MATHEMATICS 4A
TEXTBOOK
Marshall Cavendish
Education SingaporeMath.com Inc
(0)141
Whole Numbers
1 Numbers to 100,000 6
2 Rounding Off Numbers 12
PRACTICE 1A 18
3 Factors 19
4 Multiples 23
PRACTICE 113 27
REVIEW A
Fractions
1 Adding Fractions
2 Subtracting Fractions
PRACTICE 3A 41
PRACTICE 3B
3 Mixed Numbers
4 Improper Fractions
Fraction of a Set 42
PRACTICE 3C 46
50
REVIEW B 51
52
54
58
65
66
Tables and Graphs
1 Presenting Data 70
Angles
1 Measuring Angles 74
REVIEW C 94
Whole Numbers
0 Numbers to 100,000 One dollar
.tuna
111JMNI,Tfli) WM* NiN)ER1k4
st 81637 142 A
.) II
K 8163'7142A
Ten dollars
) 111 4 1 0 0 V E , . ? " 9 1 4 ,
/IL 11711001180A MiltPS9MMUIElif
timAlnpuvalt6.
11. 117100480 A
ta.
One hundred dollars
* R I C O 11
13000060014.
00060001
6
How much money is there altogether?
itr IcNtiRAgiAltr
f
ja
$20,000 $3000
I 1000IA
00000001
0.000001A
q
MOD.
$500 $40
Five hundred dollars Forty dollars
$23,548 $8
Eight dollars
Twentythree thousand, five hundred fortyeight dollars
7
la CR
Workbook Exercise 1
8
3.What are the missing numbers?
In 68,974, the digit 8 stands for and the digit 6 stands for
2. What does the digit 8 stand for in each of the following 5digit
numbers?
(a) 16,814 (b) 82,114 (c) 48,050
9
6. (a) Count the ten thousands, thousands, hundreds, tens and
ones in this chart.
10 70
A
(a) E3
1 1
(b) R T
orkbook Exercise 3
11
Rounding Off Numbers
Our Savings
Maggie
$61
Rosa $68
Brandy
$75
Rosa
Maggie
Brandy
C I saveabout$80.
61 68
75
I
90
I
50 60 70
80
I
61 is between 60 and 70.
0
61 is 60 when
rounded off to the
nearest ten.
68
70
60 68is
between60and70.
I t ' 4
I
It is nearer to 70 than to
60.
L.....,...
75
b..
1
70 1 , I
i i
I
80 00
we
itsaha
ka
0elf8
reaw sn0tadte
ty8ebabeetwtheeenne7
n
c......,
234
(b) 1458
1458
(c) 2735
2735
2478
2478
I
2300 2400 2600
I I_______________________
34,000
34,100 34,200 34,300
$34,125 is $
when rounded off to the nearest $100.
15
6. Round off each number to the nearest hundred.
(a) 345
(b) 3670
(c) 4850
4800 4900
(d) 27,050
(e) 42,629
42,650 42,700
16
Then estimate the value of 712 + 492.
412______> 700
492______> 500
700 + 500
9.
Then estimate the value of
(a) 384 + 296 (b) 507 + 892 (c) 914 + 707
(d) 716 382 (e) 983 296 (f) 1408 693
R o u n d o f f e a c h
n u m b e r t o t h e n e a r e s t h u n d r e d .
786 >8 0 0
297 >3 0 0
518 > 500 0
C
factor x factor = product
0
O
3 x 4 = 12
12 is the product of 3 and 4.
2 x 3 x 4 = 24
2x3=6
"4\
We can write a number as a product of
3
/4........c two factors in different ways.
2.
20
(a) Is 3 a factor of 21?
7
3) 21
21
21
0 So 3 is a factor of 21.
can
be 8
3) 26
24
2
divided by 3 exactly. 0J 0
(b) Is 3 a factor of
26?
Co
6. (a) Is 2 a factor of 26 cannot be divided by 3 exactly.
So 3 is not a factor of 26.
98? (b) Is 4 a
factor of 98?
