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1 KAPPA 2011

Production Logging

1. Introduction
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Introduction

What is Production Logging (PL) ?


PL applications
The typical well
The typical PL tool string
The PL operation
The PL job
Factors affecting well production
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What is PL?

Production logging encompasses a number of well logging techniques run


on completed injection or production wells, with the goal being to evaluate
the well itself or the reservoir performance. SPE Monograph 14, Production
Logging, Hill A.D.

The purpose of production logging is to provide the most detailed


knowledge possible of the nature and behavior of the fluids in the well
during production or injection
Production Log Interpretation, Schlumberger
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What is PL?

Series of measurements that (hopefully) will allow the


determination of the fluid type and rate in the wellbore
as a function of depth

Downhole and (mostly) continuous

Steady state

Under dynamic conditions


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PL history

Temperature logs (1930s)

Flowmeters (1940s)

Fluid-density and capacitance logs (1950s)

Fluid velocities (1980s)

Array probe measurements (1980s...)


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PL applications

Production logs are now run for the purpose of:


Monitoring & controlling the reservoir
Analyzing dynamic well performance
Assessing productivity or injectivity of different zones
Diagnosing problem wells
Monitoring the results of a stimulation or completion

The term is sometimes extended to include logs run to measure the


physical condition of the well, completion and reservoir properties:
Cement bond
Pulse neutron logs
Corrosion logs
Radioactive tracer logs
Noise logs

PL can be used in all stages through the life of a well


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The typical well

Tubing

Casing

Packer (seal)

Cement
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Normal well flow

What?

Where?
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Typical PL toolstring

Sondex MPLT Schlumberger PSP


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PL operations Surface readout

Grease seal
Risers

Electric line
BOP
Logging unit

PL sensor data recorded in the


surface computer
Depth and cable speed recorded
by surface computer
Power sent down the cable to the
tool
Sensor signals sent up the cable
continuously
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PL operations Memory

Grease seal
Risers

Single-strand cable
BOP
Slickline unit

Depth vs Time

Data vs Depth
Reconstruction

Battery pack
Memory section
Data vs Time
PL sensors
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Depth measurements

Courtesy : NOV ELMAR

Spring-loaded measure wheels measure the


amount of wireline cable passing through
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PL operations - others

Highly deviated / horizontal

Coiled tubing

Tractors
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Coiled tubing

Power pack & control cabin

Injector head

Tool container

Coil tubing reel


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Tractors

Sondex MDT

Schlumberger MAXTRAC

Welltec
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PL job

Production rate Up Passes Down Passes

Full flow

Zero flow
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Logging sequence

Record Base Shut in Survey Record Post Flowing Shut in


Well shut in for extended Survey (calibration, baseline)
period

Pressure

Time Lapse passes


through shut in
period

Time
Record Flowing Survey - Well stabilized

*Note: Various constraints may limit the recording or extent of some of the surveys above
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Multi-rate PL (MRPL)

Shut in
Shut in
Pressure

Q 1/3

Q 2/3

Qmax

Time

The sequence of rates can be adjusted to suit operational & reservoir requirements
Often Qmax first, to ensure best clean out of well, and best chance of clean stable flow
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PL data

Depth SPIN CS DRHO GR PPRE T ENS T EMP


ft -10 rps 22 -200 ft/ min 200 0 g/ cc 1.2 0 GAPI 100 2820 psia 2960 500 lb 1000 244 F 256

8200

8300

8400
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PL data interpreted
Depth Z Interpretation # 1 Density matc h Veloc ity matc h QZ T QZ I
246 TEMP P1,I1 [F] 256 0 DRHO P1,I1 [g/ cc] 1.2 VAPP P1,I1 [ft/ min]
PPRE P1,I1 [psia] ... ...
ft DRHO P1,I1 [g/ c c ] -1000 B/ D 10000 -500 B/ D 7500

8200

8300

8400
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PL interpretation

Proper diagnosis will rely on the interpretation of the recorded data.

Production logging is NOT flow rate measurement.


Flow rates are accessed through a (complex)
INTERPRETATION process

- Complex in the understanding of the completion, the reservoir, and its


history and behavior.
- Complex in mathematical analysis (iterations, models, correlations)
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Factors affecting production


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Some factors affecting production

Reservoir
Layer kh contrasts, damage
Fluids
Contacts and capillary pressures
Fractures (carbonates)

Wellbore
Cement
Leaks due to corrosion
Perforations off depth, ineffective, plugged

Relevance of additional information


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The well and permeability

CAP ROCK

Original
GOC

SAND B
Khorizontal & Kvertical

Cores
Formation tests
Open hole logs
Well tests

Original SAND A
OWC
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The well damage

CAP ROCK

Original
GOC
SAND B

Skin Damaged Zone

-ve skin.. Good performance


+ve skin.. Under performing

Damaged Zone
Original
SAND A
OWC
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Reservoir contacts

GOC
OWC

Sandstone
Shale
Carbonate

The location of the contacts in the reservoir is used to assist us


in understanding our observations in the wellbore
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The Well fluids

Gas - Bg, Viscosity CAP ROCK

Original density
GOC

SAND B
Rs GOR, density PVT used in:
Oil - Bo, viscosity,
1. Downhole rate
calculations

2. Conversion of
downhole rates to
Rs GOR, density
standard conditions
Oil - Bo, viscosity,
Original
SAND A
OWC

Water - salinity, density


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Perforations

CAP ROCK

Original
GOC

SAND B

Original
SAND A
OWC
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Perforation guns

The perforating gun comes in a number of formats,


density, phase
The common items are the detonator, prima cord and the
shaped charge.
The gun used depends on the situation/local preferences.

