Sei sulla pagina 1di 598

O XFO R D U N I V E R S I T Y P R ES S

Lon do
n E d i nb ur gh G l gow
as Co p e nh ag e n

N e w Yor k T o r on to Me lbourn e Ca p e Town

B om b y
a C lcutt
a a M ad r as S h an h
g a i
H UM P H R E Y M I L FO R D
l h rt
P ub i s e o th e r ity
U nive s
C O N TE N TS O F V O L

XI I A RI STAR CH US OF S A MOS
. PA GES 1 15

AR C H I M EDES 1 6 1 0 7)

Tr d itio
a ns

( ) A tro omy
u s n

(d ) M ch i c e an s

Summ ry of m i a chi m t a n a e ve en s
Ch r t r of tr ti
a ac e ea se s
Li t of w ork till
s t t s s ex an
Tr c of l o t w ork
a es s s

Th t t of A r hi m d
e ex c e es
Co t t of Th M th od
n en s e e

O th Sph
n e d Cyl i d I II
er e a n n er , ,

C b i c q ti o
u ri i g o t of I I 4
e ua n a s n u .

(i ) A r h i m d ol ti o

ow c e es s n s u n .

(ii ) Dio y od o ol t io

n s r us 5 s u n

(iii ) Di o l ol ti o of origi
c es s sl p obl

u n na 1 em
M easu r eme t o
f a C i r cle
On Conoid s a nd Sph er oz d s

On Spi r a ls
On P la n e E q uili br iu m , I , I I
Th e S an d r eckon (Ps a mmi tes or A r ena r ius )
-

Th e Qu ad r a tu r e of th e P ar a l ola
On Fl oating B od i es , I , I I
r l
Th e p ob e m of th e own cr
th r r
O e wo ks
ttl r
(a ) Th e Ca e P ob l em -

(6 ) O m i r g l r poly h d
n se e u a e ia

y ) Th Li b A mp tom m
e er -
ss u

(8 ) F orm l fo r of t i gl u a r a ea r an e
E to th
ia s en e s
M r m t of th E rth
eas u e en e a

CONI C SECTI ONS . A P OLLONI US O F P ER GA

A . H I S TO R Y or C om e s U P TO A P O L L O NI U S
c r c t
Dis ove y of th e on i c s e c ions by Menaech mus
r l r c ur
M en ae ch mu s s p obab e p o e d e

W ork by A ri t u
s d Eucl id s ae s an

S ol i d l oc i ol i d probl m


d an s e s
'
A i t
r s ae us s S oli d L o i c
Fo u d ic s t i prop rty k own to E cl i d
i ec r x e n u
P roof f P pp
1 0 1n a us

P ropo iti o s i cl d d Eu l id Co i
ns n u e 1n c s n cs
Co ic n ti o
sec A rch i m d ns i n e es
vi C O NTEN TS

C O N T I NU E D .

B . A P O L L O N I U S or PE R GA PA GES
Th e t t of th Com
ex e es

A pol l o iu ow
n os st f th Com n acc u n o e es

E t t of l i m to ori g i l ity
x en c a na

Gr t g ea r l ity of tr tm t
en e a ea en
A l y i of th Co i
na s s e n cs
B ook I
Co i n csobt i d i th mo t g
a ne l w y f om
n e s e ne l a a i

ob l i q o ue c ne

m p r bol lli p h yp rbol



N w

e na es , a a a e se e a

F d m t l prop rti
un a en a qu i l t to C rt i e es e va e n a e s an

q ti o
e ua ns
Tr iti o to n w d i m t r d t g t t it
an s n e a e e an an en a s

tr m ity
ex e
Fir t pp r s a of pri ip l
ea an ce nc a ax es
B ook I I
B ook I I I
B ook I V
Book V
r l
No ma s a s m ax i ma an d m i n i ma
r
Nu mb e of n o ma s om a poi n r l fr t
t l
P r opos i i on s ead i n g i mm ed i a e y to d e e mi n a i on tl tr t
of evolnte of 0 0 11 1 0
tr t
C on s u c i on of n o ma s r l
Book V I
B ook VI I
t r
O h e 1 wo ks b y A po on iu s ll
(a On the Cu tting 0 of ( 1 R ati o (h oyov a n or op
'
-

),
two B ooks 1 7 5 1 7 9
(B On th e Cu tttny of of a n A r ea (xcoplov ( in cm ini), -

two B ooks 1 7 9 1 8 0
7 ) On D ete r min a te S ecti on (6 1 wpw p e w; m ph), two

B ooks
w
(8 ) On C on tacts 0 1 Ta ngenctes two B ook s
(e) P la ne L OC I , two B ooks
(g) N ev o a s ( Ver gmgs 0 1 I n cl in ations ), two B o ks

o
(q) Comp ar is on of d od ecahed von wi th i cosahed r on
(6 ) Gen er al Tr ea tise
On th e Cochl ias
(K ) On Unor d er ed I r r a tion a ls
(A) On th e B ur n ing -
mir r or
l

(p) Q K U T OK LO V

As tro n om y

XV THE SUCC ESSOR S OF TH E GR EAT GEOM ETER S


.
1 9 7 2 34

Nicomed e s
Di oc es l
P ei s e u s
I s ope 1 imet1 ic
H y pSl C l eS
g u 1 es Z en od or u s

Diony s od o1 us
P os i d on iu s
C O N TEN TS v ii

Gemi nus P A G ES 2 2 2 234


A e m p to move th e Pai a llel P os
tt t ae tul t 22 7 2 30
-

On M eteovologz ca of P os id onius

23 1 2 3 2
I n tr od ucti on to theP ha en omena a ib ed to Gemin us ttr ut 2 32 2 3 4

SOM E H A NDB OOK S

Cleome d e s , De motn ci r cu la r i
Nicom ach d s
h
T e on of S 11 1 y 1 n a, E xp os itto 1 8 1
'

um math enmtwa r u m ad
l egend n m P l a toh em u tili um -
2 38 2 44
-

XV I I TR I GONOM ETR Y
. : H I P P A R CH US , M ENELA US, P TO ,

LE MY

Th e od os ius
W o1 ks h
by T eod os i u s
t t
C on en s of th e Sp h aen ca
No a ctu l
a t1 1 gon omet1 y in T eod os i us h
The b e gi n n ing s of t1 1 g on on1 et1 y
H ippal ch u s
Th e wo1 k of H i ppa s rchu
t t t
Fi 1 s sys em a i c u se of ti igon om et1 y
l
Tab e of c o d shr
M en e lu a s

Th e Sp h a et u a lu of M en e a s

( ) M a l u th or m fo th ph

en e a s s e e

i e s e1 e
D d ucti o from M e l u th m ns ene a s s e0 1 e

(y) A h rm o i p op ty of four gr t ircl


n a n c r e1 ea c es
th o gh o poi t u ne n

(6 ) P opo itio l ogo to E l V I 3


i s n s ana us uc . .

C l ud iu Pt ol my
a s e .

Th M eqp e ) a
f (Ar b A l m g t)
a r tx r o u t/r a ts a . a es
C omm t i en ai es
Tr l tio d d it i o
an s a ns an e ns
S mm ry of o t t
u a c n en s
T i o om t y i Ptol my
1 n e r n e

) L mm fo d i g i 1 8 d i 36

a e a i n n s n an s n

(6 ) Eq i l t of i 6 + 1 2 2
6
u va e n s n 008

(y ) P tol my th or m gi i g th q i l et of

e s e e ,
v n e e u va n

(6 1 ) i 6 o 1
si n o 6 i (1 s n c s () c s s n

(8 ) Eq i l t of i
?1
6 (1
u va e n o s n 7z
-
c s

( ) Equi l t of o (9
e o 9 o
va e n i ei a c s c s1 c s s n s n

(0 M thod of i t pol tio b e d o fo m l n ei a n as e n 1 u a

i /i B /B (%
S n aB) s n a 1r a

( ; ) T b l of chord
r a e s

(6 ) F rth r of proporti o
u li
e use na n ci ease

( ) Pl 1 t ig o om t y an e ff t d
1 n e r ln e ec use
S ph ic l t ig o om t y
er a f m li oluti o ofn e i : 01 u ae in s n

ph i c l tri gl
s er a an es
Th e A na l em ma
Th e P la n ispha er l u m
The Optics
ch
A m e an ica w oi k , H epl pmr aw l
tt t
A em p to move th e P a a el P os r ll tlt u a e
v iii CONTENTS

XV I I I MENS UR ATI ON :
. H ER ON OF A LEXA NDR IA . P A GES 2 98 3 54

Co tro r i to H ro d t 2 98 30 6

n v e s es as e n s a e

Ch r ct r ofwo k
a a e r s 3 0 7 3 0 8
Li t of tr t i 3 0 8 3 1 0

s ea se s

G om try
e e

( ) C omm t ry o Euclid E l m
a en a n 8 e ents

(6 ) Th D itio e e n ns
M e nsur tion a
Th e M etr ica ,
Geometr ica , Ster eome tmca , Geod nes m,
M ens nr ae 3 1 6 3 20
Con t t
en s of th e M etrz ca
'

3 2 0 344
B ook I . M eas u r m t of r
e en a eas 32 0 3 3 1
-

( ) A ea of s a en e 1 an e
1 r c l t i gl -

32 1
P 1 oof of f0 1 mu l a A = J { s (s b s c
( )} 32 1 32 3
-

t
(6 ) Me h od of app1 ox imating to th e squ a1 e oo r t
of a n on sq a e n mb e ur u r
(y) Quad r il atei als
lr l
(8) R egu a po ygon s wi th 5 , 6, 7 , 8,
1 2 s i d es
(s ) The i e c rcl
(f) Seg m en ofa i e t c rcl .

t cl r
(11) Elli ps e , par abol ic segmen , s u 1 face of y ind e ,
r ht c hr
ig one, s p e e and s egm en ofsp e e t hr
Book I I ur
M eas emen ofvo u m es t l
d
(11 ) Cone cyl i nd er , par allelep1 ped (pr1 sm) py rami
.

and us fr tu
m 3 32
l
(B) Wed ge sh aped so id (Bwpimcos or a nvlmoi) 3 32 3 34
-

c t
(y ) Fi us tu m of one sph e1 e, an d segmen th ei eof 3 34 ,

c r
(8) A n h o i ing or o e tr -
3 3 4 3 35 .

Th e twospe ia s o id s ofA r chimed es s M e


c l l thod

33 5
(O Th e ve eg ai s o id sr ul l 335
B ook I II Divi si ons ofgu es
. r 3 3 6 34 3
A ppi oximati on to th e cu r t
be oo of a non ub e c -

n mb s 1 u
r tc u t l
Quad a i eq a i ons s o ved i n H e on r
tr t
I nd e e mina e p1 obl ems i n th e Geometwica
Th e D ioptr a
Th e M echan ics
r t tl
A i s o e 8 W ee h l
l ct
Th e par al le log1 am of ve o i i es
Moti on o d pl n n an i li
nc n e a e
O th n tr ofg itye cen e 1 av
Th m h e i l pow r
ve ec an ca e s
M ch i c e d ily l i f
an q s in a e: ue1 i es an d ans we s r
P obl m o th c t
i e of gr ity
s n e en 1 e av , &c.

Th C toptm
e a ca

H o p oofof qu l ity of n gl
ei n s

i e a a es of1 nc1 d ence an d
r cti o e e n 3 5 33 54

XI X PAPPUS OF A LEXANDR I A
. .
3 5 5 4 3 9

Da t e ofPappus
Wo1 ks (comu1 enta 1 ies) oth e1 th an th e Collect1 o
n
C O N TE NTS ix

Th e Synagoge or C ollection P A G E S 3 5 7 4 39
h r ct r r
(a ) C a a e ofth e wo k ; wid e ang e r 3 5 7 35 8
t th r
(B Li s of au o s m en i on ed t
i ur l rt c t tt
3 5 8 36 0
(y T an s a ions and ed i ions 3 6 0 36 1
(8 ) S mma y of on en s 3 6 1 4 3 9
Book I I I . t
Sec ion r l
On th e p ob e m of th e two
m ean 1 1 0 por tiona l s
t l
'

S ec i on 2 ) The th r .e o y of means
ct
Se i o n T h e rP a a

d o es of Er y cin u s
x

t
Sec ion cr
Th e i n s ibi ng of th e ve eg u a r lr
l hr
s o i d s in a S p e e 3 68 36 9
B ook I V ct
S e i on
. t t r
Ex e n si on of heo e m of
th r
P y ag o as 3 6 9 37 1
ct
S e i on cr l cr
On i c e s ins ib e d i n th e d q c
h r
s oe make s k ni f

e )

37 1 37 7
t
S e c i on s t r
(4 ) M e h od s of squ a i ng th e i c ecrl
an d tr is e c tm g any a ngl e 37 7 3 8 6
rh
(a ) Th e A c i m ed ean s pi a rl 37 7 3 7 9

ch
(B) Th e con oid of Nicomed cs 37 9
( y) Th e Ou ad r a tr ix 37 9 3 8 2
r rl
8 ) Di g es si on : a spi a on a s ph e e r 3 82 3 8 5
r t rt l
T is ec ion (or d i vi s i on in any a i o) of any an g e 3 8 5 38 6
t
Sec i on l t rh
So u i on of th e 11 15 17 0 1 9 of A c i me d e s
r
On Sp i r a ls , P op 8 by m ean s of onics
. c
,

B ook V . rf ct
P e ace on th e s aga i y of B ee s
t
S ec i on r t tr
I s ope i me r y a f e Z en od or u s
t
S ec i on r
C om pa i son ofvol umes ofs oli d s ha vi ng
th r re i s u fa ces e qu a l r
Ca se ofs ph e e
. 9 3 3 94
ct
S e i on r r lr l
Dig es s i on on s e mi eg u a s o id s of -

rh
A c i me d es
t
Se c ion r t l
P opos i i on s on th e i n es ofA r ch imed e s ,
On th e Sph er e a nd Cyli n d er 3 94 395-

ct
S e i on r lr l rf c
Of eg u a s o i d s w1 th s u a es equ a l
th t r t r c
a is g ea e wh i h h as mo e fa es r c
B ook V I .

r l r l
P ob em a is ing ou t of E u c i d s Optics
'

B ook V II r r l
On th e T eas u y ofA na y s i s
.

.

t l
Deni i on ofA n a y s i s and Syn es i s th
t r r ur
Li s of w o s i n th e T e as y ofA n a y s is
k
l

cr t tr t
Des i p i on of th e ea i s es
tc t h r
A n i i pa i on of Gu ld in s T eo e m
'

Lemm as to th e d iffe e n r t tr t ea i ses

(a ) Lemmas to th e Sectio r a tionis an d S ectz o


ll u
sp a ti i ofA po oni s

(B) Lemmas to th e Deter nu n a te S ection of


'

ll u
A po oni s 40 54 1 2
(y) L e m m as o n th e N ll
a u r m of A po oni u s

4 1 2
416
( )
8 L e mm as o n th e O n C on ta ctsll
o f A p o on i u s 4 1 6
417
( 6 ) Lemm as to th e P lane L oci of A po oni us ll 41 7 4 19
-

(g) L e m m a s t o th e P o ul
r is ms ofE c i d 4 1 9
42 4
(0 ) L e m m as t o th e C o n i csll u
o f A p o o n i s 4 2 4
42 5
( )
6 L e mm as t o th e S u l
r face L oci of Euc i d 4 2 5
42 6
()1 A u ll t l
n n a o ca ed e mm a 42 6
42 7
B ook V I I I tr l rfc
H i s o i ca p e a e
. 42 7 42 9
t
Th e obje c of th e B ook 42 9 4 3 0
-

c tr
O n th e e n e ofg av i y r t 4 3 0 4 33
-
C O N TEN TS

C O N TI N U E D .

B ook V
I I I (contm ned )
cl
Th e i n i n e d p an e l P A E S 4 3 92
434 G
C on st1 u ction of a on 1 c 1 oug c
ve poin s th
4 34 4 37 h t
c t
Gi ven two onju ga e d iam e e s of an e i ps e , to nd tr ll
th e a xes
r l
P ob em of s ev en h e x ag on s i n a i e c rcl
tr t t th
Con s u c ion of oo ed w ee s an d ind en ed s c e ws h l t r

A LGEBR A : DI OPH A NTUS O F A LE XA NDR I A 44 0 5 1 7

B eg i nn i n gs l ea m t om Egyp fr t
H au cal cu a i on s lt
r
A 1 i th me ti cal epig am s i n th e Gr eek A n h o ogy t l
ut
I n d e te i m in ate eq a i on s of 1 st d eg 1 es
t
I n d etei mi n ate e qu a i on s of s e on d d eg 1 es b e 0 1 e Dio c f
ph an tu s
I n d ete i minate e q u a i on s i n H e ron i an o ec i on s
t c ll t
l t
Nu m e 1 i cal s o u i on of qu ad a i equ a i on s r tc t
r
W o k s of Di op an s h tu
Th e A with meti ca
l t
Th e se ve n os B ooks a n d h ei p a c t r l
lt r
R e a i on of Po i s ms to A 1 ith meti ca

t t r fr
C om men a o s om H ypa ia d ownwa d s t r
r lt
T an s a i on s an d ed i i ons t
tt
No a i on an d d eni i ons t
Si gn fo1 u nk now n cc) an d its o i i n
g r
Si g n s for powe 1 s of u nknown & c .

Th e si g n (A ) f0 1 and its m eani ng


t
me h od s of Di oph a n u s t
h t
I Diop an u s s t1 eatm e nt of e qu a i ons t
tr
(A ) De e min a e e q ua i on s t t
r tr
(1 ) P u e d e e mi n a e eq u a i on s t t
(2 ) M ix ed q u ad 1 atic eq u a i ons t
3 ) Sim ul tan e ous e qu ati on s in vol vi n g quad atics i
(
4 ) C ub i c e qua i on
tr t
t
t
(B) I n d e e mi na e equ a i on s
(11 ) I n d ete r min ate e qu ati ons ofth e s econd d egr ee 46 6 47 3
( 1 ) Si ng e equa ion l t 46 6 468
(2 ) Dou b e eq u a i on l t 46 8 -

47 3
.
l
1 Doub e e q a i on s of1 s t d eg ee ut r . 469 47 2
l
2 Dou b e e q a i ons of s e on d d e e e
gut c r 47 2 47 3
tr t
(b) I n d e e m i na e equ a i on s of d eg ee i g h e t r h r
th
an secon d 0

(1 Si ng e e q a ion s
ut l
l t
.

(2 Dou b e eq ua i on s
th l t
I I Me od of i mi s
.

th r t
I II M e od of app ox i ma i on to l imi s
. t
r r t
Po is ms an d p opos i i ons 1 n th e Th e 0 1 y of Nu mb e i s
c t
(a ) Th e0 1 ems on th e ompos i i on of n u mb e1 s as th e
r
s um of tw o s qua e s 4 8 1 48 3
hc
(B) On n u m b e1 s w i h ar e th e s u m of ee sq a e s thr ur 483
t
(y ) C ompos i i on of n u mb e1 s as th e s um of fou 1 s qu a1 es 48 3 484
t ht
Cons pe c u s of A r i thi netica , wit ypi ca so u ions l l t 48 4 5 1 4
Th e tr t l l r
e a i s e on P o ygon a Nu mb e s 5 1 4 5 1 7
C O N TEN TS xi

COMMENTA TOR S A ND BYZANTI NES PA GE S

Ser en u s

(a ) 0 11 the Secfion of a Cyl m d m


(B) 0 1 1 the er t1 o1 1 of a C one
Th eon ofA l exan d ri a
C omm en a y tr on th e Syntax w
t
Ed i i on ofE ucl id s E lements

Ed it i o n of th e Op ti cs of E u i d cl
H yp ti a a
P orph yry . I ambl ich u s
P roclu s
tr
C ommen a y on E uclid , Book I
urc tr
(a ) So es of th e Com me n a y
h r ct r tr
(8 ) C a a e of th e C omme n a y
H ypotypo i of A t o omi l H yp oth
s s s r n ca es es

C omm t ry o th R p bli
en a n e e u c
M ri u of N pol i
a n s ea s

Dom in n ofL ri
us a s sa

Si mpl i c iu s
E tr ct from E d m
x a s u e us
E utocius
A nth emiu s of Tmlle s
0 11 bu r n ing mi r r or s
-

Th e P apy s ofAkh m ru '

Geod a es ia of H e on th e Y ounge r r
h l
M ic ae P s ell u s
r
Geo gi us Pach yme i es
M ax i mus Plan u d es
tr ct
Ex a i on of th e squ a 1 e oo r t
r l
Two lp ob e ms
ul c
Man e M os h opou os l
cl
Ni o as R h ab d as
l r t
R u e for app ox i ma i n g to s quai e 1 oot of a n on s q ura e
u r
n mb e
I oannes P ed ias imu s
Bar laam
c
I s aa A r gy r u s

A PP ENDI X On A
. r h im
c e d es s

proof ofth ubt e s t rop rty


angen
p e

rl
of a s pi a 5 5 6 5 6 1

I NDEX OF GR EEK W OR DS 5 63 569

ENGLI SH I NDEX 5 7 0 5 86
-
I
A R S TA R C H U S O F S A MOS

H I S TOR I A NS of m ath e m atic s


rule given too little h vea , as a ,

att e n ti on to A ri s t rchu s of S m os Th e r e on i n o doubt


a a . as s

th t h e w s a n s tr onomer n d th er efor e it might be uppo ed


a a a , a s s

th at his w ork w ould h av n o s u fci nt i n te r es t for th e math e e e

m tician
a Th e Gr ee k k n e w b ett er ; th y c all e d him A is t
. s e r ar

ch u s the m ath em tic i an to di s ti nguis h h im from th hos t



a

, e

of oth r A is ta ch u s e ; h e is a l s o in clud e d by V itruviu


e r r s s

am on g th f w gr ea t men w h o p os s es se d n e qu lly pr ofou n d


e e a a

kn owl dg e of ll br n ch of s ci en c g eom try a tr onomy


e a a es e, e , s ,

mu s ic 8 ,
60 .


