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PUMPS

AND
HYDRAULIC CHECK


CONTENT

1. Role Pumps Play in a Plant


2. Types of Pumps and Their Functions
3. Characteristic Curves
4. Malfunctions
5. Hydraulic Calculation
5.1 Overview
5.2 An Example

1
1. Role Pumps Play in a Plant

Human Plant

Heart .......................................Pump

Blood ......................................Water, Reactants

Blood Vessel...........................Pipes

Organ ......................................Equipment

(Muscles, Liver) .................(Filters, Heat exchangers)

2
2. Types of Pumps and Their Functions

Reciprocating
Positive Displacement Pump

Rotary Pump

Pump
Impeller

Centrifugal
Turbine

3
3. Characteristic Curves

Constant rpm

PUMP
SYSTEM

9
4. Malfunctions

A Water Hammer

B Cavitation

C Vibration

D Erosion

10
5. Hydraulic Calculation

5.1 Overview

11
Hydraulic Calculation

Objectives:

1 Pump Calculation
2 Control Valve P Calculation
3 Pipe Size Calculation
4 Instrument Addition/Elimination
5 NPSHA Calculation
6 Pump Ty6pe Determination

Suction
Reference Liquid Level Elevation in Pump Suction Drum

12
NPSHA (Net Positive Suction Head Available)

NPSHA = (Psv + Pa V p Pf ) + (H sv H p )
10
S .P. Gr.

Psv Suction vessel pressure, kg/cm2G


Pa Atmospheric pressure, kg/cm2 (General1.03 kg/cm2)
Vp True vapor pressure of liquid at pumping temperature, kg/cm2A
Pf Friction losses in pipe and fittings between suction vessel and pump
suction flange, kg/cm2
Hsv Elevation of fluid level in suction vessel during pumping operation, m
Hp Elevation of centerline of pump suction flange, m

NPSHR (Net Positive Suction Head Required)

NPSHA NPSHR
SPSHA NPSHR
VaporizationCavitation
NPSHA NPSHR

A. How to increase pumps NPSHA


(1) Raise the liquid level
(2) Lower the pump
(3) Reduce the line friction loss
(4) Use a booster pump
(5) Subcool the liquid

B. How to lower pumps NPSHR


(6) Use slower speeds
(7) Use a double suction impeller
(8) Use a larger impeller sys area
(9) Use an over-sized pump
(10) Use an inducer
(11) Several small pumps in parallel

13
TDH (Total Differential Head)

TDH = (Pdv Psv + Pfp + Pfs ) + (H dv H sv )


10
S .P. Gr.

Pdv Discharge vessel pressure, kg/cm2G


Psv Suction vessel pressure, kg/cm2
Pfd Friction losses in pipe and fittings between discharge vessel and pump
discharge flange, kg/cm2
Pfs Friction losses in pipe and fittings between suction vessel and pump
suction flange, kg/cm2
Hdv Elevation of fluid level in discharge vessel during pumping operation, m
Hsv Elevation of fluid level in suction vessel during pumping operating, m

Shut-off pressure

Min. Flow Bypass:


1. Pump Shut-off Full Close
2. Normal Flow Pump
Pump Min. Flow


1. Control Valve
2. ARVAuto Recirculation Valve
3. R.O.

25% ~ 75% Normal Flow Pump


14
Line Sizing

(1) Liquid

(i) Equation: Darcy Equation: See Attch. 3, 4, 5, 6


fL Q 2
P = 0.000216
d5
(ii) Sizing Criteria: See Table 1, 2

(2) Vapor or Gas

15
(i) Equation:
fL Q 2
c Darcy Equation: P = 0.000216
d5
d Isothemal Equation:

144 g A 2 (P1)2 (P 2 )2
W=
L P1 P1

V 1 f + 2 log e
D P2

(ii) Sizing Criteria: See Table 3

(3) Liquid/Vapor (Two Phase)

(i) Flow Pattern See Attach. 1, 2


(ii) Method
c Duller
d Martinetlt
(iii) Sizing Criteria: See Table 3

16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
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DESCRIPTION
BY
CHK.
MGR

APPR. DATE PAGE


PROJ.

