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Solutions for Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing, 5e (published by Wiley) MPGroover 2012

17 FUNDAMENTALS OF METAL FORMING


Review Questions
17.1 What are the differences between bulk deformation processes and sheet metal processes?
Answer. In bulk deformation, the shape changes are significant, and the work parts have a low
area-to-volume ratio. In sheet metal processes, the area-to-volume ratio is high.
17.2 Extrusion is a fundamental shaping process. Describe it.
Answer. Extrusion is a compression process in which the work material is forced to flow through a
die orifice, thereby forcing its cross section to assume the profile of the orifice.
17.3 Why is the term pressworking often used for sheet metal processes?
Answer. The term pressworking is used because most sheet metal operations are performed on
presses.
17.4 What is the difference between deep drawing and bar drawing?
Answer. Deep drawing is a sheet metal forming process used to fabricate cup-shaped parts; bar
drawing is a bulk deformation process used to reduce the diameter of a cylindrical work part.
17.5 Indicate the mathematical equation for the flow curve.
Answer. The flow curve is defined in Equation (17.1) as Yf = Kn.
17.6 How does increasing temperature affect the parameters in the flow curve equation?
Answer. Increasing temperature decreases both K and n in the flow curve equation.
17.7 Indicate some of the advantages of cold working relative to warm and hot working.
Answer. Advantages of cold working are (1) better accuracy, (2) better surface finish, (3) increased
strength due to work hardening, (4) possible directional properties due to grain flow, and (5) no
heating of work required.
17.8 What is isothermal forming?
Answer. An isothermal forming operation is performed in such a way as to eliminate surface cooling
and thermal gradients in the work part. This is accomplished by preheating the forming tools.
17.9 Describe the effect of strain rate in metal forming.
Answer. Increasing strain rate tends to increase the resistance to deformation. The tendency is
especially prominent in hot forming operations.
17.10 Why is friction generally undesirable in metal forming operations?
Answer. Reasons why friction is undesirable in metal forming include the following: (1) it inhibits
metal flow during deformation, causing residual stresses and product defects; (2) it increases forces
and power required; and (3) it increases wearing of the tools.
17.11 What is sticking friction in metalworking?
Answer. Sticking friction is when the work surface adheres to the surface of the tool rather than
slides against it; it occurs when the friction stress is greater than the shear flow stress of the metal.
Problems
Answers to problems labeled (A) are listed in an Appendix at the back of the book.

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Solutions for Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing, 5e (published by Wiley) MPGroover 2012

Flow Curve in Forming


17.1 (A) (SI units) In the flow curve for pure aluminum, the strength coefficient = 175 MPa and strain-
hardening exponent = 0.20. In a forming operation, the final true strain = 0.75. Determine the flow
stress and average flow stress that the metal experienced at this strain.
Solution: Flow stress Yf = 175(0.75)0.20 = 165 MPa
Average flow stress Y f = 175(0.75)0.20/1.20 = 138 MPa
17.2 (SI units) Austenitic stainless steel has a flow curve with strength coefficient = 1200 MPa and strain-
hardening exponent = 0.40. A tensile test specimen with gage length = 100 mm is stretched to a
length = 145 mm. Determine the flow stress and average flow stress that the metal experienced at
this strain.
Solution: = ln (145/100) = ln 1.45 = 0.372
Flow stress Yf = 1200(0.372)0.40 = 808 MPa
Average flow stress Y f = 1200(0.372)0.40/1.40 = 577 MPa
17.3 (A) (USCS units) Annealed low-carbon steel has a flow curve with strength coefficient = 75,000
lb/in2 and strain-hardening exponent = 0.25. A tensile test specimen with gage length = 2.0 in is
stretched to a length = 3.3 in. Determine the flow stress and average flow stress that the metal
experienced during this deformation.
Solution: = ln (3.3/2.0) = ln 1.65 = 0.501
Flow stress Yf = 75,000(0.501)0.25 = 63,099 lb/in2
Average flow stress Y f = 75,000(0.501)0.25/1.25 = 50,479 lb/in2
17.4 (USCS units) The strength coefficient and strain-hardening exponent of brass are 100,000 lb/in2 and
0.35, respectively. A cylindrical specimen of the metal with starting diameter = 2.5 in and height =
3.0 in is compressed to a length of 1.5 in. Determine the flow stress at this compressed length and
the average flow stress that the metal has experienced during deformation.
Solution: = ln (1.5/3.0) = ln 0.5 = -0.69315
Flow stress Yf = 100,000(0.69315)0.35 = 87,961 lb/in2
Average flow stress Y f = 100,000(0.69315)0.35/1.35 = 65,156 lb/in2
17.5 Derive the equation for average flow stress, Equation (17.2) in the text.
Solution: Flow stress equation [Equation (17.1)]: Yf = Kn
Y f over the range = 0 to = is given by Kn d = K n d = Kn+1/(n+1) = K n/(n+1)