Men of thi s typ e a
r r m n s uch s w er in t i m pas t re a e, e a e, es ,

A ri s t archu s of S a m os Phil ol u s n d A rchyt s of T r n tu m ,


a a a a e ,

A p oll on iu of P rg E ra t o th nes of C yr e n A rchi m d s n d


s e a, s e e, e e a
S opin s of S yr cu s e w h o l ft to p os t erity m n y m ch nic l
'

c a a , e a e a a
an d
gpom on ic ppli an c e wh i ch th ey i n ven t e d an d e xpl i n d
a s a e

on m th e m tic l (l i t n u m e ric l ) pr i n c i pl es

1
a a a . a .

T h at A ri s t archu s w a s a v ry capabl e g eome ter


e is prov ed by
h is xt n t w ork 0 the s i es n d d i sta n ces of th S u n n d
e a -

11 z a e a

Moon which will b e notic e d l t e r in thi s ch pt r in th e a a e :

m ch n ic a l li n e h i s cr dit d with th di s cov ery of n im


e a e e e e a

prov e d u n di al th e s o c l led oid mwhich h d n ot pl an e


s -

,
-
a ax ,
a ,
a ,
,

but c on c v h mi ph ric l urf c w i th p oi n t r r cted


'

a a e e s e a s a e, a e e e

ve rtic ally in th e m iddle throwi ng h dow s nd s o en bli ng s a a a

th e dir e cti on n d th e h e ight of th e s u n to b r ad off bys m n


a e e ea s

of li n e m rk d on th e s urf c e of th h em i ph r
s a e H e al o a e s e e . s

wrot on vi i on light n d colour H is vi ew s on th e l tt r


e s ,
a s . a e

subj ects w er e n o d oubt l arg ely i nu nce d by hi ma t er S tr ato e s s ,

of L m p a cu ; thu s S tr at o h e ld th at col our s w er


a s s m n ti on s e e a a

from bodi es materi l mol ecul es s it w r e w hich i m parted to


,
a , a e ,

th e i n t e rv en i ng ai the me c ol our as th t p os ses se d by th e


r sa a

b ody whil A ri starchu s id th t colours e s h apes o for m


,
e sa a ar

r s

V i tr iu D hit t i l 16 uv s, e ar c ec u r a , . . .

B
2 I
A R S TA R C H U S O F S A M OS

t mpi ng the ai with i mpr e i on s like th ems e lv es it w e r e


s a r ss ,
as

,

th t col our in d arkne s h ave no colouri ng n d th t light


a s s a a

is th e c ol our i m pi ngi n g on ub s tr tum a s a

Tw o f ct n bl e u to f ix A ri s t rchu s s d t ppr oxi m te ly


a s e a s a a e a a .

In B C h e m de n ob erv a ti on of th e s u mm r
. . a a s e

s ol tic e ;s nd book of h is pr s n tly to be m n ti one d w s


a a ,
e e e , a

publ i h d b efore th e dat e ofA rchi med es s P s amm i tes o S n d


s e

r a

r e kon e
c a w ork wr i tt en b e for
r ,
216 B C A r i t rchu th e r e e . . s a s,

fore prob bly l i v e d ci c 3 1 0 2 3 0 B C th t is h e w as old er


, a 1
1
a . .
, a ,

th n A rchi m de by b out 2 5 year s


a e s a .

To A r i t rchu b l ong th h i gh h onour of h avi n g b n


s a s e s e ee
1

th rs t to for mul t th C op rn ic n hyp oth s i s which w


e a e e e a e ,
as

th n b n done d g i n u ntil it w r v i v d by C op ern icu s


e a a a a as e e

hi mself H is cl i m to th titl of th n ci n t C op rn icu is


. a e e e a e e s

s t i ll in m
y op i n i on qu i t e u n s h k en n otwith s t n d i n g th i
, ,
a ,
a e h

gen iou s n d l b or at e rgu men ts brought forw rd by S chi


a e a a a a

p elli to prov th t i t w as H aclid es of P on tu s w h o r t


ar e a er s

con c ive d th e h eli oc en tr i c i d a H aclid es i ( long with on e


e e . er s a

Ecph ntu s Pyth gor n ) cr dit e d with h vi n g b n th e r s t


a ,
a a ea e a ee

to h old th t th e e rth r v olv a bout its ow n xi s e ve ry 2 4


a e es a a

h our n d h w s th rs t to di s cov er th t M rcury n d V n u s


s, a e a e a e a e

r volve lik s tellit s ab out th e su n B u t th ough thi s prov


e ,
e a e ,
. es

th t H a lid es c am e n e r if h e d i d n ot ctu lly r e ch th e


er ac a , a a a ,

hyp oth es is of Tych o Br ah e ccordi ng to wh i ch th e e arth w s ,


a a

in th c n tr e n d th e r es t of th e s y s t em th e s u n w i th th e
e e a ,

pl n ets r e volvi n g r ou n d it r volved rou n d th e e rth it d oes


a , e a ,

n ot s ugg e t th t h m ov d th e e rth w y fr om th c n tr
s a e e a a a e e e .

Th e c on tr ry is i n d ee d s t t d by A etiu s w h o s y s th t H r a
a a e , a a e

clid s an d Ecph n tu s make th e earth move n ot i n the sen se of


e a ,

t a n s la ti on but by w y of tur n i n g on an xl
r , l i k e wh eel a a e, a ,

fr om w es t to e t bout its ow n cen tr N on e of th


as ,
a e e

ch m pion of H e clid s h v e been abl to me t thi s p o itiv e


a s ra e a e e s

st t m nt
a e B u t w e h av e c on clu s iv e vid en c e in fa v our of th e
e . e

cl im of A ri s t rchu ; i ndeed an c i en t tes ti mony is u nani mou


a a s , s

on th e p oi n t N ot only d oes P lut rch t e ll u s th at C l an th es


. a e

h ld th at A ri t rchu s ough t to b e i n dicte d fo th ei m pi ety of


e s a r

putti ng th H rth of th e Un iver s in moti on ; w e hav th e


e ea e 2
e

bes t po ible t s ti mony in th e pr e ci s e s t te men t of a gr ea t


ss e a

1
A et iii 1 3 3 , I or s is , p 3 4 1 8
'

. . . . . . .

2
ltr
P u a ch , De faci e in or be lu nae, c . 6 , pp 92 2 F9 2 3 . A .
A R I STA R C H US O F S A MO S

con temp or ary A rchi me des , . In th e San d -

r ec kon er A rchi
m e d e h as thi s p as sag e
s .

Y ou [ K i ng
w r e th t u n iv er Ge l on]
is the n am ar e a a a se e

given by mos t s tr onomer s to th s ph re th centr e of which


a e e e
is th e c en tr e of th e ea rth whil e its r adiu s i e qu l to th e , s a
s tr ight li n e b tw ee n th e c e n tr e of th e s u n
a e n d th c en tr e of a e
th e earth Thi s is th e c omm on cc ou n t as y ou h v h e rd
. a , a e a

from s tronom r s Bu t A ri s tarchu s brought ou t a book con


a e .

s is ti n
g of c ta i n hypothes es wh r e i n it pp r s
er s a c ou s , e a ea ,
a e

qu en ce of th e s s u m pti on m d th t th e u n iver s is m ny
a s a e, a e a

ti m s gr eat r th an th e u n ivers e j us t m ntione d H is hypo


e e e .

th es e th t the xed sta r s a n d the su n ema i n u n m oved


es ar a r ,

tha t the bou t the su n i n the cir cu mfer en ce of a


ea r th r evo ves a l
, y g i n the m i d d l e ofthe or bi t an d th at th e
ci r cl e th e s u n l i n
,

s ph e r e of th e x e d s t a r s , s itu at e d a b out th e s am e c e n tr e as th e

s u n i s s o gr eat th a t th e c i rcl e in which h e s upp os es th e e a rth


,

to r e v olv e b ea r s s uch a pr op orti on to th e di s t an c e of th e x e d


s t ar s as th e c en tr e of th e s ph e r e b ea rs to its s urfa c e

.

(Th e l s t s t t men t is a v r i ti on of tr d i ti on l phr


a a e fo a a a a a as e , r

which th e r a e m n y p r ll ls (cf A ri st rchu s s H ypoth s i 2


e r a a a e . a

e s

th t th e rth i in th e r el at i on of p oi n t and c n tre to th e


a e a s a e

s ph e r e in which th e m oon an d is m th od of sayi ng a e

th at th e u n ivers i i n n i t ly gr t in r l ti on n ot m r ely to
e s e ea e a e

th e s i e of th e u n but v en to th e orb i t of th e earth in its


z s e

r voluti on a bout it ; th e a u mpti on w s n e ce ss ry to A ri s


e ss a a

barchu s in ord e r th at h m ight n ot h a v e to ta ke cc ou n t of e a

p r llax )
a a .

P lut rch in th e p as s g e r e fe rr e d to ab ov e al s o m k e s it
a ,
a ,
a

cl r that A ri s t rchu foll ow e d H er clid e in ttributi ng to


ea a s a s a

th e rth th e daily rot ati on b out its axis Th e b old hypo


ea a .

th es i s of A ri t rchu s fou n d few dher en t


s a S e l e ucu s of a s .
,

S el uci on th e Tigri is th e on ly c on vi n c d s upp ort r of it of


e a s, e e

wh om w e h ear n d it w as s p ee dily aban don ed altog eth er


, a ,

m i n ly owi n g to th e gr eat uth ority of H ipp archu


a N or f
do a s .

w e n d any tra c e of th e h e li oc n tric hyp oth e i s in A ri s e s

tar ch u s e xt n t w ork On the s i z es a n d d i s t n ces i of the



s a a -

S u n a n d M oon Th i i pr u m bly b e c u e th a t w ork w


. s s es a a s as

written before th e hypoth es i w as formulate d in th b ook s e

r ferr ed to by A rchi me d es The geometry of th e tr ati se


e . e

i
s, h ow e v r u n affe ct ed by th e differ en ce betw een the hyp o
e ,

th e e s
s .
4. A R I STA R C H U S OF S A MO S

A r c hi medes a sol
ys th t it w as A ri starchu s w ho d is sa a

cov ered that the appar en t n gular di meter of the sun is about a a

1 / 7 2 0 th p art of th e z odi c circl e th t is to say h alf a d egr ee a ,


a ,
.

We do not k now h ow h e rriv d at thi s pr etty accurat e gure a e

but as h e is cr edite d with th i n v n t i on of the ma tch) h e may


,
e e ,

h av e u s ed thi s i n s tru m n t fo th e pu rp os e Bu t h er e ag ai n e r .

th e di s c ov ery mu s t a pp r n tly h a v e b een l at e r th an th e tr ea a e

ti s e On si z es a nd d i s t nces fo th e v lu e of th e s ubten ded a ,


r a

an gl e i s th er e ass u m d to b e 2 (H ypoth es i s H ow A ri s

e

ta ch u s c ame to as s u me a valu
r o e xc e s i v e is u n c er t a i n As e s s .

th e math ematic s of h i tr eati e is not d ep en d en t on th e a ctu al s s

value taken 2 m y h v be n ,
ume d merely by way of

a a e e ass

illus tration ; or it may h ve b en a gu es s at the a ppa ren t a e

diameter mad e before h e h d th ought of attempti ng to mea a

s ur e it A ri s ta rchu s
. u m d th t the angul ar d iame te rs of ass e a

the u n an d m oon a t th e c n tr of th e e rth a e e qua l


s e e a r .

The me th od of th e tr t i s d p n d on th e ju s t ob s er v ati on ea e e e s ,

which is A ri s tarchu s th i rd hypoth e s i s tha t wh en the moon s


app ear s to u s h a lv e d th e gr e tcircl e which divid es th e d ark ,


a

and th e bright p ort i on of th e moon is in the dir e cti on of ou r s

th e effe ct of thi ( i n ce th e moon r e c eiv e s its light fr om



e e
y s s

th e s u n) is th at a t th e t i m e of th dich ot omy h e c entr es of


,
t e

th e s un moon an d earth f orm


, tri ngl e right angled at the a a -

centr e of the moon Two oth er as u mpti on s w er e nec ess ary . s

r st an estimat e of th e i of th ngl of the l att er tri an gle


, s z e e a e

a t th e c en tr e of th e rth t th mom n t of dich ot omy e thi s


a a e e :

A ri s tarchus as s u med (H yp oth i 4 ) to be l e ss than a qu d es s



a

r an t by one thirti e th of qu dr n t i e-
a ga i n an in accu a a a . .

r t e esti mate the tru e v lue b i n g 8 9


a , se c on dly an e s ti a e

,

mate of the breadth of th rth h dow wh ere th e moon


e ea s s a

tra vers es it thi h e s u m d to b e th e brea dth of tw o


: s a s e

moons (H ypoth es s

i

Th e i na ccur acy ofth e u mption d o n ot h ow e ve r detra ct as s s es , ,

from the math ematical in ter t of th e uccee ding i n vestig ati on es s .

H ere we fi n d the l ogic l e qu n c of pr op o iti on s an d th e a b eo a s e e s

lute rigour of demons tr t ion ch r cteri tic of Greek g eometry ; a a a s

th e on ly r emai ni n g dr wb ck w ould b the pra ctic al difculty a a e

of d et erm i n i ng th e e x ct m om n t wh n th e moon a pp ear s to a e e


us hal ved The for m n d tyl e of th book a r e th or oughly



. a s e .

class ical as b ets the p eri od b tw e n Euclid and A rchi med es


, e e
I
A R STA R C H U S O F S A MO S .

th e G r ee k is ev en r emarkably attractive Th e c ont n t from . e

th e m ath m tic al p oi n t of V i ew is no l ess i n t er es ti n g fo w e


e a , r

h a v e h ere th r s t s pe ci men x t n t of pur e g ometry u s d


e e a e e

with a tr igon ometr i ca l obj ec t in which r es pect it is a or t of ,


s

fore ru nn er ofA rchi m edes s M ea su r em en tofa C i r cle A is ta


. r r

chu s does n ot ctu lly e v luate the trigonom trical r ti os


a a a e a

on which th e r a ti os of th e s i s an d di s t an c e s to be obt i n d z e a e

dep en d ; he n d li mit s betw een which th ey lie, and th t by


s a

m an s of c e rt i n prop os iti ons which h e s s u mes w i th out pr oof


e a a ,

a n d which th e r e for m u s t h v e b en g e n r ally kn ow n to


e a e e

math em at i ci n of h is d ay a Th es e pr op o i ti on s
s e th e qui . s ar e

va e l n t of th e s t at em n t s th at
s e ,

(1 ) if or i s wh at w c ll th ci cula me ur of n n gl e a e 1 r as e a a

an d o r is l th n es s t h en th r tio s in
a d s s n d th e a ecr ea e ,
a e

rat i o t n a i n cr e ses s or i n cr e from 0 to


a ,3 a a ses 2
77

(2 ) i f B b e th e c i rcul r me s ur of noth r n gl l ss th n a a e a e a e e a

i 7r nd o
,
a r > B th e n ,

or ta n or
'

11 B ta n 6
A ri s t rchu of cour s e de l s n ot with actu l circul r m ur s
a s a ,
a a ea s e ,

sin n d t n ge n t s but w i th
es a a n gl s (e xpr s s d n ot in d gr
,
s a e e e e ee

but fr t i on s of r i ght n gl ) rc of c i rcl


as ac n d th i r a es ,
a s es a e

ch ord P r t i cul r r ult obt i n ed by A r i s tarchu


s . a a es e th e
s a

s ar

e qu i v l n t of th
a e foll owi n g e :

in 3 7 [ P r op 7 ] s
1
1 1

0 1

[ Pr op 1 1 ]
i
s in 1 gg ,

[P r op 1 2 ]

l co l g% s ,

1 > co 1 as [ P r o p 13
] s
2
.

Th e book c on i s t of eight een pr op o it i on


s s B gi nn i n g with s s . e

s ix hyp oth e s to th e effe ct a lr e dy i n d i c t d A r i tarchu s


es a a e ,
s

d cl r s th t h e is n ow in pos iti on to prov e


e a e a a

()I th a t th e di s t n c e of th u n from th e arth 8 gr e t r th n


a e s e 1 a e a

e ight en t i me s but l e
e th n tw en ty ti mes the di tan c of th e
,
ss a ,
s e

moon fr om th ea rth e ,

( )
2 th t thae di m e t e r of thae s u n h s th e s ame r ti o for e a a as a

s a id to th diamet r of the m oon ;


e e
A R I STA R C H U S O F SA MOS 7

BH : H A s in HAs in H EA ]
A H AB z A H BA ,

wh en c e A HA B 3 ;
1
A H BA ,

and (t aki ng th e doubl es) A HA K A H BK


1
3 3

Bu t A H B K A E BO 75
1
5 R (wh er e R is a right a n gl e);
there fore A HA K 1
3 53 5
-
R .

Bu t
a magn itud e (ar c E X ) s e en under s uch an a n gle is
im p rc ptible to our eye
e e

th er efor e a for ti oml the arc s


, , OE , DF ar e r lly i m pe r
sev e a

ce ptib le to ou r ey e .
QE D . . .

An y d educti on from th e same gure is Pr op 1 2 which


e as .
,

sh ow th at the rati o of CD th diameter of the di v i di ng


s , e

circle to E F th e di amet er of th e moon is 1 but g%


, , ,
.

We have A EBC A BA C

ther for e
e (a e E C) 5 (ar e E G) r
1
5 ,

an d a cc ordi n gly ( ar c C G) (a c GE ) 8 9 59 0 r .

Doublin g th e arc s w e h v e , a

ar c E GE
0 GB )
(ar c ( )
CD : E F ar c C GD) (ar c E GE )
Bu t (
[equiv l en t a to s in a s in 3 a /B wh ere A CB D ,
2 a,

and 2 B w] ;

th er fore
e CD E F cos 8 9 90
: : ,

while ob v i ou s ly
Pr op 1 1 n d s li mit s to th e r a ti o E F BA (the r tio of the
.
: a

di met r of th e moon to the di stanc e of its cen tr e fr om


a e

th e c en tr e of th e earth ); th ra ti o is but 1 30e .


8 A R I STA R C H U S O F S A MOS

Th e r t part follow s fr om
s th e r lati on fou n d
e in P r op . 4,

n a me ly B C z BA

EF 2 BC .

Th e c d p rt requ i re th e u s e of th e circle draw n with


s e on a s _

c ntr A an d r d i u s A C Thi circl i th t on wh i ch th


e e a . s e s a e

en d s of th e di me t r of th d i vidi n g circl e mo e th e moon


a e e v as

move in s c i rcl b out th e rth If r is th e ra diu s A O


a e a ea .

of thi s c i rcl e ch ord in it qu l to r ubten d s t th e cen tre


,
a e a s a

A n a n gl e of % R o
a n d th e C D ubt n d at A r a ar c s e s

n gl of 2

an a e

Bu t ( e ubt e n d e d by
ar CD ) ( c s ubt e n d d by
s ) ar e r
i

< CD : r ,

CD z r

th t a is , CD z oA '

A nd , by s i milar tri ngl a es,

0 L : CA CB z B A , or CD z CA 2 CB z BA FE z B A .

r for
The FE B A
e 1 30 e : : .

Th e pr op o iti on which i of th gr at s t i n t r e s t on
s s e e e e th e
wh ol i Pr op 7 to th ff ct that th d is t n e of the
e s .
, e e e e a c su n

fr om the ear th i s gr ea ter tha n 18 ti m es , bu t les s tha n 2 0


ti mes , the d i s ta n ce of the m oon fr om the hi r es ult
ea r th . T s

r e pr es n t gr t i mprov m n t on
e s a ea e e a ll pr e v i ou ttem pt s to s a

e s ti m t th e r l t i v di t n c
a e Th e a e s a es . e r t s p cul ti on on th e
s e a

s ubj e ct w s th t of A n ax i m n d e r (ci ca 6 1 1
a 545 B
a who a r
.

se m e to h v m d th d i s t an c s of th e s u n n d m oon fr om
s a e a e e e a

th e rth to b in th r ti o
ea Eud oxu a cc ord i n g to
e e a s,

A rch i m d s m d th e d i met r of th e s un 9 t i m th t of
e , a e e a e es a

th e m oon n d P hidi A rchi m d e s f the r 1 2 ti mes ; n d

,
a as , e s a , a ,

s u m i n g th t th e
a s n gul r di met e rs of th e tw o b odi s
a a a a e ar e

equ l th e r ti o of th ir di s tan c es w ould b th e me


a ,
a e e sa .