CLIENT

1 OF 40
PROJECT NO.

CERTIFIED

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. (Title)

. (Fluid Characteristic)

. (Capacity)

PART TO OUT SIDE PARTIES NOR USED FOR OTHER THAN THE PURPOSE FOR WHICH PRO VIDED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF MANAG EMENT.

. (Suction Calculation)

. NPSHa NPSHr

. (Discharge Pressure Calculation)

. / (Net Diff. Pressure/Head)

. (Hydraulic Horsepower)

. (Estimated Shutoff Pressure)

-1.

-2. (Line Sizing Criteria)

-3. NPSHa Safety Margin

-4. Pump Data Sheets

1. Pump Calculation Sheet (KM-565)

2.

3.

4.

5.

6. CPC Net Diff. Pressure Safety Factors

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5.
4.
3.
2.
1.

CTCI CORPORATION
NPSHr

Suction
Minimum Flow Manintained By ARV

Minimum Flow Manintained By Restriction Orifice


Minimum Flow Manintained By Low Flow Control Valve


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(Pump Data Sheet)


Spool Isometric Drawing

(Schedule)

KM-565 ( 1)

PART TO OUT SIDE PARTIES NOR USED FOR OTHER THAN THE PURPOSE FOR WHICH PRO VIDED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF MANAG EMENT.


EPCCPC Verify

(a) Client CPCTCPCKTSMC

(b) System No.5 TPA Sour


Water System

(c) Basic of Calculation SOREORCase 1 Case 2


(d) Project No. 89E666

(e) Service Bottom Feed Pumps

(f) Pump No. P-6101A/B

(g) Pump Type. Centrifugal RotaryMetering


Reciprocating

(h) Sheet No. Pump No. 1 of 11 of 2

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1. Pump Calculation Sheet (KM-565)

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Check

(a) Name Arun CondensateWash Water Sour Water


No.6 Fuel Oil Diesel

(b) Pumping Temp. (PT)


Max./Nor./Min.


PART TO OUT SIDE PARTIES NOR USED FOR OTHER THAN THE PURPOSE FOR WHICH PRO VIDED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF MANAG EMENT.

(c) Vapor Pressure(kg/cm2A)


True Vapor Pressure Reid Vapor Pressure
(RVP) RVP True Vapor Pressure API
Technical Data Chapter 5[1]

(d) Specific Gravity Pumping


Temp. Sp. gr
Sp. gr.

(e) Viscosity Pumping Temp.



(f) Non-Newtonian Fluid Properties


[2,3]
GelsSlurrysPaper stock

(g) Special Requirements

(1) (High Pour)


BPA TarSulfurHigh Pour Crude Oil

(2)
Sour
waterAmineNaOH

(3) (wt%)

Steam Cracker Quench System (Primary Fractionator Bottom)

Coker Unit Scrubber Bottom

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Catalyst Particle in Catalytic Cracking Unit

(4)
Terminal Pressure
Path

% CAPACITY OVER DESIGN =


PART TO OUT SIDE PARTIES NOR USED FOR OTHER THAN THE PURPOSE FOR WHICH PRO VIDED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF MANAG EMENT.

DESIGN FLOW RATE - NORMAL FLOW RATE


100%
NORMAL FLOW RATE
Design Flow (Max.) Pump Data Sheet Rated FlowCapacity
Overdesign
PM139-5

1. The rated flow rate of centrifugal pumps are generally designed for the
following:

Feed and general pumps 110%

Reboiler 120%

Pumparound 120%
Reflux 125%

BFW pump 125%

Byproducts consider variations

2. Design capacities for reciprocating or rotary pumps will depend on the


service.

3. Since metering pumps generally have a 10 to 1 range on flowrates, the


normally required capacity is set in the middle of this range.