(d) Is 4 a factor of
60?
(e) Is 4 a factor of
84?
(f) Is 4 a common
factor
8. (a) Is 5 a common
factor
(b) Is 8 a common
factor
(c)
(e) 63 =9 x
21
of 60 and 84?
of 75 and 80?
of 72 and 96?
(b) 40 = 5 x
(e) 81 = 9 x
311 (f) 56 = 7 x
10. Find the factors of 32.
32 = 1 x 32
32 = 2 x 16
32 = 4 x 8
100 = 1 x 100
= 2 x 50
= 4 x 25
22
Multiple
s
I 9
0
3, 6, 9 and 12 are
multiples of 3.
Cs Th
The
multi
ples
of 3
have
3 as
a
facto
r. )
(a) Is 3 a factor of 36?
(b) Is 36 a multiple of 3?
12
3 ) 36
3
6 3 x 12 = 36
6
0
9 is a multiple of 3. 12 is a multiple of 3.
Name other 3 is a factor of31
9. 12 3 is a factor of 12.
multiples of 12
3.
0
2. (a) Is 3 a factor of 23? S
4
3)9
09
23
(b) Is 23 a multiple of 3?
3. (a) Is 12 a multiple of 2?
(c) Is 12 a multiple of 3?
(m) Is 12 a multiple of 4?
(n) Is 12 a multiple of 5?
(o) Is 12 a multiple of 6?
C , , , , T h
5x1=5
Olney.
5x2=10 ,()5x3= 15_A S
x4=20
)
68)
61 62 63 6 67 69
(66(c,
71 (
(7
73  X (7
77 78 79 Op)
81  83 711)
i
Q3
\ X 31,6 87 88 89 C*

91 1@_82 93 d, 4e X *) ) 97 08 99 1.*:,
.
18 27 36 45
3 6 I
(f) 98
(....Th Multiply
2
8
(b) If Sean puts the stamps equally into 5 packets, how many
stamps are there in each packet?
908
5 )4 5 4 0
45
40
4540 5 = 908 40
0
Divide 4540 by 5.
......_...
29
is/
9 90 908
Divide 45
hundreds by 5.
Divide 4
Multiply.
(a) 2950 x 6 =,11 (b) 8 x 3245 =
2950 3245
x6 x8
C 6 0 0 0 x 4
6218 x 4 /f
7000 x 4
9
a
30
5. Divide 4206 by 3.
1 14 140 1402
3)4206 3)4206 3)4206 3)4206
3 3 3
3
12 12 12
1 12
12 12
6
6
0
K
_ (a) 3250 5 =
6. Divide.
(b) 4235 4 7 =
5)3250 7)4235
(b) 400 4. 10
31 10
asramaillp.
(c) 440= 10=
0
io
z, 3600 6
3840 6
4200 6
O 0
0
3600 6 =
Workbook
Exerc
32
10. Estimate and then divide.
(a) 3604 9 (b) 3580 7 (c) 3120 8
(d) 8128 10 (e) 7528 3 (f) 7180 6
0
a
4356
Cars
Motorcycles
4)4356 4
4356 4 = 1089
35
3 2
Method 1:
4356 + 1089 =
Method 2:
1089 x 5 =
1155 x 6 = 111
1248 x 8 = 9984
8040 + 9984 =
He spent $o altogether.
L Workbook Exercise 13
34
PRACTICE 2A
Find the value of each of the following:
4.
6. A baker sold 1380 cakes last month.
He sold 3 times as many cakes this month as last month.
How many cakes did he sell this month?
00
32 x 10 = 320 320 x 2 = 640
00
00 ago 0(
32 x 2 = 64 64 x 10 = 640
3
0
0
32 x 20 = 640 0
36
'I. Multiply.
(a) 16 x 10
(d) 10 x 29
(b) 40 x 10
(e) 10 x 96
(c) 254 x 10
(f) 10 x 380
2.