A ri t rchu s s pr oof is s h ortly follow A is th e c en tr e of



s a as s .

th eu n B th t of th
s , earth an d C th at of th e m oon
a t th e e , a

mom n t of d i ch ot omy s o th t th
e n gl e A OB i s right A BE F , a e a

.

is s qu ar e nd A E is a
qu dr n t of th e u n s circul r orb i t

a ,
a a a s a .

J oi n B F n d bi s ct th e ngl EBE by B G so that


,
a e a e ,

A GBE or 2 25 .
A R I STA R C H US O F S A MOS 9

I . N ow by H yp oth es is 4 ,
, A A BO
SO th t a Z E BE : A BA O :

th er efor e A GBE A H BE 1
5; 1
: 3
6 R
15 : 2,

GE : H E [ = tan GBE z tan H B E ]

15 : 2 .

The rati o which has to be pr ov e d is A B : B C or

FG z
GE z
Ft BE z

t z z

(thi s pprox i m tion to


is the a a 2 menti one d
kn ow n to th e Pyth agor ean s) .
10 I
A R S TA R C H U S O F SA MOS

T he refor e FE E G o z r

C om poun di n g thi s with (1 ) ab ov e ,


we h v a e

FE z E H > or

II . To pr ove BA 20 BC .

Le t EH mee t
circl e A B in D an d dr w DK p ar lle l
th e ,
a a

to E B . C ircu m scr i b circl ab ou t th e tri angle B K D n d


e a e ,
a

l e t th e chord BL b e e qu l to th e r diu s ( ) of th circl a a r e e .

A B DK A DB E 3 5
1
13 ,

th t BK (circu m f e ren c e of circle)


1
so a ar c 5 5
.

Thu s (ar c BK ) (ar c B L)


1 10 .

A nd (ar e BK ): (ar c B L) - BK : r

[th i s is e qu i v len t to
a a B s in or s in B ,
wh ere or B r ] ,

r 10 BK ,

BD 2 0 BK .

B D z BK

AB 2 0 B0 .

Th e r e m ai n i n g res ults
bt i n e d in th e tr eati s c n be o a e a

vi s u li d by me n s of th e thr ee gures n n ex d which ha ve


a z e a ,
a e ,

r fer en ce to th pos iti ons of th e s u n (c ntr A ) th e ea rth


e e e e ,

(c n tr B ) n d the m oon (c en tr C ) d u ing n e clip se Fig 1


'

e e a e r a . .

s h ow s th e m iddl e p os iti on of th moon r el ativ ly to th e e arth s



e e

s h d ow wh i ch is b ou n d d by th e c on e c om pr e h en d i n g th e s u n
a e

an d th e e rth ON is th e a c w i th c en tr e B l on g which
a . r a

mov e th e extre m iti es of th di m et e r of th e di v idin g circl e in e a

th e m oon Fig 3 s h ow s th s ame po iti on of the moon in th


. . e s e

m i ddle of th e s h ad ow but on a l rg r s c al e Fig 2 s h ow s,


a e . .

th m oon t th e m om en t wh en it h s ju s t en t r d th e s h a d ow ;
e a a e e

a nd s th e br eadth of th
,
a arth s s h d ow is th t of tw o m oon s e e

a a

(H ypoth s i s th e m oon in th e p os iti on s h ow n t ouch es B N t


e a

N n d BL t L w h er e L is th e middl p oi n t of th e e ON
a a ,
e ar .

It s hould b dd ed th t in Fig 1 UV is th di m ete r of th e


e a a ,
.
, e a

circle in which th s un i t ouch ed by th d oubl e con e with B


e s e

a s v rt e x e which c om pr eh n ds b oth th s u n an d the moon


,
e e ,
A R I S TA R CH US O F S A MO'S '
11

whil e Y; 3 ar e the oints


p in wh ic h th e p erpen di cul r through
a

A , th e cen tr e of th e s u n ,
to BA me et s

r s ults obt
e ai ne d

P rop
. 13 .

UN i (d i am . of m oon ) 2 : L
12 I
A R STA R C H US O F S AMOS

0N :
(d i a rn
-
. of s u n) 1 : 9

22 22 5 .

sun ) (d i am . of

60 : 19 .

I t is W orth wh i le to s h ow how thes e r e sult s ar e pr ov ed .

Pr o p . 13 ,

(1 ) In Fig . 2 it is cl r th ea at

Th e tr i ngles
a LON CLN, b ei ng si mil r a ,

th refore
e

89 : 45 .

(by Prop .
A R I S TA R C H U S O F S A M OS 13

H en c e

8 92

th er efor e ON z LP 7 92 1 : 4050
0

ys A ri s tarchu s 88 sa .

[ I f z % t
"
be d ev el ope d as a c on tin ue d fr acti on we easily ,

1
g
1
obtai n 1 +
1 + 51 7
which s in f ct , i a
2
(2 ) ON 2 (diam . of m oon ).

But (diam . of m oon ) of s u n ) , (Prop . 7 )


th ere fore ON 3 (diam . of s u n ).

'

A ga i n ON : (di am . of moon ) from above ,

an d
(di am . ofmoon ) (diam . of s u n ) 1 : 20 ; (Prop . 7 )
th erefor e , ea: aequ a li ,

ON : (di a m . of s u n ) 88 900
'

22 2 2 s;

(3 ) S i n c e th e sa me con compr eh n d th e sun and th e moon


e e s ,

th e tri angl e B UV (Fig 1 ) n d th e triangle BLN (Fig 2 ) ar e


. a .

s i mil a r an d
,

LN z LP UV : (di am . of

WU : UA

HA z AS

UA : A Y

LN z LP (Prop . 1 2)

a for tior i ,
UA : A Y

(d iam . of s u n ) YZ .

But ON :
(di am . of s u n ) (P rop . 1 3)

ther e for e , ea aequ a li ,

ON z YZ 89 x 22 : 90 x 225

97 9 1 0 1 25 .
I
A R S TA R C H U S O F S A MO S 15

A B B0 20 1

th re fore
e ,
ea; ae a al i ,
q
A B z BR 1 3 500 67 4

6 7 50 337 ,

wh en ce by i n v er s i on
, an d co mpon en d o ,

RA AB 7 08 7 6 7 50 .

10125 z 97 9 ; (Pr op . 1 3)
th er efor e ,
con ver ten d o,

XA : A R 10125 : 9 1 46 .

From thi s an d (l ) w e h v a e, e m aeqn ali ,

XA : A B > 1 0 1 25 7 087 9 1 46 x 67 50

7 1 7 558 7 5 6 1 7 35500

a for ti or i .

'

[ It is d ii cu lt n ot to s ee in 43 3 7 th e xpr s s i on 1
e e

which s ugges ts th t w asa ob t ai n e d by d ve l opi n g e

r ti o as con ti n u e d fracti on ]
a a

Th re for con ver ten do


e e, ,

X A : XB 43 6,

wh ence (di am . of s u n ) (di am . of ea rth ) 43 6 .


Q . E .
A R C H M E DE S I
i g n d c ptur of S yr cu s by M rc llu durin g th e
TH E s e e a a e a e a e s

se c on d Pun ic w fur n i s h ed the occ i on fo th ppe r n ce of


ar as r e a a a

A rchi medes a p r on ge in h i tory ; it is w i th thi b i s t ori


s a e s a s s

c l e v n t th t mo t of th
a e det i l d s torie of him a e con
a s e a e s r

n t d ; n d th e f ct th a t h e w
ec e a k i ll ed in the s ack of th city
a as e

in 2 1 2 B C wh en h e is upp ose d to h v e b n 7 5 y e r of ge
. .
,
s a ee a s a ,

e n bl a u to x h i d t e t ab out 2 8 7 2 1 2 B C
es s H w s th e
s a a . . e a

s on of P hidi as th e tr onom r n d w on i n t i m at t rm s
,
as e ,
a as e e

with if n ot r late d to K i n g H i er on n d his on Gel on It


, e ,
a s .

a pp rs fr om p sage of Diod o u th t h e s p n t som ti m


ea a as r s a e e e

in Egypt which v i it w a th e occ i on of h is di c ov ry of th e


,
s s as s e

o c ll d A rch i m d an s cr ew m ean of pu m pi n g w t e r 1
s -
a e s e e a a s a .

It m y b i n f rr d th t h e s tud i d at A l ex an dri with th e


a e e e a e a

s ucc s or of Eucl i d It w as probably t A l ex n dri th t h e


es s . a a a a

m d th
a e cqu i n t n c e of C onon of S m o (fo wh om h h d
e a a a a s r e a

th e high s t r egard b oth


e m th m tici n n d a fri e n d ) n d as a a e a a a a

of E ra to th n e of C yr en
s To th for m r h e w
e s in th e h ab i t e . e e as

of c omm u n i c ti n g h i di cour ab for e th ir public ti on ; s s ses e e a

wh il i t w s to Er to th n th t h e n t The M thod with n


e a a s e es a se e , . a

i n troductory lett r which i of th e high t i n t r t e w ll s es e es , as e as

(if w e m ay judg by its h di ng ) th e f mou C ttl e Pr obl em


e ea a s a -

Tr ad ition s .

It is n tur al th at h i s tory o l g n d h ould y mor e of his


a r e e s sa

m ch n ic l i n v en t i on s th n of h i m th m tic l chi e v m nt s
e a a a s a e a a a e e ,

which w ould ppe l l to th ver g e m in d H i machi n es '

a a ess e a a . s

w r u s d with gr eat eff ct ga in s t th e R oman s in th s i ege


e e e e a e

of S yr cu e Thu h e c on triv e d ( o w
a s . e t old ) c t apult s
s o s e ar a s

i ngen i ou ly cons truct d to b qu lly s ervic bl t lon g o


s e as e e a ea e a r

Di od or us ,
v . 87 . 3 .
TR A D T O N S I I 17

s h ort r ng e m chin e fo di s cha rgin g s h ow r s of m i s iles


a , a s r

e s

through h ol e s m de in th e w ll n d oth er cons i ti n g of a a s, a s s

l ong mova ble p ol es proj ecti ng bey on d th e wa ll which ith er s e

dr oppe d h ea vy W eight on th e en emy s hip s o gr ppl ed -

s

s , r a

th e ir prow s by mean s of n ir on h an d o a b eak lik th t of a r e a

a cr n e th en lifte d th em i nt o th e ai and let th em f ll gai n


a , r a a .
1

M rc e llu s is s id to h av e d e rid d hi own n gi n ee r s with the


a a e s e

w ord s S h all w n ot m ke an end of ghti ng gain t thi s


,

e a a s

geometric l B ri reu w h o u ses ou s hip s lik e cup s to l adle


a a s r

w ter fr om th sea driv s off ou s a mbu a ignomi n i ou s ly


a e , e r c

with cudg el blow n d by th multitud of m i s i le th t h s, a e e s s a e

hurl s t u s all at on ce outdo th e hun dr d h n ded gi an t of


a es e -

a s

but ll to n o purp os e fo the R oman w r in a ,


r s e e

s uch bj ct t rr or th t i f th y did bu t s
a e epi ec e of rop a ,

e ee a e

o w ood proj e cti n g b ove th wall th ey w ould cry th r e it


r a e , e

is d cl ri ng th at A rchi mede s w setti n g ome engi ne in


e a as s

m oti on gain s t th em n d w ould turn th ir b cks nd un


a , a e a a r

a w y Th
a thin g h ow v r w er m er ely th diver s i on
ese s, e e ,
e e s

of ge om e try t pl y n d A rchi m d h i m lf ttach d no


a a a e es se a e

i mp ortan c to th m A cc ordi n g to Plutarch e e .


,

th oug h th e se i n ven ti on h d obt i n e d fo him th r n ow n of s a a r e e

mor th n hu man e g city h y et w ould n ot ev en deign to


a sa a , e

l eav b h i n d hi m ny writt n w ork on uch s ubj ect s but


e e a e s , ,

r g rdi n g ignobl an d ord i d th bu s i ne of m ch an ics n d


e a as e s e ss e a

e v ry s ort of
e t which i d i r e ct d to u s e n d pr ot h e pl c e d
ar s e a , a

his wh ol m biti on in th o p ecul ti on th be uty an d


e a se s a s e a

s ubtl ty of which is u n t i n t d by
e n
y d m i x tur of th e com a e a a e

mon n ed of lif e 4

e s .

(a ) A s tr on om y .

rch i me de did i n d ee d writ e on mech n i c l book On


A s e a a ,

S phe e m a kin g w hi ch i l os t ; thi s d crib e d the c on s tructi on


r -

,
s es

of s ph r e to i m it t
a th m oti on e of th s un m oon nd a e e s e ,
a

pl n et a C ic r o s w thi s c on triv an c
s .
5 n d giv es e d e cr i ption a e a a s

of it ; h e say s th t it r e pr sen t d th p ri od of th e moon a e e e e s

a n d th e pp ren t moti on of th s u n with uch ccur cy th t


a a e s a a a

it w ould e v en (ov er a h ort p eri od ) h ow th e clip ses of th e s s e

n d m oon A s P ppu s p k s of th os e w h o u n de r t n d
6
sun a . a s ea s a

P olyb i H i t iii 7 8 ; Li y i 8 4 ; Pl t r h M ll 15 17
1
us, s v . v xx v . u a c , a r ce us , cc . .
.
,

Ib c 17 Ib 17 3 4
2
Ib 14 .
, c . . .
, c . .

C rp i P ppu iii p 1 0 2 6 9 ; Procl o E l I p 4 1 1 6


. .
, .

5 us n uc
a us n a s, v , . . .
,
. . .

C i ro D
S
p i 2 1 22 T
ce i 63 D
,
t d e re 88 . .
, ,
7 7 30 . .
, e na . ear . 11 . .

0
18 A R C H I M EDES

the ma ki ng of s ph ere s n d pr oduc e model of th e h ea ven s by a a

mean s of th e ci r c ul r m oti on of w ter is p os s bl e tha t


a a i

A rchi med e s s s ph er w m ove d by w t er I n any c as e A rchi



e as a .

me des was much occup i d w i th a tronomy Li v y c all s him e s .

un icu s s p ect at or c a li id u m qu e H ipp archu s says Fr om


e s er ,

th ese observa ti on it i cl r that th e d i ffer en ces in th e y ear s


s s ea

ar e alt oge th e r s mall but a to th e s ol tic e s I a l mos t thin k


, ,
s s ,

tha t A rchi me des an d I h v e both err d to the e xtent of a a e

quarter ofa day both in th e ob erv ti on and in th e deducti on s a

there fr om A rch i m d th en h ad e viden tly c ons ide r ed th e e es

length of the y ea r M crobi u say he di s cove re d th e dis . a s s

tances of th e pl n t nd h hi m elf des cribes in his S a n d


a e s,
3
a e s

r eckoner th e a ppa r tu by which h meas ure d the apparent a s e

a ngular diamet er of th e u n s .

(B) M echa n ics .

A rchi me de s
wrote a w e h ll on th e or etic al m e ch an ics
,
s s a see, ,

an d it w as by th eory th t h olv d th e pr obl em To move a a e s e

gi ven wei ght by a gi n for ce fo it w s in r eli an c e on th e



ve , r a

irres i stible c ogency of h i pr oof that h e declar ed to H i er on s


th at any gi v en w eight could b move d by any gi v en forc e e .

(h ow ev er s mall ) an d b o s t d that i f h e w er e gi ven a plac e to



,
a e ,

s t an d on h e c ould move th e e rth ( ? B6



i K 3 a ya

, a 77 0 ), K a /(
it T u v,

as h e said in his Doric di l e ct ) Th t ory t old by P lutarch a . e s , ,

is th at when H i er on w
,

truck with m z e ment and as ked as s a a

A rchi me d e s to r e duc e th pr obl em to pr ctic e and to gi v e an e a

illu stration of s ome gre t w ei ght move d by a s mall force he a


,

x ed upon a s hip of burden w i th thre m s t s from th e king s e a


ar sen l which ha d on ly b en dr w n u
a with r eat l ab our by e a
p g
m any men and l oadi n g h e with m n y p sen ger s and a full
,
r a as

freight hi ms elf th e whil s i ttin g fa off with no gr eat effort


, e r ,

but only h oldi ng th e n d of a com p oun d pull ey ( oAow os) e fr


-

aar

qui etly in his h an d an d pullin g t it h drew th e ship along a , e

s moothly and sa fe ly as if s h e w r e m ov i n g thr ough th e s ea



e 4
.

The s t ory that A rchi m de s et th e R om an s hip s on r e by e s

an arr angemen t of bur n i n g gla s o c on cav e mirr or s is not -


sse r

foun d in any auth or i ty e rli r th n Luci an ; but it is q uite a e a

Livy
1
i 34 2 xx v Ptol my Sy t i I I I 1
. .
ol 1 p 1 94 2 3
.
2
e , n ax s , v
M robiu I Som S p ii 3 ; cf th
.
, .
,
. . .
3 '

i H PP 1yt
'

ac s, n n
Rf a . cz . . e o ur es n O us , e u
d D ck r
.

p 6 6 52 q
. . s .
, e . un e .

Plut rch M r ll a 14 , a ce us , c . .
M EC H A N I C S 19

like ly th at h e di cov e r d om for m of burn i ng m irr or g s e s e -

, e . . a

par boloid of r e v oluti on which w ould r e ect to one p oi n t all


a ,

ray s f lli ng on its con cave s urf c e in dir e cti on p ar all l to


a a

a e

it xi s
s a .

A rchi m e de s own V i e w of th e r e l ativ i m p ortanc e of h is



s e

man y di s c ov e ri es i s w e ll h ow n by hi r e qu e s t to his fri en d s s s

a n d r e l a tiv es th at th e y h ould pl c e up on h is t omb a s


p e en a r e r s

tation of cyli n d r circum s cribi ng a s ph ere with an in sc ip


a e
,
r

ti on givin g th e rati o which th e cyli n de r b ar s to th e S ph r e ; e e

fr om which w e m y i n f r th at h e r eg rd ed th e dis c overy of a e a

thi s r ati o as his gr eat e s t achi e vem n t C ic er o wh n qu s tor e .


, e ae

in S icily f oun d th t omb in a n egl ct e d s t a


, te n d r ep air d it ;
e e a e
1

but it has n ow di a pp eare d an d n o on e k now s wh ere h w s s , e a

buri ed .

A rchi m e d e e n tir e pr e occup ati on by h is b tr ct s tudi is



s s a s a es

illu s trat e d by a n u mb e r of tori es We t old th t h w ould s . ar e a e

forg et ll b out his food an d s uch n c es s i ti e s of life n d w ould


a a e ,
a

b dr wi n g g eom tric l gur es in th e a s h e of th e e o wh en


e a e a s r r ,

an oi n ti n g hi m s lf i n th e oil on his bod O f th e sam e or t 2


e
y s
-
.
,

is th e ta l e th t wh en h e di c ov e r e d in a b th th e oluti on of
, s a a s

th qu es ti on r e f rr d to him by H i er on
e s to wh e th e r a c rt i n
e e , a e a

cr ow n s upp osed to ha ve b een m d of gold did not in fact cen a e

t i n a ce rt i n prop orti on of ilv er h e an n ked through th e


a a s ,
r a

s tr e t to h is h om hout i n g bpm pm kill ed '


3
e H w e s e ca , e zJ ca . e as

in th e s ack of S y r cu se by R om n oldi er Th e s t ory is


a a a s .

t old in v ri ou s forms ; th e m os t p i ctur e qu e is th t foun d in


a s a

T e t es whi ch r e pr e s n t him
z z ,
s y i n g to a R oman s oldi e r e s as a

w h o foun d hi m i n t en t on s om e di gram s which h e h d dr w n a a a

in th e du s t an d c m e too cl ose S tan d a w y f ll ow fr om m y



a , a ,
e ,

di gr am wh e re t th e m n w s s o en rag ed th t h kille d
a a a a a e

him 4 .

S um mar y of m ain a ch iev e m e nts .

geometry A rch i medes s w ork con is ts in the mai n of


In

s

origi n al i n v es t i g ti on s in t o th e qu adr ature of curvili n ear


a

pl n e gur es nd th qu dr ture and cubatur e of curved


a a e a a

surf ces The s e i n v es t i gati on begi nning wh er Euclid


a . s, e

s

B ook XI I l e ft off ctu lly (in th e w ord s of C h as l es ) gav



,
a a e

C i ro T
1 64 q
ce P lut rch M
u sc v
. ll c 17
. s .
2
a , ar ce u s, . .

V i tr i
,
3
D hit t m i 1 9 10
uv us , e ar c ec /u , x . .
,
.