Normal Flow Rate Process Flow Diagram Design case


Stream Table Line List Flow Rate Velocity/Pressure Drop

(Discontinuous) % Over Design


(Intermittent)

MIN. Flow Bypass (1)


Shutoff Full Close (2)

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Nor. Flow Capacity


Min. Flow

Pump Capacity (Min. Flow)


( 1)ARV ( 2)( 3)
[5]Min Flow
25% - 75% Normal Flow [6]
( DGS-07.08)( 3)
Data Sheet Nor. Capacity Normal Flow + Min. Flow Rated
Capacity Rated Flow + Min. Flow

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KM-565 Pump Calculation Sheet Line 1 Line 13

LINE 1ELEVATION OF MIN. LIQUID LEVEL

(Elevation) 0

(Slop)
PART TO OUT SIDE PARTIES NOR USED FOR OTHER THAN THE PURPOSE FOR WHICH PRO VIDED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF MANAG EMENT.

Suction Vessel
4A4I

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LINE 2ELEVATIONS OF PUMP IMPELLER CENTERLINE 4


2
(H)

CENTERLINE OF
IMPELLER
TOP OF
(H) FOUNDATION

PART TO OUT SIDE PARTIES NOR USED FOR OTHER THAN THE PURPOSE FOR WHICH PRO VIDED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF MANAG EMENT.

[10]
2.

GPM M3/HR IMPELLER CENTERLINE

ELEVATIONS (H)

UP TO 200 UP TO 45 2'- 10" 850 MM

201-1000 46-227 3'- 6" 1050 MM

1001-10000 228-2270 5'- 1" 1550 MM

10001-20000 2271-4540 6'- 1" 1850 MM

LINE 3: MINIMUM STATIC HEAD

LINE 3 = LINE 1 LINE 2, m

LINE 4 MINIMUM STATIC PRESSURE

LINE 3 (Static Head)

StaticHead ( m) Sp . gr .
= Static Pressure, ( kg / cm2 )
10
Sp.gr. Normal Pumping Temperature

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LINE 5 PRESSURE AT LIQUID LEVEL

MIN. Normal Pumping Temperature

LINE 6 TOTAL PRESSURE CREDITS


LINE 6 = LINE 4 + LINE 5


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LINE 7TOTAL SUCTION LINE EQUIVALENT LENGTH[7]

Suction Side Piping Equivalent Length


(Preliminary)

(a) Plot Plan Piping Routing


= +

(b) Plot plan (Lh), Nozzle Suction


Nozzle Lv(Le)

Suction Line Spool Isometric Drawing


-1 [12]

LINE 8 LINE LOSSES

Suction pipe Schedule No.


kg/cm2/100m Line Sizing
-2 (Line sizing Criteria)

LINE 9TOTAL SUCTION LINE LOSSES

kg/cm2

LINE 10MISCELLANEOUS LOSSES

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Line Acceleration Loss

(Dampener) (Ha)
Ha 3
5 Ha Ha

Acceleration Losses Data sheet "Acceleration


Loss should be Considered By Vendor". Suction side Line Size
True pipe Length Data sheet Vendor

PART TO OUT SIDE PARTIES NOR USED FOR OTHER THAN THE PURPOSE FOR WHICH PRO VIDED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF MANAG EMENT.

Acceleration Losses.

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LINE 11SUCTION EQUIPMENT LOSSES

4 Suction Equipment Losses

Equipment Data sheet NPSHa

LINE 12TOTAL SUCTION LOSSES



PART TO OUT SIDE PARTIES NOR USED FOR OTHER THAN THE PURPOSE FOR WHICH PRO VIDED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF MANAG EMENT.

= LINE 9 + LINE 10 + LINE 11, kg/cm2

LINE 13 PUMP SUCTION PRESSURE

= LINE 6 - LINE 12, kg/cm2G

Pump Suction PRESSURE PRESSURE


DROP DROP
(PSI) (KG/Cm2)

PUMP SUCTION STRAINER

TEMPORARY STRAINER 0.0 0.0

PERMANENT STRAINER 0.5 0.035

BASKET STRAINER 0.7 0.05

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NPSHa NPSHr

NPSHa NPSHr
NPSHa NPSHr
(Vaporization)(Cavitation)
NPSHa NPSHr[11]

A. How to increase pump's NPSHa

(1) Raise the liquid level



PART TO OUT SIDE PARTIES NOR USED FOR OTHER THAN THE PURPOSE FOR WHICH PRO VIDED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF MANAG EMENT.

