Sei sulla pagina 1di 84




a. Arc burn a burn on the exterior membrane of the eye caused by

exposing the naked eye to the ultra-violet and infrared rays in the flash
of an electric arc or the exposure of improperly covered body areas to
the flash of an electric arc.

b. Accident any suddenly occurring, unintentional event which causes

personal injury or properly damage

c. Combustibles materials or liquids that catch fire easily

d. First Aid immediate, temporary care given the victim of an accident

or sudden illness until the service of a doctor can be obtained

e. Frostbite skin tissue damage caused by exposure to intense cold

f. Hygiene the science of good health and its maintenance, including

sanitary practices and cleanliness

g. Safety state or condition of being safe; freedom from danger, risk, or


h. Tetanus an acute, infectious disease that usually enters the body

through cuts or wounds; characterized by spasmodic contractions or
rigidity of some voluntary muscles and frequently referred to as

i. Tourniquet a bandage or strap twisted around a limb to compress the

flow of blood through arteries and check severe bleeding; previously a
recommended first aid procedure, but now recommended only for life-
threatening situations.


a.) Safety green

1. Applied to nonhazardous parts of machine and equipment surfaces,

like nameplates and bearing surfaces.
2. Designates safe areas of equipment, and is also used to show
location of safety equipment and first-aid materials

b.) Safety yellow

1. Applied to operating levers, wheels handles, and hazardous parts

that may cause stumbling, falling, snagging, or tripping
2. Designates caution

c.) Safety orange

1. Applied to electrical switches, interior surfaces of doors, fuses and

electrical power boxes, and movable guards and parts
2. Indicates dangerous parts of equipment which may cut, crush,
shock, or otherwise physically injure someone

d.) Safety red

1. Applied buttons or levers of electrical switches used for stopping

machinery, and to all equipment, such as gasoline cans, which are
fire hazards
2. Designates fire hazards and fire-fighting equipment

Note: The color red is also applied to other fire-fighting equipment,

such as fire alarms, fire axes, and emergency exits.

e.) Safety blue

1. Used to identify equipment which is being repaired or is detective

and should not be operated
2. Designates out of order pr detective

f.) Safety ivory

1. Applied to label edges, vise jaws, and edges of tool rests where
extra light reflection is important
2. Used to show tool and equipment moving edges, more clearly

g.) Safety black on safety yellow

1. Applied to area where radiation is a factor or danger

2. Designates radiation hazards

h.) Safety black, safety white, and safety yellow

1. Applied to floors for safety lanes and location of housekeeping

2. The single or combination use of these colors are used to identify
traffic flow and housekeeping zones


Danger signs
- Used where an immediate hazard exists
- Colors are red, black, and white




Caution signs

-Used to warn against potential hazards or to caution against unsafe

- Colors are yellow and black



Safety Instruction signs

- Used where there is a need for general instruction and suggestions

relative to safety measures
- Colors are white, green, and black




Note: tags are for temporary use only.

Do not start tags

- Are placed at the starting mechanism on machines which would be

hazardous should the equipment be energized
- Colors are red, white, or gray

White Letters

Red Square DO NOT


White Tag

Danger tags

- Are placed only where an immediate hazard exists

- Colors are red, black, and white

White Letters

Red oval DANGE

Black square

White tag

Caution tags

- Are placed only where an immediate hazard exists

- Colors are red, black, and white

Yellow letters

Black square
Yellow tag

Out of order tags

- Are used to identify pieces of equipment that are out of order

- Colors are blue and white

White letters

Black square

White tag

5. The ALWAYS rules for welding safety

a. Always wear suitable protective clothing and eye protection

b. Always keep a safe, clean work area
c. Always keep welding equipment in good condition
d. Always check welding areas to make sure theyre safe work in
e. Always respect gas cylinders as dangerous and potentially lethal
f. Always make sure ventilation provides three to four complete changes of
air per hour
g. Always look our fellow students and coworkers.

6. The NEVER for welding safety

a. Never enter the welding shop without wearing safety glasses.

b. Never weld, cut, or grind near flammable or explosive materials.
c. Never use oil on gas cylinders, regulators, connections, or hoses.
d. Never permit an electrode holder to come in contact with a welding
machine to a gas cylinder
e. Never operate ungrounded equipment
f. Never cut or weld directly on concrete
g. Never arc weld or operate electrically powered equipment while standing
on wet damp floors
h. Never cut into barrels, drums, or any container that has not been purged.
i. Never ground electrical equipment to a building member or a piece of
equipment attached to or part of a building.
j. Never engage in horseplay of any kind.

7. Shops safety rules

a. Keep all hand tools sharp, clean, and in safe working order.
b. Report any detective tools, machines, or other equipment to the
c. Keep all guards and safety devices securely in place.
d. Operate a hazardous machine only after receiving instruction on how to
operate the machine safety.
e. Report all accidents to the instructor regardless of their nature or
f. Turn off power before leaving a machine tool.

g. Make sure all guards and barriers are in place and adjusted properly
before starting a machine tool
h. Disconnect the power from machine tools before performing the
maintenance tasks of oiling or cleaning.

8. Eye safety

a. Wear safety glasses at all times in the welding shop.

b. Wear safety glasses and a face shield when grinding, chipping, cutting or
shaping metal with any kind of power tool.
c. You wear contact lenses, check with your doctor to see if the type of lens
you ear requires any special precautions in the work environment.
Note: Reports than an electric arc can burn a contact lens to the cornea
of the eye are false, but dust or other contaminants in the air can be
irritating to persons who wear contact lenses, any special precautions in
the work environment.
d. Select proper lens shade for the welding or cutting activity and make sure
the lens is not chipped, cracked, or damaged
e. Do not wear plastic-coated lenses for welding or cutting.
f. Remember that lens shade number are not additive, in other words, a #8
and a #6 lens will not give the same density as a #14 lens, so dont mix
g. Wear welding goggles or a welding hood with the proper lens shade for all welding and
cutting activity.

Lens Shade Selector Chart

Type of operation Shade #
Soldering 2
Torch brazing 3 or 4
Oxygen cutting 3 or 4
inch 3 or 5
1-6 inches 5 or 6
6 inches and over
Shielded metal arc welding 9-14
1/16, 3/32, 5/32 inch electrodes
Arc cutting 12-14
Gas metal arc welding 9-14
Gas tungsten arc welding (ferrous) 9-14
Nonferrous, gas metal arc welding
1/16,3/32, 5/32 inch electrodes
Gas tungsten arc welding (ferrous) 9-14
Gas metal arc welding (ferrous)
1/16,3/32,1/8, 3/32 inch electrodes

9. Good housekeeping rules

a. Arrange machinery and equipment to permit safe efficient work practices

and ease in cleaning.

b. Store materials and supplies in proper places

c. Store tools and accessories safely in cabinets, on racks, or other storage
d. Keep working areas and workbenches clear and free of debris and other
e. Keep floors clean and free from obstructions and slippery substances
f. Keep aisles, traffic areas, and exits free of materials or debris
g. Dispose of combustible materials properly or store them in approved
h. Store oil rags in self-closing or spring-lid metal containers

10. Factors contributing to back injuries and their causes

a. Weight this usually results from overestimating your physical abilities

and trying to lift more weight than you can handle, and sometimes it
results from trying to be macho in front of fellow workers.

b. Size this usually results from moving an object that may be within your
weight capacity, but too long, high, or wide to lift safely.

c. Shape usually results from moving an object that may be within your
weight capacity, but has a cylindrical or other odd shape that makes safe
lifting difficult.

d. Obstructions usually results from stacking materials so high that vision is

limited and items in the pathway that cant be seen.

e. When lifting or carrying with another worker, make sure the load is equally
distributed, and carry long objects at the same level and on the same side
of the body.

Note: When moving or carrying large metal sheets, it is especially

important to have another worker help.

f. Set the load down by using leg and back muscles together, slowly lower
the load by bending your knees, and release your grip only after the load
is securely positioned.

11. Rules for personal safety

a. Wear shop clothing appropriate to the instructional activity when being

performed, and do not wear greasy clothing.

b. Confine long hair before operating rotating equipment.

c. Remove ties when working around machine tools or rotating


d. Removing rings and other jewelry when working in the shop, and avoid
wearing safety glasses that have wire frames.

e. Conduct yourself in a manner conducive to safe shop practices.

f. Do not smoke in restricted areas, and do not carry a butane or propane

lighter in your pocket around any welding or cutting activity.

12. Personal physical and hygiene requirements

a. Take a bath or shower daily.

Note: This should be a matter of personal pride, a matter of habit, but

beyond that, it is a responsibility to your fellow workers or classmates.

b. Stay in good physical condition because this also promotes good

psychological health

c. Do not drink alcoholic beverages or use drugs on the job, and do not
show up for work with a hangover.

Caution: Even at the hangover stage, alcohol impairs judgment and endangers co-
workers, and drugs that are both physically and psychologically damaging

d. Pay attention all the time because the majority of accidents happen to
beginners in their first few months of work.