T t 4
C hi li d ii 3 5 1 3 5
z e z es , a . . . .
20 A R CH MEDES I
birth to th e ca lculu of th in n it con ce iv ed an d brought to
.
s e e

p erfecti on ucc e i vely by K pl r C v li r i Fer m t Lei bn i


s ss e e ,
a a e ,
a ,
z

n d N e wt on H e p erf or m d in fa ct what is e quiv l en t to



a . e a

i n teg ti on in n d i n g th e a r
r a of par bolic s eg m n t an d of ea a a e ,

a pir l th
s a s urf c e
,
n d v olu m e of a
e ph r n d s eg men t of
a a s e e a a

a pher e nd th volu m es of ny egm en t of th e s olids of


s , a e a s s

r ev olut i on of th econ d degr e I n rith metic h c lculat d


e s e . a e a e

a ppr ox i m ti on to th v lu e of
a in th e c our se of which cal
s e a 77 ,

cul ti on h s how s th at h e could appr oxi m t e to th valu of


a e a e e

s qu r root s of large o m all n on quar n u mb er ; h furth er


a e r s -

s e s e

i n ven t d s ystem of r i thm tic l t er mi n ol ogy by which h e


e a a e a

could xpr s in l ngu g ny n umb r up to th at which w


e es a a e a e e

s h ould write dow n with 1 follow d by m illi on m illi on e

ciph er I n m ch n i c h n ot on ly w ork d ou t th pri n cipl e of


s . e a s e e e s

th e ubj ect but dv n c ed o f


s to n d th c n tr of gr vity
a a s ar as e e e a

of gmen t of a p r bol
a se em i c i rcl con h em i ph e r e
a a a, a s e, a e, a s ,

a se g men t of s ph r e a r i ght g m n t of a p r bol oid n d


a e ,
se e

a a a

a s ph er oi d of r ev oluti on H i m ch n ic as we h ll ee h as . s e a s, s a s ,

b come mor e i m portan t in r l tion to hi geom etry s in c th


e e a s e e

di cov ry of th e tr at i e c ll d Th M thod wh i ch w as for m rly


s e e s a e e e e

s upp o ed to b e lo t L tly h e i n v en t e d th wh ol e s c i en ce of
s s . as , e

hyd ro t atic which g i n h e c rr i d o fa as to giv e mo t


s s, a a a e s r a s

c ompl ete i n v tigati on of th pos i ti on of r e t an d s tability of


es e s s

a right egm nt of p r ab oloid of re voluti on o t in g in


s e a a a a

u i d w i th it b e ith r upwa rd s o dow n w rd bu t o th t


s as e e r a s, s a

th b a e i
e ith r wh olly bov o wh olly bel ow th e urfac of
s s e e a e r s e

th uide Thi r pr . nt u m of m th m tical


s e chie ve es e s a s a e a a

m n t un s urp s d by n y on e m n in th e w orld s h is t ory



e as e a a .

Ch ar acter of tr eatis es .

Th etr eati e s a with out excepti on mon u men t of math


s r e, , s e

m tic l e xp os i t i on ; th gr du l r v l ati on of th
a a pl n of e a a e e e a

att ck th e mas t e rly ord ri n g of th e pr op os iti on


a , th e t e r n e s, s

e l i m i n ti on of e v e rythi n g n ot i m me d i t ly r e l v n t to th
a a e e a e

purpos e th e n i s h of the wh ol r e o i mpr e s iv e in th ir


, e, a s s e

p erfecti on as to cr e te a fe li ng aki n to w e in th m in d of a e a e

th e r eader A P lutarch sai d. It is n ot p o s ibl to nd in


s ,

s e

g ometry mor di fcult and tr oubl e ome qu e ti ons or proofs


e e s s

s et ou t in s i m pl e r an d cl ear e r pr op o iti on Th e r e is at th e s s

Plut rch M ll c 17 1
a , a r ce us , . .
OH A R A CTER or TR EA T S ES I 21

sa me ti m c ert i n my t ry v e ili n g th e w y in which h


e a a s e a e

arriv e d at hi r e ult s Fo it i cl r th at th ey w e re n ot
s s . r s ea

d i s cover d by th s t e p whi c h l e d up to th em in th e ni s h e d
e e s a

tr e ti ses If th e geometri cl tr eati se t ood al one A rchi


a . a s s ,

me d e s might s eem a s Wa lli s a id s it w r e of t purp ose


, s ,

a e se

to h v e c ov er e d up th tr c e of his i n ves t i gati on s if h h d


a e a s a e a
,

grudg e d p os terity th e s ecr et of h i me th od of i nquiry while s ,

h e wi s h e d to e xt ort fr om th em as sen t to h i r e s ult A nd s s



.

i n d e d ( g i n in th e w ord s of W ll i ) n ot on ly A rchi me de s
e a a a s

but n e rly all th e an ci n t s s o hid fr om pos t er i ty th eir meth od


a e

of A n ly i s th ough it i cl ea r th t th ey h d on e th at m or
a
( s
) s a a e

m od ern m ath e m tici n foun d it ea i er to i n v n t a n e w a a s s e

A n ly s i s t han to s e k ou t th e old
a A p arti a l e xc e pti on i e

. s

n ow furn i s h e d by The M ethod of A rch i m ed es s o h pp i ly d i s ,


a

c ov r d by H eib erg I n thi s b ook A rchi me de s t ell s u s h ow


e e .

h e d i c ov r e d c ertai n th e or em in qu dr atur e an d cubatur e


s e s a ,

n am e ly by th u s e of m ch n ic s w i ghi ng l emen t s of
-

e e a , e e a

gur e ga in t l m en t s of n oth er i mpler gure th e men s ura


a s e e a s ~

t i on of w hi ch w alr e dy kn ow n A t th e ame t i me h e is as a . s

c ar ful to i n s i t on th e di ffer n ce betw e n (1 ) th me n


e s e e e a s

wh i ch m y b ufc i n t to s ugg t th truth of th or em s


a e s e es e e ,

a lth ough n ot furn is h i n g s ci n t i c proofs of th em an d (2 ) th e ,


e

rigor ou d m on tr t i on of th em by orth odox g om tr i cal


s e s a s e e

m eth od which m u t foll ow be for th y can b e n l ly cc pt e d


s s e e a a e

as e s t bli s h d
a e :

c rt i n th i n g s h
e a y t b c m cl e r to m by

,
e sa s,

r s e a e a e a

me ch n ic l m th od lth ough th y h ad to b d mon tr t e d by


a a e ,
a e e e s a

geom try ft rw rd becau s e th ei r i n v tig ti on by th id


e a e a s es a e sa

m eth od d i d n ot furn i h n ctu l d m on s tr ti on Bu t i t i s a a a e a . s

of c our e i r wh en w e h v pr vi ou ly cquir e d by th e
se as e ,
a e e s a ,

m eth od s om e k n owl e dg e of th qu s ti on s to upply th pr oof


,
e e , s e

th n i t is to n d it with out ny pr evi ou s knowle dge


a Thi s a .

h e a dd s i r as on why in th e c e of th e th or m th t
,

s a e ,
as e e s a

th e v olu m es of c on e an d pyr mi d on e th i rd of th
a a a ar e -

v olu me s of th e cyli n d er n d pris m r s p ctiv ly h vin g th a e e e a e

s am e b s n d e qu l h ight th e pr oof s of wh i ch Eud oxu s w s


a e a a e ,
a

th e r t to d i s c ov er n o m ll s h r e of th e cr dit s h ould be
s ,
s a a e

g i v en to Democr i tu s w h o w a s th e r s t to s t t the f ct a e a .

th ough with out pr oof .


Fi n lly h e y th t th e v ery r s t th eor em which h fou n d


a ,
sa s a e

ou t by m a n s of m ch n i c was th t of th
e s p r t e tr eat i se
e a s a e e a a
LI S T O F EXTA N T WO R K S 23

Qurra b ook
ttribute d to A rchi m des th pr opos iti on
th e is
"

a e ,
e s

c ann ot be h is in th eir pr s en t for m s in ce hi n me i e veral e , s a s s

ti mes m n ti on e d in th em ; but it is quite li k ly th t ome


e e a s

of th em e of A rc hi m e d e n origi n n ot bly th ose


ar bout th e a a a
,

geom tric l gur e c ll e d ola Aos ( s h o m ke r s kn ife ) n d


e a s a

e a

a

o iA w o (prob bly salt ce ll r r e s pe ctive ly n d P r op 8 be r


-
c v a -

a a . a

in g on th tri e cti on of n n gl e
e s a a .

Th e r e is l s o th e Ca ttle P r oblem in e pigr mmatic for m


a -

a ,

which purp ort s by its h e ding to hav b een commun ic t ed by a e a

A rchi m e d e to th e m th em tici an at A l ex n dri in


s l ett er a a s a a a

to Er at os th en e s Wh eth er th e e pigr am m t i c for m i d u to


. a s e

A rchi m e des h i m s lf o n ot th er e i n o ufci n t r e on fo e r ,


s s e as r

doubtin g th e p o ibility that th e ub t n c of it w s s t ss s s a e a e as a

probl m by A rchi m d s
e e e .

Tr ace s of l os t w or ks .

O f w ork s
w hi ch e l os t w e h av th e followi ng tr ce s ar e a .

1 I n v e s tig ati on s r e l t i n g to p olyh d a


. r efe rr ed to by a e r ar e

Pappu w h o ft er alludi ng to th ve regul ar p olyh edr


s ,
a e a,

de cr i bes thirt een oth r di cov er d by A rchim edes wh i ch


s e s s e ar e

sem i r egul ar -
b ei n g cont ain ed by polygon quil t er l and
,
s e a a

e qui n gul r but n ot ll imil r 1


a a a s a .

2 Th r e w as a b ook of rith m e t i c l c on t n t d e dic at e d to


. e a a e

Z u ippu
e x W l earn fr om A rchim de s hi m s lf th t it de lt
s . e e e a a

W ith th e n a m i n g of n u m be s ( o o y g g 63 lp G/ B ) nd
2
r K ar v a t 7 1 C L H V a

e xp ou n d d th e y t e m which w e n d in th e S a nd
e s eckon
s of ,
-
r er ,

e xpr s i n g n u m b e r s high r th n th os
e s which could be written e a e

in th e ordi n ary Gr e e k n ot t i on n u mb er in fact (as w e h v e a , s a

said) up to th e en ormou s gur e r pr es n te d by 1 follow ed by e e

m ill i on m illi on ciph r e s .

3 O n e o m or e w ork on m ch n ic s
. r e llud d to con t i n s e a ar a e a

ing pr op os iti on n ot i n clud d in th e e xt n t tr eati s On P l n e


s e a e a

E gu i li br i vn s Pappu m n ti on w ork On Ba l n ces o L ve s


. s e s a a r e r

( p { y
w t e w ) in which
v it w

pr ov e d ( s it l s o w s in Philon as a a a

s

an d H e r on s M echa n ics ) th t gr e ter circles overp ow r le ser



a a e s

circl wh en th ey r e v olv e about the sam cen tr e H er on too


es e , ,

s p ea k s of writin gs of A rchi m e d es which b ar th e titl e of


e

1
Pappu s , v , pp 3 5 2 8 . .

2
c
A r h im ed e s , vol ii , pp 2 1 6 1 8 2 3 6 1 7 . . .
, .
-
2 2 ; of p 2 2 0 4 . . . .

3
P appu s, v iii , p 1 0 6 8 . .
24 A R C H MEDE S I
w ork s on th e lev r
r f r s to p oblem s on the e S i m pliciu s e e r

ce nt e o
f g a vi ty
r
p oB p oZ r uch s th e m n y e l e gan t
, K eur
'
a uc ,
s a a

probl m solv d by A rch im d s n d oth r the obj ct of which


e s e e e a e s, e

is to h ow h ow to n d th c en tr of gr v i ty th t i s th e p oi n t
s e e a ,
a ,

in body uch th t if th b ody i hun g up fr om it th e b ody


a s a e s ,

will r m i n t r e t in n y p os it ion Th i r ec lls th e a u mp


e a a s a .
2
s a ss

tion in th Qu ad a tu e ofthe P a bola (6 ) that if body h n g s


e r r r a ,
a a

a t r es t fr om point th e c entr of gr v i ty of th b ody an d th e


a ,
e a e

p oin t of s u p n i on e in th me v rt i c l l i n P ppu h as
s e s ar e sa e a e . a s

a i m il ar r em rk with r f r n c
s to poin t of su ppo t addin g
a e e e e a r ,

th t th cen tr e of gr v i ty is d ter min d a s th e in t r e ct i on of


a e a e e e s

tw o tr i ght l i n e s in th b ody thr ough tw o p oi n t of s upp ort


s a e ,
s ,

whi ch tr ight l in s s v rt i c l wh en th body is in quilibriu m


a e ar e e a e e

s o s upp ort d Pappu l o give the ch r ct ri t i c ofth e c en tr


e . s a s s a a e s e

of gr vity m n ti on e d by S i m pliciu
a ob s e rvi n g th t th i
e is s, a s

th mos t fu n d men t al pr in cipl of th e th eory of th e c en tr e of


e a e

gr av i ty th l m nt ry pr op o i ti on of wh i ch e foun d in
, e e e e a s s ar

A rchi m de s On E qu i li b i u m s (m p2 io oppon di ) n d H r on s

e s r a e

t v

M e ha n i c c A rchi m d him lf cit pr op os it i on wh i ch m u t


s . e es se es s s

h v been prov d l s wh r
a e g th t th centr of gr v i ty
e e e e e, e . . a e e a

of c on d i v i d th xi in th r ti o 3 1 th e lon g r s g m n t
a e es e a s e a ,
e e e

b ing th t dj cent to th v rt x ; h l s o s y that i t i


e a a a e e e
3
e a a s

s

prov d in th E qu i li b i u m th t th c n tr of gr vity of n y
e e r s a e e e a a

se g m n t of right ngl d conoid (i p r bol oi d of r e volut i on )


e a -

a e . e . a a

d i v i d th xi in uch w y th t th p orti on t ow rd s th
es e a s s a a a e a e

v ert x is d oubl of th r m i n d r It i p o s ibl th at th er e


e e e e a e .
1

s s e

w s or i g i n lly
a l rg r w ork by A rchi m d s On E qu ili b i u ms
a a a e e e r

of wh i ch th s urv i v i n g b ook On P la n E qu i li br i u m s form d


e s e e

O n ly p rt ; in th t c s r pi f y B n d
a a
poB p i m y a a e 7 e v r V a K GV T a t a

on ly b lt r n t i v t i tl
e a Fi n lly H r on y th t A rch i
e a e es . a ,
e sa s a

m ed l id dow n c rtai n proce dur in book b r i n g th e


es a a e e a ea

t i tl e Book on S upp orts


4 Th e on of A l e x n dr i
. qu ote pr op os i ti on from w ork a a s a a

of A rch i m d c ll e d C topt i c (pr op rt i of m i rror ) to th


e es a a r a e es s e

e ff ct th t thing s thr ow n in t o w at r l ook l arge r an d s till


e a e

l rg er th f rth er th y in k O ly mpiod o u too m n ti on s


a e a e s .
6
r s, , e

H ro M h
1
e i 1 32n, ec a n cs , . .

Sim pl o A ri t D
2
l o ii p 5 0 8
. n 3 0 Br d i ; p 5 4 3 2 4 H i b
s . e ca e , , . a , an s . .
,
. e .

M th od L mm 1 0
11
e , O Flo ti g B od i
e a ii 2 .
1

n a n es ,
H ro M h i
. .

5
e 1 25 n, ec a n cs , . .

Th o o P tol my Sy t i i p 2 9 H l m
6
e n n e s n ax s , , .
, a a .
TR A C ES O F LO S T WOR K S 25

th t rchi me d pr ove d th e ph en omen on of r e fra cti on by


a A es

m ean s ofth e ri n g pl c e d in th e v e s e l (ofw t er ) A s ch oli t


a s a as

to th e P s udo Euclid Ca top t i ca qu otes a pr oof which h



e -

s r ,
e

attribut e to A rchi med es of th e equ ality of th e angl s of


s , e

in ciden ce an d of r e e cti on in mirr or a .

Th e tex t of A r ch i me d e s .

r on Pappu n d Th on all cite w ork s of A rchi me des


He , s a e

which n o l on g r urviv f ct which s how s th at uch w ork s


e s e, a a s

w ere s till x tan t at A l e xan dr i a a lat e s th th i rd nd fourth


e s a e a

c en tur i e s A D Bu t it i e viden t th t tten ti on c m e to b


. . s a a a e

con c en tr at d on tw o w ork on ly th e M e su emen t ofa Ci cle


e s ,
a r r

a n d On the Spher e a n d Cyli n d er Eu tociu (f l b out A D 5 0 0 ) . s . a . .

on ly wr ot e c omm en t ri e on th s w ork n d on th P la n e a s e e s a e

E qu i li b i u ms an d h e do s n ot s eem
.
r ,
ven to h ve b n e e a ee

a cqu a i n t e d with th Qu a d a tu e of the P r bola o th w ork


e r r a a r e

On Spi r a ls lth ough th es h av e s urv i v d


, a I idoru of Mi letu e e . s s s

r evi s e d th c omm en tar i es of Eutociu on th Measu r em en t


e s e

ofa Ci cle n d th e tw o B ook


r a O n the Sphe a n d Cyli n d er s r e ,

n d it w ould
a eem to h a v been in th e s chool of I i doru s
s e s

th t th s tr ti s w r tur n e d from th ei r or i gin l Dor i c


a e e ea se e e a

in t o th e ord i n ry l n gu g e w i th lt e r ti on d i gn e d to m a k
a a a ,
a a s es e

th e m m or i n t ll i g i bl to l m n t ry pupil
e e Bu t n e i th r in
e e e e a s . e

I s i d oru s s ti me n o
rli r w s th r n y c oll ect d ed i t i on
r ea e a e e a e

of A rchi m d s w ork s o th t th os wh i ch w r l ss r d

e es s, a e e e e ea

t n d d to di s pp e r
e e a a .

I n th e n i n th c en tury L on w h o r es t or ed th U n i v e r i ty e ,
e s

of C on s t n ti n opl c ollect d t og eth e r ll th w ork s th t h


a e, e a e a e

could n d t C on tan ti n opl n d h d th m n u cr i pt wr i tt n


a s e, a a e a s e

(th rch
e e typ
a H ib e
g s A ) which through it
e, ed e riv at i v s
r

,
s e ,

w a up to th e di c ov e ry of th C on s t nti n opl e m n u s cript (C )


s, s e a a

con t i n i n g Th M ethod th e on ly s ourc e fo th e Gre k tex t


a e ,
r e .

Leon s man u cript c am e in th e tw lfth c en tury to th e



s ,
e ,

N or man C ourt t Pal e r mo n d th en c e p ss d to th e H ou


a ,
a a e se

of H oh en s t uf n Th e n with ll th libr ry of M n fr e d i t
a e .
,
a e a a ,

w s gi v en to th e P op e by C h rl e of A nj ou ft e r th e b ttl e
a a s a a

of B n e v n t o in
e e It w in th e Papal Li br ry in th e as a

y r s 1 2 6 9 n d 1 3 1 1 but om e ti me fte r 1 3 6 8 pas sed i nto


ea a , ,
s a ,

Ol y mpiod o
1
o A ri t M t o ologi
r us ii p 94 I d l r ; p
n s . e e r ca , , .
, e e .

Bu ss e .
26 A R C H MEDES I
priv t e h n d I n 1 4 9 1 it belong d to G orgiu s V ll w b c
a a s . e e a a,

tr n s l ted fr om it the port i on s publ i s he d in his p os thumou


a a s

w ork De e peten d i s et fu gien d i s r ebu s


sc n d i n t en d e d tc a

publ i h th e whol e of A rchi m d es with Eu to iu s s commen


s e c

t ri s On V all de th in 1 5 0 0 it w s bought by A lb rtu


a e . a s

a a e s

Pi u s Pr in c e of C rp i p
,
i n g in 1 5 3 0 to h i n eph w R odolphua ,
as s s e ,
s

Pi u s in wh o ,
p os ss i on i t r m in e d t i ll 1 5 4 4 A t s ome
se se e a .

t i me b etw een 1 5 4 4 nd 1 5 6 4 it d i s pp r d l ea vi n g n c a a ea e ,

tr ca e .

Th e gre t r p ar t of A w s tr an l t e d i n t o L ti n in 1 2 6 5
a e a s a a

by Wi ll i m of Moerbek t th P p l C ourt at V it rbo Thi


a e a e a a e . s

tr n l t i on in Wi ll i m s ow n h n d x i t s t R om (C od
a s a ,
a

a ,
e s a e

O ttob on l t 1 8 5 0 H ib g s B ) n d i s on e of ou pr i m e

. a .
,
e er ,
a r

s ourc fo lthough th e tr n l ti on w s h s tily don n d


es, r ,
a a s a a a e a

th tr n s l t or om e t i m es m i u n d r t ood th e Gr e k h e foll ow e d
e a a s s e s e ,

its w ord i n g s o cl o ely th a t h i ve r s i on is fo purp os s 0 1 s s ,


r e

c ollat i on s g ood s Gr e k m nu cript Willi am u d l so


, a a a e a s . se a

fo hi tr n l t i on n oth e r m n u s cript fr om th s m e libr ry


r s a s a ,
a a e a a

wh i ch cont i n ed w ork s n ot i n clude d in A Thi s m n u s cript


a . a

w as coll ction of w ork on m ch n i c an d optics ; Willi


a e s e a s arr

tr n s l t d fr om it th e tw o Book s On Floa ti n g B od i es an d 11
a a e ,

a sl o c on tai n d th P la n E qu i li b i u m s n d th Qu d tu n
e e e r a e a r a

of th P a bol e fo wh i ch b ook Wi ll i m u e d b oth m n u


r a a, r s a s a

s cri pt s .

