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Solutions for Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing, 5e (published by Wiley) MPGroover 2012

32 RAPID PROTOTYPING AND ADDITIVE


MANUFACTURING
Review Questions
32.1 What is rapid prototyping? Provide a definition of the term.
Answer. Rapid prototyping consists of a family of fabrication processes developed to make
engineering prototypes in minimum possible lead times based on a computer-aided design (CAD)
model of the item.
32.2 What are the three types of starting materials in rapid prototyping?
Answer. The three types of starting materials in RP are (1) liquid, (2) solid, and (3) powders.
32.3 Besides the starting material, what other feature distinguishes the rapid prototyping technologies?
Answer. The part-build process also distinguishes the different RP technologies. Some techniques
use lasers to solidify the starting liquid, while others bond the solid layers of sheet, and still others
bond the powders together.
32.4 What is the common approach used in all of the material addition technologies to prepare the
control instructions for the RP system?
Answer. The text describes the common approach as a three step process: (1) Geometric modeling,
which consists of modeling the component on a CAD system to define its enclosed volume; (2)
tessellation of the geometric model, in which the CAD model is converted into a format that
approximates its surfaces by facets (triangles or polygons); and (3) slicing of the model into layers
that approximate the solid geometry.
32.5 Of all of the current rapid prototyping technologies, which one is the most widely used?
Answer. Stereolithography.
32.6 Describe the RP technology called solid ground curing.
Answer. Solid ground curing works by curing a photosensitive polymer layer by layer to create a
solid model based on CAD geometric data. Instead of using a scanning laser beam to accomplish
the curing of a given layer, the entire layer is exposed to an ultraviolet light source through a mask
that is positioned above the surface of the liquid polymer.
32.7 Describe the RP technology called laminated-object manufacturing.
Answer. Laminated object manufacturing produces a solid physical model by stacking layers of
sheet stock that are each cut to an outline corresponding to the cross-sectional shape of a CAD
model that has been sliced into layers. The layers are bonded one on top of the previous prior to
cutting. After cutting, the excess material in the layer remains in place to support the part during
building. Starting material in LOM can be virtually any material in sheet stock form, such as paper,
plastic, cellulose, metals, or fiber-reinforced materials. Stock thickness is 0.05 to 0.50 mm (0.002 to
0.020 in).
32.8 What is the starting material in fused-deposition modeling?
Answer. The starting material is a long filament of wax or polymer.
Problems
Answers to problems labeled (A) are listed in an Appendix at the back of the book.
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Solutions for Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing, 5e (published by Wiley) MPGroover 2012

32.1 (A) (SI units) A tube with a rectangular cross section is to be fabricated by stereolithography.
Outside dimensions of the rectangle are 40 mm by 70 mm, and the corresponding inside
dimensions are 32 mm by 62 mm (wall thickness = 4 mm except at corners). The height of the
tube (z-direction) = 50 mm. Layer thickness = 0.10 mm, and laser spot diameter = 0.25 mm. The
beam velocity across the surface of the photopolymer = 750 mm/s. Compute an estimate for the
cycle time to build the part, if 20 s are lost each layer for repositioning and recoating. Ignore
setup time.
Solution: Layer area Ai same for all layers.
Ai = 40(70) 32(62) = 2800 1984 = 816 mm2
Time to complete one layer Ti same for all layers.
Ti = (816 mm2)/(0.25 mm)(750 mm/s) + 20 s = 4.352 + 20 = 24.352 s
Number of layers nl = (50 mm)/(0.10 mm/layer) = 500 layers
Tc = 500(24.352) = 12,176 s = 202.93 min = 3.38 hr
32.2 (SI units) Solve Problem 32.1, except that the layer thickness = 0.20 mm.
Solution: Layer area Ai same for all layers.
Ai = 40(70) 32(62) = 2800 1984 = 816 mm2
Time to complete one layer Ti same for all layers.
Ti = (816 mm2)/(0.25 mm)(750 mm/s) + 20 s = 4.352 + 20 = 24.352 s
Number of layers nl = (50 mm)/(0.20 mm/layer) = 250 layers
Tc = 250(24.352) = 6,088 s = 101.47 min = 1.69 hr
32.3 (SI units) The part in Problem 32.1 is fabricated using fused deposition modeling instead of
stereolithography. Layer thickness = 0.25 mm, and the width of the extrudate deposited on the
surface of the part = 0.75 mm. The extruder work head moves in the x-y plane at a speed of 300
mm/s. A delay of 10 s is experienced between each layer to reposition the worktable. Compute an
estimate for the time required to build the part. Ignore setup time.
