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2K visualizzazioni5 pagineSolutions Manual Fundamentals Of Modern Manufacturing; Materials, Processes, And Systems (5th Edition)

Jun 30, 2017

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Solutions Manual Fundamentals Of Modern Manufacturing; Materials, Processes, And Systems (5th Edition)

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Solutions Manual Fundamentals Of Modern Manufacturing; Materials, Processes, And Systems (5th Edition)

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Review Questions

17.1 What are the differences between bulk deformation processes and sheet metal processes?

Answer. In bulk deformation, the shape changes are significant, and the work parts have a low

area-to-volume ratio. In sheet metal processes, the area-to-volume ratio is high.

17.2 Extrusion is a fundamental shaping process. Describe it.

Answer. Extrusion is a compression process in which the work material is forced to flow through a

die orifice, thereby forcing its cross section to assume the profile of the orifice.

17.3 Why is the term pressworking often used for sheet metal processes?

Answer. The term pressworking is used because most sheet metal operations are performed on

presses.

17.4 What is the difference between deep drawing and bar drawing?

Answer. Deep drawing is a sheet metal forming process used to fabricate cup-shaped parts; bar

drawing is a bulk deformation process used to reduce the diameter of a cylindrical work part.

17.5 Indicate the mathematical equation for the flow curve.

Answer. The flow curve is defined in Equation (17.1) as Yf = Kn.

17.6 How does increasing temperature affect the parameters in the flow curve equation?

Answer. Increasing temperature decreases both K and n in the flow curve equation.

17.7 Indicate some of the advantages of cold working relative to warm and hot working.

Answer. Advantages of cold working are (1) better accuracy, (2) better surface finish, (3) increased

strength due to work hardening, (4) possible directional properties due to grain flow, and (5) no

heating of work required.

17.8 What is isothermal forming?

Answer. An isothermal forming operation is performed in such a way as to eliminate surface cooling

and thermal gradients in the work part. This is accomplished by preheating the forming tools.

17.9 Describe the effect of strain rate in metal forming.

Answer. Increasing strain rate tends to increase the resistance to deformation. The tendency is

especially prominent in hot forming operations.

17.10 Why is friction generally undesirable in metal forming operations?

Answer. Reasons why friction is undesirable in metal forming include the following: (1) it inhibits

metal flow during deformation, causing residual stresses and product defects; (2) it increases forces

and power required; and (3) it increases wearing of the tools.

17.11 What is sticking friction in metalworking?

Answer. Sticking friction is when the work surface adheres to the surface of the tool rather than

slides against it; it occurs when the friction stress is greater than the shear flow stress of the metal.

Problems

Answers to problems labeled (A) are listed in an Appendix at the back of the book.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to

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17-1

Solutions for Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing, 5e (published by Wiley) MPGroover 2012

17.1 (A) (SI units) In the flow curve for pure aluminum, the strength coefficient = 175 MPa and strain-

hardening exponent = 0.20. In a forming operation, the final true strain = 0.75. Determine the flow

stress and average flow stress that the metal experienced at this strain.

Solution: Flow stress Yf = 175(0.75)0.20 = 165 MPa

Average flow stress Y f = 175(0.75)0.20/1.20 = 138 MPa

17.2 (SI units) Austenitic stainless steel has a flow curve with strength coefficient = 1200 MPa and strain-

hardening exponent = 0.40. A tensile test specimen with gage length = 100 mm is stretched to a

length = 145 mm. Determine the flow stress and average flow stress that the metal experienced at

this strain.

Solution: = ln (145/100) = ln 1.45 = 0.372

Flow stress Yf = 1200(0.372)0.40 = 808 MPa

Average flow stress Y f = 1200(0.372)0.40/1.40 = 577 MPa

17.3 (A) (USCS units) Annealed low-carbon steel has a flow curve with strength coefficient = 75,000

lb/in2 and strain-hardening exponent = 0.25. A tensile test specimen with gage length = 2.0 in is

stretched to a length = 3.3 in. Determine the flow stress and average flow stress that the metal

experienced during this deformation.