15 million Psi!!!
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Perforation and PL

Perforating parameters are important in PL Interpretation.

Need to know:
Perforation intervals

Nice to know:
Shot density & phasing
Charge type - big hole/deep penetrating
Gun type casing gun, through tubing gun
Perforation performed overbalanced or under balanced
Perforation history - timeline

Need to discover:
Which perforations are producing
Are the perforations on depth, or are they even there at all?
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Crossflow

Three layers were initially perforated


Layer 2 pressure has somehow
dropped. Possibly due to high
permeability, therefore experiencing
preferential production, and depleted
P1 faster. Or maybe it was just a smaller
P1>BHFP
reservoir which has depleted prematurely.
BHFP A point was reached where the pressure
in layer 2 is lower than the BHFP
P2 P2<BHFP
The Crossflow behavior into layer 2
should increase during shut in

Solutions:
Flow well at higher flowrate lower BHFP
P3 P3>BHFP
Reperforate only layers 1 and 3
Recomplete layer 3 through a different tubing
than layer 2
Close off layer 2
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Crossflow
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Crossflow
SHUT IN FLOWING
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Zoned flow

Top Zone
- zones of widely differing perforated
permeability, but some
Top Zone
high permeability will flow Perforations
perforated
preferentially, not flowing
but no flow
low perm zones may not
flow at all

- perforations plugged,
Bottom Zone
debris from the perforation
perforated
gun, mud entering while
but some
perforating overbalanced,
perforations
crushed rock in the
not flowing
perforation tunnel
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Fracture Production

Fractures
Some perforations are
crossing fractures
These give high flow rates,
and often strong jetting effects
The remaining perforations
may produce nothing

Fractures
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Fracture Topography

Fractures occur primarily in carbonates

They are in a consistent direction

They may appear at random in the well

They are the major flow paths for the reservoir

They may connect with the gas above or the water


below the oil zone and create unwanted fluid entries
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Fracture Evaluation

There are a number of methods of fractures detection:

Resistivity imaging

Core sample analysis

Well test interpretation will be affected by the presence


of fractures.

Drilling records e.g. losses


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Early gas breakthrough

OG contact

High kh layer
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Early water breakthrough

High kh layer

OW contact
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Channeling

Bad Cement The obvious reason for a channel


is a poor primary cement job
Original
GOC This is repaired by a squeeze if
the channel is identified in time
Unwanted (before running the completion
channeled and/or perforating)
gas flow behind
casing
Channels identified during
production logging are difficult to
repair, though modern cementing
technology can help.

Original Unwanted channeled


water flow behind casing
OWC

Bad Cement
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Cementing

Cementing is affected by many parameters

Bottom hole temperature


Pressures
Formation stability
Fluids present, especially gas
Casing centralization
Well deviation

The most common cause of a poor cement job is


poor centralization of the casing.
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Cement Evaluation

There are a number of tools capable of measuring the cement quality:

Cement Bond Logging Acoustic


- transmitter & receiver
- looks at the average bond around the pipe (CBL)
- only tool to see the formation - cement bond (VDL)
Radial Cement Bond Logging Acoustic
- as above but radially distributed transmitters/receivers
Pulse Echo Logging Ultrasonic (CAST, USI)
- uses casing resonance in its thickness mode
- images all around the casing
- has a corrosion measurement as well
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Cone Down

Gas "pulled" down


near wellbore

Choking back the well may


Original
reduce this coning effect
GOC

Unwanted
Fluid flow
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Cone Up

Choking back the well will


probably not reduce this coning
The effect of the coned water is to
wet the formation

Unwanted
Fluid flow

Original
Water "pulled" up
OWC near wellbore
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Casing Leak

Leaks occur because


of corrosion in the
casing or tubing

Original
This can happen at any
GOC
time in the life of the well

Logs are used to


identify corroded pipe

Original
OWC

Unwanted fluid
No Perforations Flow from leak (+ cement)
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Corrosion

stress
Mechanical (stress, sand)
Chemical
Electrochemical

H2 S Several tools to measure corrosion:


Corrosive
formation Mechanical calipers
fluids internal corrosion only
CO2
Imaging tools - ultrasonic
internal and external
bimetallism
Electromagnetic
internal and external
multiple strings

Stagnant
fluids