Method 1:
14 x 30 = 14 x 10 x 3
= 140 x 3
Method 2:
14 x 30 = 14 x 3 x 10
= 42 x 10
Method 3:
14 x 3 =42
14 x 30 = 420
1. Multiply.
(a) 284 x 20 = (b) 40 x 309 =
284 309
x 20 x 40
5680 12,360
37
4. Multiply.
(a) 23 x 30 (b) 68 x 70 (c) 392 x 80
(d) 50 x 36 (e) 90 x 45 (f) 560 x 60
L Workbook Exet
Multiply 34 by 15.
1.
34x10=34034x5=170
34 x 15 = 340 + 170
3
34 x 15 =
2. Multiply.
(a) 64 x 27 =
64
x 27
448 64 x 7
1280 ______ 64 x 20
1728
38
(b) 19 x 278 =
278
x 19
2502 < 278 x
9
2780 < 278x
10
5282
7. Multiply.
(a) 20 x 60 (b) 50 x 80 (c) 70 x 90
(d) 500 x 30 (e) 40 x 600 (f) 400 x 50
32 x 68
30 x 70
30 x 70 =
50 x 300
0'
SO x 300 =
39
62 x 47
685 x 32
88 x 594
[ Workbook Exercises 15 Eic 16
PRACTICE 2B
Estimate and then find the value of each of the following:
Adding Fractions
1
+ 2 1 fifth + 2 fifths
= 3 fifths
2
5 2 fifths + 3 fifths
= 1 whole
2
+ 3
42
(a) Add and 8 2.
3 2
3
2 M
 +  =
8 8
8
5 1
+
8 8
8
3. Add.
1 2 2
(a) + 4 (b) + 4 1
(c)
7 7 6 6
9 6+
(d) 3 (e)
6 4 10 10
3
 + 4
(h) + 4 5
+1
(9) 7 (I)
7 9 9 12 12
2 2 1 3 + 3
++ (k) 2 2
(j) 5 5 (I) 92
5 7 7 7
L W ork bo ok E XG R i S e
43
1 1
4. Add 2 and 4.
3 = 1
1+1 8 8 9 9
2 4
5. Add 2 and and 6. 11
3
3+ 1 _+ 1 9
3 6 6 6 1
44
1 3
7. Add 5  and 10'
1 I +3
= 1
6 10 10 10
10
(a) +
3
9. Add.
1 1 1 _2 2 I
(a) (b) (c)
Z+$ 4_ 12 + 9
2 1 2 1
(d)  + (e) (f) 
2 6 6 3 12
(g) 1
+ 3 1 7 3 1
(h) (i)
5 10 6 12 4 12
1 _ 1 1 1 3
1 1 1 + +
4
(k) ++ (I)
3 9 9 2 4 4 4 8 8
Workbook Exercise 13.___/
4
5
Subtracting Fractions
7 eighths 2 eighths
7 2
8
111.1.
14
8
=1 = 5 eighths
1
1
4
5
4 fifths 3 fifths
3 = 1 fifth
5
46
3
2. Subtract 10 from 1.
3
C io
=10
10
1
10
3. Subtract 1 from 5.
8 8
4. Subtract.
(b) 6 _ 5 7 _ 3
8 8 9 9
45 7 _ 3 8 _ 5
(a)
(e)
10 10 12 7 12
9
(h) 1
3 _ 1 1 
(d) 12
4 4 10
8 _ 1 _ 4
(9) 1 _ 2 (k) 7 _ 1 _ 3 9 9 9
9 8 8 8
1 _ _
5 5
....
W061/0011 i1 r i.1,
47
1
5. Subtract 8 from 21. 1 half = 4 eighths
_id
6. Subtract 2 from 8 7 .
( 1 1
7
8 2 8
001 ryre
Oe o
2
3
4
4
C 3I
4
10 12
1. 1
Subtract.
7
1 1
0 0
H orklxiddxurcises 20 & 21
49
PRACTICE 3A
Add or subtract.
6. Sally ate of a cake and her sister ate 8 of it. What fraction
of the cake did they eat altogether?
7. Mary has 3
e
litre of orange
juice.