13. Types of fires and their classifications

a. Class A Fires that occur in ordinary combustible materials

Ex: woods, rags, paper

b. Class B fires that occur in flammable liquids

Ex: gasoline, oil, grease

c. Class C fires that occur in electrical and electronic equipment

Ex: motors, switchboards

d. Class D fires that occur in combustible metals

Ex: powdered aluminum and magnesium

14. Fire safety rules


a. Report immediately anything that might indicate a potential fire

b. Know the location and the proper operation of fire extinguishers and
make sure that they have been recently checked.
c. Know where the nearest telephone is and make sure the number of the
nearest fire department is listed on the phone.
d. Know the procedure for evacuating the building and the location of all
fire exits in case one or more exists may be blocked.
e. Smoke only at authorized times in authorized areas and make sure
cigarette butts are completely extinguished and properly discarded.
f. Examine materials and equipment around the workplace to determine
what types of fire might occur, then make sure available fire
extinguishers are correct for the classes of tires that might occur.
g. Isolate combustible materials in fire-resistant areas.
h. Dispose of rubbish regularly.
i. Conduct fire drills at regular intervals to make sure the alarm can be
heard over shop noises, and that everyone knows evacuation routes,
exits, and assembly points.
Note: During a fire alarm, students should go to an assembly point
predetermined by the instructor, and this point it should be used to
account for all students who have evacuated the building.

15. Guidelines for oxygen safety

a. Since oxygen under pressure may react violently in the presence of oil
or grease, all oxygen fittings and equipment should kept free of oil and

Caution: Do not use detergent solutions to test for leaks around oxygen cylinders. Many
detergents contain oil.

b. Acetylene cylinders should be stored in clean, dry, well-ventilated

locations and free from other combustibles.

c. Never withdraw acetylene from a cylinder at pressure over fifteen (15)


d. Never use acetylene from a cylinder that is lying on its side because
acetone withdrawn with the acetylene could damage equipment and
can cause interior welds.

e. Acetylene cylinders should be protected against excessive temperature


16. Guidelines for acetylene safety

a. Because acetylene burns readily, acetylene cylinders should be kept

safely away from other combustibles.
b. Acetylene cylinders should be stored in clean, dry, well-ventilated
locations free from other combustibles.

c. Never withdraw acetylene from a cylinder at pressure over fifteen (15)

d. Never use acetylene from a cylinder that is lying on its side because
acetone withdrawn with the acetylene could damage equipment and
cause interior welds.

17. Guidelines for other fuel gas safety

a. Propane and MPS (methylacetylene - propadiene stabilized) cylinders

should be stored in clean, dry, well-ventilated locations free from other

b. Both propane and MPS cylinders should be used and stored in an

upright position.

c. Natural gas in cylinders should be handled with the same precaution as

other fuel gas cylinders.

d. Whether used from a cylinder or from a piped-in supply, natural gas

should be used with torches and tips designed for use with natural gas.

18. Guidelines for shielding gas safety

a. In all cases, shielding gases should be used and stored in an upright


b. Avoid skin exposure to carbon dioxide and nitrogen because both

gases are cold enough to cause frostbite.

c. Because they can displace oxygen in the air, some nonflammable

shielding gases such as argon, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and helium
should be stored in well-ventilated areas.

19. Rules for handling gas cylinders safely

a. Never use a cylinder cap to lift a cylinder

b. Never use oil or grease on a cylinder fitting


c. Never expose a cylinder to excessive heat

d. Never roll a cylinder horizontally across a floor

e. Never tamper with or attempt to repair a cylinder valve, but do report

a fault, valve to your instructor immediately.

f. Keep caps on cylinders when they are not in use.

g. Store all cylinders in well-ventilated areas.

h. Chain all cylinders, even empty ones, in an upright position.

i. Do not drop cylinders or strike them sharply.

j. Do not use a hammer or wrench to force cylinder valves open.

k. Keep all cylinders away from electrical contact and any welding arc.

l. Close cylinder valves when they are not in use.

m. Never transport cylinders with regulators attached.

20. Guidelines for electrical safety

a. Do not operate electrical equipment without instructions from your


b. Do not touch live electrical parts or electrodes with your bare hands or
exposed skin.

c. Do not operate electrical parts with wet gloves or wet clothing.

Note: To prevent harmful body shocks, keep ands, feet, and clothing
dry, and use a dry board or rubber mat when water, moisture, or
perspiration cannot be

d. Never touch an electrode to a grounded surface for these surfaces will

become electrically live.

e. Do not operate equipment beyond its rated capacity.

f. Know cable loads and do not use welding cables at currents in excess
of their capacity.

g. Replace worn or bare cables to prevent electrical shock or damage to


Note: Worn cables that can be taped provided the tape has an
electrical resistance that is the equal to the original insulation.


1. Terms and definitions

a. Oxygen displacement a reduction of oxygen caused by any arc or

flame in the work zone around a welding activity

b. Toxic hazards poisonous gases, fumes, and vapors produced by

chemical reactions in certain welding processes

c. Contaminants impurities formed from chemical reactions between

base metals, flux, and electrodes, and usually present in fumes and

Caution: Toxic hazards and contaminants are usually present in fumes and vapors.

2. Electrical safety for arc welding

a. All electrical equipment should have an earth ground for safety

reasons, and this ground should not be confused with the work lead to
work piece ground that completes the welding circuit.

b. Keep electrical connections tight, clean and dry because poor

connections can heat up, cause bad welds, produce dangerous arcs
and sparking, and even melt.

c. Keep work area, equipment, and clothing dry because even a slight
amount of moisture can conduct enough electricity to cause a severe

d. Never dip an electrode holder in water to cool it.

e. When working with welding machines set up for multiple operation, be

very careful not to touch hot parts of the electrode holders because

open-circuit voltages from two machines are increased and can cause
a severe shock.

f. Remove electrode from electrode holder when work is finished.

g. Disconnect and lock out all electric power sources before doing any
work on electrical equipment.

h. When working in high places, carefully examine work area for electrical
hazards because a shock in such conditions could cause a fall and
severe injury.

i. Keep welding cables free of conduits, motors and any other equipment
that could cause a short circuit.

j. Keep ground as far away from the arc as possible.

3. Rules for handling welding cables

a. Never drag a welding cable through oil, and never pull on a cable to
force it over an obstruction.

b. Use only clean, dry rags to clean welding cables, and never use
gasoline or an oily rag to clean a cable.

c. When not in use, keep welding cables free of kinks and properly stored
on a flat surface off the floor.

d. Never drape a welding cable over any type of gas cylinder.

4. Rules for handling hollow castings or containers

a. Hollow castings or containers should be vented before any heating,

cutting or welding activity.

b. Tanks, drums, and containers should not be heated, cut, or welded.

c. The rule for beginning welders is to never attempt heating, cutting, or

welding on hollow castings or containers.

5. Hazards from arc rays

a. A welding arc produces ultraviolet and infrared radiation that can

severely burn eyes that unprotected with a proper shade of protective

b. Radiation from a welding arc is strong enough to burn or sometimes

blister bare skin if the exposure is intense or for an extended period, so
arms, legs, and torso should be covered with durable flame-resistant

c. Workstations and work areas should be shielded to prevent an arch

flash from injuring nearby workers or visitors.


a. Stationary filter lens this type hood has a fixed lens housing with the
shaded lens held in by a spring retainer from where a lens can be
slipped out and replaced as welding requires

b. Flip-front filter lens this type hood has lens housing with a front side
that can be flipped up so that it leaves a clear-glass lens that permits
the hood to be worn while chipping.



a. Determine the electrode size and amperage range for the electrode
because electrode size and amperage used dictate the lens protection

b. Select lens shade according to the lens manufacturers selection chart,

but never select less than a #8-lens shade for shielded metal arc welding.

Electrode size Amperage Shade #

----- 30 to 75 8
1/16-5/32 75 to 200 10
3/16-1/4 200 to 400 12
5/16-3/8 400+ 14

c. A rule of thumb is that the larger the diameter of the electrode, the
higher the number required for a lens shade.

8. Protective clothing required for arc welding

a. Basic clothing requirements:

1. Heavy, long sleeve shirts with pocket flaps

2. Heavy, cuffless pants not frayed at the bottom
3. No clothing made of synthetic materials

b. A welders cap has a flexible bill that can be slipped around to cover
either ear and keep sparks or metal splatter out of the ear opening.

c. Leather jackets and aprons should be worn for additional protection,

especially when welding out of position or in confined areas where
flying sparks present an increased hazard.

d. Boots should be made of heavy leather with uppers that reach above
the ankle to help prevent burns from sparks and spatter.

Note: Although steel-toed boots are not required, they are highly

e. Heavy leather gloves with gauntlets are required for all welding and
cutting activities.

f. Safety glasses should have nonmetal frames, and impact-resistant

lenses with side shields to protect from flying objects.

g. To provide good visibility when chipping or grinding, wear a clear,

plastic-type face shield because it will provide protection from slag or

h. Wear a face shield when required, but do not substitute a face shield
for safety glasses because safety glasses should be worn at all times in
the welding

i. In situations where the danger of falling materials or tools may be

present. Always wear a hard hat.


a. Ventilation many welding activities produce toxic fumes and vapors

that are hazardous to breathe, and every workstation should be equipped
with ventilation or an exhaust system capable of safely removing dangerous
and irritating smoke and contaminants.