Solution: Use same basic approach as in stereolithography.
Layer area Ai same for all layers. Ai = 40(70) 32(62) = 2800 1984 = 816 mm2
Time to complete one layer Ti same for all layers.
Ti = (816 mm2)/(0.75 mm)(300 mm/s) + 10 s = 3.637 + 10 = 13.637 s
Number of layers nl = (50 mm)/(0.25 mm/layer) = 200 layers
Tc = 200(13.637) = 2727.4 s = 45.46 min = 0.758 hr
32.4 (SI units) Solve Problem 32.3, except the following additional information is known: The
diameter of the filament fed into the extruder work head is 1. 5 mm, and the filament is fed into
the work head from its spool at a rate of 31.75 mm of length per second while the work head is
depositing material. Between layers, the feed rate from the spool is zero.
Solution: Cross-sectional area of filament = D2/4 = 0.25(1.5)2 = 1.767 mm2
Volumetric rate of filament deposition = (1.767 mm 2)(31.75 mm/s) = 56.1 mm3/s
Layer area Ai same for all layers. Ai = 40(70) 32(62) = 2800 1984 = 816 mm2
Time to complete one layer Ti same for all layers.
Part volume = part cross sectional area multiplied by height = Aih
Part volume V = 816(50) = 40,800 mm3
Number of layers nl = (50 mm)/(0.25 mm/layer) = 200 layers
Tc = (40,800 mm3)/(56.1 mm3/s) + (200 layers)(10 s delay/layer) = 727.3 + 2000
= 2727.3 s = 45.46 min = 0.758 hr
This is the same value as previous calculated value in Problem 32.3.
32.5 (A) (SI units) The photopolymer used in Problem 32.1 costs $150/liter. The SL machine cost rate
= $15.00/hr. Assume that all of the liquid photopolymer not used for the part can be reused. Labor
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Solutions for Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing, 5e (published by Wiley) MPGroover 2012

rate = $30.00/hr, but labor utilization during the build cycle is only = 10%. Post-processing time
= 5.0 min/part. Using the cycle time from Problem 32.1, determine the part cost.
Solution: Material cost = $150/L (1 L = 1 dm 3 = 1(106) mm3). The part in Problem 32.1 has a
volume V = Aih = 816(50) = 40,800 mm3.
From Problem 32.1, Tc = 3.08 hr
Cm = ($150 (10-6)/mm3)(40,800 mm3) = $6.12/pc
Cost per piece Cpc = 6.12 + (25.00(0.10) + 15.00)(3.08) + 25.00(5/60) = $62.10/pc
32.6 (USCS units) 3D Printing is used to fabricate a prototype part whose total volume = 1.17 in 3,
height = 1.22 in and base area = 1.72 in2. The printing head is 5 in wide and sweeps across the 10-
in worktable in 3 sec for each layer. Repositioning the worktable height, recoating powders, and
returning the printing head for the next layer take 13 sec. Layer thickness = 0.005 in. Compute an
estimate for the time required to build the part. Ignore setup time.
Solution: Each sweep of the printing head completes the layer formation process for the part. The
area of the base layer and volume of the part are irrelevant.
Layer thickness t = 0.005 in
Number of layers ni = 1.22 in/(0.005 mm/layer) = 244 layers
Time per layer Ti = 3 + 13 = 16 s
Cycle time Tc = 244(16) = 3904 s = 65.07 min = 1.084 hr
32.7 (SI units) A cone-shaped part is to be fabricated using stereolithography. The radius of the cone at
its base = 40 mm, and its height = 40 mm. To minimize the staircase effect, layer thickness = 0.05
mm. The diameter of the laser beam = 0.22 mm, and the beam is moved across the surface of the
photopolymer at a velocity of 1000 mm/s. Compute an estimate for the time required to build the
part, if 25 s are lost each layer to lower the height of the platform that holds the part. Neglect
post-curing time. Setup time for the job = 30 min.