Th e four mo t i mp ortan t xt n t Gr e k m n u s cript s (ex ce p1


s e a e a

C th C on t n t i n opl m n u s cr i pt d i cov r d in 1 9 0 6 ) w e <


, e s a e a s e e r

C op i e d from A Th rl i s t is E th e V en i c e m n u c ip
. e ea e , a s r i

(M rci n u sa wh i ch w as writt en betw een th y e r s 1 4 4


a e a

an d 1 4 7 2 Th e n e xt is D th Flor en c m n u s cript (L ur en t
.
,
e e a a

XXV III wh i ch wa copi d in 1 4 9 1 fo A ngelo Poli i ano


. s e r z

p e rmi s i on h v i ng been obt i ne d with Some d i fculty in on


s a a c

s qu n c e of th j
e e lou y with wh i ch V ll gu rd d his tr e s ur
e ea s a a a e a e

Th e oth e r tw o a G (P ri s 2 3 6 0 ) c opi e d fr om A ft e r i t h <


r e a .
a a

p e d to A lb rtu Piu and H (P r i 2 3 6 1 ) copi ed in 1 5 4


as s e s s, a s .
4
.

by C hr i s toph ru s A u er fo G org s d A mag n c B i s h o]e v us r e e



r a ,

of R od e Th ese four man u s cript s with th


z . tr n s lat i on 0 , e a

Wi ll i m of Moerbeke (B ) en abl e th e readi n gs of A to b


a ,

i n ferr d e .

A Lati n tr an l ati on w s ma d e t th i n s t n ce of Pop


s a a e a

N i ch ol V a bout th e y ar 1 4 5 0 by J a c obu s C e mon ns i


as e 1 e <
TH E TEXT O F A R C H I M EDES 27

It d e from A wh i ch w as th e ef0 1 e acce ss ibl to Pop e


wa s m a ,
r e

Nich ol as th ough it does n ot s eem to h a v e b el ong d to h im e .

R eg i omon t an u s mad e a c opy of thi s tr ans lati on a bout 1 4 6 8


an d r e v i e d it with the h e lp of E
s
(th e V enic e m n u s cript of a

th e Gr ee k t ex t ) an d a c opy of th e s ame tran s l ati on b e lon gi n g


.

to C a rdi n a l B es s a ri on a s w e ll as an ot h er old copy wh ich ,


s ee ms to h av e b e en B .

Th e ed iti o pr i nceps w s publi s h ed at Bas e l a u d H er va


(p a

g iu m) by Thomas Gechau ffV en ator iu s in 1 5 4 4 Th e Gr ee k .

t e xt w a b ased on a N ur n b e rg MS (Nor imbe g C ent V


s . r . .
,

a
pp 1 2 ) which was copi e d in th e s i x t een th c en tury fr om A
.

but wi th i nt erpolati on s d riv ed from B ; the L tin t ans la e a r

ti on w s R egiomontanu s s re vi i on of Jacobus C emon n is


a

s r e s

(N o imb C en t V
r . .
,

A tr ns la ti on by F C omman di n u s publi s h ed at V e n i c e in
a .

1 5 5 8 con t ai ne d th e M easu em n t o a C ir cle On S i


f p ls th e r e ,
r a ,

Qu a d r a tu r e of the P a r a bol a On Con oid s , a nd Spher oi d s , an d


th e S a n d -
r eclcon er . Thi s tr l tion was
an s a bas edion th e B as el
ed i ti on but C ommand inu s, an d oth r Gre ek a l o c on s ult e d E
s e

man u s cri pt s .

Tor e ll i s e diti on (O x f ord 1 7 9 2 ) al s o follow ed th ed i tio


,
e

p i nceps in th e mai n but Tor e ll i a l s o c oll at ed E


r Th e book , .

w as br ought ou t a ft e r Tor e lli d th by A bram R obe rt s on


s ea ,

w ho l o c ollat ed e mor m an u s cripts i ncludi ng D G


a s v e , ,

an d H Th e coll ti on h ow e v r w s n ot w e ll don
. a n d th e ,
e , a e, a

e diti on w n ot pr op e rly c orr e ct e d wh en m th e pr es


as s

Th e s c on d edi ti on of H ib e g s t e xt of all th w orks o


.

f

e e r e

A rchi m d e with Eu tociu s s c omm nt ri es Lati n tr n s l t i on



e s e a ,
a a ,

a pp r tu a acriticu s &c is n ow a v ila ble (1 9 1 0 1 5 ) and of


s , .
,
a ,

cour se s up er sed es th e r t e d i ti on (1 8 8 0 1 ) an d ll oth r s


, s a e .

It n tur lly i n cludes The Method the frag ment of th e S tom a


a a ,

chi on n d s o much of the Gree k tex t of th e two Books On


, a

Floa ti n g B od i es as c ould b e r s tore d from th e n wly d i e e s

c ov re d C ons tan ti nople m n u cr ipt


e a s .
I

C ontents of T he M ethod .

d s cription of th e e xt n t w ork s of A rchi medes


Our e a

m y s uit bly b egi n with The M ethod (th e full titl e is O n


a a

Th Wo k of A h im d
1
e d it d i m od r rot ti o b y th pr
s rct e es , e e n e n n a n e es en

writ r i 1 8 9 7 w b d o H ib g r t d it i o d th S ppl m t

e n , as as e n e er s s e n , an e u e en
28 A R C H M EDE S I
M echa n i ca l Theor em s M ethod (c om m uni cat e d) to E r a tos then es ) ,

P r emi s i n g c e rta i n pr op os iti on s in m e ch an ic s m os tly ta ker


from th e P la n e E qu ili br i u ms , an d a l emm a which for m s
Pr op 1 of On Con oid s a n d Spher oi d s A rch i m e d e s obt a i n s by
.
,

hi s me ch an ica l m eth od th e foll ow in g r es ult s Th e a r e a of an y .

seg men t of a s e ct i on of a right an gl e d c on e (pa r a b ol a i s s oi


) -

th e tr i angl e with th e sa m e ba se a n d h e ight (P r op Th e .

right cylin de r c i rcu ms cribi ng a s ph ere or a s ph er oid of r ev olu


ti on an d with ax i s e qua l to th e d ia met er or a xi s of re v olution
of th e s ph e r e or s phe roid is 1 17 ti m e s th e s ph e r e or s ph eroi d
r e sp ectively (Pr op s 2 P r op s 4 7 8 1 1 n d th e v olu m e of
.
,
.
, , ,

an y gm n t cut off by pl n t right n gle to th e xi


se e ,
a a e a a s a s .

from ny r i ght angled c onoi d (p r b ol oid of r voluti on)


a -
a a e

s ph r ph roi d n d obtu se angl ed conoid (hyp rb oloid) in


e e, s e ,
a -
e

t rm of th con which h th e m e b
e s e e th e egm n t n d as sa as e a s s e a

e qu l h i ght I n Pr op 5 6 9 1 0 A r chi m de u es h is meth od


a e . s .
, , ,
e s s

to n d th e c n tr e of gr vity of e eg m en t of p rab ol oi d of a a s a a

r voluti on
e s ph e r e ,
an d a ph roid r p ctiv ly P r op ,
a s e es e e . s .

12 15 n d Pr op 1 6
a e c on c e r n d with th
. cubatur e of tw o
ar e e

s p e c i l s ol i d gur
a
(1 ) S uppo pri m w i th a qu r e b e
es . se a s s a as

to h v a cyli n d r in cr i be d in i t th circular b s of th
e a e s ,
e a es e

cyl i n d er b i n g circl i n cr i b d in th qu re wh i ch e
e es s e e s a s ar

th b e of th
ases pr i m n d u pp o e plan e draw n throu gh
e s , a s s a

on i d e of on e b
e s of th pr i m n d thr ough th at d i m et r of
a se e s a a e

th c i rcl e in th opp o i t b
e which is p r ll l to th
e id s e ase a a e e sa

s id e .Th i pl n cut s of s f ol i d b ou n d e d by tw o pl n e
a e nd a s a s a

by p rt of th curv e d s urf c of th e cyl i n d er ( ol i d h p ed


a e a e 3. s s a

li k e a h oof cut off by plan ); n d Pr op 1 2 1 5 pr ov th t a e a s . e a

it v olu m e i on s i xth of th e v olu m e of th pr i sm


s s e -

(2 ) S u p e .

p os cyl i n d r i n s cr i b e d in cu b s o th t the circul r b s e


'

e a e a e, a a a s

of th cyli n d er e c i rcl s i n crib d in tw o oppos it f c s of


e ar e s e e a e

th ecub an d s uppo e, n oth r cyli n d e r i m i larly in s cr i b d


se a e s e

w i th r fere n c e to two oth r oppos it e f c es Th e two cylin der s


e e a .

e n cl o se c rt i n ol i d w h i ch is ctu lly mad e up of i ght


a e a s a a e

h oof l i k that of P r op 1 2 R e p 1 6 pr ov es th at th
s

e . . . e

volu m of thi s ol i d is tw o third s of th t of th e cube A rch i


e s -

a .

m d e esob s erv e in his pr fac e th t a r e mark bl f ct a b ou t


s e a a e a

t
( 1 9 1 2 ) con a i n i n g The M ethod , on th e o igi na e d i i on of H e ib e
g (in
r l t r
H er mes , x l ii , 1 9 0 7 ) w i th e an s a i on b y Z e u h e n th
(B ibli oth eca M a the tr l t t
ma ti ca , vii s .
TH E M E TH OD 29

t h ese solid r es p e cti v ely is th t ea ch of them is equ l to


s a a a

s olid e n cl o e d by
pla n es wh er eas th e v olu me of curvili n ear
s ,

s ol id s (s ph e r e s s ph er oid &c ) is g en e r a lly on ly e x pr es ibl e in


, s, . s

ter ms of oth er cur v ili n ear s olid s (cones n d cyli n ders ) I n a .

a cc ord an c e with h is di c tu m that the res ults obtai ned by the


mech n ic al met hod a e mere ly i n dica te d but n ot a ctually
a r ,

proved un less c on rme d by the rigor ou s meth od s of pure


,

g eometry A rchi mede s pr ov e d the fa ct s a bout th e tw o las t


,

name d s olid s by th e orthodox m et h od of e xh au sti on as


r egul rly u s ed by him in his oth er geometrica l treati s ; the
a se

proofs p ar tly los t w er e gi v en in Prop s 1 5 nd 1 6


, , . a .

We will r s t illu s trat e th e m ethod by givi ng th e argument


of P r op 1 b ou t th e a r a of parabolic s egmen t
. a e a .

Le t A B C b e th e se gmen t B D its di am t er C F th e t n gen t ,


e , a

at C Le t P b an y p oi n t on th e seg m n t an d let A K E
. e e , ,

OP NllI be dr aw n p a ra ll e l to B D Joi n CB and produc e it to .

meet M O in N an d FA in K a n d l e t K H be mad e e qu al to ,

KC .

N ow , by a pr op os iti on pr ov e d in a l emm a (cf Qu ad r a tu r e .

o the
f P a r a bola Pr op 5 ) ,
.

M O z OP CA : AO
CK : KN
HK : KN .

A l s o, by th e property of th e parabola ,
EB B D, so that
It follow th at if H C be rega rde d as th e bar of a b lan ce
s ,
a ,

a lin e TG e qu a l to P O an d pl c e d with it m iddl e p oi n t tH a s a

balan ces about K th e s traight li n e M O plac ed w her e it is


, , ,

i e with it middl e p oin t at N


. . s .

S i m il arly with a ll li n es a s M O P 0 in th e triangl e CFA , , ,

a nd th e segment CB A r es p e ctiv ely .

A nd th er e ar e th e s am e n um b er of th e e li nes Th r e for e s . e
TH E M E TH O D 31


KA z AQ

c
n e es s a ry prove th at

prop er ty of th e el li p s e ,

there fore

wh enc e

ar ea s of
circles W th MM
i

,
PP

, QQ r es p e ctively as d i ameters
; , and thes e
32 A R C H M EDES I
circles a e s cti ons m de by th plan e though N t rig :
r e a e a

ngl e to A A i n th cyl i n der th e s ph eroid n d th e con e A B



a s e ,
a

res p ectively .

Th er efor if H A A b l ev er an d th ecti on s of tl
e, e a ,
e s

sph r oid n d con e b both pl c d w i th th ei r c n tr es of g a i


e a e a e e r v i

at H t h s e , cti ons pl c d t H b lan c bout A th e s ecti(


e se a e a a e, a ,

cylin d r wh er e it is e .

Tr e ti n g ll th c orre p on d i n g e ct i on of th e seg m en t
a a e s s s 4

th e ph r oid th e c on
s e n d th ,
cyli n d r in th e s am e w e a e e a

w e n d th at th e cyl in d r with x i A G wh er e i t is b al an ce e a s , ,

a bout A th con e A E F n d the eg me nt A DC t og eth er w he


, e a s ,

both e pl ced w i th th ir c en tre of gra vity at H ; n


ar a e s a

if W b th c n tr of gr vity of th e cyl i n d er
e e e e th mid d a ,
e

poi n t of A G ,

HA '

A W (cyl i n de r , a xi s A G) (c on e A E F+ se
gm t A D C ). .

If w e c ll V th v olu m of th e con e
a e e A EF , an d S th ta of
s eg m en t of th ph er oid w e h v e s , a e

Z
AA
(cyl n d er ) i (V + S ) 3 V (V + S )
.

. .

AG
,
2

whil e

T h r e fore
e AA

: AG 3 V

3AA

w h en c e S V
<A G2

A g a n, i le t V be th e

volu m e of th e c on e A DC .

T h en V: V

: E G2 z D G2
2
BB
AG H

Z DGQ
AA
T

DG 2
z A G GA .

BB

Thr f r e e o e V : V A G2 z A G GA .

A G z GA
.
"

TH E M ETH OD 33


A G SA A
I t follows th t
a S V

GA 2AG

g r i ef -

AG

A G

snA
' '
J
r A G

which r es ult stat e d by A rchi me d es in Pr op 8


is th e . .

Th e r s ult is th e am fo the segm en t of a s ph er e


e s e The r .

proof of c our e s lightly s i mpler i given in Pr op 7


, s , s . .

I n th e p rticula r c s e wh er e th e seg m en t is h lf th e s ph r e
a a a e

o s ph e r oi d th e r el ati on b e c om es
r ,

(P r op 2 3 )

S 2 V ,
s .
,

a n d it f oll ow s th a t th e v olu m e of th e wh ol e s ph e r e or s ph e roid

i 4 V wh er e V is th e v olu m of th e c on e A B B ; i e th e

s , e . .

v olu me of th s ph er e o ph er oid is tw o third s of that of th e


e r s -

circu ms cribin g cyli n der .

I n ord r n ow to n d th c en tr e of gr a vity of th e s eg me n t
e e

of a s ph roid w e m u s t h a v e th
e , e g m en t acti n g wher e i t i s e s ,

n ot at H .

Th er e for e for mul (1 ) b ove will n ot serv e But w e foun d


a a .

that
wh en ce M N (NP N Q ) (NP N Q ) N Q ;2 2 2 2 2
1
2

there for e HA AN (N P + N Q) N Q :
2 2
:
2
.

(Thi s is se parat e ly pr ov e d by A rchi me d e s fo th e s ph er e r

i n Pr op .

Fr om thi w e derive s u s u l th at th e con e A E F an d the


,
as a ,

seg m en t A DC b oth cti n g wher e they a e bal n ce volum


a r a a e

e qu al to th cone A E F pl ce d with it cen tre of gra vity t H


e a s a .

N ow th e c en tr e of gr vity of th e c one A E F i on the li n e a s

A G at a di s t an c e % A G fr om A Le t X b e th re quir ed c en tr e . e

of gr a vity of th e seg m en t Th en taki n g m omen t s a b out A .


, ,

w e have

A G) S AK

V (A A -
.

1
) AX , from a bove .
34 A R C H ME D E S I
Th er efor e

AXz A G (A A


% A G) (gA A . A G)

A A
4 A G);
(4

whence A X z XG (4 AA


3A G): (2 A A

-
A G)

which is the result obt in d by A rchi me d es in Pr op 9 for the


a e .

sph er e and in Pr op 1 0 fo th s ph er oid . r e .

I n th e case of th e h em i s ph e r oi d or h em i s ph e re th e w h o
A X X G b ec omes 5 3 a r s ul t obt i n e d for the h emi s ph er e in
,
e a

P r op 6. .

Th e c as es of th e p ar bol oid of r e v oluti on (P r op s 4 5 ) an d


a .
,

th e hyp erb ol oid of re v oluti on (P rop 1 1 ) follow th e s am e c our s e . ,

a n d it i s u nne c es sary to r pr oduc th m e e e .

Fo the cases of th tw o ol i ds d lt with at the en d of th e


r e s ea

treati e th e reader mu s t b re f rr d to th e propos iti ons th em


s e e e

s e l ve s I n ciden tally in P rop 1 3 A rchi me des nd s th e c entre


.
,
.
,

of gr vity of th e h lf of
a cyl i n d r cut by a plan e thr ough
a a e

th e a xi s or in oth r w ord th e c n tr e of gr av ity of a s emi


, ,
e s, e

circl e .

We will n ow t ak e th oth r tr ti e in the order in which e e ea s s

they app ear in th e e d i ti on s .

On th e Sph e r e an d C ylin d e r , I , I I .

The mai n re s ult s obtai n e d in Book I a e s h ortly s tated in r

a pr e fat ory l ett er to Do ith e u A rchi m e d es t ell s u s th a t


s s .

th ey ar e n ew n d th t h i n ow publi hi n g th em for the


,
a a e s s

r s t ti me in ord e r that m th m tici n may be a bl e to e x


,
a e a a s

ami n e th e pr oofs an d judge of th ir v lu e Th e r es ults ar e e a .

(1 ) that th e s urfac e of pher i four ti mes th at of a great


a s e s

circl e of th e s ph ere (2 ) th t th urf c e of any s egmen t of a


,
a e s a

s ph e re is e qu al to circle the r diu s of whi ch is e qu al to th e


a a

s tr aight lin e dr aw n fr om th v rte x of th e s eg men t to a point e e

on th e circu m f er en c e of th b se (3 ) th t the v olu me of a e a , a

cylin der circu ms cribi ng ph re n d with h eight e qu al to the a s e a

diameter of the s ph ere is of th e v olu me of the s ph er e ,

(4 ) th at th e s urf ac e of th e circu m s cribi ng cylin der i n cluding


its b as es is al s o g of th s urf c e of th s ph er e It is w orthy
e a e .

of n ot e th at whil e th e r s t , n d third of th es e pr op os iti on s a

app ear in the b ook in thi ord r


(Prop 3 3 a nd 3 4 r es pec s e s .
ON TH E S PH ER E A N D C Y LI NDER , I 35

tiv e ly ), thi s was not th e orde r of their di s c ov ery ; for A rchi


m e d es tells u s in The Method th at
fr om the th eor em that a s ph e re is four ti mes as gre t s the a a

c on e with a gr eat circl e of th e s ph ere as bas e and with heigh t


e qu a l to th e r adiu s of th e s ph e r e I c on c e i ve d th e n oti on th t a

th e s urfa c e of any s ph e r e i four ti mes as gr eat as a gr a t s e

circl e in it for j udgi n g from th e fact that any circl e is qu a l


, e

to tri angle with base equ al to th e circu mfer enc e and h ight
a e

e qu al to th e r adiu s of th e circl e I a ppr e h en d e d tha t in l i k e , ,

m nn e r any s ph er e i s e qu l to a c one with bas e equ a l to th e


a , a

s urfa c e of the s ph er e an d h eight e qual to the radiu s


.

k I begi n s with d n iti on (of concav e in th e same


B oo e s

dir e cti on as appli e d to curv s o brok en li ne s an d surf ces of



e r a ,

ol i d s e ct or lid rhom bu s ) foll ow e d by


an d a so

a s ve

A u m pti on s all of i m p ort n c e


ss Of a ll li nes which ha
a the . ve

s m e ex tr emi ti es the s t a i ght l in e is the least a nd if th r e


a r e , , e ar

tw o curv e d or be nt li n es in plan h a ving the same x t mi a e e re

ties n d con cave in th s me di rection but one is wholly


a e a ,

i n clud d by o p artly i n clud d by an d p artly c omm on w i th


e ,
r e ,

th oth e r th e n th a t which i i n clud e d is th e l es s e r of th tw o


e ,
s e .

