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# PUMPS

AND
HYDRAULIC CHECK

CONTENT

## 1. Role Pumps Play in a Plant

2. Types of Pumps and Their Functions
3. Characteristic Curves
4. Malfunctions
5. Hydraulic Calculation
5.1 Overview
5.2 An Example

1
1. Role Pumps Play in a Plant

Human Plant

Heart .......................................Pump

## Blood ......................................Water, Reactants

Blood Vessel...........................Pipes

Organ ......................................Equipment

## (Muscles, Liver) .................(Filters, Heat exchangers)

2
2. Types of Pumps and Their Functions

Reciprocating
Positive Displacement Pump

Rotary Pump

Pump
Impeller

Centrifugal
Turbine

3
3. Characteristic Curves

Constant rpm

PUMP
SYSTEM

9
4. Malfunctions

A Water Hammer

B Cavitation

C Vibration

D Erosion

10
5. Hydraulic Calculation

5.1 Overview

11
Hydraulic Calculation

Objectives:

1 Pump Calculation
2 Control Valve P Calculation
3 Pipe Size Calculation
5 NPSHA Calculation
6 Pump Ty6pe Determination

Suction
Reference Liquid Level Elevation in Pump Suction Drum

12
NPSHA (Net Positive Suction Head Available)

NPSHA = (Psv + Pa V p Pf ) + (H sv H p )
10
S .P. Gr.

## Psv Suction vessel pressure, kg/cm2G

Pa Atmospheric pressure, kg/cm2 (General1.03 kg/cm2)
Vp True vapor pressure of liquid at pumping temperature, kg/cm2A
Pf Friction losses in pipe and fittings between suction vessel and pump
suction flange, kg/cm2
Hsv Elevation of fluid level in suction vessel during pumping operation, m
Hp Elevation of centerline of pump suction flange, m

## NPSHR (Net Positive Suction Head Required)

NPSHA NPSHR
SPSHA NPSHR
VaporizationCavitation
NPSHA NPSHR

## A. How to increase pumps NPSHA

(1) Raise the liquid level
(2) Lower the pump
(3) Reduce the line friction loss
(4) Use a booster pump
(5) Subcool the liquid

## B. How to lower pumps NPSHR

(6) Use slower speeds
(7) Use a double suction impeller
(8) Use a larger impeller sys area
(9) Use an over-sized pump
(10) Use an inducer
(11) Several small pumps in parallel

13

10
S .P. Gr.

## Pdv Discharge vessel pressure, kg/cm2G

Psv Suction vessel pressure, kg/cm2
Pfd Friction losses in pipe and fittings between discharge vessel and pump
discharge flange, kg/cm2
Pfs Friction losses in pipe and fittings between suction vessel and pump
suction flange, kg/cm2
Hdv Elevation of fluid level in discharge vessel during pumping operation, m
Hsv Elevation of fluid level in suction vessel during pumping operating, m

Shut-off pressure

## Min. Flow Bypass:

1. Pump Shut-off Full Close
2. Normal Flow Pump
Pump Min. Flow

1. Control Valve
2. ARVAuto Recirculation Valve
3. R.O.

14
Line Sizing

(1) Liquid

## (i) Equation: Darcy Equation: See Attch. 3, 4, 5, 6

fL Q 2
P = 0.000216
d5
(ii) Sizing Criteria: See Table 1, 2

## (2) Vapor or Gas

15
(i) Equation:
fL Q 2
c Darcy Equation: P = 0.000216
d5
d Isothemal Equation:

144 g A 2 (P1)2 (P 2 )2
W=
L P1 P1

V 1 f + 2 log e
D P2

## (i) Flow Pattern See Attach. 1, 2

(ii) Method
c Duller
d Martinetlt
(iii) Sizing Criteria: See Table 3

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17
18
19
20
21
22
23
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REV.
DESCRIPTION
BY
CHK.
MGR

## APPR. DATE PAGE

PROJ.

CLIENT

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PROJECT NO.

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. (Title)

. (Fluid Characteristic)

. (Capacity)

PART TO OUT SIDE PARTIES NOR USED FOR OTHER THAN THE PURPOSE FOR WHICH PRO VIDED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF MANAG EMENT.