4
She drinks 2
litre of it.
How much
orange juice
does she have
left?
12. Mr.
Johnso
bought
a can
of
paint.
He
used
1 of it
to
paint a
table.
2
1
He used 8
of it to
paint a
book shelf.
How much
paint did
he use
altogether?
8. Meredith
bought c 2 kg of
shrimps.
Courtney
bought ___________
kg of shrimps
less than
Meredith.
Find the
weight of the
shrimps
bought by
Courtney.
Find the
total weight
of the
shrimps
bought by
them. t c 2 kg
of shrimps.
Courtney
bought
kg of shrimps
less than
Meredith.
Find the
weight of the
shrimps
bought by
Courtney.
Find the total
weight of the
shrimps
bought by
them.
51
51
Mixed Numbers
This strip of paper is longer than 1 m.
1
1m 2m
It is 11 m long.
2
(c)
(a)
1 whole 1 third =
(b)
2 wholes 3 fifths =
2 wholes 1 sixth =
1 2 3 4
1 11
555 5 A2 B3
(b) ,__
1 2 3 4 5
11
0 1
D 2
8888888 8
3
(c) 10+4
(d) 2 (f) 5
3
(a) I
0
(b) 5 + 2
(e) 3
5
53
Improper Fractions
What is the length of each of the following strips of paper?
1
rn
r 3 1
1 third = 3
2
rn
3
B B164. 6 .Nini
1 ,
2 thirds =
3
3m or 1m
3 3
3 thirds =
3
r 4
D 4 thirds =
4
mor11m
3
3 3
m or 12m
5
3 3 5 thirds = 5
3
E
3' 4 3
3 and are improper fractions.
improper fractions
C
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
3 3 3 3 3 3
1 1
0 1 11 1Z 2 21 22
3 3 3 3
54
13. How many halves are there in 32?
(a)
1+1 +1 +1 +1
7 quarters = 5 5 5 5 5
0
(c)
5fifths=11
(b)
12 sixths =
55
3. Change the improper fractions to mixed numbers.
5 7 10 14
5 5
0 1 if 2 3
7 5 14 _ 10 + 4
(a) (b)
5 5 55 5
= 1 +2 =2+4
5 5
=1__ =1
5
6_
4. Change 6 to a mixed number. 6
12
13 = 12 + 1 =
6
6 6 6 0
=2+1
6
(a) 17 4 (b) 1
; (c)
(d) 125
Workbook Exercise 24
(a) 13 = 1 + 3
2+
(b) 8
= 8
}3 =
8 = 16 5
8 8 8 8
56
31 =3 +
6 6
18 1
= ______________
+
6 6
1. Express each
(c) 2 (d) 2:
of the following (b) 2 3 4 6
as an improper
fraction.
(a) numerator in each of the following:
1
5 (b)
9. Find the
missing (e) 461 =
2
(a) 21 = _
1
3 3 (d) 3.
=
2
Work
book
Exer
cise
26
(a) 140.
2
3
(f)
4 
IWei kbook Ex rise 26
(a) 3 (b) 2
4 8
3
(d) (e) 2
10
57
Fraction of a Set
2 out of 5 children are girls.
What fraction of the children are girls?
4)4
58
1.
What
(a)
(a) AA
( b) ( 000
00 00 00 00 00 000
0 0 0 Workbook E XQ ' cise 2/
2. What is of 12?
3
m0
m0 Divide 12 into 3 equal groups.
1
One group is 3 of 12.
of 12 =
3
0 0 0 0 0 3
of 20 =
4
Workbook Ixorcisc 28
59
 1 x 20 = 1 x 20
4 4 of 20 is the same as
4
1
x 20.
t 4
3
3 x 20
x 20 = 3
4 4 of 20 is the same as
4
= 3
x 20.
4
0
5 x 18
5 x 18 =
6 6
=
se 29
3 9
3
x
(a) of 12 (c) of 4
(b) :k of 20 6
2
(d) 3 of 9 (e) 1 of 16 (f) 3 of 10
Workbook Exercise 30
60
Kelley buys 24 flowers.