Solution: = ln (3.3/2.0) = ln 1.65 = 0.501

Flow stress Yf = 75,000(0.501)0.25 = 63,099 lb/in2

Average flow stress Y f = 75,000(0.501)0.25/1.25 = 50,479 lb/in2

17.4 (USCS units) The strength coefficient and strain-hardening exponent of brass are 100,000 lb/in2 and

0.35, respectively. A cylindrical specimen of the metal with starting diameter = 2.5 in and height =

3.0 in is compressed to a length of 1.5 in. Determine the flow stress at this compressed length and

the average flow stress that the metal has experienced during deformation.

Solution: = ln (1.5/3.0) = ln 0.5 = -0.69315

Flow stress Yf = 100,000(0.69315)0.35 = 87,961 lb/in2

Average flow stress Y f = 100,000(0.69315)0.35/1.35 = 65,156 lb/in2

17.5 Derive the equation for average flow stress, Equation (17.2) in the text.

Solution: Flow stress equation [Equation (17.1)]: Yf = Kn

Y f over the range = 0 to = is given by Kn d = K n d = Kn+1/(n+1) = K n/(n+1)

17.6 (SI units) For pure copper (annealed), the strength coefficient = 300 MPa and strain-hardening

exponent = 0.50 in the flow curve equation. Determine the average flow stress that the metal

experiences if it is subjected to a stress that is equal to its strength coefficient K.

Solution: Yf = K = 300 = Kn = 300.50

must be equal to 1.0

Y f = 300(1.0).50/1.50 = 300/1.50 = 200 MPa

17.7 Determine the value of the strain-hardening exponent for a metal that will cause the average flow

stress to be 80% of the final flow stress after deformation.

Solution: Y f = 0.80 Yf

Kn/(1+n) = 0.80 Kn

1/(1+n) = 0.80

1 = 0.80(1+n) = 0.80 + 0.80n

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17-2

Solutions for Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing, 5e (published by Wiley) MPGroover 2012

17.8 (USCS units) The strength coefficient = 75,000 lb/in2 and strain-hardening exponent = 0.25 for low-

carbon steel used in a forming operation in which the work part is reduced in cross-sectional area by

stretching. If the average flow stress on the part = 33,000 lb/in2, determine the amount of reduction

in cross-sectional area experienced by the part.

Solution: Y f = Kn/(1+n)

33,000 = 75,000 .25/(1.25)

1.25(33,000) = 75,000 .25

41,250/75,000 = 0.55 = .25

0.25 ln = ln (0.55) = -0.5978

ln = -0.5978/0.25 = -2.3913

= 0.0915

= ln(Ao/Af) = 0.0915

Ao/Af = 1.096

Af = Ao/1.096 = 0.913Ao

The cross-sectional area reduction experienced by the part = 8.7%

17.9 (A) (SI units) In a tensile test, two pairs of values of stress and strain were measured for the

specimen metal after it had yielded: (1) true stress = 217 MPa, and true strain = 0.35; and (2) true

stress = 259 MPa, and true strain = 0.68. Based on these data points, determine the strength

coefficient and strain-hardening exponent.

Solution: Solve two equations, two unknowns: ln K = ln - n ln

(1) ln K = ln 217 n ln 0.35

(2) ln K = ln 259 n ln 0.68

(1) ln K = 5.3799 (-1.0498)n = 5.3799 + 1.0498 n

(2) ln K = 5.5568 (-0.3857)n = 5.5568 + 0.3857 n

5.3799 + 1.0498 n = 5.5568 + 0.3857 n

1.0498 n 0.3857 n = 5.5568 5.3799

0.6641 n = 0.1769 n = 0.2664

ln K = 5.3799 + 1.0498 (0.2664) = 5.6596 K = 287 MPa

17.10 (USCS units) The following stress and strain values were measured in the plastic region during a

tensile test on an experimental metal: (1) true stress = 43,608 lb/in2, and true strain = 0.27 in/in; and

(2) true stress = 52,048 lb/in2, and true strain = 0.85 in/in. Based on these data points, determine the

strength coefficient and strain-hardening exponent.