. (Suction Calculation)

. NPSHa NPSHr

## . / (Net Diff. Pressure/Head)

. (Hydraulic Horsepower)

-1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

## 6. CPC Net Diff. Pressure Safety Factors

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6.
5.
4.
3.
2.
1.

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NPSHr

Suction
Minimum Flow Manintained By ARV

## Minimum Flow Manintained By Restriction Orifice

Minimum Flow Manintained By Low Flow Control Valve

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## (Pump Data Sheet)

Spool Isometric Drawing

(Schedule)

KM-565 ( 1)

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EPCCPC Verify

Water System

Reciprocating

## (h) Sheet No. Pump No. 1 of 11 of 2

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1. Pump Calculation Sheet (KM-565)

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Check

## (a) Name Arun CondensateWash Water Sour Water

No.6 Fuel Oil Diesel

## (b) Pumping Temp. (PT)

Max./Nor./Min.

PART TO OUT SIDE PARTIES NOR USED FOR OTHER THAN THE PURPOSE FOR WHICH PRO VIDED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF MANAG EMENT.

## (c) Vapor Pressure(kg/cm2A)

True Vapor Pressure Reid Vapor Pressure
(RVP) RVP True Vapor Pressure API
Technical Data Chapter 5[1]

Temp. Sp. gr
Sp. gr.

## (f) Non-Newtonian Fluid Properties

[2,3]
GelsSlurrysPaper stock

## (1) (High Pour)

BPA TarSulfurHigh Pour Crude Oil

(2)
Sour
waterAmineNaOH

(3) (wt%)

## Coker Unit Scrubber Bottom

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## Catalyst Particle in Catalytic Cracking Unit

(4)
Terminal Pressure
Path

## % CAPACITY OVER DESIGN =

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## DESIGN FLOW RATE - NORMAL FLOW RATE

100%
NORMAL FLOW RATE
Design Flow (Max.) Pump Data Sheet Rated FlowCapacity
Overdesign
PM139-5

1. The rated flow rate of centrifugal pumps are generally designed for the
following:

Reboiler 120%

Pumparound 120%
Reflux 125%

service.

## 3. Since metering pumps generally have a 10 to 1 range on flowrates, the

normally required capacity is set in the middle of this range.

## Normal Flow Rate Process Flow Diagram Design case

Stream Table Line List Flow Rate Velocity/Pressure Drop

(Intermittent)

## MIN. Flow Bypass (1)

Shutoff Full Close (2)

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Min. Flow

## Pump Capacity (Min. Flow)

( 1)ARV ( 2)( 3)
[5]Min Flow
25% - 75% Normal Flow [6]
( DGS-07.08)( 3)
Data Sheet Nor. Capacity Normal Flow + Min. Flow Rated
Capacity Rated Flow + Min. Flow

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## LINE 1ELEVATION OF MIN. LIQUID LEVEL

(Elevation) 0

(Slop)
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Suction Vessel
4A4I

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## LINE 2ELEVATIONS OF PUMP IMPELLER CENTERLINE 4

2
(H)

CENTERLINE OF
IMPELLER
TOP OF
(H) FOUNDATION

PART TO OUT SIDE PARTIES NOR USED FOR OTHER THAN THE PURPOSE FOR WHICH PRO VIDED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF MANAG EMENT.

[10]
2.

ELEVATIONS (H)

## LINE 4 MINIMUM STATIC PRESSURE

StaticHead ( m) Sp . gr .
= Static Pressure, ( kg / cm2 )
10
Sp.gr. Normal Pumping Temperature

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## LINE 6 = LINE 4 + LINE 5

PART TO OUT SIDE PARTIES NOR USED FOR OTHER THAN THE PURPOSE FOR WHICH PRO VIDED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF MANAG EMENT.

(Preliminary)

= +

Nozzle Lv(Le)

-1 [12]

## Suction pipe Schedule No.

kg/cm2/100m Line Sizing
-2 (Line sizing Criteria)

kg/cm2

## LINE 10MISCELLANEOUS LOSSES

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(Dampener) (Ha)
Ha 3
5 Ha Ha

## Acceleration Losses Data sheet "Acceleration

Loss should be Considered By Vendor". Suction side Line Size
True pipe Length Data sheet Vendor

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Acceleration Losses.