Caution: Always position your head out of the way of rising fumes.

b. Respirators in confined areas where hazard of toxic fumes is increased,

a welder should wear an air-supplied respirator or a self-contained breathing
apparatus, not a filter-type mask that cannot compensate for oxygen

c. Noise this is a workplace hazard frequently overlooked, but earplugs or

muffler-type ear protectors should be worn when the work area subjects a
welder to high noise levels, especially high noise levels that are continuous.

d. Lighting in a work area or at a workstation should be bright enough to

provide good visibility free of glare because poorly lit work areas contribute to
eye fatigue, irritation, and poor work.



a. Base metal the metal or alloy that is welded, brazed, soldered, or cut

b. Coalescence the growing together or growth into one body of the

materials being welded

c. Fusion welding melting together of filler metal and base metal, or of

base metal only, to produce a weld

d. Welding a joining process that produces coalescence of materials by

heating to a melt thing point, with or without the application of pressure
and with or without the use of filler metal.

e. Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) - An arc welding process that

produces coalescence of materials by heating them with an arc between
a covered electrode and a work piece; shielding is obtained from

decomposition of the electrode cover pressure is not used, and filler

metal is obtained from the electrode.

f. Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) - an arc welding process that

produces coalescence of materials by heating them with an arc between
a non-consumable tungsten electrode and a work piece; shielding is
obtained from a gas, and filler metal may or may not be used

g. Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) an arc welding process that

produces coalescence of metals by heating them with an arc between a
continuous filler metal electrode and a work piece; shielding is obtained
from an externally supplied gas.

h. Submerged arc welding (SAW) an arc welding process that produces

coalescence of metals by heating them with an arc or arcs between a
bare metal electrode and a work piece; the arc and molten metal are
shielded by a blanket of granular, fusible material on the work piece;
pressure is not used and filler metal is obtained from the electrode or
sometimes from a supplemental source



a. Air contaminants hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen in air

b. Axis of a weld a line through the length of a weld, perpendicular to the

cross-section at its center of gravity

c. Cap pass final bead or beads needed to complete a welded joint

d. Deposition rate the weight of material deposited in a unit of time

e. Filler pass reminder of the beads required to compete the joint from the
root bead out to the cap pass

f. Roof bead a weld bead that extends into or includes parts or all of the
joint root

g. Shielding any procedure or device for protecting an in process weld

from atmospheric contamination

h. Slag nonmetallic product resulting from the mutual dissolution of flux

and nonmetallic impurities in some welding and brazing processes

i. Stringer bead a type of weld bead made without appreciable weaving



a. Equipment is relatively inexpensive

b. Equipment is portable because the welding machines can be powered with

gasoline or diesel powered engines

c. Application are relatively simple and can be adapted to many job


d. SMAW well suited for maintenance and repair work in small shops, on
farms, and in garages


a. An electric arc is struck between a grounded base metal and a flux-

covered electrode held in a holder and manipulated by hand

b. The heat of the arc melts the base metal and the metal in the electrode so
that the two fuse together to create the weld

c. Flux contained on the electrode covering is also melted or vaporized to

provide shielding that protects the weld from contaminants in the air,
hence the name shielded metal arc welding.


a. The arc stream is created by holding an electrode approximately 1/8

away from the base metal

b. The arc stream creates a molten pool or crater that tends to flow away
from the arc and cool and solidify as it moves.

c. Flux from the electrode covering forms a slag on the top of the weld to
protect it from contaminants during cooling.


a. Flux-covered electrodes have a core of metal wire with a baked on

chemical covering, and both parts of the electrode have specific functions.

b. The wire core melts in the arc stream and droplets of metal are
transferred across the arc to make the molten puddle and provide the filler
metal to fill the gap or groove between two base metals.

c. The flux covering also melts in the arc stream to stabilize the arc, to
provide a shielded around the arc to keep it free from atmospheric
impurities, and to form a slag covering to protect the weld.


a. SMAW Introduces a beginner to the basics of other arc welding processes

b. SMAW acquaints the beginner with the welding machines and electrical
accessories used in other arc welding processes

c. SMAW introduces the beginner to the world of electrodes and their

relationship to metal thicknesses, welding speeds, and amperage

d. SMAW acquaints the beginner with the basic concepts of shielding and
how shielding improves and protects a weld

e. SMAW helps the student develop the manual dexterity required to work
with other arc welding processes

f. SMAW gives the beginner an added welding skill that will add versatility to
job getting resumes



The welding engineer chooses the joining process with full-knowledge of its
limitations. The choice as a compromise among available alternatives,
dictated by factors, and evaluated ultimately on cost and quality basis.

Type of material
Dimension of material, especially thickness & its shape or form

The position in which welding must be done

Root requirements
Backside accessibility
Joint preparation
Available power sources welding equipment and fixtures
Availability of consumables
Experience & qualifications of this available welders
Preheat and post heat requirements
Quality level required in the final weldment


Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), also called tungsten inert gas (TIG), was an
electric arc between a tungsten electrode (NONCONSUMABLE) and the work.
Shielding is obtained from an inert gas or inert gas mixture. Filler metal may
be added as needed.

Welding can be done in all positions, and is especially well adapted to welding
metal as thin as 0.13 mm (0.005 in).


Oxy-acetylene welding (OAW) is a gas welding process using the heat of

combustion of acetylene plus oxygen with or without the use filler metal.

The oxy-acetylene flame is produced by burning acetylene gas with pure

oxygen fed through a torch completing the combustion with oxygen from the
air. The flame temperature is about 3100 (56000F)


Gas metal arc welding (GMAW), also called metal gas or MIG welding, uses
the heat of an electric and between a continuous filler-metal electrode and
the workpiece.

In all gas metal arc welding, the electrode wire is fed automatically to the gun
at a controlled rate. Welding guns or torches used with GMAW are
considerably more complex then the electrode holders used SMAW.


Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), sometimes referred as stick or manual

arc welding, uses the beat of arc between a covered metal electrode and the

The electrode tip, weld puddle, arc and adjacent areas of the workpiece are
protected from atmospheric contamination by a gaseous shield obtained a

combustion and decomposition of the flux covering the molten metal in the
weld puddle is shielded a covering of molten flux (slag) obtained from the
electrode covering.


a. Basic circuit current must travel in a complete loop from the power
supply to the arc and back to the power supply, and the circuit must be

b. Polarity this is the direction that current flows through a basic welding
circuit. And is expressed as negative or positive in relation to DC current

c. AC (alternating current) this current alternate from one direction to

another 60 times per second, and is expressed as 60 Hertz.

d. DC (direct current) current that flows in only one direction

e. DCEN (direct current, electrode negative) produced by a negative

electrode and a positive workpiece that causes the current to flow from
the electrode to the workpiece

Note: DCEN was formerly termed DCSP, direct current, straight polarity

f. DCEP (direct current, electrode positive) this is produced by a positive

electrode and a negative workpiece that causes the current to flow
from the workpiece to the electrode.

Note: DCEP was formerly termed DCRP, direct current, reverse polarity



a. AC transformer these machines change high-voltage, low-amperage AC

to low-voltage, high-amperage AC in machines that usually have a
220/240 volt input current.

b. AC or DC transformer-rectifier these machines change high-voltage,

low-amperage AC to low-voltage, high-amperage AC or DC ,and these
machines are ideal for adjustment to different materials and welding

c. DC generator (motor or engine) in these machines, current various with

the speed the armature turns, polarity changes may be made by flipping
a switch or reversing weld connections, and some of these machines are
powered with AC motors while others are powered with gas or diesel

d. Duty cycle- sizes of welding machines are rated in accordance with their
amperage capacity at 60 percent duty cycle

9. Basic SMAW accessories and their purposes

Cables are insulated copper, extra-flexible leads that carry the current from
the power source to the electrode, and they vary in size or diameter
according to machine capacity and length requirements.


1. What it takes to become a good welder

a. Training for welding should start early in high school and include courses
in shop math, mechanical drawing, print reading, physics and chemistry

b. Some welding machine operators can learn their jobs in a few days or
weeks but employers prefer applicants who have high school, vocational
and or post-secondary training in welding

c. Welders and cutters need manual dexterity, good eyesight, and good
eye-hand coordination

d. Good welders should also be able to concentrate on detailed work for

long periods, and be able to bend, stop, and work awkward positions.


a. The welding machine operator or robotic welder operator will probably

take a specialized course to learn the equipment and work in a
manufacturing facility that uses that equipment

b. The combination welder will normally be found in plant maintenance or

repair shop, and because combination welders can do it all, they are
often in demand

c. The welder-fitter is something of a specialist and works in manufacturing

jobs that require a knowledge of metallurgy and joint design in addition
to welding skills

d. The specialist welder will become highly skilled in one or two welding
processes and work on special products or projects.

e. Welders who demonstrate leadership ability often advance to a

supervisory position and may run a welding crew or supervise welders in
a facility.

f. Other advanced jobs open to skilled welders include:

1. Welding inspector;
2. Welding tester;
3. Equipment salesperson
4. Sales troubleshooter
5. Welding instructor

g. Welders who continue their education can advance to the level of

welding engineer, metallurgist, or several other jobs where associate or
advanced college degrees are required.

