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# Introduction

Materials

## 1 ml autopipette, 10 ml volumetric flasks, 0.45 m filter, 5% v/v standard butanol, 10%

v/v standard ethanol, ultra-pure water.

Methods

Results

## Group Sample Standard 1 Standard 2 Standard 3 Standard 4

1 1241903.00 2019413.5 5833016.8 7420155.2
2 897087.73 965777.76 1876946.54 3034910.60
3 945426.06 1804972.72 2462105.52 4021714.60
4 958614.07 1241753.69 2001820.05 3055794.05
5 2876795.55
6 2095439.48
7 2947602.73
8 2818666.37
9 2674010.50
Mean 2682502.93 1010757.72 1507979.42 3043472.23 4383143.61
1010757.
Mean 2682502.93 72 1507979.42 3043472.23 4383143.61
Standard
deviation 343250.50 160835.7 488067.14 1876643.07 2076347.71
5
Standard
343250.50 160835.75 488067.14 1876643.07 2076347.71
deviation
% RSD 12.80 15.91 32.37 61.66 47.37
Table 1.0 Mean, Standard Deviation and % Relative Standard Deviation on peak area of
sample and standards before data handling

## Solution Ethanol 10% v/v Ethanol Peak Area

(l) concentration (%
v/v)
Standard 1 100 0.1 1010757.72
Standard 2 200 0.2 1507979.42
Standard 3 400 0.4 3043472.23
Standard 4 600 0.6 4383143.61
Sample 500 0.5 2682502.93
Table 2.0 Concentration of ethanol after dilution and peak area for sample and standard
1,2,3 and 4 before data handling

## Graph of peak area against concentration of ethanol

5000000

4000000
Peak Area

3000000
y = 7E+06x + 243933 Peak area
2000000 R = 0.997
Linear (Peak area )
1000000 Linear (Peak area )
0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7
Concentration of ethanol (% v/v)
Figure 1.0 Peak area of standard and sample against concentration of ethanol before data
handling

Peak area
Group Sample Standard 1 Standard 2 Standard 3 Standard 4
1 - - - -
2 - - 1876946.54 3034910.60
3 945426.06 - - -
4 958614.07 1241753.69 2001820.05 3055794.05
5 2876795.55
6 -
7 2947602.73
8 2818666.37
9 -
Mean 2881021.56 951795.06 1241753.69 1939383.30 3045352.33
951795.0 1241753.69
Mean 2881021.56 6 1939383.30 3045352.33
Standard 0
deviation 64572.00 9007.13 (not 88298.91 14766.83
applicable)
Standard Not
64572.00 9007.13 88298.91 14766.83
deviation applicable
Not
% RSD 2.24 0.95 4.55 0.48
applicable
Table 3.0 Mean, Standard Deviation and % Relative Standard Deviation on peak area of
sample and standards before data handling
Solution Ethanol 10% v/v Ethanol Peak Area
(l) concentration (%
v/v)
Standard 1 100 0.1 951795.06
Standard 2 200 0.2 1241753.69
Standard 3 400 0.4 1939383.30
Standard 4 600 0.6 3045352.33
Sample 500 0.5 2881021.56
Table 4.0 Concentration of ethanol after dilution and peak area for sample and standard
1,2,3 and 4 after data handling

3500000
3000000
2500000
Peak Area

## 2000000 y = 4E+06x + 442676 Peak area

1500000 R = 0.9811
Linear (Peak area )
1000000
500000 Linear (Peak area )
0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7
Concentration of ethanol (% v/v)

Figure 2.0 Peak area of standard and sample against concentration of ethanol after data
handling