But now that I know, I think this could be useful when later I have to find complex zeros of a function whose concavity is upwards.

How were the methods and processes that I used for completing this task?

- The process is reliable since there were enough examples(3 examples for part 1 and 4 for part 2) to let me figure out the pattern. All the examples clearly showed the patterns.

Resources

Desmos Graphing Calculator: www.desmos.com/calculator/