3. Where welders work

a. In its latest report, 3 out of 4 welding jobs are held by welders ad cutters,
while welding machine operators hold 1 out of 4

b. About 6 of 10 welding jobs are in plants that manufacture boilers,

construction equipment, motor vehicles, machinery, ships, appliances,
and other metal products.


1. SMAW starting techniques

- The technique most basic to all arc welding is to start and maintain an arc
so that current is forced across the gap between the electrode tip and the
base metal, and beginners should develop the skill of starting and
maintaining an arc with a proper gap or arc length

- The scratch method for starting an arc is the simplest method for most
beginners and the scratch method works according to the ff.

a. Move the electrode across the base metal at an angle like you would
use to strike a match

b. As the electrode scratches the base metal, an arc starts


c. When the arc starts, raise the electrode slightly to make a long arc,
and then return to normal arc length

d. The tap method for starting an arc is accomplished by moving the

electrode downward in a vertical direction until it just taps the base
metal, then raising the electrode up slightly to form a long arc, then
returning to normal arc length again

2. Electrodes angles and their meanings

A. Electrode angles express two vital elements:

1) The relationship of an electrode to the axis of the weld.

2) The relationship of an electrode to the surface or surfaces of a workpiece

B. Travel angle is the angle of an electrode in relation to the axis of a

weld when the electrode is perpendicular to the axis.

Note: in the job sheets that follow, travel angle is usually presented in a side

C. Work angle is the angle of an electrode in relation the surface or

surfaces of a workpiece when the electrode is perpendicular to the
axis of the weld

Note: in the job sheets that follow, work angle is usually presented in a front

3. Techniques for controlling arc gap

a. Arc gap usually be slightly less than the diameter of the electrode

b. Too much gap can usually be identified by a hissing sound as opposed to

a crackling sound

c. Too much gap be spotted visually because it causes excess spatter and
poor penetration

d. Too much gap will cause filler metal to melt off in large wobbly drops, and
slag will be difficult to remove

e. With too little gap, the arc will not start, or the electrode may freeze to
the weld puddle and stick there

4. Techniques for using electrode angles

a) For right-hand welding of flat beads, place the electrode at 90 o angle,

then lean it 150 to 300 to the right so that it is pointed in the direction of
travel, and for leg-hand welding of flat beads, reverse the right-hand

b) When welding in the horizontal position, angle the electrode 20 0 to 250 in

the direction of travel

c) When welding in the vertical down position, point the electrode up at

angle of about 300 from the base metal

d) When welding in the vertical up position, hold the electrode 10 0 to 150

below perpendicular and at a 900 angle from the base metal

e) When welding in the overhead position, hold the electrode perpendicular

to the base metal at 900 and incline it 100 to 150 in the direction of travel

5. Bead running techniques and their procedures

a. Drag- used with high-deposit, fast-fill electrodes and consists of lightly

dragging the electrode tip along the base metal to force the molten filler

metal uniformly out from under the electrode tip which in turn provides
good penetration

b. Whipping used with fast-freeze electrodes to make stringer beads in all

positions and on all types of joints, and consists of maintaining a short
arc when in the crater and a long arc as the electrode is drawn out of the
crater so the molten pool will stay small and allow the filler metal to
freeze quickly so the metal does not spill through the joint

c. Whipping with slight weave in crater can be used with fast-freeze

electrodes to make the first pass on vertical fillet and V-groove butt welds

d. Side-to-side weave used with all types of electrodes to make fill passes
on vertical fillet and V-groove butt welds, and also sometimes used with
fill-freeze and low-hydrogen electrodes to make the first pass on these

e. Triangular weave used with fill-freeze and low-hydrogen electrodes to

make the first pass on vertical fillet and V-groove butt welds because it
provides a larger weld than a side-to-side weave

f. Box weave used with all types of electrodes to make the fill pass on
vertical fillet and V-groove butt welds, and is similar to the side-to-side
weave, but with a distinct pause and slight upward motion at each edge
of the weld to make complete crater fill-up and eliminate undercutting

g. Circular motion used with all types of electrodes to make overhead


h. Stringer bead a single, straight bead used with certain types of

electrodes and consists of a drag or whipping motion used in all welding

i. Padding used with all types of electrodes to build up metal surfaces with
one or more layers of weld beads, and can be used on either flat or
curved surfaces as overlapping straight beads or overlapping weave

6. Technique for stopping and restarting an arc


a. Anticipate the point where the rod is going to be used up or where

welding will stop

b. Stop the forward motion of the electrode

c. Gradually the slag off the end of the weld about to back

d. Restart the arc about in front of the forward end of the crater

e. Move the electrode quickly back to the back crown of the crater and
immediately resume welding in the direction of travel

f. If the stop/restart procedure is properly executed, any marks left by

restarting the arc ahead of the crater will be covered as the weld bead is

7. Techniques for filling a crater at the end of a weld

a. Option 1:

1. Just before the bead reaches the end of the plate, draw the electrode
slowly up and slightly backward over the completed weld

2. Make sure the motion is low enough to allow the crater to fill and that
the backward motion is far enough that the crater remains on top of
the bead about to back from the end of the weld

b. Option 2

1. Break the arc about 1 or 2 from the end of the weld by quickly
shortening the arc and pulling it sideways out of the crater

2. Chip and remove slag from the end of the bead

3. Move to the end of the plate, restart the arc, and weld back toward
the bead

4. Incline the electrode about 600 in the direction of travel

5. Weld back over the crater and stop the arc by pulling up and slightly
backward as the two beads run together and the crater forms properly
on top of the bead

8. Guidelines for using feathered edges for tie-ins

a. To assure a good tie-in when restarting a bead or when starting from a

tack weld, the tie-in point should always be chipped and brushed

b. When a weld deposit is too large to make a normal tie-in, the end of the
first bead should be ground and feathered

c. Grinding and feathering means using a hand grinder to smoothly round

the sides near the end of the bead or tack weld, then grinding the end of
the bead to a sloping, sharp edge

d. Grinding and feathering sometimes called for in specifications, is used on

some root passes in pipe welding, and is necessary on some V-groove

9. Basic steps in joint preparation

a. Beveling requires putting angles on pieces of material so that when they

are joined, the weld will get good penetration below the surface of the
base metal

b. Grinding requires the use of an abrasive device, usually a portable

grinder, to remove metal or slag from the weld area





1. AWS electrode classifications for mild steel and low allow


a. The prefix E designates an electric arc welding electrode

b. The first two digits of 4-digit numbers and the first three digits of 5-digit
numbers indicate minimum tensile strength.

Examples: E60XX 60,000-psi Tensile Strength

E70XX 70,000-psi Tensile Strength

c. The next-to-last digit indicates position

Examples: EXX1X All positions

EXX2X Flat positions and horizontal fillets

d. The last digit (0 through 8) together with the next-to-last digit indicate
the type of covering and current to be used; mid steel electrodes are also
classified as fast-freeze, fill-freeze, and low hydrogen

e. The last letter and digit (EXXXX-A1) indicate the approximate alloy in the

-A1 % Mo
-B1 % Cr, % mo
-B2 1-1/4% Cr, % Mo
-B3 2-14% Cr, 1% Mo
-C1 2-1/2% NI

f. In addition to the AWS classification system, electrodes are also classified

according to diameter expressed in fractions of an inch.

g. Fourth digit refers to the type of current to be used and indirectly to the
kind of coating, as given below.

E xx10 DC reverse (cellulosic, NA)

E xx11 DC reverse or AC (cellulosic, K)
E xxx2 DC straight or AC (rutile, Na, K)
E xxx3 DC either polarity or AC (high rutile, K)
E xxx4 DC either polarity or AC (rutile, iron powder, K)
E xxx5 DC reverse (basic low hydrogen, NA)
E xxx6 DC reverse or AC (basic low hydrogen, K)
E xxx8 DC reverse or AC (basic low hydrogen, iron power, K)
E xx20 DC reverse or AC (iron oxide, NA)
E xx27 DC either polarity or AC for flat position; DC straight or AC for
fillets (iron oxide, iron powder)
E xx30 DC either polarity or AC (high iron oxide, Na)

Note: DC reverse or DC+ means electrode is connected to positive terminal

and the work to the negative. DC straight or DC-is the opposite arrangement


Al- Aluminum Fe-Iron

Ca- Calcium Pb-Lead
C-Carbon Mg-Magnesium
Cr-Chromium Mo-Molybdenum
Cu-Copper N-Nitrogen
H-Hydrogen Ni-Nickel

O-Oxygen SN-Tin
K-Potassium Ti-Titanium
Si-Silicon V-Vanadium
Na-Sodium Zn-Zinc

2. Stainless steel and other alloy electrodes and their classifications

Stainless steel electrodes are nu8mbered to match specific types of stainless

steel because the chemical composition of the electrode must match the
alloys in the stainless

a. With other alloy electrodes, chemical symbols precede the digits to

indicate significant alloys in the electrode

Examples: ECuSI means electrical electrode

Cu means copper
SI means Silicon

ECuSI means electrical electrode

Cu means copper
NI means nickel


Designated for welding stainless steels. Weld deposit must have similar
composition as to the steels to be welded. May also be used for joining
dissimilar metals or as undercoat preparatory to hard surfacing

Used for welding non-ferrous metals and alloys such as aluminum,
copper, brass, etc.