3 units = 24
1 unit
2 units
2 of 24 is the same
as 3
There are white flowers. 2
x 24.
Method ___0r
2: oo
2
x 24=
3
6 out of 8 is 6
8
2 is a common factor of
6 and 8.
0
Divide 6 and 8 by 2:
2.1
of the coins are tencent coins.
RC/57/9509 6
1
9. Minghua had 42 stamps.
He lost 6 of them.
What fraction of the stamps did he lose?
6 6 out of 42 is 6.
42
4 2
in its simplest form
0
ga
He lost of the stamps. a
16 cm is of 1 m.
Workbook Exercise 32
$20
2 units = $20
1 unit = $
5 units = $
He had $ at first.
Workbook Exercise 33 >
62
12. Meiling had $20.
2 2x14 of her
x 20 = money left.
5
=8
3
 x20
=
5
She used $8.
She had $
left.
20 8
She had $ Method 3:
left.
$20
5 units = $20
1 unit = $
3 units = $
She had $ left.
6
3
13. 48 children went to the zoo.
8 units = 48
1 unit s
of the children were boys.
5 units =
There were boys.
Method 1:
40 25 = 15 First, I find the number
of girls.
There are 15 girls.
a
15
40
Method 2: .0".""""3/40......""\
64
5. In a class, 2 of the students wear glasses.
PRACTICE 3C
Multiply. Give each answer in its simplest form.
(a)
1. (b)
(c)
(d)
2.
3. Peter had a board 3 m long.
4 How many many hours does she practice on the piano in 5 days?
5
(a) What fraction of the students do not wear glasses?
(b) If 16 students wear glasses, how many students are there
altogether?
3
How many eggs did she have left?
Lily bought some picture cards.
7.
0
(b)
0
67
14. Arrange the numbers in increasing order.
4
4. Find the missing numerator or denominator.
(b)
12 (c) (d) 6 212
5 8
10
7. 10 girls had pizza for lunch. Each girl ate 41 of a
pizza.
How many pizzas did they eat altogether?
68
20. Loraine bought a bottle of cooking oil. She
used 3 of the cooking oil.
If she used 150 g of cooking oil, how much cooking oil did she
buy?
5 of the fish tank was filled, find the capacity of the tank.
6
1.
Presenting Data
These cards show the names and weights of five children.
70
The data can also be presented in a bar graph:
30
Weight in
kg
12
Number
of cars
3. Make a table to show the data given in the bar graph above.
Total number =
Measuring Angles
Lb = 100
1. What is the size of each angle?
Zp= z q = 1 0
Workbook Exercise 41
Q
ZABC = IM ZPQR =
.
11
165'
Workbook Exercise 42
75
A 4  turn is 1 right angle. It is 90.
1
A 2   turn is 2 right angles. It is 11.
Zx = 360 120 =
76
6. Zp is between 180 and 360.
p
Zp = 360 40 = In
LZI:iof) = 90 (10
B C
Workbook Exercise 44 >
7
7
Perpendicular and
Parallel Lines
Perpendicular Lines
These are examples of perpendicular lines.
B
AB is perpendicular to CD.
We write: AB 1 CD
(a) C
Workbook Exercise 45
7
9
2. Use a setsquare to draw a line perpendicular to the line AB
through the point R
A
r Workbook Exercise 46
80
e Parallel Lines
These are examples of parallel lines.
r
We draw arrowheads to show
parallel lines.
AB is parallel to CD.
We write: AB // CD
82
2. Use a setsquare and a ruler to draw a line parallel to the
line AB through the point P.
1cm
_____.1
1 cm tl
t.,
.f,
;:4,
Perimeter of rectangle =
Total length of 4 sides
9+5+9+5= al
The perimeter of the rectangle is IN cm.
84
4. The perimeter of a rectangle is 24 m.
If the length of the rectangle is 8 m, find its width.
5 cm
10cm
m
Find the length of
Area of square = IN m2 one side
first.