Solution: Volume of cone V = R2h/3 = (40)2(40)/3 = 67,021 mm3
Layer thickness t = 0.05 mm
Number of layers ni = 40 mm/(0.05 mm/layer) = 800 layers
Average volume per layer Vi= (67,021 mm3)/800 = 83.78 mm3
Since thickness t = 0.05 mm, average area/layer = (83.78 mm3)/(0.05 mm) = 1675.5 mm2
Average time per layer Ti = 1675.5/(0.22 x 1000) + 25 = 7.616 + 25 = 32.616 s
Cycle time Tc = 30(60) + 800(32.616 s) = 27,893 s = 464.9 min = 7.75 hr
Check using Eq. (32.8): Tc = 30(60) + 67,021/(0.05 x 1000 x 0.22) + 800(25) = 27,893 s
32.8 (SI units) The cone-shaped part in Problem 32.6 is built using laminated-object manufacturing.
Layer thickness = 0.20 mm. The laser beam can cut the sheet stock at a velocity of 500 mm/s.
Compute an estimate for the time required to build the part, if 25 s are lost each layer to lower the
height of the platform that holds the part and advance the sheet stock in preparation for the next
layer. Ignore cutting of the cross-hatched areas outside of the part since the cone should readily
drop out of the stack owing to its geometry. Setup time for the job = 30 min.
Solution: For LOM, we need the circumference of each layer, which is the outline to be cut by
the laser beam. For a cone, the total surface area (not including the base) = R(R2 + h2)0.5
A = (40)(402 + 402)0.5 = 7108.6 mm2
Number of layers ni = 40 mm/(0.20 mm/layer) = 200 layers
Average outside surface area per layer = (7108.6 mm 2)/(200 layers) = 35.543 mm2/layer
Since layer thickness t = 0.05 mm, circumference C = (35.543 mm2)/(0.20 mm) = 177.7 mm
Average time to cut a layer Ti = (177.7 mm)/(500 mm/s) + 10 s = 0.355 + 25 = 25.355 s
Tc = 200(25.355) = 5071 s = 84.52 min = 1.41 hr

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Solutions for Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing, 5e (published by Wiley) MPGroover 2012

32.9 (SI units) Stereolithography is to be used to build the part in Figure 32.1 in the text. Dimensions
of the part are: height = 125 mm, outside diameter = 75 mm, inside diameter = 65 mm, handle
diameter = 12 mm, handle distance from cup = 70 mm measured from center (axis) of cup to
center of handle. The handle bars connecting the cup and handle at the top and bottom of the part
have a rectangular cross section and are 10 mm thick and 12 mm wide. The thickness at the base
of the cup is 10 mm. The laser beam diameter = 0.25 mm, and the beam can be moved across the
surface of the photopolymer at = 2000 mm/s. Layer thickness = 0.10 mm. Compute an estimate of
the time required to build the part, if 30 s are lost each layer to lower the height of the platform
that holds the part. Neglect setup time and post-processing time.
Solution: The part can be sliced into cross sections that have one of three basic shapes: (1) base,
which is 10 mm thick and includes the handle and handle bar; (2) cup ring and handle; and (3) top
of cup, which is 10 mm thick and consists of the cup ring, handle, and handle bar. Let us compute
the areas of the three shapes.
Area (1): A1 = (75)2/4 + (12)2/4 + (approximately)(12 x 32.5 0.5(12)2/4)
A1 = 4417.9 + 113.1 + (390.0 56.5) = 4864.5 mm2
Area (2): A2 = (752 652)/4 + (12)2/4 = 1099.6 + 113.1 = 1212.7 mm2
Area (3): A3 = (752 652)/4 + (12)2/4 + (approximately)(12 x 32.5 0.5(12)2/4)
A3 = 1099.6 +113.1 + (390.0 56.5) = 1546.2 mm2
Number of layers for each area:
(1) nl1 = (10 mm)/(0.1 mm/layer) = 100 layers
(2) nl2 = (125 10 10)/(0.1) = 1050 layers
(3) nl3 = (10 mm)/(0.1 mm/layer) = 100 layers
Time to complete one layers for each of the three shapes:
(1) Ti1 = (4864.5 mm2)/(0.25 x 2000) + 30 = 9.73 + 30 = 39.73 s
(2) Ti2 = (1212.7 mm2)/(0.25 x 2000) + 30 = 2.43 + 30 = 32.43 s
(3) Ti3 = (1546.2 mm2)/(0.25 x 2000) + 30 = 3.09 + 30 = 33.09 s
Total time for all layers Tc = 100(39.73) + 1050(32.43) + 100(33.09)
Tc = 41,334 s = 688.9 min = 11.48 hr
32.10 (A) (SI units) A prototype of a part is to be fabricated using stereolithography. The part is shaped
like a right triangle whose base = 36 mm, height = 48 mm, and thickness = 25 mm. In
application, the part will stand on its base, which is 36 mm by 30 mm. In the stereolithography
process, the layer thickness = 0.15 mm. Diameter of the laser beam spot = 0.40 mm, and the beam
is moved across the surface of the photopolymer at a velocity of 2200 mm/s. Compute the
minimum possible time required to build the part, if 25 s are lost each layer to lower the height of
the platform that holds the part. Neglect the time for setup and post-processing.
