00 mi piace00 non mi piace

37 visualizzazioni8 pagineMechanisms of Machinery Chapter 5

Jun 23, 2017

© © All Rights Reserved

DOCX, PDF, TXT o leggi online da Scribd

Mechanisms of Machinery Chapter 5

© All Rights Reserved

37 visualizzazioni

00 mi piace00 non mi piace

Mechanisms of Machinery Chapter 5

© All Rights Reserved

Sei sulla pagina 1di 8

The velocity of a point moving in a general path can change in two independent ways.

The magnitude or the direction of the velocity vector can change over time. Thus,

acceleration is commonly separated into two elements: normal and tangential

components. The normal component is created as a result of a change in the direction

of the velocity vector. The tangential component is formed as a result of a change in the

magnitude of the velocity vector.

Tangential Acceleration

For a point on a rotating link, little effort is required to determine the direction of these

acceleration components. The instantaneous velocity of a point on a rotating link is

perpendicular to a line that connects that point to the center of rotation. Any change in

the magnitude of this velocity creates tangential acceleration, which is perpendicular to

the line that connects the point with the center of rotation. The magnitude of the

tangential acceleration of point A on a rotating link 2 can be expressed as:

(5.1)

It is extremely important to remember that the angular acceleration, , in equation (5.1)

must be expressed as units of radians per squared second. The tangential acceleration

acts in the direction of motion when the velocity increases or the point accelerates.

Conversely, tangential acceleration acts in the opposite direction of motion when the

velocity decreases or the point decelerates.

Normal Acceleration

Any change in velocity direction creates normal acceleration, which is always directed

toward the center of rotation. Figure 5.1a illustrates a link rotating at constant speed.

The velocity of point A is shown slightly before and after the configuration under

consideration, separated by a small angle d2. Because the link is rotating at constant

speed, the magnitudes of VA and VA are equal. Thus, VA = VA.

Mechanisms of Machinery Instructor: Robel Metiku

Figure 5.1b shows a velocity polygon, vectorally solving for the change in velocity, dv.

Notice that the change of the velocity vector, dv, is directed toward the center of link

rotation. In fact, the normal acceleration will always be directed toward the center of link

rotation. This is because, as the point rotates around a fixed pivot, the velocity vector

will change along the curvature of motion. Thus, the normal vector to this curvature will

always be directed toward the fixed pivot.

In Figure 5.1a, because is small, the following relationship can be stated:

Because acceleration is defined as the time rate of velocity change, both sides should

be divided by time derivative:

Using the relationships between the magnitude of the linear velocity and angular

velocity, the following equations for the magnitude of the normal acceleration of a point

can be derived:

.. (5.2)

.. (5.3)

Mechanisms of Machinery Instructor: Robel Metiku

Total Acceleration

Acceleration analysis is important because inertial forces result from accelerations.

These loads must be determined to ensure that the machine is adequately designed to

handle these dynamic loads. Inertial forces are proportional to the total acceleration of a

body. The total acceleration, A, is the vector resultant of the tangential and normal

components. Mathematically, it is expressed as:

.. (5.4)

Example 1

The mechanism shown below is used in a distribution center to push boxes along a

platform and to a loading area. The input link is driven by an electric motor, which, at the

instant shown, has a velocity of 25 rad/s and accelerates at a rate of 500 rad/s2.

Knowing that the input link has a length of 250 mm, determine the instantaneous

acceleration of the end of the input link in the position shown.

Relative Acceleration

As with velocity, the following notation is used to distinguish between absolute and

relative accelerations:

AA = absolute acceleration (total) of point A

AB = absolute acceleration (total) of point B

AB/A = relative acceleration (total) of point B with respect to A

= acceleration (total) of point B as observed from point A

The relationship between absolute velocity and relative velocity can be written as:

Mechanisms of Machinery Instructor: Robel Metiku

Taking the time derivative of the relative velocity equation yields the relative

acceleration equation. This can be written mathematically as:

.. (5.5)

Typically, it is more convenient to separate the total accelerations in equation (5.5) into

normal and tangential components. Thus, each acceleration is separated into its two

components, yielding the following:

. (5.6)

Note that equations (5.5) and (5.6) are vector equations and the techniques discussed

in Chapter 3 and 4 must be used in dealing with these equations.