Solution: Solve two equations, two unknowns: ln K = ln - n ln

(3) ln K = ln 43,608 n ln 0.27

(4) ln K = ln 52,048 n ln 0.85

(3) ln K = 10.6830 (-1.3093)n = 10.6830 + 1.3093 n

(4) ln K = 10.8600 (-0.1625)n = 10.8600 + 0.1625 n

(5) 10.6830 + 1.3093 n = 10.8600 + 0.1625 n

1.3093 n 0.1625 n = 10.8600 10.6830

1.1468 n = 0.1769 n = 0.1543

ln K = 10.6830 + 1.3093 (0.1543) = 10.885 K = 53,374 lb/in2

Strain Rate

17.11 (SI units) A work part with starting height h = 100 mm and diameter = 55 mm is compressed to a

final height of 50 mm. During the deformation, the relative speed of the plattens compressing the

part = 200 mm/s. Determine the strain rate at (a) h = 100 mm, (b) h = 75 mm, and (c) h = 51 mm.

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students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

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17-3

Solutions for Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing, 5e (published by Wiley) MPGroover 2012

(b) strain rate = 200/75 = 2.667 s-1

(c) strain rate = 200/51 = 3.922 s-1

17.12 (USCS units) A specimen with 4.0 in starting gage length is subjected to a tensile test in which the

grips holding the end of the test specimen are moved with a relative velocity = 1.5 in/sec. The final

length before fracture = 6.2 in. Determine the strain rate at (a) h = 4.25 in, (b) h = 5.0 in, and (c) h =

6.0 in.

Solution: (a) strain rate = 1.5/5.25 = 0.286 sec-1

(b) strain rate = 1.5/5.0 = 0.3 sec-1

(c) strain rate = 1.5/6.0 = 0.25 sec-1

17.13 (USCS units) A hot working operation is carried out at various speeds. The strength constant =

30,000 lb/in2 and the strain-rate sensitivity exponent = 0.15 in the strain rate sensitivity equation.

Determine the flow stress if the strain rate is (a) 0.01/sec, (b) 1.0/sec, and (c) 100/sec.

Solution: (a) Yf = C( )m = 30,000(0.01).15 = 15,036 lb/in2

(b) Yf = 30,000(1.0)0.15 = 30,000 lb/in2

(c) Yf = 30,000(100)0.15 = 59,858 lb/in2

17.14 (SI units) A tensile test is performed to determine the strength constant C and strain-rate sensitivity

exponent m in Equation (17.4) for a certain metal. The temperature at which the test is performed =

500C. At a strain rate = 12/s, the stress is measured at 160 MPa; and at a strain rate = 250/s, the

stress = 300 MPa. (a) Determine C and m in the strain rate sensitivity equation. (b) If the temperature

were 600C, what changes would you expect in the values of C and m?

Solution: (a) Two equations: (1) 160 = C(12)m and (2) 300 = C(250)m

(1) ln 160 = ln C + m ln 12 or ln 160 - m ln 12 = ln C

(2) ln 300 = ln C + m ln 250 or ln 300 - m ln 250 = ln C

(1) and (2): ln 160 - m ln 12 = ln 300 - m ln 250

5.0752 2.4849 m = 5.7038 5.5215 m

(5.5215 2.4849)m = 5.7038 5.0752

3.0366 m = 0.6286 m = 0.207

0.207

(1) C = 160/(12) = 160.1.6726 = 95.658

(2) C = 300/(250)0.207 = 300/3.1361 = 95.660

Averaging these values, C = 95.659 MPa-s

(b) If temperature were 600C, the strength constant C would decrease and the strain-rate sensitivity

exponent m would increase.

17.15 (A) (USCS units) A tensile test is carried out to determine the strength constant C and strain-rate

sensitivity exponent m for a certain metal at 1000F. At a strain rate = 10/sec, the stress = 23,000

lb/in2; and at a strain rate = 300/sec, the stress = 45,000 lb/in2. (a) Determine C and m in the strain

rate sensitivity equation. (b) If the temperature were 900F, what changes would occur in the values

of C and m?

Solution: (a) Two equations: (1) 23,000 = C(10)m and (2) 45,000 = C(300)m

45,000/23,000 = 1.9565 = (300/10)m = (30)m

ln 1.9656 = m ln 30

0.67117 = 3.4012 m m = 0.1973

(1) C = 23000/100.1973 = 23000/1.5752 = 14,601

(2) C = 45000/3000.1973 = 45000/3.0819 = 14,601 C = 14,601 lb-s/in2

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to

students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

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17-4

Solutions for Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing, 5e (published by Wiley) MPGroover 2012

(b) If temperature were decreased to 900F, the strength constant C would increase and the strain-

rate sensitivity exponent m would decrease.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to

students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

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17-5

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