S i m il rly with pl an e s urf c


a n d s urfa c es c on c a v e in th e
a es a

s m a di re cti on Las tly A s u m pti on 5 is th e famou s A xi om


e .
,
s

of A r chi m e d es which h ow e v er w accor di ng to A rchi med e


,
as , s

him lf u s ed by earli er geom ter (E ud ox us in p articul r ) to


se ,
e s a ,

th e ff
e e ct th at Of u n equ a l ma gn i tu d es the g ea t er ex eed r c s

th l ess by su ch a ma gn i tu d e a
e when a dd ed to i tself c n be s, ,
a

m a de to exceed a n y as si gned m a g ni tu d e of the s ame ki n d


th e a xi om is of cour s e pr a ctica lly e quiva l en t to Eucl V Def 4 .
, .
,

an d i s cl os e ly c onn e ct e d with th e th e or em of Eu ol X 1 . . .

A s in applyi n g th e m eth od of e xh a u s ti on A rchi m e de s u


, ,

both circu ms crib ed and i n s cribe d gur es with a V iew to com


p r ess i n
g th em i n t o c oal es c en c e with th e cur v ili n ear gur e to

be mea s ur e d h e has to begi n with pr op os iti on s s h owi ng th at


, ,

given tw o une qua l magn itud e s th en h ow ever n ea r the ra ti o , ,

of greater to the l es s i to 1 it is pos s ibl e to n d two


th e s ,

str ight li n es s uch tha t th e greater i s to the less in a till less


a . s

ra tio an d to circu ms crib e n d i n cribe s i mila r p olygon to a s s

a circle or s e ctor s uch th at th e pe ri mete r or the area of th e


circums cribed polygon i s to th t of the i nne r in a r atio l e s
'

a s

th n th e gi v en r ati o (P rop 2
a l o j us t as Euclid prove s
s . a s ,

D 2
36 A R C H I M EDES

th at if w e c ontin u ally d oubl th e n umbe r of the s ide of the


,
e s

regul r polygon i n crib ed in circl e seg ment s will ulti ma tely be


a s a ,

left which ar e tog eth er les s th n any as s ign e d rea A rch i m de s a a ,


e

h s to s upplemen t thi s (P r op 6 ) by provi ng th t if w e i n crea s e


a . a ,

th e n u mber of th e s ides of a ci cu mscr i bed r egul ar p olygon r

s ufc i en tly w e c n mak e th ,


xc ess of th rea ofthe p olygon
a e e e a

ov r that of th e circl e l es s th n a ny gi
e n r ea A rchi me d es a ve a .

th n ddres s es hi ms lf to the problems of n di n g the su fa ce of


e a e r

any right c on e o cyli n d er pr obl ms n ally s ol v e d in P r op


r 13 , e s .

(th e cylin der) n d 1 4 (th e con e) C ircums cribi ng an d in c ib


a . s r

ing r gul ar p olygon s to th e ba e s of th e c on e an d cyli n d r h e


e s e ,

e r ct s pyram id
e an d pri s ms r s p ecti v e ly on th e p olyg on s as
s e

b e and circums cribe d or i n cribe d to th con e and cyli n der


as s s e

r p ecti v ely I n P rops 7 an d 8 he nd s th e s urfa ce of th e


es . .

pyramid i n crib d and circu ms cribed to th e c on e nd in


s s e
,
a

P r op 9 and 1 0 h pr ov es th t th e s urfa c
s . of th e i n crib ed
e a es s

an d c i rcu ms crib e d pyramid s r es p e cti v ely ( xcludi n g th e ba s e


) e

ar e les s an d gr ater than th e u rface of th e cone (excludi ng


e s

the b se) Prop s 1 1 and 1 2 prov e th e same thing of the


a . .

pris m i ns cribe d nd circums crib d to the cyl i n d er an d n lly


s a e , a

Pr op s 1 3 an d 1 4 prove by th e meth od of e xh u s ti on th t th e
.
, a , a

s urfa c e of th e c on or cyli n d er (e xcludi n g th e b as e s is e qu al


e
)
to th circle the r dius of which is a mean proport i on al
e a

betw e n the sid (i e gener tor) of th e con e or cy lin der nd


e e . . a a

th e r diu s o di me te r of th e b s e (i e is qu al to r s in th e
a r a a . . e 1r

c as of th e c on e n d 2 17 r s in the c ase of th e cyli n der wh er e


e a
,

r is th r adiu s of th e bas e and s a g enerator) A s A rchi med es


e .

h e re ppli es th e method of exhau sti on fo the rs t ti me we


a r
,

will illu trate by th e ca se of th e con e (Prop


s .

Let A be th e ba of th e c on e 0 a s tr aigh t li n e e qu al to its


se ,

radiu s D a li ne e qua l to a generator of the c one E a mean


, ,

proporti onal to C D and B a circl e with radi u s e qu al to E


, , .
ON TH E S PH ER E A N D C Y L I N DER , I 37

If S is the s ur fac e of th e con e we h v e to prov e th t S B , a a : .

Fo if S is n ot qu l to B it mu s t b e eith er gr eat er or l e s
r ,
e a , s .

1 S upp os B
. S e .

C ircu m s crib e a r e gul a r p olygon ab out B and i n s cribe a s i m ila r ,

polygon in it s uch th at th e for mer has to th e l att r a r ti o le ss


, e a

th n S B (Prop
a : De s crib e b out A a s i mil ar polygon n d
. a a

set up fr om it a pyram id circu ms cribi n g th e c on e.

Th en (polygon ab out A ) (p olygon bout B ) a

2
C E2

C: D

(p olyg on
b out A ) (s urf c e of pyr mid )
a : a a .

Th ere for e (s urf c e of pyram id ) a


(polygonabout B ) .

Bu t (p olygon about B ) (polyg on in B) S B ; :

th er efore (s urfa ce of pyr mid) (p olygon in B ) S B a : .

Bu t thi s is i mp o s ibl e s i n c e (s urf c e of pyr mid)


s S wh il ,
a a ,
e

(polygon in B) B ;
th er efor e B i s n ot l es s th an S .

II S uppos e B S
. .

C ircu ms cr i b e an d in s crib e s i milar r egul r p olygon to B a s

such th at th e form r h a to th e l tter a rati o B S I n s cr i b


e s a . e

in A a s i m il r p olygon n d e r e ct on A th e i n crib e d pyr mid


a ,
a s a .

Th en (p olyg on i n A ) (p olygon in B ) O E 2
:
2

C D

(polygon in A ) (s urfa c e of pyramid ) .

(Th e l att er i n fe r en c e is cl ear b e ca u s e th e rat i o of C : D


,
is
gr ter th n th e r ti o of th e p erp n dicul r from th e c n tr e of
ea a a e a s e

A n d fr om th e v e rt e x of th e pyr m id r
a pecti vely on any a es

s id of th e polygon in A ; in oth r w ord s if B a


e e
.
,

s in a s in B
) .

Th e re for e (s urf c e of pyr m id) (polygon in B)


a a .

Bu t (p olyg on a b out B ) (p olyg on in B ) B S : ,

when c e (a for tior i )


(polyg on about B ) (s urf c e of pyram id) B S : a : ,

which is i mp os s ibl e fo (p olygon about B ) B wh i le (s urface


,
r ,

of pyram id ) S .
.

O N TH E S PH E R E A N D C YL N DER , I 1 39

wh en c e a dd i ng an tec eden t s nd c ons equ ents


, a , we h av e

(Fig 1 ) (B B + CC + r op
'
.
EE ) A A A B

z BA , (P 2 1)

(Fig 2 ) AM (P rop

.
A B : z BA . . 22 )
When ke th e p olygon re volv e ab out A A the s urface
we ma
,

of th e i ns cribe d gure s o obt ai n e d is mad e up of th e s urf c s a e

of c on es an d fru s t a of c on es
; P rop 1 4 h as pr ove d th at th e .

s urf c e of the c on e A B B i s wh at w e s h ould writ e A B BF



a 17 ,

a nd P r op 1 6 has pr ov e d th at th e s urf ac e of th e fru s tu m


.

B C (B F C G) It foll ow s th a t s i n c e A B

B CC B is 77 .
,

BC th e s urf ac e ofth e i n s crib ed s olid is

7r . AB

th t a is , 77 A B (B B + CC +

EE

) (Fig .
(Prop . 24 )
(Fig r op 3 5

A B (B B + CC
2) P
77 .
( ) .

H en ce , fr om a bove , th e s urf ace i ns cribed s olid


of th e is
or nd is th er e for e l e
a th ss an

(Pr op 2 5 ) or A M th a t is A P (Prop
2
AA . 1r . A A

, ,
2
.

S i m ila r
pr op os iti on s with r eg rd to surfac es form d by th a e e

r voluti on ab out A A of r gul r circu ms cribe d s olid s pr ove


e

e a

that th eir s urfa ce s ar e gr t er th n AA an d AP ea a 77 .


Z
77
'

.
2

r s pect i ve ly (P rop s 2 8 3 0 n d Prop s 3 9


e The c as of th
.
a . e e

segm en t i s mor e c om plic at e d b e c u e th e circu ms crib e d p oly a s

gon with its s id es p a ra ll l to A B B C DP circu m cr i b . e ,


s es

th e sector P OP C on se qu en tly if th e s egment is l es s th n



.
,
a a

emici rcl e as CA C th e b as of th e circu m s cribe d p olygon



s , , e

(cc ) i on th e s id e of CC t ow rd A an d th er e fore the circum



s a s ,

s crib ed p olygon l eav es ov e r a s m all s tr i p of th e i n s crib ed Thi s .

c omplicati on is dealt with in P rop s 3 9 4 0 H av ing th n .


. e

a rriv ed at circums cribed nd in s cr i bed gur es with s urfac a es

gr e t r and l ess th an A A
a e nd A P r es p e ctiv ly n d 1r .
2
a 7r .
2
e , a

h vi n g proved (Pr ops 3 2, 4 1 ) that th e s urfaces of th e circum


a .

s crib e d n d i n s c r ib e d gur
a e to on e an oth e r in th e duplic at e s ar e

r ti o of th eir s ides A rchime de procee d to prov e form lly by


a , s s a ,

th e me th od of exh au s ti on th at th e s urfa c es of th e phe r e an d ,


s

s gmen t ar e e qu a l to th ese c i rcl e


e r s pe cti vely (P rop s 3 3 an d s e .

is of cour s e e qu al to four ti mes th e gr eat circl


2
AA1r . e

of th e s ph er e The segm en t i fo con ven ien ce t ak en to b e


. s, r ,
40 A R C H M E DES I
les s th n a h emi sph er e and Prop 4 3 pr ov es th t th e s ame
a ,
. a

for mula appli es als o to segmen t gre ter th n h em i s ph er e a a a a .

A s r ega rd th e v ol u me di ffer en t c on s ide rati on s i n volvi n g


s s

s olid rh om bi come in Fo con v eni n ce A rchi medes tak es



. r e ,

i n th e c of th e wh ol e s ph er e
ase n i n s crib e d p olygon of 4 n ,
a

s id e (Fig
s It i ea ily
. s een th t th e s olid gur s f or me d
s a e

by its r e voluti on i m de up of th e foll owi n g r s t the solid s a : ,

rh ombu s formed by the r voluti on of th e qu adrilateral A B OB e


(the v olu me of thi i how n to be equ l to th e c on e with b e s s s a as

e qu l to th e urfa ce of th e c on e A BB nd h eight qu al to p
a s

a e ,

th e p erp en di cul r fr om O on A B P r op a s e c on dly th e ,


.
,

e xt i n gui s h e r sh p e d gur e for me d by th


-
a r v oluti on of th e e e

tr i n gl B OC bout A A (th i gur is e qu l to th e di ff r n c e


a e a

s e a e e

betw en two s olid rh ombi formed by th e revoluti on of TB OB


e

an d TC C C r e p e ct i v e ly ab out A A wh er e T is th e poin t of

s ,

i nter s ect i on of CB C B pr oduc d with A A produc ed and ,



e

,

thi differ en ce is prove d to b e qu al to a con e with b se e qu al


s e a

to th e s urf c e of th e fru s tu m of c on d es crib e d by B C in its


a a e

r v olut i on n d h ei ght e qu l to p the p erpen dicu l r from O on


e a a a

B C Pr op
,
an d s o on ; n lly
. th gur e for me d by th e a , e

r e voluti on of th e tri ngle C OD about A A i th e di ffer en ce a



s

b etw een cone an d a s ol i d rh ombu which is pr ov ed equ l to


'

a s, a

a c on e with b equ al to th e urf c of th fru stu m of c one


a se s a e e a

d s cr i b d by CD in it re voluti on n d h ight p (Prop


e e s a e .

C on equ n tly by dd i ti on th e v olu m of th e wh ol s olid of


s e ,
a ,
e e

r volution is e qu l to th e con e with b se e qu l to its wh ol e


e a a a

s urf c e a n d h eight p (P r op
a B u t th e wh ol of th e s u rf c e . e a

of th e ol i d i s l s s th n 4 p r ; th e r fore th v olu me
2
s r an d e a 7r , e e

of th e i n crib e d ol i d is l e
s th n four t i mes th c on w i th
s ss a e e

bas e r n d h ight r (Pr op


7r
2
a e .

It i th n pr ov d in
s e i mil r w y th t th e r e v oluti on of
e a s a a a

th e i m i l r circu m s cr i b e d p olygon of 4 n s id es giv e


s a s olid s a

th e v olu m of wh i ch i gr ea te th n four ti m e s th e s m c on e
e s r a a e

(P rop 2 8 3 1 s . La tly th e volu m



of th e c i rcu m s crib ed s , es

a n d i n s crib e d gur e e to on e n oth er in th e triplic t e r a t i o of


s ar a a

th ei r id s (Pr op 3 2 ) an d A rchi me d is now in a pos i ti on to


s e .
es

apply th e me th od of x h u s ti on to pr ov e th t th e v olu m e of e a a

th e s ph er e i 4 ti mes th e c one w i th ba e
s r n d h e ight s 7r
2
a r

(Prop .

Deali ng with th e s egmen t of a s ph er e A rchi m d es t ak es fo , e r


,
O N TH E S PH ER E A N D C YLI N DER , I 41

con v en ie n c e s egmen t les s th an a h emi s ph er e and by th e


,
a ,

same ch in of argu m en t (P rop s 3 8 4 0 C orr


a 4 1 an d prov e .
, .
, s

(P r op 4 4 ) th at th e v olu me of th e sector of th e s ph er e bou n d ed


.

by th e urface of th e s egmen t i e qu al to a cone with ba


s s se

equ al to th e s urfa c e of th e se gmen t an d h e ight e qu al to th e

radiu s 1 e th con e w ith b s


,
. A P an d h eight
. e (Fig a e 17
2
r .

It i n ote w orthy th t th e propor ti on s obtai ned in Prop 2 1


s a s .
,

2 2 (se e p 3 9 ab ov e ) an b e e xpr e se d in trigon om etric l for m


. c s a .

If 4 n i s th e n umb er of th e ide s of th e p olygon i n s cribed in s

th e circl e an d 2 n th e n u m b r of th s id e s of th p olyg on
,
e e e

i n s cr ib d in th e segment an d i f th angle A OP i d not ed

e ,
e s e

by a th e trigon ometric l e qu i v l en t s of th prop or ti on s a


,
a a e re

r s p ct i vely
e e

+ s in (2 n 1 )
2a

{
a
g + s 1 n (n 1 ) m
(2 ) 2 e1 n
n
+ s1 n
n n
+ s a

1 cos a )cct 2 n

T hu s th e tw o pr op orti on s giv e in ef
fe ct a s u mm ti on a of th e

s e r i es
i 0 + s i n 2 6 + + s m (n s n

both gen r al ly whe r n 6 is e qu l to ny an gl a l ess th n


e e a a e a 77

a n d in th e p artic ul r c s e wh r e n i s v n nd 0 a n a e e e a 77 .

Prop 2 4 n d 3 5 pr ov e th t th e ar e as of th e c i rcl es e qu al to
s . a a

th es urfa c es of th e s ol i d s of r e v oluti on d s cr i b e d by th e e

polygons i n s cr ib d in th e s ph r n d s gmen t e th e bove


e e e a e ar a

17
s e ri e s m ultipli d by 4 7 s in an d e 2 s in r spe ctively
77
2
1r r
2
e
R
1r a
an d th re fore 4 r cos 47 1 an d r 2 cos 5 55 (1 cos a )
ar e e 1r
2
7r
2
,

resp ecti ely A rchi m d s s r es ult s fo th e s urface of th e


v . e e

r s

s ph e r e s egm n t 2 r (1 c os a ) ar e th e 2
nd 4 e a nd e , 7 a 7r ,

li miti ng valu es of th ese e xpr es s i on s wh en n is i n d n it ly e e

a
mor e s ed an d wh en th e re for e cos
a an d cos b come ~
e

un ity . A n d th e tw o se ri es multi pli e d by 47r r


2
s in
42 -
A R C H I M EDE S

7r r
2
r e p e cti ve ly e (wh n n is i n d e n it ly in cr eas d)
2 s in s ar e e e

pr ci ely what w s h ould r epr s en t by th i n tegra l s


e s e e e

2
s in Od d or
2
477 r .
, 4 7r r ,

2 s in Od d , or 2 7r r 2
(1 -
cos a ) .

k 1 1 con t in s ix probl ms an d thre th eor ms O f the


B oo a s e e e .

th or m Pr op 2 c ompl t es th i n v tig ti on of th e volu m of


e e s . e e es a e

an y s gm en t of e ph r Pr op 4 4 of Book I h vi ng only
a s e e, . a

br ought u to th e v olu m of th corr e pon di n g s ector If


s e e s .

A BB be
'
g ment of s ph e cut off by a pl n e t right
a se a ei a a

n gl s to A A w e l e ar n t I 4 4 th t th e v olum of th secto

a e , 1 11 . a e e r

OB A B is

e qu l
con with bas qu l to th e s urfac
a to th e e e e a e

of th seg m en t n d h ei ght e qu l to th r a d i u s i e 4
Z
e a AB a e ,
. . 11 . r ,

wh er is th r d i u s Th volum of th s gm n t i th er for e
e r e a . e e e e e s e

% 1r . AB 2
. r

rch i med s
A to e xpr e thi se w i s h es ss as a c on e with b s e th e a

s am s th t of th e eg m e n t
e a aLet A M s .
, th e h eight of th s eg e

m nt e h .

BM A M
2 2 '
AB z A A : : 2r :
(2 r
h) .

7r (A B 2
. r BM 2 OM ) : 77
'

. B 1l1 2

T h at is , g men t is e qu al to th e c on e with
the se th e sa me
b as e as . th t of th s egmen t nd h e ight h (3
a e a r h) .
O N TH E S P H ER E A N D C Y LI N DER II
'

, 43

T hi s is e xpr es s d by A rch im ed
e es thu s . If H M is th e h eight
of th e r qu i r e d c on e
e ,

HM : AM (OA A M ): A M
'
, (1 )
an d i milarly the con e
s e qual to th e se g m en t A BB

h a s th e
h eight H M wh ere

,

H M:A M A M) A M

(0 A .
(2 )
H is proof is of cour s e n ot in th e abov e for m but pur ely
, ,

g eom etric al .

Thi s pr op o iti on l ea d s to th e mo t i m p ort n t pr op os iti on in


s s a

th B ook P r op 4 wh i ch s olv es th e probl em To cu t a i ven


e , .
,
g
s
pher e by a
p la n e i n s u ch a wa y tha t the volu mes f
o the
s eg m en ts ar e to on e a n other in a gi ven r a ti o .

Cu bi c equ a ti on ar i si n g ou t o fII . 4 .

Ifm z n be th e giv en rati o of th e c on es which ar e e qu al to


th e s eg men t s a n d th e h ei ght s of which a r e h h w e h av e

, ,

a: 2 v
3:
h
..

an d , if w e eli m i n te h by m ean s of th r el at i on h + h
a

e

2r
we ea s ily obt i n th e foll ow i n g cubic e qu t i on in h
a a ,

h 3
3 h 2
r r
3

m+n
rchi m ed s in ff ct re duc es th probl m to th i s e qu ti on
A e e e e e a ,

which h ow e v er h e tr e ts
,
p rticul r c as of th m or e
,
a as a a a e e

g ene r l p oblem c o es pond in g to the e qu ti on


a r r r a

2
c z (2 r -
h)2 ,

whe r e b is a giv
l n gth nd c n y giv n ar ea
en e a
2
a e ,

x (a x) b0 2
wh r a: 2 r h nd 3
2
,
e e a r

A rchi m d s obt i n s his cub i c e qu at i on wi th on u n know n


e e a e

by mean s of a geometri ca l li mi n tion of H H from th e e a ,


m
e qu ti on H M H M wh r H M E M h a v e th e v alu es

a .
,
e e ,
n

d et r mi ned by th e proporti ons (1 ) and (2 ) bove after which


e a

th e on e v ri abl e p oi n t M r em i n i n g c orr s p on ds to th on
a a e e e

u n k now n of th e cubic e qu t i on H is m th od i r t to n d a . e s, s
44 A RCH IM EDES
v lu es for each of th r ti os A H H M an d H H A H which
a e a

ar e lik e i n d pen d ent of H H an d th en s econ d ly to qu t e


a e ,

, ,
e a

th ra ti o c om p ou n d d of th ese tw o to th k now n v lu e of
e e e a

r ti o
a

(01 ) We h v fr om a e,

0A :
(0 A + AM) .