Example 2

The Figure below shows a power hacksaw. At this instant, the electric motor rotates

counterclockwise and drives the free end of the motor crank (point B) at a velocity of 12

in./s. Additionally, the crank is accelerating at a rate of 37 rad/s 2. The top portion of the

hacksaw is moving toward the left with a velocity of 9.8 in./s and is accelerating at a rate

of 82 in./s2. Determine the relative acceleration of point C with respect to point B.

The acceleration of points on a mechanism can be much more easily analyzed when

separated into normal and tangential components. For links that are attached directly to

the frame, the direction of the acceleration components is obvious: the normal

component is always directed to the center of rotation, and the tangential component is

perpendicular to the normal component and in the direction that is consistent with either

the acceleration or deceleration of the point.

Mechanisms of Machinery Instructor: Robel Metiku

Conversely, tangential acceleration is opposite to the direction of motion when the point

decelerates.

For points that are on the same link, a link that is not directly attached to the frame, the

analysis focuses on the relative accelerations of these points. Figure 5.2 shows such a

link that is not directly attached to the frame, typically called a floating link. The relative

acceleration between two points that reside on that link is shown. Notice that the normal

and tangential components of this acceleration are also shown and are directed along

the link (normal) and perpendicular to the link (tangential). Reiterating, the relative

acceleration of two points is the acceleration of one point as seen from the other

reference point.

As with velocity analysis, relative motion consists of pure relative rotation of the

observed point about the reference point. In other terms, the relative motion of B with

respect to A is visualized as if point B were rotating around point A. Thus, a normal

component of relative acceleration is directed toward the center of relative rotation, or

the reference point. The tangential relative acceleration is directed perpendicular to the

normal relative acceleration. The magnitudes of these components are computed in a

similar fashion to the absolute acceleration of points rotating around fixed points.

(5.7)

.. (5.8)

Mechanisms of Machinery Instructor: Robel Metiku

The direction of the relative tangential acceleration is consistent with the angular

acceleration of the floating link, and vice versa. Referring to Figure 5.2, the relative

tangential acceleration shows the tangential acceleration of point B as it rotates around

point A directed upward and toward the right, which infers a clockwise angular

acceleration of link 3.

Example 3

For the power hacksaw in Example 2, determine the angular acceleration of the 6-in.

connecting link (link 3).

The strategy for analytically determining the acceleration of various points on a

mechanism involves sketching vector polygons only roughly. The magnitude and angles

can be solved using trigonometry. The most effective manner of presenting the

analytical method of acceleration analysis is through an example.

Example 4

The mechanism shown in the Figure below is used to feed cartons to a labeling

machine and, at the same time, to prevent the stored cartons from moving down. At full

speed, the driveshaft rotates clockwise with an angular velocity of 200 rpm. At the

instant shown, determine the acceleration of the ram and the angular acceleration of the

connecting rod.

Mechanisms of Machinery Instructor: Robel Metiku

Slider Crank Mechanism

A general slider-crank mechanism is shown in Figure 5.3 below and is uniquely defined

with dimensions L1, L2, and L3. With one degree of freedom, the motion of one link must

be specified to drive the other links. Most often the crank is driven and 2, 2, and 2

are specified. To readily address the slider-crank mechanism, position, velocity, and

acceleration equations (as a function of 2, 2, and 2) are available.

As presented in Chapter 3, the position equations include:

equation

Mechanisms of Machinery Instructor: Robel Metiku

A general four-bar mechanism is shown in Figure 5.3 and is uniquely defined with

dimensions L1, L2, L3, and L4. With one degree of freedom, the motion of one link must

be specified to drive the other links. Most often the crank is driven and 2, 2, and 2

are specified. To readily address the four-bar mechanism, position, velocity, and

acceleration equations (as a function of 2, 2, and 2) are available.

## Molto più che documenti.

Scopri tutto ciò che Scribd ha da offrire, inclusi libri e audiolibri dei maggiori editori.

Annulla in qualsiasi momento.