- Metal rapidly deposits
- Best suited to high speed welding on horizontal surfaces
- Slowly solidifies
- Is not well suited for out of position welds
- Downhill position is permissible
- Arc penetration is shallow
- The bead is smooth
- The covering electrodes contain approximately 50% iron powder

Sample Electrodes:
E7024, E7020-A1

Welding Techniques:


Use AC for highest speeds best operating characteristics. DCRP can be used.
But this type of current promotes arc blow and complicates control of the
molten puddle.


- Solidifies rapidly
- For all purpose specially vertical and overhead positions
- For any mild steel
- Deep penetration
- Weld bead is flat

Sample electrodes:
E8010, E7010-G

Polarity: unless otherwise specified, use DCRP with EXX10, and use AC with
EXX11 electrodes can be used on DCRP with a current about 10% below AC


- Compromise between fast freeze and fast fill characteristics
- Medium penetration
- It is also referred as

o Follows electrodes
o Sheet metal electrode
- Can be used in all welding position

Application for Fill freeze electrodes include:

a. Irregular or short welds that changes direction or position

b. Fast fill joints having poor fit-up
c. General purpose of welding in all positions

Sample electrodes:
E6012, E6013

Welding Techniques:
Use DCSP for best performance in all positions.


- All position general-purpose electrode with good fusion and
- Well suited for bridge gaps on poor fit-ups job

Welding Technique:

Use either AC or DC straight polarity (DC-)

Types analysis of all-weld deposit

Carbon - 0.08%

Ex: E6012

Recommended current:
3/32 -2.4 -60-85
1/8 -3.2 -90-130
5/3 -2-4 -140-180
3/16 -5 -200-240


- An easy to weld
- All position electrode
- Gives good penetration

Welding Technique:


Use AC or DC straight polarity (DC-)

Typical Analysis of all weld deposit

Carbon 0.1%
Manganese- 0.4%
Silicon 0.3%

Ex: E6013

Recommended current:

3/32 -2.4 -60-85

1/8 -3.2. -90-130
5/32 -4 -140-180
3/16 -5 -200-240

-6 -260-300


A. EST DC + or AC (OCV=70V min)

- Recommended for steels of poor weldability

- For surfacing cast iron
- For build-up steels possessing high hardenability
- For buffer layer on parent metal before hard surfacing

Typical analysis of all weld deposit

- Carbon-0.07%-0.09%
- Manganese-1.01%-3%
- Silicon-0.2%-0.3%
- Sulfur-0.02%
- Phosphorus-0.02%

Recommended Current

3/34 -2 -40-60
3/32 -2.4 -70-90
1/8 -3.2 -100-130
5/32 -4 -130-170
3/16 -5 -180-200
-6 -6 -220-240

Ex: E7016/EST

b. LOW HYDROGEN (dc+) or AC (OCV-MIN 8 OV)

- Highest quality welds

- For high carbon and sulfur steels
- High ductility
- Suitable for thick and heavy sections
- Presence of iron powder in the coating

Typical analysis of all weld deposit


Recommended current:

3/32 -2.4 -70-90


1/8 -3.2 -100-130

5/32 -4 -140-180
3/16 -5 -200-250

Ex: E7018


- All position electrode

- Deep penetrating electrode
- Bead is flat with thin brittle slag
- High tensile strength/ductility
- For x-ray quality

Welding technique:

Use AC/DC (+) for E6011 and for E6010 use (DC+)

Typical analysis of all weld deposit

Carbon content-0.0%

Ex: E6011 and E6010

Recommended current:

1/8 -3.2 -80-110

5/32 -4 -100-150
3/16 -5 -140-200


- Highest deposition deficiency

- Not suitable to vertical and overhead position


1. Shielding Gas
Shields from impurities
2. Arc Stabilizer
Dictate the current to the weld
3. Increase deposition rate

By adding chemical powder

4. Deoxidized
Acts as janitor, clean the materials
5. Fluming of oxide
To give continuity of heat to the materials
6. Slag protection
By adding cover
7. Strengthen the weld
Hardens the materials




Fourth Digit Type of Covering Welding Current

0 Cellulose sodium DCEP

1 Cellulose potassium AC, DCEN, DCEP
2 Titania sodium AC, DCEN
3 Titania potassium AC, DCEN, DCEP
4 Iron powder titania AC, DCEN, DCEP
5 Low-hydrogen sodium DCEP
6 Low-hydrogen potassium AC, DCEP
7 Iron powder iron oxide AC, DCEN, DCEP
8 Iron powder low hydrogenAC, DCEP


Fourth Digit Penetration Shape of Bead


0 Deep Concave Thin

1 Deep Concave Thin
2 Medium Convex
3 Shallow Convex
4 Medium Flat heavy
5 Medium Convex
6 medium convex
7 medium flat heavy
8 medium convex



1. Good and bad welds and their characteristics

a. Current, voltage, and speed normal smooth well-formed bead with no

undercutting, overlapping, or piling of slag

b. Current low-poor penetration, slow progress, excessive piling of weld

metal and slag inclusion

c. Current high-excessive spatter and undercutting of weld joints

d. Voltage high-poor penetration with flat bead, wed zone not shielded

e. Voltage low-poor penetration and humped bead

f. Speed low-excessive heat and weld metal reinforcement leading to

unnecessary distortion of joint

g. Speed fast irregular bead, poor penetration, undercut, and not enough
weld metal in joint, causing a weak joint

2. Causes of and remedies for arc blow

a. Arc blow is cause when magnetic forces present in DC build up lines of

magnetism around the arch and cause the arch to blow wildly forward,
back, or to one side, and spatter badly.

b. Arc blow can be caused by high amperage, and he major problem areas
are thick plates, corners, deep grooves, and the start and finish of joints

c. Remedies for arc blow include:

1. Reduce current or switch polarity

2. Change current to AC

3. Change location of the ground clamp

4. Wrap ground cable around the workpiece and pass ground current
through it to neutralize the magnetic field

5. Maintain a short arc

3. Causes of and remedies for pinholes and porosity

a. Both pinholes and porosity can be caused when arc length is too long and
travel speed is too fast

b. Other causes of pinholes and porosity are faulty electrodes, incorrect

polarity, surface conditions of the base metal, or high sulfur and other

c. Remedies for pinholes and porosity include using a shorter arc length and
keeping the puddle molten for a longer period so that the gases may be
boil out before the metal freezes

d. Other remedies include using dry electrodes and cleaning the surfaces of
base metals

4. Causes of and remedies for undercutting


a. Undercutting is usually caused by too high a current or too long an arc


b. Undercutting can also be caused by improper rod angle manipulation or

too fast a welding speed

c. Remedies for undercutting include reducing the current and shortening

the arc length

d. Other remedies would be to use a smaller diameter electrode or change

the electrode angle so that the force of the arch will help fill the undercut

5. Causes of and remedies for weld spatter

a. Weld spatter is caused by too high a current

b. The remedies for weld spatter are to reduce current and shorten the arc

6. Causes of and remedies for incomplete penetration

a. Incomplete penetration can be cause by a faulty joint design, but can also
be caused by insufficient welding current, too large an electrode, or too
fast a welding speed

b. One remedy for incomplete penetration is to check the joint carefully,

including the root opening, root face dimension, and the groove face angle

c. If the joint is not faulty, other remedies include increasing the weld
current, reducing welding speed, and using a smaller diameter electrode

7. Causes of and remedies for slag inclusion

a. Sag inclusion can be caused by a sharp, V-shaped in the joint design

b. Other causes of slag inclusion are high flow rate of molten metal, rapid
chilling, or a weld current that is too low

c. The remedy for slag inclusion sometimes calls for using preheating and a
higher welding current or increasing the size of the weld area to allow the
weld to tie in completely with base metal