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## LINE 12TOTAL SUCTION LOSSES

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DROP DROP
(PSI) (KG/Cm2)

## PERMANENT STRAINER 0.5 0.035

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NPSHa NPSHr

NPSHa NPSHr
NPSHa NPSHr
(Vaporization)(Cavitation)
NPSHa NPSHr[11]

## (1) Raise the liquid level

PART TO OUT SIDE PARTIES NOR USED FOR OTHER THAN THE PURPOSE FOR WHICH PRO VIDED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF MANAG EMENT.

## (2) Lower the pump

(3) Reduce the line friction loss, i.e enlarge the line size

## LINE 16 = LINE 14 - LINE 15, Kg/cm2

LINE 17 NPSHa

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NPSHa "m"

NPSHa =
Sp. gr .

## NPSHr 5-15 ft(1.6 -4.7 m) NPSHa

Critical Flow ( Surface
Condenser Bottom Pump) NPSHa

PART TO OUT SIDE PARTIES NOR USED FOR OTHER THAN THE PURPOSE FOR WHICH PRO VIDED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF MANAG EMENT.

NPSH

## NPSHa (Top of Foundation At Pump Suct.)

Line 2Line 17Line 28 Pump Data
Sheet NPSHa NPSHr
Pump Suction Nozzle Centerline Technique
Evaluation NPSHr review Critical Flow Pump

## Pump Data Sheet NPSHa

-3
NPSH Safety Margins
Margin (=NPSHa-NPSHr) NPSHa

## [ 1] BFW Pump NPSHa = 20 ft NPSHa

- NPSHr = 3 ft 3BFW NPSH Safety Margins 7 ft Pump
Data Sheet NPSHa 20-(7-3)=16ft

## [ 2] BFW Pump NPSHa = 20 ft NPSHa

- NPSHr = 3 ft 3BFW NPSH Safety Margins 7 ft Pump
Data Sheet NPSHa 20-(7-0)=13ft

## [ 3] CW Pump NPSHa = 20 ft NPSHa -

NPSHr = 3 ft 3CW NPSH Safety Margins 2 ft Pump Data
Sheet NPSHa 20-(2-3)=20ft (2-3) 0

## [ 4] CW Pump NPSHa = 20 ft NPSHa -

NPSHr = 3 ft 3CW NPSH Safety Margins 2 ft Pump Data
Sheet NPSHa 20-(2-0)=18ft

NPSH Margin

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LINE 18 NPSHr

6[7] NPSHr

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## LINE 20 LINE LOSSES

1. (kg/cm2/100m)

(Terminal)

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(Section)
Line Sizing
-2

2.

(Preliminary)

= +

( )( )

= 3+ 2 ( 10" )

= 5+ 2 ( 10" )

## Discharge Side Spool Isometric

Drawing -1

[12]

Le
3. (Section)= x , kg / cm2
100
LINE 21TOTAL LINE LOSSES

(Section)Line Losses

## Equipment Data Sheet Allowable

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5

(PSI) (KG/CM2)

## ROTARY & TURBINE 3-6 (AT MAX. FLOW) 0.25-0.5

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## (Range) 50012502500 5000 mm

(Max. Pressure Drop)
(Vaporization)
0.25 kg/

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## LINE 21,22,23 Total Variable Pressure Drop

Max. Flow 2
Pmax . = ( ) PNor .

Nor. Flow
PART TO OUT SIDE PARTIES NOR USED FOR OTHER THAN THE PURPOSE FOR WHICH PRO VIDED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF MANAG EMENT.

Min. Flow 2
Pmin . = ( ) PNor .
Nor. Flow

## LINE 25 CONTROL DEVICE LOSSES

Normal Flow Pressure Drop

## C. A minimum of 15 psi (1.0 kg/cm2)

2. The control valve normal flow will be the material balance flow (max.
normal)

## Process Design Case Max Normal Operating Pressure

(kg/cm2G) EOR SOR
code Terminal Pressure Design Pressure
(PSV) Termal Pressure

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H 1 1 H H
+ 2 2 + 3 3 , kg/cm2
10 10 10

PART TO OUT SIDE PARTIES NOR USED FOR OTHER THAN THE PURPOSE FOR WHICH PRO VIDED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF MANAG EMENT.