17.6 (SI units) For pure copper (annealed), the strength coefficient = 300 MPa and strain-hardening
exponent = 0.50 in the flow curve equation. Determine the average flow stress that the metal
experiences if it is subjected to a stress that is equal to its strength coefficient K.
Solution: Yf = K = 300 = Kn = 300.50
must be equal to 1.0
Y f = 300(1.0).50/1.50 = 300/1.50 = 200 MPa

17.7 Determine the value of the strain-hardening exponent for a metal that will cause the average flow
stress to be 80% of the final flow stress after deformation.
Solution: Y f = 0.80 Yf
Kn/(1+n) = 0.80 Kn
1/(1+n) = 0.80
1 = 0.80(1+n) = 0.80 + 0.80n

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Solutions for Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing, 5e (published by Wiley) MPGroover 2012

0.20 = 0.80n n = 0.25


17.8 (USCS units) The strength coefficient = 75,000 lb/in2 and strain-hardening exponent = 0.25 for low-
carbon steel used in a forming operation in which the work part is reduced in cross-sectional area by
stretching. If the average flow stress on the part = 33,000 lb/in2, determine the amount of reduction
in cross-sectional area experienced by the part.
Solution: Y f = Kn/(1+n)
33,000 = 75,000 .25/(1.25)
1.25(33,000) = 75,000 .25
41,250/75,000 = 0.55 = .25
0.25 ln = ln (0.55) = -0.5978
ln = -0.5978/0.25 = -2.3913
= 0.0915
= ln(Ao/Af) = 0.0915
Ao/Af = 1.096
Af = Ao/1.096 = 0.913Ao
The cross-sectional area reduction experienced by the part = 8.7%
17.9 (A) (SI units) In a tensile test, two pairs of values of stress and strain were measured for the
specimen metal after it had yielded: (1) true stress = 217 MPa, and true strain = 0.35; and (2) true
stress = 259 MPa, and true strain = 0.68. Based on these data points, determine the strength
coefficient and strain-hardening exponent.
Solution: Solve two equations, two unknowns: ln K = ln - n ln
(1) ln K = ln 217 n ln 0.35
(2) ln K = ln 259 n ln 0.68
(1) ln K = 5.3799 (-1.0498)n = 5.3799 + 1.0498 n
(2) ln K = 5.5568 (-0.3857)n = 5.5568 + 0.3857 n
5.3799 + 1.0498 n = 5.5568 + 0.3857 n
1.0498 n 0.3857 n = 5.5568 5.3799
0.6641 n = 0.1769 n = 0.2664
ln K = 5.3799 + 1.0498 (0.2664) = 5.6596 K = 287 MPa
17.10 (USCS units) The following stress and strain values were measured in the plastic region during a
tensile test on an experimental metal: (1) true stress = 43,608 lb/in2, and true strain = 0.27 in/in; and
(2) true stress = 52,048 lb/in2, and true strain = 0.85 in/in. Based on these data points, determine the
strength coefficient and strain-hardening exponent.
Solution: Solve two equations, two unknowns: ln K = ln - n ln
(3) ln K = ln 43,608 n ln 0.27
(4) ln K = ln 52,048 n ln 0.85
(3) ln K = 10.6830 (-1.3093)n = 10.6830 + 1.3093 n
(4) ln K = 10.8600 (-0.1625)n = 10.8600 + 0.1625 n
(5) 10.6830 + 1.3093 n = 10.8600 + 0.1625 n
1.3093 n 0.1625 n = 10.8600 10.6830
1.1468 n = 0.1769 n = 0.1543
ln K = 10.6830 + 1.3093 (0.1543) = 10.885 K = 53,374 lb/in2
Strain Rate
17.11 (SI units) A work part with starting height h = 100 mm and diameter = 55 mm is compressed to a
final height of 50 mm. During the deformation, the relative speed of the plattens compressing the
part = 200 mm/s. Determine the strain rate at (a) h = 100 mm, (b) h = 75 mm, and (c) h = 51 mm.