Solution: The part should be oriented on its side in the stereolithography process; thus, layer area
Ai is the same for all layers.
Ai = 0.5(36 x 48) = 864 mm2
Time to complete one layer Ti same for all layers.
Ti = (864 mm2)/(0.15 mm)(2200 mm/s)+ 25 s = 2.62 + 25 = 27.62 s
Number of layers nl = (30 mm)/(0.15 mm/layer) = 200 layers
Tc = 200(27.62) = 5524 s = 92.06 min = 1.534 hr
32.11 (USCS units) Fused deposition modeling is used to fabricate a part which is a model of the step
pyramid at Sakkara in Egypt (built circa 2670 BCE). The model has six levels or steps, each with a
thickness of 0.17 in. The bottom layer = 2.20 in on a side, and successive levels are 1.85, 1.50,
1.15, 0.80, and 0.45 in on a side, respectively. Height of the pyramid = 1.02 in. In the FDM
process, layer thickness = 0.010 in and the width of the extrudate deposited on the surface =
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Solutions for Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing, 5e (published by Wiley) MPGroover 2012

0.025 in. The extruder head moves in the x-y plane at a speed of 10 in/sec. A delay of 12 sec is
experienced between each layer to reposition the worktable. (a) Compute an estimate for the time
required to build the part. Setup time = 35 min. Ignore post-processing time. (b) If the ABS
polymer used in the process costs $9.50/lb and its density = 0.038 lb/in 3, machine hourly rate =
$8.00/hr, and labor rate = $30.00/hr but labor will be used only 40% of the build time, mostly for
setup, determine the part cost.
Solution: (a) First, compute the area of each level of the pyramid, 1 through 6.
Area of bottom level = A1 = (2.20)2 = 4.84 in2
Area of level 2 = A2 = (1.85)2 = 3.42 in2
Area of level 3 = A3 = (1.50)2 = 2.25 in2
Area of level 4 = A4 = (1.15)2 = 1.32 in2
Area of level 5 = A5 = (0.80)2 = 0.64 in2
Area of level 6 = A6 = (0.45)2 = 0.20 in2
Because layer thickness = 0.010 in and each level is 0.17 in thick,
the number of layers nl = 0.17/0.010 = 17 layers per level.
Compute the processing time for each level:
Level 1: T1 = 17(4.84/(0.025 x 10) + 12) = 533 s
Level 1: T2 = 17(3.42/(0.025 x 10) + 12) = 437 s
Level 1: T3 = 17(2.25/(0.025 x 10) + 12) = 357 s
Level 1: T4 = 17(1.32/(0.025 x 10) + 12) = 294 s
Level 1: T5 = 17(0.64/(0.025 x 10) + 12) = 248 s
Level 1: T6 = 17(0.20/(0.025 x 10) + 12) = 218 s
Tc = 35(60) + 533 + 437 + 357 + 294 + 248 + 218= 4187 s = 69.78 min = 1.163 hr
(b) Volume of pyramid V = 0.17(4.84 + 3.42 + 2.25 + 1.32 + 0.64 + 0.20) = 2.154 in3
Weight of pyramid W = 0.038(2.154) = 0.082 lb
Material cost = 9.50(0.082) = $0.78/pc
Cost per piece Cpc = 0.78 + (30.00(0.40) + 8.00)(1.163) = $24.04/pc
32.12 (USCS units) Given the data in Problem 32.11 in which fused deposition modeling is additive
manufacturing process, a total of nine pyramid models will be fabricated in one build cycle to
reduce the cost per piece. Note that the 12-sec delay for repositioning applies for each layer, not
each part. Time lost to move the extrusion head between parts in each layer is negligible. (a)
Compute an estimate for the time required to build the nine parts. Setup time = 35 min for the
batch. Ignore post-processing time. (b) Determine the cost per pyramid.
Solution: (a) First, compute the area of each level of the pyramid, 1 through 6.