(B) From 1 ) an d se
par a n d o,

AH z AM

OA : AM .

E quating th v lu s e a e of th e r tio A
a

M : AM giv en by
we h av e OA

: AH A H

OA

OH : OH ,

wh n ce e EH

OH

OA OA )

so th t a HH

A H

OH
2
A H
2
.

Bu t , by AM:A M

,

an d , co mpon end o , OH

:

A H

AA

: A M

.

By s ubs tituti on in
A M2
Z
AA

C om p oun d i n g w i th we o btai n
E M A M 2 ) (OA

HH "2

(A A

0A

[ The alg ebr aic al e quiv al ent of thi s is


m n

n (2 r h)2

which r educ es to

h 3
3 h2 r O, as a bov e ]
A rchi m e d es xpre ses
e s the r es ult (8 ) mor e s i m ply by p o r

d u cing C A to D s o th at OA AD n d th n di v idi ng A D at
, a e
O N TH E S PH ER E A N D C YLI N DER , II 45

E so th t a or We h av e
t h en 0A AD an d 0A +AM MD, so th at (8 ) re duc es to

A D z DE (A D z MD) ,

AI D z DE

y s A rchi med es D is given s i n ce A D OA A l o


N ow , sa , , . s ,

A D DE b e i n g a gi v en r ti o DE is given
,
: H en ce th e p o a , . r

blem re duce s it self to that of di v idi ng A D i nto two parts t


a

M s uch th t a

M D (a gi v enl en gth ) ( given ar ea) : A M


: a
2

Th a t is th e g enerali e d qu ti on is of the for m


, z e a

(a c)
c bc as a bov e 2
, .

A rchi med es s
luti on of the cubic

(1) own s o .

A rchi me des a dd s that if th e problem is propou n de d in thi s


,

gen r l for m it r e quires d opw pg [ i e it is ne c ss ry to


e a ,
a i . . e a

i n v es tig t the li m its of p oss ibili ty] but if the conditi on s e


a e , ar

add e d whi ch ex i s t in th e pres en t c ase


[i e in th e actu l . . a

probl em of Pr op it d o s n ot r e quir e a d opw ps (in oth er


. e t

w ord s a s oluti on is alw ay s p oss ible) H e th en promi s es to


,
.

giv t th e end an an aly s i s an d syn th es i s of both problems


e a

[ i e. t h e ao
.
p g an d th t pr obl em it s e lf]
la

Th e pr om is e d e .

s olu ti on s d o n ot a p ea r in th t r eati s e as w e h v e it but e


p a ,

Eu tocius gi v es s olutions taken fr om an old book which h e


man ge d to di s cov er aft er la boriou s s earch and which s in ce it
a , ,

w s p artly w r itten in A chi me des s fav ourit e Doric h e with



a r ,

f i r r as on ass u med to con t i n the mi ss i ng ad d en d u m by


a e a

A rchi me d es .

I n th e A rchi med ean fr ag m en t pr es er ve d by Eu tociu s th e


a b ov e e qu ati on x (a bc is s olv e d by mean s of th e i n t er 2
a)
2
, ,

secti on of a p arab ol a an d a r e ct an gul r hyp erb ol a th e e qu ti on s a , a

of whi ch m ay b e wri tt en thu s


2
c
y ( a w)y ab
E
.
,

Th e dtopw ps t a k es th e for m of i n v es tig ati n g th e max i mu m


p oss ible lu e o {1 3 (a ao) an d it is prove d th at thi s ma xi mu m


v a f 2
,

va lu e for r eal s oluti on is that corresp on di ng to the valu e


a

a: g a . Thi s is establi s h e d by s h owi ng th at if bc 7 7 a ,


2 3
,
O N TH E S P H ER E A N D C YLI NDER , II 47

(iii ) S oluti on rigi nal pr oblem of II 4 by Diocl


of th e o .
_

Diocl es procee de d in a diffe r en t m ann er s ti s fyi n g by ,


a ,

a g e ome tric al c on s tructi on n ot th e d e riv ativ e cubic e qu ati on


, ,

b ut th e thr ee s i m ult n eou s r el ati on s which h old in A r chi


a

me d es s p r op os iti on n ame ly

,

HA : h

H A : h

wi th th e s ligh t gen erali ation th at z su bs titutes for r in


th s e e qu ti on s n oth er l ngth a
e a a e .

pr oble m is give n s tr aight li n e


,
a r ti o m n nd , a a z ,
a

n oth e r s tr igh t li n e A K a ) to divid e A A poi n t M


a a t ,
a a

m e ti m to n d tw o p oi n t s H H on A A

an d t th e
a sa e ,

produce d s uch th at the bov r elati ons (with a in pl ce a e a

of ) h old
r .

Th analy s i s l e di n g to th e c on s truc ti on is v ery i n g n i ou


e a e s .

P l ce A K right n gl e s to A A n d dr w A K e qu l

a a
) t a a ,
a a a

an d p ra ll e l to it
a .

S upp os e th e pr obl em s olv e d and th e p oi n t s M H H all


, , ,

fou n d .


Joi n K M pr oduc e it a nd c om pl e t e th e r e ct n gle K GE K
, ,
a
48 A R C H I M EDES

P roduc e K M to

Dr w a QMN through M p r ll el a a to A K .

meet K G produc e d in F .

By s i mil r tri ngl es a a ,

FA z A M = or FA : h a z h ,

wh en ce FA A H (to s uppos ) ,
e .

S i m i l rly A H (lc s uppos e)


'
a A E ,
.

A g in by s i milar tri angl e


a ,
s,

(FA A M ) (A K

A M)

AM : A

M
A M)
(A K + A M ): (E A

,

(M k) (a + h)
N ow ,
by hypothes is ,

m : n (k + h)
(k + h)
[by
2
+ h ) (h + h

( a h)(a

s ur produc ed both w ays e qu l to a



M ea A A

AR , e A R on a .

at right an gl es to R R as s h ow n in th e gure

Draw

RP R P ,
.

Meas ure a l ong MN th e l ngth M V equal to MA o h an d e



r

,

dr wa PP

through V A to mee t R P R P
,

,

QV = P V:

/2
w

PV=

wh n ce
e PV . P V

2 (a h)(a h

)
and fr om (2 ) ab ov e
, ,

Zm z n

2 (
a + h) (h h )2

P V P V: .
QV 2
.
(3 )
he refore Qis on an elli ps e in which P P is a di amete r
T


,
and

QV is n ordi nat e to it
a .

A ga i n D GQNK is e qu al to D A A K K wh en c e

,

GQ .
QN = a 2r a, (4 )
and th re for e Q is on the r ectangular hyperbola with
e K F,
s ympt ot es an d pass i n g thr ough A

KK a s a .
O N TH E S PH ER E A N D C Y LI N DER , II 49

thi s i ng eni ou s an ly s i s wa s uggeste d it is n ot p os ibl


H ow a s s e

to say It is th quiv l en t of r educin g th e four u n know n


. e e a s

h h h l to tw o by putti ng h

n d Ic

, , , c + ac h
,
az
y r ,
r a ,

an d th en r e duci n g th e giv en r el ati ons to tw o equ ati on s in 90 y , ,

which ar e coordin at es of poi n t in el ati on to Ca Oy as ax e a r z, s,

wh er e O is th e m iddle p oin t of A A n d 0 56 li es long OA


,
a a

,

w hile Oy is p erp en dicular to it .

O u origin l r e l ati on s (p 4 7 ) giv e


r a .

r c
c ah r + zc

an d
h

r + a
$ n h

We h ave at on e , c from th e r s t two qu ation s e ,

r +x

wh ence (r a )y a (r at ,)
(90 + r )(y + a) z r a,

which is th e r ctangular hyp rbola (4 ) bov


e e a e .

wh ence w e obt i n a a cubic equ ti on a in a


c,

x
) Z (r
which gives

n
o
r a

+ r c
c
y
wh en c e
r a:

an d the e qu ati on be comes


2
(y r a; 2
) (r + a)

which is th e e llip s (3 ) bov


e a e .
50 A R C H M EDES I
To r eturn to A rchi me des k II of ou r tr eati se c ontai n s
. B oo
further pr obl ems : To nd ph r e qu al to a gi ven con e o
a s e e r

cylinder (Pr op s ol e d by r educti on to th e n di n g o


. v f tw o
mean prop ortional s ; to cut ph er e by a pl ane i nt o two a s

s egmen t s h avi n g th e i r urfac s in a given rati o (Prop


s e .

which is easy (by me n of I 4 2 a given tw o se gments of


s .
,

s ph eres to n d a third s g m e n t of a s ph e r e s i m il a r to on e
,
e

of th e giv en s egment s n d h a vi n g its s u r f ac e e qu al to th a t of


a
"

th e othe r (P rop 6 ) th e m e problem wi th volu m e s ubs titut e d


. sa

for s urfac e (P r op whi ch i g in reduced to the n di n g


. s a a

of two mean proporti on l ; from giv en sph er e to cut off


a s a

a s eg men t h avi n g a giv en r tio to th e c on e with th e same a

base and equ l hei ght (P rop


a Th e Book c on cludes with .

two i n t er e s tin g th eor em If ph re be cut by a plane i n to


s . a s e

two seg men t s th e gr t r of wh i ch h a its s urfac e e qua l to S


,
ea e s

n d its v olu me e qu l to V whi l e th e s urfac e an d



a a S V , e , ar

volu me of the l es r th n V V S S but Si S i 2 2


se ,
e : : r

(Pr op . an d of ll ,
gm n t of s ph er es which have th eir
a se e s

s urfac es e qu l th e h em i s ph r
a ,
i th e gr eat es t in v olu me e e s

(Prop .

M eas u r em e nt of a C ir cle .

The book on the M s u m en t of C i cle cons i s ts of thr ee


ea r e a r

pr opos itions only and is n ot in its origin l form h av i ng los t


,
a ,

(as the tr eati se On th Sphe nd Cyli nd er al s o h as pr ac


e
) r e a

tically all tr ace of th Doric di lect in which A rchimede s


e a

wrote ; it may be only fr gm n t of l r ger treati se Th e


a a e a a .

thr ee propos itions which s urv i v e prov e (I ) that the area of


a circl e i s e qu al to th t of igh t ngl d tri an gl e in which
a a r ~
a e

th e per p en dicul ar is e qu al to th e r diu n d th e base to th e a s, a

circu mference of the circl (2 ) th t th e a re of a circle is to


,
e, a a

th e s quar e on its di m t r s 1 1 to 1 4 (th e te xt of thi s pr o


a e e a

pos ition is h ow e ve r u n ti f ctory n d it cannot h ave been


, ,
sa s a ,
a

pl ace d by A rchi medes be fore P rop 3 on which it d epen ds ) .


, ,

(3 ) tha t the r ati o of the ci r cu mf r n ce of a n y ci r cle to i ts e e

d i ameter (i c .
) is . 3 % bu t
1r Pr op 1 i s pr ove d by .

the meth od of e xh u ti on in A rchi m d es s u s u al for m



a s he e :

approx i mat es to th e r of th c i rcle in both di r ecti on s


a ea e

(a)by i nscribing s ucc es i v regul r polygons with a n u mber of


s e a
M EA S U R EM EN T O F A C I R C LE

side s con tin u ally doubl ed beginn i ng from a s qu ar e (b) by , ,

circu ms cribin g s im il r s et of r egular polyg on b gi nn i ng


a a s e

from a qu are i t bei ng s h ow n th a t if th e n u mbe r of th e


s , ,

s ides of th e e p olyg on s be c on ti n u ally d oubl e d mor e th an h alf


s ,

of th e p or ti on of th e p olyg on out i d e th e circl e will b e t ak e n s

aw ay each ti m e s o th a t w e s h ll ulti mat ely a rriv e


, t circu m a a a

s crib e d p olyg on gr e t e r th n th e circl e by s p ac e l es s th an


a a a

an y s s i n e d ar ea
a
g .

Pr op 3 c on t ai n i n g th e rith m e ti c al a ppr oxi mati on to


.
, is a 77 ,

th e mos t i n t e r es ti n g Th me th od mou n t s to c lcul ti ng


'

. e a a a

appr oxi mat e ly th e p r i m e t r of tw o r e gul ar p olyg on s of 9 6 e e

s id es on,
of which i s e r cu ms c ibe d
e n d th e oth e r i n s crib d l r , a e ,

to th e circl e ; n d th e c lcul a ti on s t art s from a gr e t r and


a a a e

a l esse r li mit to th e v alu e of / 3 which A rchi me d es u mes s , as s

without rem rk as kn ow n n mely a ,


a

H ow did
rch i m d e rrive t th e particul r pp o i
A e s a a se a a r x

m ti on ? N o pu l e h s e x erci se d mor f s ci n ati on upon


a s z z a e a

writer i n t r s t ed in the hi s tory of math m atics De Lagn y


s e e e .
,

Mollweid Bu engeige H ub r Z uth en P T nn ery H il e r


e, z r ,
a e , e ,
. a ,
e

mann H ul t ch H u n ath We r th ei m B oby n in th e


,
s ,
e th e r , ,
: se ar

n ame of s om e of th e auth or
s of di f f r en t conj ectur es Th e s e .

si mples t upp o iti on is cert i n ly th t of H un th nd H u lts ch


s s a a ra a ,

wh o s ugg s t e d th t th e form u l u s e d w a
e a a s

> a +

wh ere a
2
is th e b v b l w +b
n ea es r t s qu r a e n u mb er a o e or e o a
2
,

as th e c e m ay b e
as The u s of th e r s t p art of th i s for mul
. e a

by H er on w h o m de a n u m ber of s uch ppr oxi mati ons i


,
a a ,
s

prov ed by p s s ge in his Met i ca wh er e a rul e e quival ent


a a a r
1
,

to thi s is appli e d to / 7 2 0 ; th e s e c ond p r t of th e for mul a is x a

used by th e A r abi n A lk r khi ( l e v en th c en tury) wh o dr ew a a e

from Gr eek sourc es an d on e approxi m ti on in H eron m ay be ,


a
'

obt ai n e d in thi s w y A n oth e r s ugg es ti on (th a t of T nn ery 2 a


a .

1
r
H e on, M etr i ca , i . 8 .

2
Ster eom .
ii , p . 1 84 . 1 9 , H ul ts ch ; p . 1 54 . 1 9 , H ei b .
J5 4 = 7 1 =7 5
1 3

instead of 7 1 51 .
52 A R C H I M EDES

of
an d Z euth en) is th at th e s ucc ess iv e so luti on s in i n t eg r s e

th e e quati on s

m ay h v b en foun d in
a e s i m i l ar w ay to th os e of th e
e a

e u ti o
an s 56 + 1 g i ve n by Th eon of S myrn
2 aft r a e
q
th e Pyth agor ns Th r es t of th e s ugge s ti on s am oun t fo th e
ea . e r

m os t p rt to th u s of th me th od of c on ti n u ed fr c ti on
a e e e a s

mor o l s s di gu i s d
e r e s e .

A pplyi ng th bov formul w e eas i ly n d


e a e a,

x/
2 3, 3 2

Z
,
w/ 3 g .

N e xt ,
cl ar i n g
e of fr cti ons
a ,
we con s id r e 5 appr ox i

m a ti on to x/ 3 3 2 or /27
x ,
an d we h vea

2
5 + T5
Z
3 7 3 5 + Tf ,

wh e n ce

C l eari n g of fr cti on s g
a a a n,i an d t ki n g
a 26 an appr ox i

l

ge
26

which r educes to
x/ 3
1 3 s 1 _ _ _
26 5
7 8 0 1 5 3
.

Archi med s r t t ake th e c s ofth c i rcu m s cr i b d polyg on


e s s a e e e .

L t CA b e th tan g n t t A to
e c i rcular c with c n tr e 0
e e a a ar e .

M k th e n gl A OG equ l to on third of
a e a e right an gle a e -
a .

Bi ct th e an gle A GO by OD th
se n gl e A OD by OE th e , e a ,

a n gl e A C E by OF n d th e n gl e A OF by O G , P r oduc e GA
a a .

to A H m k i n g A H e qu al to A G
,
a Th n gl e GOH i s th e n . e a

qu l to th n gl e FOA wh i ch is h of a r i ght an gl 1
7 3t so
e a e a e,

th t GH i th e s i d of circu ms cribe d regul r p olyg on with


a s e a a

9 6 s ides .

OA : AC [= V 3 : l ]
MEA S U R EM EN T O F A C I R C LE 53

A nd, i c
s n e bi sects th e an gl e C OA

CO : OA C D z DA ,

so that (0 0 + OA ) OA CA DA ,

(C O + OA ) CA 0A : AD .

H en c e 0 14 A D 57 1 1 53,

0 11 2 A D2 (0 14 + A D
2 2
): A D
2

3 49 450 : 23409 .

T h er for e e, sa y s A rchi m ed es ,

0 1) s 5915 1 53 .

Next ,
ju s t
ve foun d th e li mit of OD A D
as we ha z

from C C CA n d th e li m it of OA A C w e n d th e l i mit
a , s

of OA A E n d OE A E from th e li m it s of OD DA and
: a : z

OA A D : nd s o on Thi s gi v es ulti m t ly the l i mit of


,
a . a e

OA AG .

Dea l i ng with th e i n scri be d polygon A rchime de g ets s a

s i mi l ar se ri es of a ppr oxi m ati on s


A B C b ei ng a s emic i rcl th e
. e,

angl e B A C is mad e qu al to on e third of


e right angl e Th n -
a . e ,

if th e an gl e B A C is bis e ct e d by A D th e an gl e BA D by A E , ,

th e ngl e BA E by A F an d th e
a n gl e B A F by A G th
,
a , e

s tr ight li ne B G is th e s id e of an i n s crib e d p olygon w i th


a

9 6 s ide

s .
M EA S U R EM EN T O F A C I R C LE 55

ries of v alue foun d by A rchi m ed


Th e se s es ar e s h ow n in th e
followin g t bl e a :

a b n a b c

65 306 0 1351 1 560 7 80


7 1 153 1 291 1 7 80

59 1g so me 9,
153 s ee4 g e 7 80

>li7 z e 1823 2 40

1 8 3 8 51T

( 233 g) 2
1 5 32 1] s s ci fg

2 3 3 94 1 007

1 0 0 93 -

20 1 6% 66
20 1 7 2
an d , b ri n g in m ind th at in th e r s t c se th n al r ti o
ea a e a

a c i s th e r t i o OA
4
AG 2 CA GH an d in th s con d c a e
a ,
e e s

th n al r ti o b c is th r ti o A B B G whil e GH in th r t
e a
4
e a , e s

gure n d B G in th e s econ d
a th id of r gul r polyg ons ar e e s es e a

of 9 6 i d e c i rcu ms crib d
s n d i n s cr i b d r e p
s e ctiv l y w h v e a e s e , e a e

n lly a

> 7T >

A rchi m e d es s i m ply i n f r from thi s th t


e s a

34 >7r

m a tt er of f ct
667 % an d
As a a 3
46 7 3 ;
1 '

1
It is l bs rv ed that 3 43 3 + 7 1 0 n d t may
a so to b e o e , a i

h av b en
e rr i v d t by a me th od e quiv l n t to d vel op i n g
e a e a a e e

6 336
th e fr ct on a n th e form of
i con t n u ed f ctmn
l a l ra .

1
20 1 4

It s h ould b e n ote d th t in th e text a s w h ve it th v lu s a ,


e a ,
e a e

of b b b b e s i m ply s t at e d in th ir ar n al for m with out e


l , 2 , 3 , 4
th e i n t e r me di t e s t e p c on t ai n i n g th e r dic l xc pt in th r s t
a a a e e e

1 H r th r t i o of to i nth r t i t r d d to low c ar e e s n s an ce e u ce e
'

e e e a s a

t rm
e s .
56 A R C H I MEDES

case of all wh ere w e ar e t ld th t


o a OD : A D 2
3 4 9 4 5 0 2 3 4 0 9 2
,

an d th en th at OD D A A t th e poi n t s ma rke d
59 117 : 1 53 .

h t bl A rchi m d i m pli t h r ti o a z : e an d
a d T
n i n t e a e e es s e s e a

a : 0 b e for e c alcul ati n g b2 b3 r e s p ectiv e ly by m ultiplyi g


n ea ch
, ,
s
t erm in th e rs t c e by { 5 nd in th e s econ d c asby 3 1
a as e
1
21

H e gi v s no explan ti on of th e ex act gure t ak en as th e


e a

a ppr x
o i m ti on to th e s qu
a a r r oot in e ch c a s e o o f th e e a ,
r

me th od by which h obtaine d it We m y h ow ev e r b e s ure e . a , ,

th at th method mount ed to th e u se of th e form ul (a 1 b)


e a a
-

_
-

_
2

2 a h 11 m uch as ou m th od of xtr ac ti ng th e s qua r e


2 2 e
a r e
,

root also depen ds upon it .

We h v e alre dy s een ( ol i p 2 3 2 ) th at according to


a a v .
, . ,

H e r on A rchi med e s m ade a s till cl os e r pproxi mat i on to th e


,
a

valu e of 71 .

O n C onoid s an d S ph e r oid s .