1. ( Heater Cooler)

H 1 1
kg/cm2
10
2. ( Heater Cooler)
H 2 2
kg/cm2
10
H 3 3
3. kg/cm2
10

Controlling Poing

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## LINE 29 DISCHARGE PRESSURE

LINE 29LINE 24+25+26+27+28, kg/cm2G
1 = 2 = 3 ,

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## Rated Flow LINE 32 Net Diff. Pressure

Safety Factors Pump Data sheet

## LINE 30 = (LINE 32) x SAFETY FACTORS + (LINE 31)

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LINE 13 DATA

(1)

Line 30

## (5) 6 Safety Factors CPC DS 6.02

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## NET DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE SAFETY

FACOTORS

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LINE 32 (m)

LINE 32 x 10
LINE 33 =
SP . gr .

Sp.gr. SP.gr.
Sp.gr () Sp.gr

## Sp.gr. Sp.gr. Pump Driver

Pump Data Sheet Data Sheet

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Normal HP =

CTCI CORPORATION
Design H p =

## Sheet Rated Flow

36.7

36 .7
LINE 32 x Normal Flow
, kw

## LINE 32 x Rated Flow

LINE 34 HYDRAULIC HORSEPOWER

, kw

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Shutoff
(Lv) (Pv) Min. Flow
Shutoff Pressure.

## LINE 35 MAX. SUCTION PRESSURE

H x Sp.gr.
Max.Suc.Press. = Suction PSV set press. + , kg / cm 2 G
10

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## LINE 36 SHUTOFF DIFFERENTIAL, HQ=0

(Motor) (Turbine)
( Q = 0
)

## 15% pressure rise due to pump characteristics

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## Since (Pressure) is proportional to (speed) squared

1.5 dP

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## SHUT OFF DIFFERENTIAL (TURBINE DRIVER) =

2 2
15 105 105 106 150
(( dP + dP ) x ) = dP; kg / cm 2
100 100 100 100 100

(Take 145)

1.2 dP

## SHUT OFF Differential (Motor driver) =

15 105 120
( dP + dP ) x = dP; kg/cm 2
100 100 100

[7]

## = Normal Suc. Press + (1.2/1.45) Nor diff. press.

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displacement)

## The relief valve for rotary pumps, reciprocating-steam pumps and

reciprocating-power pumps shall be preferably of flanged steel construction, of
closed top, capable of bypassing all fluid to the suction.

Relief valve shall be set to operate not more than the maximum allowable
working pressure but no less than 110 percent of the rated discharge pressure

or the rated pressure plus 1.7 kg/cm2 (25 psi), whichever is greater.
PART TO OUT SIDE PARTIES NOR USED FOR OTHER THAN THE PURPOSE FOR WHICH PRO VIDED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF MANAG EMENT.

## PSV Set Pressure

Set Pressure
of Relief Valve

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THIS DO CUMENT CONTAI NS CTCI CORPORATION CONFIDENTIAL I NFORMATION OF A PROPRIETARY NATURE. THIS INFORMATION MUST NOT BE CO PIED OR DI SCLOSED IN WHOLE OR IN

## 2. A.A. Sultan, "Sizing pipe for Non-Newtonian Flow", Chemical Engineering,

DEC.19, P.140-146 (1988)

## 3. Hydraulic Insitute Standards for Centrifugal, Rotary & Reciprocating

Pumps, 14th, P.111-114(1983).

4. PM139-5

PART TO OUT SIDE PARTIES NOR USED FOR OTHER THAN THE PURPOSE FOR WHICH PRO VIDED WITHOUT PERMISSION OF MANAG EMENT.

## 5. Henry J. Sandler, Practical Process Engineering: A working Approach to

Plant Design, McGraw-Hill P.431-432(1987)

## 6. Irving Taylor, "Pump Bypasses Now More Important", Chemical

Engineering, May 11, P.53-57 (1987)

9. PM-048 (3/5)

## 11. Igor J. Karassik, "Centrifugal Pumps and System Hydraulics", Chemical

Engineering, Oct. (1982)

## 12. Design Manual DGS-03.01

DGS-07.10
84.10

DATE

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-2 (Line Sizing Criteria)

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See EGS07
PUMP DATA SHEETS

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