Area of bottom level = A1 = (2.20)2 = 4.84 in2
Area of level 2 = A2 = (1.85)2 = 3.42 in2
Area of level 3 = A3 = (1.50)2 = 2.25 in2
Area of level 4 = A4 = (1.15)2 = 1.32 in2
Area of level 5 = A5 = (0.80)2 = 0.64 in2
Area of level 6 = A6 = (0.45)2 = 0.20 in2
Because layer thickness = 0.010 in and each level is 0.17 in thick,
the number of layers nl = 0.17/0.010 = 17 layers per level.
Compute the processing time for each level:
Level 1: T1 = 17(9(4.84)/(0.025 x 10) + 12) = 3166 s
Level 1: T2 = 17(9(3.42)/(0.025 x 10) + 12) = 2297 s
Level 1: T3 = 17(9(2.25)/(0.025 x 10) + 12) = 1581 s
Level 1: T4 = 17(9(1.32)/(0.025 x 10) + 12) = 1012 s
Level 1: T5 = 17(9(0.64)/(0.025 x 10) + 12) = 302 s
Level 1: T6 = 17(9(0.20)/(0.025 x 10) + 12) = 235 s
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Tc = 35(60) + 3166 + 2297 + 1581 + 1012 + 302 + 235= 8593 s = 143.17 min = 2.387 hr
(b) Volume of each pyramid V = 0.17(4.84 + 3.42 + 2.25 + 1.32 + 0.64 + 0.20) = 2.154 in3
Weight of each pyramid W = 0.038(2.154) = 0.082 lb
Material cost of each pyramid = 9.50(0.082) = $0.78/pc
Cost per piece Cpc = 0.78 + (30.00(0.40) + 8.00)(2.387)/9 = $6.08/pc
32.13 (USCS units) A plastic part that consists of a sphere sitting in the middle of a square base is to be
fabricated by fused deposition modeling. The sphere diameter = 1.25 in. The base is 1.5 in on a
side and 0.375 in thick. The sphere is imbedded in the base a depth of 0.093 in. The part will be
built from the base up. Total height = 1.532 in. In the FDM process, layer thickness = 0.005 in
and width of extrudate deposited on the surface = 0.010 in. The extruder head moves in the x-y
plane at a speed of 12 in/sec. A support structure is required to hold the sphere as it is being built.
No support is needed for the base. The support structure requires a second extruder head that
operates with the same parameters as the primary extruder except that wax is deposited instead of
plastic. The support structure is built layer by layer before each sphere layer is applied up until
the layer corresponding to the diameter of the sphere is reached. From that height until the top
layer, the support structure layering follows the sphere-layering procedure. When completed, the
support structure completely encloses the sphere. No time is lost in switching from one extruder
head to the next during each layer formation. The entire object, part plus support structure, is
cube-shaped with base = 1.5 in by 1.5 in and height = 1.532 in. A delay of 10 sec occurs between
each layer to reposition the worktable. Compute an estimate for the time required to build the
part. Setup time = 20 min.
Solution: (a) Check on the total height: h = 0.375 + 1.25 0.093 = 1.532 in
Volume of the base Vbase = L2h (1.5)2(0.375) = 0.844 in3
Volume of sphere Vsphere = D3/6 = (1.25)3/6 = 1.023 in3
Because the sphere is imbedded in the base a distance = 0.093 in, the spherical segment that
constitutes the overlap must be subtracted from the volume. Volume of spherical segment
Vsegment = h2(1.5D h)/3 = (0.093)2(1.5(1.25) 0.093)/3 = 0.016 in3
Total volume of part Vpc = 0.844 + 1.023 0.016 = 1.851 in3
Volume of support structure Vss = (1.5)2(1.532) 1.851 = 3.447 1.851 = 1.596 in3
Number of layers = 1.532/0.005 = 306.4 round down to 306 layers
Using Eq. (32.8),
Tc = 20(60) + 1.851/(0.005 x 12 x 0.010) + 1.596/(0.005 x 12 x 0.010) + 306(10) = 10,005 sec
= 166.75 min = 2.779 hr
Check: Because the two extruder heads operate with the same speed and width of deposit, the
cycle time could have been determined simply by using the total cube volume instead of
distinguishing between the part and the support structure. Thus
Tc = 20(60) + 3.447/(0.005 x 12 x 0.010) + 306(10) = 10,005 sec
= 166.75 min = 2.779 hr

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