(2) Lower the pump

(3) Reduce the line friction loss, i.e enlarge the line size

(4) Use a booster pump

(5) Subcool the liquid

B. How to lower pump's NPSHr

(6) Use slower speeds

(7) Use a double suction impeller

(8) Use a larger impeller eye area

(9) Use an over-sized pump

(10) Use an inducer

(11) Several smaller pumps in parallel

LINE 14 PUMP SUCTION PRESSURE

LINE 13 1.033 kg/cm2A

LINE 15 VAPOR PRESSURE

Max. Pumping Temperature kg/cm2A

LINE 16AVAILABLE PRESSURE

LINE 16 = LINE 14 - LINE 15, Kg/cm2

LINE 17 NPSHa

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NPSHa "m"

Available Pressure ( kg / cm2 ) 10


NPSHa =
Sp. gr .

NPSHr 5-15 ft(1.6 -4.7 m) NPSHa


Critical Flow ( Surface
Condenser Bottom Pump) NPSHa


PART TO OUT SIDE PARTIES NOR USED FOR OTHER THAN THE PURPOSE FOR WHICH PRO VIDED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF MANAG EMENT.

NPSH

NPSHa (Top of Foundation At Pump Suct.)


Line 2Line 17Line 28 Pump Data
Sheet NPSHa NPSHr
Pump Suction Nozzle Centerline Technique
Evaluation NPSHr review Critical Flow Pump

Pump Data Sheet NPSHa

-3
NPSH Safety Margins
Margin (=NPSHa-NPSHr) NPSHa

Data Sheet (Safety Margins - Margin)

[ 1] BFW Pump NPSHa = 20 ft NPSHa


- NPSHr = 3 ft 3BFW NPSH Safety Margins 7 ft Pump
Data Sheet NPSHa 20-(7-3)=16ft

[ 2] BFW Pump NPSHa = 20 ft NPSHa


- NPSHr = 3 ft 3BFW NPSH Safety Margins 7 ft Pump
Data Sheet NPSHa 20-(7-0)=13ft

[ 3] CW Pump NPSHa = 20 ft NPSHa -


NPSHr = 3 ft 3CW NPSH Safety Margins 2 ft Pump Data
Sheet NPSHa 20-(2-3)=20ft (2-3) 0

[ 4] CW Pump NPSHa = 20 ft NPSHa -


NPSHr = 3 ft 3CW NPSH Safety Margins 2 ft Pump Data
Sheet NPSHa 20-(2-0)=18ft

NPSH Margin

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LINE 18 NPSHr


6[7] NPSHr

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NPSHr

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LINE 19 FLOW RATE

Normal Flow Rate

LINE 20 LINE LOSSES

1. (kg/cm2/100m)

(Terminal)

PART TO OUT SIDE PARTIES NOR USED FOR OTHER THAN THE PURPOSE FOR WHICH PRO VIDED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF MANAG EMENT.

(Section)
Line Sizing
-2

2.

Discharge Side Piping equivalent Length


(Preliminary)

(a) Plot Plan Piping Routing


= +

(b) Plot Plan ( )( )


( )( )

= 3+ 2 ( 10" )

= 5+ 2 ( 10" )

Discharge Side Spool Isometric

Drawing -1

[12]

Le
3. (Section)= x , kg / cm2
100
LINE 21TOTAL LINE LOSSES

(Section)Line Losses

LINE 22EQUIPMENT LOSSES

Equipment Data Sheet Allowable

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Pressure Drop Instrument Mixer


5

EQUIPMENT PRESSURE DROP PRESSURE DROP

(PSI) (KG/CM2)

ROTARY & TURBINE 3-6 (AT MAX. FLOW) 0.25-0.5


PART TO OUT SIDE PARTIES NOR USED FOR OTHER THAN THE PURPOSE FOR WHICH PRO VIDED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF MANAG EMENT.