8. Causes of and remedies for excessive weld reinforcement

a. Weld reinforcement is usually caused by too slow a travel speed or the

wrong electrode size, but it can also be caused y poor electrode

b. The remedies for excessive weld reinforcement include choosing the

correct electrode and increasing travel speed and maintaining good
electrode movement




a. Insufficient puddling time

b. Impurities in base metal
c. Too short an arc
d. Wrong electrode


a. Decrease travel speed

b. Clean base metal well before welding
c. Hold correct arc length
d. Use proper electrode (e.g., low hydrogen electrodes for high carbon or
high sulfur steels)



a. Current too low

b. Too fast travel speed
c. Improper electrode size and type


a. Increase current
b. Weld at slower travel speed
c. Use smaller electrode to adjust to groove size
d. Use deep penetration electrodes (e.g., E-6010)



a. Extremely short arc

b. Improper electrode manipulation
c. Too low current
d. Improper cleaning of each bead


a. Use medium arc length

b. Obtain ample pudding time
c. Use higher current with moderate travel speed
d. Remove all traces of slag from each bead before applying the next



a. Current too high

b. Faulty electrode manipulation
c. Improper electrode size


a. Use moderate current specially for off-position welding

b. Use accepted technique for vertical welds. Hold electrode at correct angle
from vertical plane in horizontal fillets
c. Avoid using overly large electrodes



a. Irregular weaving
b. Overheating
c. Too long arc
d. Improper travel speed


a. Use more uniform or only slight weave

b. Use correct current
c. Maintain correct arc length
d. Weld at correct travel speed



a. Excessive current
b. Too long an arc

c. Arc blow
d. Improper electrode angle


a. Decrease current
b. Maintain shot arc
c. Use AC current
d. Hold electrodes more perpendicular to the surface of workpiece



a. Welds too small

b. Rigid joints
c. Faulty welding
d. Wrong electrode


a. Make larger welds between heavy plats

b. Re-design to eliminate rigidity
c. Use recommended welding sequence and technique at minimum current
d. Use proper type of electrode
e. Preheat parts to be welded


ROOT OPENING (RO): The separation between the members to be joined at

the root of the joint

ROOT FACE: Groove face adjacent to the root of the joint

GROOVE FACE: The surface of a member included in the groove

BEVEL ANGLE: The angle formed between the prepared surface of a member
and a place perpendicular to the surface of the member

GROOVE ANGLE: The total included angle of the groove between parts to be
joined by a groove weld

SIZE OF WELD(S): The joint penetration

PLATE THICKNESS: Thickness of plate welded.

1. Throat of a fillet weld

2. Leg of a fillet wed: the distance from the root of the joint to the toe of the
fillet weld.
3. Toe of a weld: the junction between the face of a weld and the base metal.
4. Face of weld: the exposed surface of a weld on the side from which the
welding was done.
5. Depth of fusion: the distance that fusion extends to the base metal.
6. Size of weld(s): leg length of the fillet

Troubleshooting tips for ARC WELDING

Problem caused by Solution

Amperage too high Lower amperage
Travel speed too fast Reduce travel speed
Arc length too long Short arc length

Wrong diameter electrode Increase electrode diameter one size

Improper set up and jigging Redesign to allow for expansion and
Excessive heat in weld area connection forces
Wrong welding procedure Reduce heat in work
Dissimilar metals being joined Use chill plate for heat dissipation
Skip weld
Change to lower heat input electrode

High carbon steel or poor quality Avoid excessive heat input
base metal Use convex weld bead
Wrong bead configuration Use more crack resistant electrode
Improper electrode Preheat and post heat slowly
Too fast coding Back step to fill craters
Crater Redesign joint
Rigidity of joint; stressed weld
Poor Appearance
Current either too high or too low Readjust current setting
Faulty electrode Change electrodes


Discontinuities are imperfections in welds or base metals. Ideally, a sound

weld should have no discontinuities at all but welds are not perfect;
imperfections do exist in varying degrees.

There is a temptation to call discontinuities defects, but as a matter of

terminology the terms discontinuity and defect should be carefully
distinguished by all inspectors. A defect is rejectable. Some discontinuities
are acceptable. A discontinuity becomes a defect when it exceeds acceptable
limits imposed by acceptance standards. An imperfection of lesser magnitude
than that is still a discontinuity, but it is not a defect.

The welding inspectors primary job is to inspect the fabricators work to see
that it meets the requirements of the contract. To be able to do this, he must
be familiar with acceptance standards, which spell out the acceptable limits
for discontinuities. If a particular type of discontinuity is permissible in the
welds to be inspected, the acceptance standards, code or specification must
specify the criteria used to discriminate between acceptable imperfections
and defects.

The criteria used to discriminate between acceptable imperfections and

defects are described in the ff. terms:

Type of discontinuity
Size of discontinuity

Location of discontinuity

All three criteria must be considered to judge whether a discontinuity is

severe enough to be considered a defect.

Type of Discontinuities

Inclusions, both metallic and nonmetallic
Incomplete fusion
Incomplete joint penetration
Lamination and tie lamination
Semas and laps
Lamellar tearing
Arc strike


Result when gas is entrapped in solidifying metal. This will be discussed only
with respect to welds (although porosity is also commonly seen in castings).
The entrapped gas comes from either the gas used in the welding process or
the gas released from chemical reactions occurring during the welding
process. Proper welding technique avoids gas formation and entrapment.
Faulty or dirty materials may produce gas. The gas becomes trapped in the
form of porous discontinuities in the weld.

Porosity usually occurs in the form of rounded discontinuities, but in severe

case the porosity is cylindrical. These large cylindrical pores are called piping
porosity ( or wormholes). The presence of porosity is a sign that the welding
process is not being properly controlled or that the base metal and welding
fluxes are contaminated with gas producing elements. Generally speaking,
porosity in small amounts does not signify intensify stress, making it a less
critical discontinuity compared to those with sharp ends.

The distribution of porosity can be helpful in determining what type of fault

cause the porosity. If the porosity is uniformly scattered, the cause could
either be faulty materials or poor technique used throughout to the weld.

A cluster of porosity is likely to result from improper initiation or termination

of the weld.

Linear porosity aligned along a joint boundary would suggest that

contamination triggered a chemical reaction. This produced unwanted gas.

Such contamination could have been eliminated by preparing the joint


Piping porosity is an elongated gas discontinuity extending from the weld root
toward surface and is also evidence of the presence of surface


Result when solid materials are entrapped in solidifying metal. Inclusions

interrupt the continuity of the weld, and some loss in structural integrity will
result where they are present.


Nonmetallic (Slag and Oxides) Inclusions: These type of inclusions result from
faulty welding or cleaning techniques and/or the failure of the designer to
provide proper access for welding within the joint. Molten slag and oxides will
flow to the top of the weld if allowed. Sharp notches in joint boundaries or
between passes often cause slag to become entrapped under the molten
weld metal. Parallel lines of elongated slag inclusions, sometimes called
wagon tracks because of their radiographic appearance, often result if the
welder produces a convex root pass in an open root pipe joint and fails to
adequately clean the slag on either side of this weld pass.

Metallic Inclusions: These inclusions are usually tungsten particles trapped in

weld metal. They most often occur in gas tungsten arc welding but may also
result if the plasma arc welding process is improperly applied. These tungsten
inclusions appear as light areas on radiographs because tungsten is highly
opaque in radiation. This is just the opposite from most other discontinuities,
which will show up as dark regions on the radiographic film.

Copper inclusion result if copper backing bards or backing shoes arc used,
such as is electro slag welding. Improper application of the plasma arc
welding process could result in overheating of the copper constricting nozzle
which could also cause copper inclusions in the weld.

RADIOGRAPH OF (Wagon Tracks)

Underfill is a depression on the face or root surface of a groove weld below

the surface plane of the adjacent base metal. In other words, the welder or
welding operator has failed to completely fill the groove, resulting in an
undersize weld. On pipe welds, underfill at the weld root may also be referred
to as Internal concavity or suck-back.

Incomplete Fusion is the failure of the liquid weld metal to fuse into the
entire groove face of the joint or to adjacent weld beads. Incomplete fusion is
usually caused by insufficient application of heat to all faces of the joint.
However, incomplete fusion can be caused by the presence of oxides which
inhibit by remaining tightly secured to the base metal.

Incomplete Joint Penetration results when the weld metal fails to extend
completely through the joint thickness. The amount of joint penetration
required in any joint should be specified on drawings. Whether that amount of
joint penetration can be obtained depends upon the accessibility of the heat
source and filler rod to the face area. This discontinuity can also result from
improper joint designs.

The presence of incomplete joint penetration in a joint requiring complete

joint penetration could also be referred to as inadequate joint penetration, or
joint penetration which is less than that specified. Many codes require the use
of joint backing for single-groove welds or back gouging of double-groove
welds to assure that complete joint penetration can be attained.

Incomplete Fusion at Weld Face


Incomplete Fusion between Individual Weld Beads


Overlap is the protrusion of weld metal beyond the toe or weld root of the
weld joint without fusion. The resulting discontinuity is a sever mechanical
notch on the surface. This discontinuity is similar to incomplete fusion with
the difference being the location where the fusion failed to take place.

Overlap us caused by the inability of the weld metal to fuse with the surface,
especially when tightly adhering oxides cover the base metal. Overlap results
from lack of control of the welding process in the form of insufficient heat
( current too low), inadequate travel speed, improper selection of welding
materials (lack of deoxidizers), or improper preparation of the joint (failure to
remove mill scale or other surface coatings).

Weld Flaws


Undercut is a surface discontinuity resulting from melting of the base metal

at either the weld toe or weld root. It takes the form of a mechanical notch at
these locations. Undercut is caused by the application of excessive heat
( excessive weld current) or improper electrode manipulation, which melts
away the base metal. Use of excessive travel speeds will also cause undercut.




