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Assesment of Speaking

Assesment on speaking can be very judgmental issue, in which people tend to relate on native
or nonnative speaker on the basis of pronounciation (Luoma, 2004). Additionally, Nunan
(1999) viewed that speaking requires someone to be linguistically competence in term of well
articulating the sound, having sufficient vocabulary, and mastering structural or grammatical
components. To speak also needs functional competence which means answering questions
completely and logically. Another competence is strategic competence in which the speaker
is able to use repairing strategies when conversation breaks down.And the last one is
sociolinguistic/cultural competence. It demands the speakers to use the language
appropriately to the context. This theory then developed as the criteria of speaking test
assessment. However, the design of speaking assessment may vary; depend on the types of
speaking assessed. Then, what should to be tested? (Nunan, 1999).

Rubric development steps


In the development of the rubric, it is worth noting several steps. Donna Szpyrka and
Ellyn B. Smith (1995) mentioned that the steps of rubric development are as follows:

Determine the concepts, skills or performance to be assessed.


Formulate or define and define the order of the concept or skills to be assessed into
formulas or definitions that describe the cognitive and performance aspects.
Determine the most important concepts or skills in the task to be assessed.
Determining the scale to be assessed.
Describe performance from expected to unexpected performance (grades). A
description of the concept or performance skill can be followed by giving a figure on
each gradation or member description of gradation.
Conducting trials by comparing the performance or work with the rubric that has been
developed.
Based on the results of the assessment of the performance or the work of the trial,
then a revision of the performance description and concept and skills will be assessed.
Rethinking about the scale used.
Revise based on trial results.

The steps of developing the rubric of the researcher take the rubric developed from Chichago
Public School (CPS), while the steps are as follows:
Lecturers, teachers with their peers determine the performance dimensions to be
accessed. This determination can be done through discussions together with the same
field of study by looking at the outline of the learning program (GBPP).
After that, collect some existing ways or student performance to be viewed and
adjusted to the result of dimension determination with reality on student performance.
Define the performance dimensions that will be assessed to be more accurate
dimensions.
After that write the definition of each dimension that has been decided by this
definition is a critical step.
Determining the scale of the dimensions to be assessed, the scale may be descriptive
or Nomic. Regardless of the scale used, each category of the scale must be well
defined, and given an example of performance shown in each category. At this stage
can also be developed a kind of checklist, so that in the form or absence of a
dimension.
The next stage of assessing the rubrics developed for this assessment of a number of
questions can be used as a benchmark
The next step is a test run, this is what will appear. Has the rubric developed for use or
not?
If the rubric is inadequate, then the next step is socialization. This socialization is
done by involving all parties related to the performance assessment. With this
socialization is expected all parties can show commitment.

Although a rubric has been attempted to be well prepared, but it must be realized that it is not
possible that the rubric is perfect or is considered the only criterion for addressing student
performance in one activity.

Types of Rubric

Based on its usefulness, the rubric can be divided into two, namely rubric holistic and rubric
analytic rubric:

A. Holistic Rubric Is a rubric that dimensions of performance dimensions are made in


general. Used to manually various types of performance. In general, aspects that need
to be considered in assessing student performance include:
1. The quality of task work
2. Creativity in doing the task
3. Task products

Performance dimensions that can be used to assess students' skills in doing things
include:

1. The ability to use work procedures


2. The ability to show the function of each step according to the procedure
3. The ability to modify existing procedures without violating the function

B. Analytic rubric Is a rubric dimension or aspect - its performance is made more


detailed, as well as description of every aspect of its performance. An appropriate
analytic rubric is used to assess specific performance. The performance dimensions to
be judged are adjusted for the performance to be measured.
Components - components that must be considered by students at the time of making
essays. The components in question are:
1. The structure of the essay must contain the title, opening, content and cover
2. The use of language should take into account the selection and use of vocabulary,
sentence structure, paragraph making and spelling.

Benefits of Rubric Assesment

The benefits or usefulness of the rubric assessment are as follows


(http://ndahsmile.blogspot.co.id/2012) :

1. Rubric describes the job description


2. Rubric gives weight assessment information
3. Students get fast and accurate feedback More objective and consistent assessment
4. Learners become active learners
5. Learners gain "content knowledge" and "procedural knowledge".
6. Learners can assess the performance of their own group
7. Both educators and learners obtain an effective reflection tool about the learning
process that has been going on.
8. As a tool or guidance on performance appraisal or student work result.
According to (http://hadisuwono.blogspot.co.id/2009) Rubric in addition to play a role in the
assessment also play a role in learning. Here is the role of the rubric in the assessment as well
as in the learning.

1. Helping teachers and students in the learning process, because the rubric contains
criteria or indicators of achievement of achievement of learning outcomes. Based on
the concept of assessment that assessment is not only the right of the teacher, but also
the rights of the students, the teacher should discuss the rubric with the students
before they start the task. Rubrics can be displayed on display boards or shared with
students. If teachers and students have agreed on an assessment rubric, the rubric can
also help focus the teaching-learning process through emphasizing the criteria that
students must meet.
2. Assist teachers to set a passing standard, for example the teacher determines a
minimum score of 3 from each criteria as a passing standard.
3. Help teachers determine remedial activities. For example teacher determines score 3
as a passing standard. If there are students with one or more criteria scoring less than
3, the teacher does not need to re-teach all concepts, but only the concepts in the
uncontrolled criteria are to be taught again. 4. Become the criteria of students' self-
assessment.
4. Become the criteria of students' self-assessment. By looking at the assessment criteria
in the rubric the student can know what the demands of the learning outcomes to be
achieved in the competence. The clarity of these learning demands can encourage
student progress.
5. As feedback. If a student gets a score of 1 on the data analysis criteria, then the
statement in the rubric "incomplete data presentation and no analysis" helps the
student to improve the way of data presentation and analysis.

Terms Become a news reader

Here are the Requirements of Being Reporter and Radio / TV Presenter as stated by JB
Wahyudi in the Basics of Radio and Television Journalism (Main Library Graffiti, Jakarta,
1996)

Major Requirements Newsmaster (News Caster) Radio / TV:

1. High intellectuality.
2. Physical appearance and standard sound volume.
3. Strong personality
4. Reasonable and authoritative.
5. Have knowledge and journalistic skills.
6. Clarity and clarity of sound.
7. Master clear and clear reading techniques.
8. Master good vocal techniques.
9. Master the problem presented. *

http://repository.uinjkt.ac.id/dspace/bitstream/123456789/31284/1/Yenny%20Rahmawa
ti%20dkk.pdf Prinsip penilaian ( coba buka ndut)