0
85
4. The area of a square is 36 cm2.
Find its perimeter.
1 cm
1 cmi
36 = 6 x 6
Length of one side = 6 cm
Perimeter of square
=111cm
40 = 8 x 5
Length = 8 m
1 mi
Width = m
1
.0Perimeter = m
M
14N
86
e Composite Figures
Each of the following figures is made up of two rectangles.
Find the area and perimeter of each figure.
1cm
12m 16m
Find the lengths of
AB = 10 + 5 = 15 m AB and BC first.
10m
BC = 12 + 16 = 28 m
12 + 10 + 16 + 5 + 28 + 15 =
m
The perimeter of the figure
is. m.
44 cm
Find the lengths of
CD and DE first.
18 cm
26 cm O
CD = 26 18 8 cm
DE = 44 20 = 24 cm
44 + 26 + 24 + 8 + 20 + 18
=1111
The perimeter of the figure is
III cm.
8
8
Workbook Exercise 50
3. The figure is made up of two rectangles. Find its
area.
14m
.14______
5m 5m
Area of rectangle A = 14 x 5 = 70 m 2
PQ= 14 5  5 =4m
Area of rectangle B = 4 x 5 = 20 m 2
Total area = m2
X" 12 m ;
4. The figure shows a
small 3m rectangle in
a big rectangle.
3m
Find the area of the '''"""0
shaded part 0
of the big
rectangle.
Y
t e ....,.........s
4m
1
5m
XY = 3 + 3 + 4 = 10 m
Area of big rectangle = 12 x 10 = 120 m 2
89
5. The figure shows a rectangular field with a path 1 m wide
around it.
Find the area of the path.
1! tr e......... \
lm
Length of big=rectangle
8 + 1 + 1 = 10 m
6. Width of big= 6 +1 + 1 = 8 m
rectangle
T Area of big rectangle
= 10 x 8 = la m2
h Area of small rectangle
e = m2
Area of the path
= 111 m2
f
i
g
u
r
e
s
h
o
w
s
a
s
m
a
l
l
r
e
c
t
a
n
g
l
e
i
n
b
i
g
r
e
c
t
a
n
g
l
e
.
F
i
n
d
t
h
e
a
r
e
a
o
f
t
h
e
s
h
a
d
e
d
p
a
r
t
o
f
t
h
e
b
i
g
r
e
c
t
a
n
g
l
e
.
10
m
12m
8 cm
}? = 46 cm
12 cm
(c) (d)
6m Perimeter
=52m 15 m
8m
(c) (d)
9 cm
6 cm
91
3. Find the area and perimeter of each figure. (All lines meet
at right angles.)
6cm
m
6cm
5m
4. Each of the following figures shows a small rectangle in a big
rectangle.
6m
Find the area of the shaded part of each rectangle.
3
(a) (b) 26 m
20m
15 m
10m 24 m
4_________________________________________________________________________________
40 cm 4 cm
4 cm
.1 10m
8m
93
REVIEW C
1. Estimate and then multiply.
(a) 39 x 19 (b) 48 x 22
(d) 208 x 31 (e) 512 x 28
(c) 99 x 4
(f) 198 x 6
(b) (c) 9
23
(a)
12
4. Arrange the numbers in increasing order.
5
(a) 34, 2
6 (b) 110, 2
7. Write > (is greater than), < (is less than), or = (is
equal to) in place of each M.
9 1 ma 10
(C) 76 (b) 14in 8 (c) 1 g
11
rn 7m
4m 5m 4m
10. Find the perimeter and area of each figure. (All lines meet
at right angles.)
15 cm 5cm
(a) ,
H 19 cm 3
m
F.___ H'___
(b) 8m
24 cm 6m 6m
5cm
11.
12. Which of
the
following
figures
have 4 right angles? Which is a square?
95
13. The table shows the number
of people who attended four
courses in a community
center.
Draw a bar graph to show
16. Twelve pieces of ribbon, each 75 in. long, are cut from a length
of ribbon 1250pin. long.
What is the length of the remaining piece of ribbon?
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