Underfill and Undercut

Both undercut and overlap are readily corrected. If shallow, that is, not a
depth in excess of the base metal thickness tolerance, it can be ground out to
a shallow dish. If depth exceeds the thickness tolerance, undercut is repaired
by welding. As with all other corrective welding, it is to be carried out using
the original procedure. For deep, narrow undercut, it may be beneficial to
grind the undercut channel to more favorable shape for welding.

Lamination and Delamination

Laminations are flat, generally elongated, planar base metal discontinuities

found near the center of rolled products. Laminations are formed when gas
voids in the shrinkage cavity in the ingot are rolled flat but are not
subsequently welded under the pressure of hot rolling. They generally run
parallel to the surface of the rolled product and are most commonly found in
structural shapes and plates.

They most often appear near the centerline of the material thickness. Since it
would open as a sandwich, metal containing laminations cannot reliably carry
stress in the through-thickness direction.

A delamination is the separation of a lamination under stress. The stress may

be result of distortion during flame cutting; it may be residual stress from
welding, or it may be applied stress.

Ultrasonic testing is the only effective means of locating laminations unless

they extend to an exposed edge of the material. They will not be revealed by
a radiographic testing.

Seams and Laps

Seams and laps are linear base metal discontinuities found in rolled products
which result from improper steelmaking practices. Seams and laps differ from
laminations in that they always appear on the rolled surfaces. When they are
parallel to the principal stress, they are generally not considered to be a
critical defect. When perpendicular to the applied or residual stress they will
often propagate as a crack. Welding over seams and laps can cause cracking.

Lamellar Tearing

Is a fracture separation in heavy weldments, found within or just beneath the

heat affected zone of thick plates which were not adequately refined by the
steel mill. Heavy plates and structural shapes receive limited working from
their ingot stage to the final thickness, which may not remove all traces of
ingotism. Rolling and forging impart good properties in the direction of metal
flow (the X) direction) but the strength and ductility perpendicular to the
rolled surface (the through-thickness or Z direction) remain poor.

Massive welds poorly located adjacent to a thick plate will transmit weld
shrinkage stresses into the plate in its weakest direction; creating tears
parallel to the surface which then are linked together by shear fractures,
forming steps connected by risers perpendicular to the surface. The
phenomenon is called lamellar tearing, because the plate opens up as though
it were made of stacked sheets or lamellae. The engineer should change the
joint design to bring the shrinkage stresses more in line with the rolling

A reduction in the amount of weld required will also reduce the tendency for
this type of discontinuity.

Lamellar tears may extend over long distances and are located more deeply
than underhead cracks, which differ in shape, cause and location.


May occur in the weld or base metal, or both, when localized stresses exceed
the strength of the material. Cracking is generally associated with
discontinuities in welds and base metals, with notches, with high residual
stresses, and often with hydrogen embrittlement. Welding-related cracks
often look as though the metal were brittle. There is little evidence at the
crack boundaries that the metal deformed before it cracked. Cracks can be
classified as either hot cracks or cold cracks.

Hot cracks develop at high temperatures. They commonly form on

preferential solidification of alloys of the metal near the melting point. Hot
cracks propagate between the grains when the preferential solidification
occurs. Cold cracks develop after solidification is complete and are often
service-related. Delayed cracks are commonly caused by the presence of
hydrogen in a crack-susceptible microstructure subjected to some applied
stress. Cold cracks may propagate either through or between grains.

Longitudinal cracks lie parallel to the weld axis. They are called longitudinal
cracks, whether they are centerline cracks in the weld metal or too cracks in
the heat affected zone of the base metal.

Transverse cracks are perpendicular to the weld axis. They may remain within
the weld metal or extend from the weld metal into the adjacent heat affected
zone and the remainder of the base metal. In some weldments, transverse
cracks will form in the heat affected zone of the base metal and not in the

Crater cracks occur in the crater formed by improper termination of a weld

pass. They are considered hot cracks and are sometimes referred to as star
cracks because they often radiate in several directions from the center of
the crater. However, they also have other shapes. Crater cracks are usually
shallow, allowing for their removal with minimal grinding.

A throat cracks is a longitudinal crack in the weld face of either a groove or

filler weld.

Toe cracks are generally cold cracks. They begin and grow from the weld toe
where residual stresses are high, especially when the weld exhibits excessive
reinforcement or convexity.

Root cracks are longitudinal cracks in the weld root. They are generally a
form of hot cracking.

Underbead and heat-affected zone cracks are usually cold cracks that form in
the heat affected zone of the base metal. They are most often short but they
may join to form a continuous crack, especially when three simultaneous
conditions are present: 1. Hydrogen, 2. High-strength material (Rockwell C
hardness of 30 or higher), and 3. High residual stress. Underbead and heat
affected zone cracks can be either longitudinal or transverse.



In the previous sections, there has been discussion relative to the importance
of the welding inspector being capable of effectively communicating with
others involved in the fabrication of some welded product. Much of this
communication is achieved through the use of various types of documents
which describe what attributes that product must exhibit. While these
documents provide the basis upon which the inspection will be performed,
confusion could open if there is tremendous amount of material involved. If
the welding inspector must spend a great deal of time studying this
information, it may detract from the actual inspection.

One method for reducing the mass of information contained in documents

especially drawings is through the use of symbols. This practice replaces
written words and detailed graphic illustrations with specific symbols to
convey the same information in an abbreviated manner.

The welding or examination symbol can be used to provide a great deal of

information, however, they must be used properly to be effective. If
misapplied or misinterpreted, the symbols may tend to cause confusion
rather than aid in the understanding of some welding or testing detail. For
that reason, it is important to understand how the welding and
nondestructive examination symbols are used.

To aid in the description of interpretation of a particular welding or

nondestructive examination symbol, the following is a detailed description of
the steps used in the construction of the symbol. This is convenient, because
there are numerous elements of the symbol which have some specific
meaning due to their location with respect to other parts of that symbol.
Once it is understood how a symbol was constructed, the information can be
applied in reverse to gain insight as to what is actually required for a weld to
be in compliance with a symbol. Therefore, the following discussion takes one
through the various steps associated with the construction of a welding or
nondestructive examination symbol.

Elements of the Welding Symbol

Before describing the various parts of a welding symbol, it is important to

understand some of the terminology relating to symbols. A basic distinction
which must be pointed out is the difference between the terms weld symbol
and welding symbol. The weld symbol indicates the type of weld.

1. Reference line
2. Arrow
3. Basic weld symbols
4. Dimensions and other data
5. Supplementary symbols
6. Finish symbols
7. Tail
8. Specification, process, or other reference

In the construction of a welding symbol, the primary element which is always

included is the reference line. This is simply a horizontal line segment which
provides the basis for all other parts of the symbol. It must appear on the
drawing as a horizontal line, because there is significance whether
information lies above or below the line.


the next element of the welding symbol is the arrow. This line is connected to
one end of the reference line and points to one side of the weld joint. This
gives significance to the terms arrow side, while the opposite side is called
the other side. Once the arrow side and other side have been assigned by the
placement of the arrow, it is now possible to specify information relating to
either or both sides.

This rule will never change, no matter which end of the reference line is
attached to the arrow or which direction the arrow may point. Even with the
arrow oriented in different directions and at either end of the reference line,
the operations will be performed on the side of the joint to which the arrow

Once the reference line and arrow are in place, the next element of the actual
weld configuration will be. Weld symbols depicting arrow side welds will
appear below the reference line and those referring to other side welds will

appear above the reference line. It is also interesting to note that some of the
weld symbols are placed such that the reference line splits them in half. This
simply implies the weld has no side sign finance, meaning that it makes no
difference which side is called the arrow side. With the exception of the
surfacing weld, which always appears as an arrow side weld, all other types
can be shown as arrow side, other side or both sides.

Most of the weld symbols appear muck like the actual weld configuration,
which makes it easier to remember exactly what type of weld is specified by
a particular weld symbol.

Another feature which should be noted for all of those weld symbols which
represent welds having only one of the two members prepared is that the
perpendicular side of the symbol will always appear on the left side(e.g.,
bevel, J- and flare bevel grooves). For these groove welds, the designer can
designate which of the two member actually receives the preparation by
using an arrow with a break in the line. The rule is that the last segment of
the arrow points to that member receiving the specified preparation.

Groove Weld Detailing

After designating the type of groove weld required and at which side or sides
of the joint if will be deposited, other information is necessary. Most of this
data relates to dimensional requirements. Groove weld features needing
dimensions includes the joint configuration, weld size and the extent of

Groove weld dimensions: some of the groove weld dimensions are placed
within or slightly outside the weld symbol. A dimension appearing within the
weld symbol indicates the required root opening, while a dimension
appearing just outside.

Another important piece of information for the preparation of the groove is he

depth of preparation. This dimension is always shown to the left of the groove
weld symbol. This depth is measured from the base material surface. The
specified depth of preparation in each case is that dimension outside of the
parentheses. In general, dimensions appearing to the left of the weld symbol
refer to the weld size required.


The dimensions which are enclosed in parentheses refer to the groove weld
size for joint penetration required. For groove welds, absence of dimensions
for depth of preparation or weld size implies that the required weld is to have
complete joint penetration.