FLOW ORIFICE 2 0.15

FLOW SUMMETER(FQI) 1.0

STATIC MIXER 5-10 0.35-0.7

ORIFICE MIXER 1-5 (EACH) 0.1-0.35

MIXING VALVE 5-20 0.35-1.4

WIREMESH DEMISTER 1" H2O 0.003

STRAINER 7-14 0.5-1.0

ARV 5-5.5 0.35-0.4

LINE 23 ORIFICE LOSSES

(Range) 50012502500 5000 mm


(Max. Pressure Drop)
(Vaporization)
0.25 kg/

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LINE 24TOTAL VARIABLE PRESSURE DROP

LINE 21,22,23 Total Variable Pressure Drop


Max. Flow 2
Pmax . = ( ) PNor .

Nor. Flow
PART TO OUT SIDE PARTIES NOR USED FOR OTHER THAN THE PURPOSE FOR WHICH PRO VIDED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF MANAG EMENT.

Min. Flow 2
Pmin . = ( ) PNor .
Nor. Flow

LINE 25 CONTROL DEVICE LOSSES


Normal Flow Pressure Drop

1. For pumped circuits, normal Control Valve P shall be

A. At least 33% of the friction P(not including control valve P)

B. At least 7% of the pump differential head

C. A minimum of 15 psi (1.0 kg/cm2)

2. The control valve normal flow will be the material balance flow (max.
normal)

LINE 26 OTHER LOSSES

LINE 27 TERMINAL PRESSURE

Process Design Case Max Normal Operating Pressure


(kg/cm2G) EOR SOR
code Terminal Pressure Design Pressure
(PSV) Termal Pressure

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LINE 28 STATIC HEAD

STATIC HEAD

Static Head =

H 1 1 H H
+ 2 2 + 3 3 , kg/cm2
10 10 10

PART TO OUT SIDE PARTIES NOR USED FOR OTHER THAN THE PURPOSE FOR WHICH PRO VIDED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF MANAG EMENT.

1. ( Heater Cooler)

H 1 1
kg/cm2
10
2. ( Heater Cooler)
H 2 2
kg/cm2
10
H 3 3
3. kg/cm2
10

Controlling Poing

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LINE 29 DISCHARGE PRESSURE


LINE 29LINE 24+25+26+27+28, kg/cm2G
1 = 2 = 3 ,

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Static Head Recovery

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LINE 30 DESIGN DISCHARGE PRESSURE

Rated Flow LINE 32 Net Diff. Pressure


Safety Factors Pump Data sheet

LINE 30 = (LINE 32) x SAFETY FACTORS + (LINE 31)



PART TO OUT SIDE PARTIES NOR USED FOR OTHER THAN THE PURPOSE FOR WHICH PRO VIDED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF MANAG EMENT.

LINE 31DESIGN SUCTION PRESSURE

LINE 13 DATA

LINE 32 NET DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE

Normal Flow Case

LINE 32 = LINE 30 - LINE 31

Safety factors (Priority)

(1)

(2) EPC Safety Factor

(3) Safety Factor

(4) Factors Data Sheet Safety Factors


Line 30

(5) 6 Safety Factors CPC DS 6.02

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6. CPC SAFETY FACTORS

NET DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE SAFETY

FACOTORS

PART TO OUT SIDE PARTIES NOR USED FOR OTHER THAN THE PURPOSE FOR WHICH PRO VIDED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF MANAG EMENT.

(% OF HEAD)

1.0 kg/cm2 and below 125

Greater than 1.0 kg/cm2 to 2.0 kg/cm2 120

Greater than 2.0 kg/cm2 to 3.0 kg.cm2 115

Greater than 3.0 kg/cm2 to 10.0 kg.cm2 110

Greater than 10.0 kg/cm2 105

LINE 33 DIFFERENTIAL HEAD

LINE 32 (m)

LINE 32 x 10
LINE 33 =
SP . gr .

Sp.gr. SP.gr.
Sp.gr () Sp.gr

Sp.gr. Sp.gr. Pump Driver


Pump Data Sheet Data Sheet

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GN-504 84.10

Normal HP =

CTCI CORPORATION
Design H p =

Sheet Rated Flow


36.7

36 .7
LINE 32 x Normal Flow
, kw

LINE 32 x Rated Flow


LINE 34 HYDRAULIC HORSEPOWER

, kw


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Shutoff
(Lv) (Pv) Min. Flow
Shutoff Pressure.