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Solutions for Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing, 5e (published by Wiley) MPGroover 2012

Solution: (a) strain rate = 200/100 = 2.0 s-1


(b) strain rate = 200/75 = 2.667 s-1
(c) strain rate = 200/51 = 3.922 s-1
17.12 (USCS units) A specimen with 4.0 in starting gage length is subjected to a tensile test in which the
grips holding the end of the test specimen are moved with a relative velocity = 1.5 in/sec. The final
length before fracture = 6.2 in. Determine the strain rate at (a) h = 4.25 in, (b) h = 5.0 in, and (c) h =
6.0 in.
Solution: (a) strain rate = 1.5/5.25 = 0.286 sec-1
(b) strain rate = 1.5/5.0 = 0.3 sec-1
(c) strain rate = 1.5/6.0 = 0.25 sec-1
17.13 (USCS units) A hot working operation is carried out at various speeds. The strength constant =
30,000 lb/in2 and the strain-rate sensitivity exponent = 0.15 in the strain rate sensitivity equation.
Determine the flow stress if the strain rate is (a) 0.01/sec, (b) 1.0/sec, and (c) 100/sec.
Solution: (a) Yf = C( )m = 30,000(0.01).15 = 15,036 lb/in2
(b) Yf = 30,000(1.0)0.15 = 30,000 lb/in2
(c) Yf = 30,000(100)0.15 = 59,858 lb/in2
17.14 (SI units) A tensile test is performed to determine the strength constant C and strain-rate sensitivity
exponent m in Equation (17.4) for a certain metal. The temperature at which the test is performed =
500C. At a strain rate = 12/s, the stress is measured at 160 MPa; and at a strain rate = 250/s, the
stress = 300 MPa. (a) Determine C and m in the strain rate sensitivity equation. (b) If the temperature
were 600C, what changes would you expect in the values of C and m?
Solution: (a) Two equations: (1) 160 = C(12)m and (2) 300 = C(250)m
(1) ln 160 = ln C + m ln 12 or ln 160 - m ln 12 = ln C
(2) ln 300 = ln C + m ln 250 or ln 300 - m ln 250 = ln C
(1) and (2): ln 160 - m ln 12 = ln 300 - m ln 250
5.0752 2.4849 m = 5.7038 5.5215 m
(5.5215 2.4849)m = 5.7038 5.0752
3.0366 m = 0.6286 m = 0.207
0.207
(1) C = 160/(12) = 160.1.6726 = 95.658
(2) C = 300/(250)0.207 = 300/3.1361 = 95.660
Averaging these values, C = 95.659 MPa-s
(b) If temperature were 600C, the strength constant C would decrease and the strain-rate sensitivity
exponent m would increase.
17.15 (A) (USCS units) A tensile test is carried out to determine the strength constant C and strain-rate
sensitivity exponent m for a certain metal at 1000F. At a strain rate = 10/sec, the stress = 23,000
lb/in2; and at a strain rate = 300/sec, the stress = 45,000 lb/in2. (a) Determine C and m in the strain
rate sensitivity equation. (b) If the temperature were 900F, what changes would occur in the values
of C and m?
Solution: (a) Two equations: (1) 23,000 = C(10)m and (2) 45,000 = C(300)m
45,000/23,000 = 1.9565 = (300/10)m = (30)m
ln 1.9656 = m ln 30
0.67117 = 3.4012 m m = 0.1973
(1) C = 23000/100.1973 = 23000/1.5752 = 14,601
(2) C = 45000/3000.1973 = 45000/3.0819 = 14,601 C = 14,601 lb-s/in2

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Solutions for Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing, 5e (published by Wiley) MPGroover 2012

(b) If temperature were decreased to 900F, the strength constant C would increase and the strain-
rate sensitivity exponent m would decrease.

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