The final piece of dimensional information necessary for a groove weld is the
required length. This detail is always shown on the welding to the right of the
weld symbol. If no dimension is shown, it is assumed that the specified weld
is to be the entire length of the joint. If a dimension is present to the right of
the weld symbol, it refers to the length of the groove weld segment required.

Filled weld Detailing

There is also dimensional information pertinent to fillet welds. As was the

case for groove welds, the size of a fillet weld is dimensioned to the left of the
weld symbol.

Another feature identical to the groove weld application is that the length of a
fillet weld is dimensional to the right of the weld symbol.

No dimension to the right of the fillet weld symbol indicates that the fillet
weld is to be continuous for the entire length of the joint. A specific length of
fillet weld is denoted by that single dimension appearing to the right of the
weld symbol.

A common welding practice is to use intermittent fillet welds instead of a

continuous fillet weld to reduce distortion and the amount of time required for
welding. The dimensions intermittent fillet welds are shown as two numbers
separated by a hyphen. The first number is the length of each individual weld
segment and the second number refers to the center-to-center spacing of
these weld segments.

Intermittent fillet welds may be applied to both sides of a joint in one of two
ways. If the individual segments are directly opposite each other, it is
refereed to as chain intermittent welding. Staggered intermittent welding is
when the segments on either side of the joint coincide with spaces between
individual segments on the other side of the joint. In both types of
intermittent welds, the pitch distance refers to the center-to-center spacing
on that side of the joint only.

Plug and slot weld detailing

The symbolization of the next types of welds involves several different

features because of the uniqueness of their configurations. They are the plug
and slot welds. The weld symbol for both is simply a rectangular box.

Dimensions for plug welds includes: plug weld size, depth of filling, pitch
distances between adjacent plugs; and groove angle for tapered plug holes.
The plug weld size dimension appears to the left of the weld symbol. Pitch
distance are shown to the right of the plug weld symbol. If the h ole is to be
tapered to provide better root access, rectangular dimension appears just
outside (above or below) the weld symbol.

Spot and Seam Weld Detailing

Spot and seam welds can also be describe using welding symbols. The size of
a spot or seam weld is shown as a dimension to the left of the weld symbol,
this size refers to the diameter of the spot or width of the scam. Another way
in which the degree of welding can be described is by specifying the required
shear strength of the resulting spot weld.

The pitch distance of adjacent spot welds is shown in the same manner as for
plug and slot welds. The required number of spots is shown by the number
enclosed in parentheses just outside the weld symbol.

Back and Backing Weld Detailing

Two other types of welds requiring attention are the back and backing welds.
While both are represented by the same weld symbol, they differ in that the
back weld is deposited after one side has been welded and the backing weld
is deposited before depositing the opposite side. Some treatment, such as
back gouging, may be required before application of a back weld and after
the deposition of a backing weld. There are tow ways to describe the
sequencing of these welds. They can be differentiated by using a symbol with
a note in the tail or simply use multiple reference lines to show a sequence of

Another type of backing which is commonly used with the gas tungsten are
process is referred to as the consumable insert.

The last group of supplementary symbols to be discussed are those which

describe the desired shape of the completed weld. There are contour symbols
for various configurations, including flush, convex and concave. The symbols
for these contours correspond to the actual configurations desired.

C= Chipping




The letters outside the contour symbols indicate the method of mechanical
finishing producing the desired contour. The letter designations for the
various methods are showed below.

C = Chipping

G = Grinding
H = Hammering
M = Machining
R = Rolling

The tail of the Symbol

The final element of the welding symbol is referred to as the tail. When used,
the tail is placed on the end of the rectangular line opposite the arrow. Some
of the typical information which could be included in the tail are: procedure
number, process type, specification number, filler metal type, reference to
other drawing details, need for NDE, etc.

Use of multiple reference lines

All of the discussion thus far has dealt with the use of various weld symbols
along with other elements to create a welding symbol capable of describing
the requirements for welding some particular weld joint. It sometimes
becomes important to convey more detailed explanations of exactly how a
weld is to be performed. For one thing, it is often convenient to describe the
order, or sequence, of the entire welding operation. This becomes more
important when the weld joint in question requires measures to prevent
excessive distortion or reduce the possibility of cracking due to high restraint.

One way to describe this sequence of operations is to combine several

individual reference lines on the same arrow. Each reference line could
contain information to be applied at certain in the welding operation. The
convention is that the order of operations depends on the relative location of
each reference line with respect to the arrow. This is the first operation is
described by the reference line closest to the arrow. Reference lines for
subsequent operations will then appear in order moving away from the arrow
such that the last operation is described as that reference line furthest from
the arrow.

Brazing symbols

The use of welding symbols can also be applied to various brazing joints as
well, with some minor changes.

When a brazing symbol is used, there are certain dimensions which should be
specified to fully describe the important aspects of the brazing joint. A
dimension within the square groove symbol describes the amount of
clearance between the two members when fit up. The dimension appearing
to the right of the braze symbol refers to the amount of overlap, and the
dimension appearing to the left of the braze symbol indicates the size of the
reinforcing fillet on the outside of the joint.

While the symbols from some of the braze joints are identical to those used
for welding, the scarf groove is a joint design specifically for and with brazing.
With this type of joint the angle of the scar is shown as an angular dimension
the right of the braze symbol.

Nondestructive Examination symbols


Acoustic Emission AET

Eddy Current ET
Leak LT
Magnetic Particle MT
Neutron Radiographic NRT
Penetrant PT
Proof PRT
Radiographic RT
Ultrasound UT
Visual VT


The welding inspector spends a great deal of time communicating with others
involved in the welded fabrication of various structures and components. The
use of welding and nondestructive examination symbols is an important part
of that communication process because this is the Shorthand of welding
and inspection used to convey information from the designer to those
involved in the production and inspection of that product. So, the welding
inspector is expected to understand the many features of these symbols so
that weld and inspection requirements can be determined.

Although relatively straightforward, welding symbols can be confusing.

Therefore, the welding inspector must learn their meanings. To fully
understand the meaning of welding and testing symbols, one must know both
the basic elements of the symbols as well as the significance of their relative
locations with respect to the reference line. The important thing to remember
is that even the most complicated symbol can be interpreted if the meanings
of individual parts of the symbol are understood so that a combined
determination can be made.

Types of Groves & their Parts

Single Double

V - Groove

U- Groove

Bevel Groove

J- Groove

The square groove weld, in which the "groove" is created by either a tight fit
or a slight separation of the edges. The amount of separation, if any, is given
on the weld symbol.

The V-groove weld, in which the edges of both pieces are chamfered, either
singly or doubly, to create the groove. The angle of the V is given on the weld
symbol, as is the separation at the root (if any).

If the depth of the V is not the full thickness--or half the thickness in the case
of a double V--the depth is given to the left of the weld symbol.

If the penetration of the weld is to be greater than the depth of the groove,
the depth of the effective throat is given in parentheses after the depth of
the V.

The bevel groove weld, in which the edge of one of the pieces is chamfered
and the other is left square. The bevel symbol's perpendicular line is always
drawn on the left side, regardless of the orientation of the weld itself. The
arrow points toward the piece that is to be chamfered. This extra significance
is emphasized by a break in the arrow line. (The break is not necessary if the
designer has no preference as to which piece gets the edge treatment or if
the piece to receive the treatment should be obvious to a qualified welder.)
Angle and depth of edge treatment, effective throat, and separation at the
root are described using the methods.

The U-groove weld, in which the edges of both pieces are given a concave
treatment. Depth of edge treatment, effective throat, and separation at the
root are described using the methods.

The J-groove weld, in which the edge of one of the pieces is given a concave
treatment and the other is left square. It is to the U-groove weld what the
bevel groove weld is to the V-groove weld. As with the bevel, the
perpendicular line is always drawn on the left side and the arrow (with a
break, if necessary) points to the piece that receives the edge treatment.
Depth of edge treatment, effective throat, and separation at the root are
described using the methods.

The flare-V groove weld, commonly used to join two round or curved parts.
The intended depth of the weld itself are given to the left of the symbol, with
the weld depth shown in parentheses.

The flare bevel groove weld, commonly used to join a round or curved piece
to a flat piece. As with the flare-V, the depth of the groove formed by the two
curved surfaces and the intended depth of the weld itself are given to the left
of the symbol, with the weld depth shown in parentheses. The symbol's
perpendicular line is always drawn on the left side, regardless of the
orientation of the weld itself.

Common supplementary symbols used with groove welds are the melt-thru
and backing bar symbols. Both symbols indicate that complete joint
penetration is to be made with a single-sided groove weld. In the case of
melt-thru, the root is to be reinforced with weld metal on the back side of the
joint. The height of the reinforcement, if critical, is indicated to the left of the
melt-thru symbol, which is placed across the reference line from the basic
weld symbol.

When a backing bar is used to achieve complete joint penetration, its symbol
is placed across the reference line from the basic weld symbol. If the bar is to
be removed after the weld is complete, an "R" is placed within the backing
bar symbol. The backing bar symbol has the same shape as the plug or slot
weld symbol, but context should always make the symbol's intention clear.

Welding Print Reading


Welding symbol is graphic explanation needed to fully specify weld