LINE 35 MAX. SUCTION PRESSURE

H x Sp.gr.
Max.Suc.Press. = Suction PSV set press. + , kg / cm 2 G
10

PART TO OUT SIDE PARTIES NOR USED FOR OTHER THAN THE PURPOSE FOR WHICH PRO VIDED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF MANAG EMENT.

1. Max. Suc. Pressure LINE LIST Variation

2. Max. Suc. Pressure Pump Data Sheet

LINE 36 SHUTOFF DIFFERENTIAL, HQ=0

(Motor) (Turbine)
( Q = 0
)

15% pressure rise due to pump characteristics

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5% pressure rise allowance for manufacturer' tolerance

5% speed allowance for turbine control (governor) tolerance

6% speed allowance for reduced load

Assume normal differential = dP (Data From LINE 32)

Since (Pressure) is proportional to (speed) squared

1.5 dP

PART TO OUT SIDE PARTIES NOR USED FOR OTHER THAN THE PURPOSE FOR WHICH PRO VIDED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF MANAG EMENT.

SHUT OFF DIFFERENTIAL (TURBINE DRIVER) =


2 2
15 105 105 106 150
(( dP + dP ) x ) = dP; kg / cm 2
100 100 100 100 100

(Take 145)

1.2 dP

SHUT OFF Differential (Motor driver) =

15 105 120
( dP + dP ) x = dP; kg/cm 2
100 100 100

Turbine LINE 36 = 1.45 x LINE 32

Motor LINE 36 = 1.2 x LINE 32

LINE 37 SHUTOFF PRESSURE [8]

[7]

SHUTOFF PRESSURE, HQ=0

= Max. Suc. Press + Nor.diff. Pressure

= Normal Suc. Press + (1.2/1.45) Nor diff. press.

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CPC DS-6.02 3.4.6 3.4.7 (Positive


displacement)

The relief valve for rotary pumps, reciprocating-steam pumps and


reciprocating-power pumps shall be preferably of flanged steel construction, of
closed top, capable of bypassing all fluid to the suction.

Relief valve shall be set to operate not more than the maximum allowable
working pressure but no less than 110 percent of the rated discharge pressure

or the rated pressure plus 1.7 kg/cm2 (25 psi), whichever is greater.
PART TO OUT SIDE PARTIES NOR USED FOR OTHER THAN THE PURPOSE FOR WHICH PRO VIDED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF MANAG EMENT.

PSV Set Pressure

Set Pressure
of Relief Valve

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1. API Technical Data Book-Petroleum Refining, Chapter 5 (1978)

2. A.A. Sultan, "Sizing pipe for Non-Newtonian Flow", Chemical Engineering,


DEC.19, P.140-146 (1988)

3. Hydraulic Insitute Standards for Centrifugal, Rotary & Reciprocating


Pumps, 14th, P.111-114(1983).

4. PM139-5

PART TO OUT SIDE PARTIES NOR USED FOR OTHER THAN THE PURPOSE FOR WHICH PRO VIDED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF MANAG EMENT.

5. Henry J. Sandler, Practical Process Engineering: A working Approach to


Plant Design, McGraw-Hill P.431-432(1987)

6. Irving Taylor, "Pump Bypasses Now More Important", Chemical


Engineering, May 11, P.53-57 (1987)

7. CPCK No.2 Xylene Project, 90E794 JGC

8. CPC No.5/No.6 Reforming Project, 89E666 ITB EXIBIT 4 Page 19.

9. PM-048 (3/5)

10. PM-046 (3/3)

11. Igor J. Karassik, "Centrifugal Pumps and System Hydraulics", Chemical


Engineering, Oct. (1982)

12. Design Manual DGS-03.01

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GN-504 84.10

CTCI CORPORATION

1

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GN-504 84.10

CTCI CORPORATION

-2 (Line Sizing Criteria)

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GN-504 84.10

CTCI CORPORATION

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GN-504 84.10

CTCI CORPORATION

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GN-504 84.10

CTCI CORPORATION

-3REFERENCE SAFETY MARGIN OF NPSHa

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GN-504 84.10

CTCI CORPORATION

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CTCI CORPORATION
-4

See EGS07
PUMP DATA SHEETS


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