Th e m ain probl ems att ack ed in thi s tre ati se ar e in A rchi ,

med es s m ann er s t at e d in h is pr efa c e ad dr e s s e d to Dosith e u s


, ,

whi ch als o s et s ou t th e pre mi ss es with rega rd to th e s olid


gur es in ques tion Thes e premi s ses cons i s t of d en i t ions and
.

obv i ou s i n fer en c es from th em Th e gur es ar e ( 1 ) th e r i ght .

an l ed con oid (p ar ab ol oi d of r e v oluti on ) (2 ) th e obtu se a n gled


g
-

con oid (hyperboloi d of revolution ), and (3 ) th e spher oi ds


(a ) the oblong d es cri be d by th e re volution of an ellips e a bout
,

its gr ea t er di ame t e r (m aj or a x i s ) (b) th e f la t, d es cr i b e d by


r
th e e o v luti o o
n f a n e llip s e a b out i ts

les s er di ameter (min or

a xis ) O th er d en i t i on s ar e thos of the v t x and ax i of the


. e er e s

gures o segmen t s th ereof th e v ertex of a segmen t be ing


r ,

the p oi n t of c on t act of th e tan g ent pl an e to th e s olid which


is p ar ll l to th e bas e of th e s gmen t
a e Th e cen tr e i s on ly e .
.

r ecogn i ed in th e c se of th e s pheroid wh t corr es p on ds to


z a
:

th e cen tr e in th e c se of th e hyp e rboloid is th e v rte x of


a e .

th e en v el opi ng con (des crib e d by th e rev olution of wh at


e

A rchi m d s c all s th e n ear s t li n es to th e se cti on of th e



e e e

obtu se ngl e d con e i e th e y mptot e of the hyp erbola)



-

a , . . as s ,

an d th e l i n e b etw ee n thi s poi n t n d th e v e rt ex of th e hyp e r a

boloid o egmen t is calle d not th e a x i s o di ame t e r but (th e


r s , r ,

line) dj cent to th e ax i s Th e axi s of th e segm en t is in



a a

.

th e c e of th e p ar b ol oid th e l i n e thr ough th e v ert e x of th e


as a

s e gm n t p arall el to the ax i
e of th e p ar b oloid in th e c ase s a ,
ON C O N OI DS A N D S PH ER O I DS 57

of hyprboloi d th e p orti on within th e s olid of th e lin


th e e e

j oin i ng th v ertex of th e en velopin g cone to the v ertex of


e

th e s eg men t an d produc d n d in th e c s e of th e s ph er oi d th e e , a a s

li ne j oin i ng th e p oi n ts of con t ct of th e tw o tan gen t pl nes a a

p r alle l to th e b ase of th e s eg men t Den i t i on


a dd d of . s ar e a e

eg m en t of con e (th e gure cut off t ow rds th e ve rtex by


a s a a

a n lliptic l n ot c i rcul ar se ct i on of th e con e) nd fru tum


e a , ,
a a

s

of a cyl i n d r (cut of f by two p r ll e l e lliptic l s ecti on s )



e a a a .

Pr op s 1 to 1 8 with Le mm a at th e b egi nn in g
. e pr li m i n ary a ar e

to th ma i n s ubj e ct of th e tr e ti s e
e Th e Lemm a n d Pr op s 1 2 a . a .
,

a e gen e r al pr op os iti on
r n ee d e d aft e rw ard s Th y i n clud e s . e

pr opositi on in s u m m ti on s a ,

2 n . na 2 { a +2a + )a } 1

(Le mma )
(th i s is cl ea r fr om S7 , n (n 1 )a );

(n 1) + n a)

L mm a to P r op 2
( e ) .

wh en ce
'

(C or ) .

2
n na ( )
2
(n -
1a )}
l tly Pr op 2 gives lim i ts
as ,
. for th e su m of n t rm
e s of th e
er i e for m of
2
s d x + xs 2x 2
,
a a 3x (
3x ) ,
in th e
i n qu liti of r ti o thu
e a es a s, s :

-
a + n x)
-

Prop 3 pr ove that if QQ b e a ch ord of p r bola b i s cted


. s ,

a a a e

at V by th di met er P V th n if P V b e of con t nt l ngth


e a ,
e ,
s a e ,

th e ar ea of th e tri n gl e P QQ an d of th e segmen t P QQ

s a e ar

al s o c on t n t wh at e v e r b e th e dir e cti on of Q Q ; to pr ov e i t

s a ,

A rchi me d es as s u m es a pr op os iti on prov e d in th e comic an d s

by n o me n s eas y n me ly th t i f QD b e p rp en dicul r to P l
a ,
a a ,
e a

an d if p b e th e p ar am e t e r s c orre s p on di n g to th e ord i n at es
p , a

p rall l to QQ and th prin cipal ordi n ates r e p ectively then


a e

e s ,

QV z QD = p z p
2 2
.
a

Prop s . 4 6 d l withea th e a ear of a n e llip se wh i ch ,


is in th e
,
58 A R C H I M EDES

r t s thr propo it i on prov d to be to th e re of


of th e ee s s, e a a

th e uxili ry circl e s th m i nor xi s to th e m aj or ; e quil at r al


a a a e a e

p olyg on of 4 n i de s e i n s cribed in th circl e n d c om p ar e d


s s ar e a

with corr s pon d ing p olygon sin c ibed in th e llip e which a


'

e s r e s ,
r e

d term in e d by th i n t er secti on with th e ellip e of th e doubl


e e s s e

ordi n t p ass i ng through th angul r p oi n ts of th e p olygon


a es e a s

i n s cr i b d in th circl nd th e m eth od of ex h u ti on is th en
e e e, a a s

a ppl i ed in th u u l w y Prop 7 8 s h ow h ow giv n an ellips


e s a a . s .
, ,
e e

wi th c en tre C n d s tr ight li n e C O in a pl n p erp en di cul ar to


a a a a e

th t of the ell i p nd p s i n g through an xi of i t ( 1 ) in th


a se a as a s ,
e

c as e wh r 0 0 is p erpen d i cular to th t xi s (2 ) in th e c s
e e a a ,
a e

wh r it i n ot w c n n d an (in g n r l obl i qu ) circul r


e e s ,
-

e a e e a e a

c on with ve rt x 0 s uch th t th e giv n l l i p e i s


e e cti on of it a e e s a se ,

o i n oth r w ord s h ow w e c n n d th c i rcul ar


r , e cti on of the
, a e se s

cone w i th v rt x 0 wh i ch p e through th c i rcum fe r n ce of


e e as s s e e

th e ellip se ; i mi l arly P rop 9 h ow s h ow to n d th circul r


s . s e a

se ction s of cyl i n der w i th C O as x i s n d with s urf c p s i n g


a a a a e a s

through th circu m fer n ce of n ll i p s with c n tr C wh er


e e a e e e e ,
e

C O i in th pl n thr ough n ax i s of th
s e a llip n d pe p n
e a e e se a r e

dic l to its pl n e but is n ot i t s elf p rp n d i cul r to th at


u ar a ,
e e a

a x i Prop 1 1 1 8 g i ve im pl prop ert i s of th e con oid s n d


s . s .

s e e a

s ph roid e ily d r i v bl e from the properti s of th e re s p ctive


s , eas e a e e

con i c ; th y xpl i n th n tur nd r l t ion of th


s e e a ct i on s e a e a e a e se

m d by pl n
a e cuttin g th s ol i d s r s p ct i v ly in d i ff r n t w y s
a es e e e e e e a

(pl n through th x i p r ll l to th x i thr ough th c n tr


a es e a s, a a e e a s, e e e

o thr v rt x of th n v lop in g con e p rp n d i cul r to th axi


e e e e e e ,
e e a e s,

o cutti n g i t obl i qu ely r


r p ctive ly) w i th e s p ec i l r efe ren c e to ,
es e ,
a

th e llipt i c l sect i on of ch s oli d th e im il rity of p r all l


e a s ea , s a a e

e ll i pt i c l secti on s &0 Th n w i th P rop 1 9 th e r l bu s in es s


a , . e . ea

of th treat i s b gi n s n m ly th
e i nv e tig ti on of th v olu m e
e e , a e e s a e

of g men t (r i ght o obl i que) of th tw o con oi d n d th e


se s r e s a

s ph roi d r s p ct i v ly
e s e e e .

Th m th od is in ll c es to circu m s crib
e e , n d i n cr i b e to a as , e a s

th s gm n t s ol i d gur e m d up of cyli n d er o ffru s t a of


e e e s a e s r

cyli n d rs which c n b made to d i ff r s littl


e

, w e pl sea e e a e as ea

from on n oth r s o th t th c i rcu m crib d nd i n s cribed


e a e , a e s e a

gur s e s i t w er e compr s d tog th e r n d i n to coin c i d n c


e ar ,
a , es e e a e e

with th e s egm n t wh i ch i i n t er m di t b e tw e n th em
e s e a e e .

I n e ch d i gr m th e pl n of th p p r i
a a a pl an e through a e e a e s a

th x i s of th e c onoid o s ph er oid t r i ght ngl to th plan e


e a r a a es e
O N C ON O I DS A N D S PH ER O I DS 59

of th e ti on which is the b s e of the egm n t n d which


s ec a s e ,
a

18 c cl
a o1r n e ll i p se a cc ordin g
e r a s th e aid b e i s o i s n ot
a s as r

a t right ngl e s to th e
a plan e of th e p per cut s th e a

base in a di m eter of th e circl e or n xi s


a e llip s e
a a

th c e m ay b e
e as .

t r
n a u e of i n s crib d nd circum s cribe d gur es will
th e e a

be s een fr om th e b ov e gure s s h ow i n g eg me n ts of
a sp r a a a

boloid ,
a hype rboloid n d a
ph r oi d r s p e ct i v ly cut off
a s e e e ,
60 A R C H I M EDES

by planes obliqu ely i n clin ed to th e axi s The base of th e


.

s egmen t is an ellip se in which B B i s an ax i s an d its pl an e i s



,

at right angl e s to th e p l n of th p p r which pas ses thr ough


a e e a e ,

the a xi s of th e s olid an d cut s it in p r bol a a hyp erbola or a a a , ,

an e llips e r es p e cti ve ly Th x i of th e s g men t is cut in t o


. e a s e a

n u mbe r of e qu al p art s in ea ch c se n d pl an es ar e dr a w n a ,
a

through each poi nt of s ection p r llel to th e bas e cutti ng th e a a ,

s olid in e llip s es s i mil a r to th e b s e i n wh i ch P P



Q &c ar e
, Q a , , ,
.
,

a xe s Des cribi ng fru t of cylin de rs with axi s A D an d p as s in g


. s a

through these elliptical se ction re p ctiv ely w e draw the s s e ,


-

circumscribed and i ns crib d s oli d con s i tin g of thes e frus ta e s s .

It is ev iden t th at begi nni n g from A th e r t in s cribe d fru s tu m


, ,
s

i s equ al to the r s t circum crib d fru s tu m th e s ec on d to th e s e ,

se c on d an d s o on but th re i s on e mor
, , circums cribe d fru s tum
e e

th an i ns cribe d and th e diff ren ce b etw en th e circums cribed


, e e

an d i n s crib e d s olid is qu l to th la s t fr u s tu m of which BB


s e a e

i s th e b as e and N D is th ,
xi s S in ce N D can be made as e a .

small as w e pl e se th e d i f f r en c b e tw een th e circums crib e d


a ,
e e

an d i n s crib ed s olid s c n b m d l es th n an y as s igne d s olid


a e a e s a

whatever H en ce w e h av th r equ i r m n t s for pplying the


. e e e e a

method of e x h au s tion .

C on s id er now s e p r te ly th c of th e p ar ab ol oid th e
a a e as es ,

hyp erboloid and th e s pheroid .

I The par a boloi d (Prop 2 0


. s .

Th e fru s tu m th e b e of wh i c h i th e e llip se in which P P is



as s

n a xi s i proporti on l to P P o P N i e proporti on al to 2 2
a s a r ,
. .

AN . S uppos e tha t th e a x i A D c) i s di v ide d in t o n e qu als

parts A rchimede com p res each fru s tum in th e in s cribe d


. s a

and circu ms crib ed ur with th e fru tu m ofth e wh ol e cyli n de r


g e s

B F cut of f by th e s ame plan e s Thu . s

(r s t fru s tu m in B F) (rs t fru tu m in in s cribe d gure) s

B D2 P N 2
AD: AN

S i milarly

(s econ d frus tum in B F) (s econ d in i n s crib ed gur e)

and s o on . Th e las t fru tu m s in th e cylin der B F h as non e to


ON C O NO I DS A N D S PH ER O I DS 61

corre pon d to it in the i ns crib ed gure and w e s h ou ld wri t


s , e

th e r ti o as (B D
a e ro) z .

A rchi m ed e c on clud es by m ean s of a l emma in prop orti on s


s ,

formi n g P rop 1 th at .
,

(fru s tu m B F) (i n s cribed gur e)


(B D + H N + (TN + S M + + X O)
n
2
lc (16 + 2 lC + 3 16 + +n

wh er e XC 1 s o th t B D n k 6, a .

I n li k e man n r h e c on clud es th at e ,

(fru s tu m BF) (circums crib d gur e e )


z
n k (lc+ 2 h + 3 k + + uh
)
.

Bu t , by th e Lemma precedi ng P r op 1 .
,

16 + 2 /c + 3 76 + +n 1 h en
2
lc 16 + 2 16 + 3 16 + + n h,

when c e
(fru s tu m B F) (i n sor g ) 2 (fru s tu m B F) (ci cu m c . . r s r .

Thi s i n di c t e th e de s ir ed r e ult which i th en c onrme d by


a s s , s

th e me th od of e xh u s ti on n me ly th at a ,
a

(frus tu m B F) 2 ( egm en t of p r bol oi d ) s a a ,

o i f V b e th v olum e of th s eg m n t of cone with v ertex


r , e e e a ,

A n d bas e th
a am s th t of th e s gm n t
e s e a a e e ,

(volu me of egm n t) V s e -

A rchi m d e it will be en proves in ff ct th t if k be


e s, se , e e a ,

i n d ni tely d i mi n i s h ed n d n i nd nitely i n creas ed while n /


e , a e , c

r emai ns e qu l to c the n a ,

li mit of 16
th at i in ou n ot ation
s, r ,

Pr op prov es th t th volu me is cons tan t for a given


. 23 a e

leng th of axi A D wh ethe r the seg m n t is cut off by plane


s ,
e a

perpen dic ular o n ot p erp endi cul r to th e axi and Prop 2 4


r a s, .

s h ow s th at th e v olu m es of tw o s egm en t e s th s qu ares on s ar a e

th eir x es a .
O N C O N O I DS AN D S P H ER O I DS 63

so tha t
71 8 7 1 ah (h + 2 h + + n h)+ h + 0 00
2
}
Th e li mit of thi s l atter e xpr ess ion is what we s h ould w r ite

(
2
ax + x )d x b2

an d rchi me d es s pr oce dure is th e e quiv l ent ofthi s i nt egrati on


A

a .

III I n th case of th e spher oid (Pr op s 2 9 30 ) w e take


. e .
,

a se gm en t l es s th an h alf th s ph r oid e e .

A s in th e c s of th e hyp erb ol oid a e ,

(fru s tu m in B F) (frus tum on base Q



Q)
B D2 QM
2

AD A D AM A M;

-
. .

but in ord r to r educ th e s um mati on to th am


, e that ine e s e as

Pr op 2 A rchi m d e xpr ss es A M A M in a di ffer n t for m



.
, e es e . e

equiv l n t to th e followin g
a e .

Let A D b) b e d ivid e d i n t o n e qu l parts of l ength h a ,

an d s upp os e th t A A CD

a so a , .

Th en AD A D
2
%a
AM A M h)2 (DM h)

.

(
so + r r

AD A D

{c
c b + b2 {6 r h+

hu s in thi s c se w e h v
T a a e

(frus tum B F) (i n crib d g u r e) s e

E n
{o r . h ( r h 2

(fru s tu m B F) (circu m s crib ed gure)


n cb ( b) 2
[ (
n cb b 2
) El n 1
{c h
'

A nd ,
i c
s n e 6 n h, we h ave by me ,
an s of P o r p . 2,

n cb ( 6 2
) :
[ n (cb b2 ) El n { c r h

(c + b) { c + b (% c +
n eb ( b 2
) [ ( n cb b ) 2 2
{c r h
64 A R C H M E DES I
The con clu si on , Con rm d e as us ual by the me thod of ex

h aus tion is th at ,

(frus tu m BF) (s egmen t ofs pher oid) (c b) : { c b $0 % b)}


(c b) (so b) ,

whence (v olume of s gmen t ) (v olume of con e A B B ) e


(30 + 2 b) (0 + b)

(3 CA A D) (2 0 A -
A D ), i c
s n e 0A 15 0
7 b.

pa rticular ca s e (Props 2 7
As a half the s ph eroid is .
,

double of the corres pon di ng c on e .

Pr ops 3 1 3 2 con cludin g th tr e ti e d e duce th e s i mil a r


.
, ,
e a s ,

formula for the volu me of th gre ter s egmen t namely in ou r e a , ,

gure ,

(great er s egmt) (c on e or . se
gmt of con e with s ame base and ax i s)

O n S pir al s .

Thetreati se On Spi r als b egin w i th a pr eface addr es se d to s

Dosith eus in which A rchi me d es m en ti on s the d eath of C onon


as a gri ev ou s l oss to math m t i c n d th en s u mmari e s the e a s, a z

mai n r es ults of th e tre tis s On the Sphe e a n d Cyli nd er an d


a e r

On Con oid s a n d Sphe oi d s ob e rvi n g tha t th e l as t two pr o


r ,
s

positions of Book II of th form r tre ti s e took the place e e a

of tw o which as or i gi n a lly en un ci t e d to Dos ith eu s w er e


,
a ,

wrong ; las tly h e s tate th mai n res ul ts of the treati s e


,

s e

On Spi r a ls pr emi s i n g th e den iti on of a s piral w h ich i s as


,

follow s

If traight li n e one extr mity of which r emai ns x ed be


a s e

mad e to rev ol ve at a un i form r at in pl ne un til it r eturn s e a a

to th e p os iti on from w hi ch it s t art e d n d if a t th e s ame ti me , a ,

a s th e s traight li ne is r v olvi n g a p oi n t mov e at a u n ifor m


e ,

rate along th e s tr aight lin s t rti ng from th e x e d ex tremity


e a
,

th e p oin t will d e s crib e a s p r l in th e pl n e



i a a .

u sual w e h ave s eri es of prop os iti ons preli mi nary to


As ,
a

the mai n s ubj ect rs t tw o propo i ti on ab ou t u nifor m moti on


, s s
,
O N S P I R A LS 65

th n tw o s i mpl e geom trical pr opos iti on s follow e d by p o


e e ,
r

pos iti on s (5 9 ) which a e ll of one typ e Prop 5 s tat es th t


r a . . a ,

giv en a circle with cen tr e 0 tangen t to it t A and c the ,


a a , ,

FI G . 1 .

circum feren ce of ny circl e wh t v r it is poss ible to dr w


a a e e , a

a s tr ight li n
a OFF meeti n g th e circl e in P n d th e t n gen t
e a a

in F s uch th t a

FP : UP < (a1 c A P )

c .

A rchimed e s t k D tr ight li n e gr ea t r th n dr w
a es a s a e a 0, a s

OH p r all l to th t nge n t a t A and th n s y l t PH b



a e e a e a s e e

placed qu al to D ve gi n g ( o ) tow rd s A
e r Thi s i th e
ve va a a s

us u al phras eolog y of th typ of pr obl m kn own e am s e e as r e

W h er e s tr ight li n e of giv e n l e ngth h


a a to b pl c e d b etw e n as e a e

two li n s o curv e in s uch a p o i ti on th t if produc d i t


e r s s a , e ,

p s e s thr ough a given poi n t (thi s is th m an ing of ve gin g)


a s e e r .

Each of th e prop os iti on s 5 9 d p en d on a m s of thi s ki n d


e s ue

,

FI G 2 . .

which A rchi me d es as su me s a pos i bl e with out s h owing h ow s s


it i effected Ex ce pt in th e ca e of Pr op 5 th e th eoretical
s .
s .
,

s oluti on c n not b e ef
a fe ct e d by mean s of th e tr igh t li n e nd s a a

circle ; it dep en d s in g ene ral on th e soluti on of n equation a

of th e four th d egr ee which c n be solv e d by m ean s of th e


,
a
66 A R C H I M EDES

poin ts i n ter s cti on of a cert i n r ectangul r hyp erbol a


of e a a

a n d a c e rt i n p r bol a It is quit pos s ibl e h ow e ver th t


a a a . e , , a

s uc h pr obl m s w r e in pra ctic e oft en s olv e d by


e e m e ch an ic l a a

meth od n m ly by pl ci ng a rul er by tri al in th e p os iti on of


, a e a , ,

th r qu i r d li n e fo it is on ly n e c e ssary to pl c e th e rul e r
e e e : r a

s o th t i t p s ses thr ough th e giv en p oi n t


a a n d th en turn it a

r oun d that p oin t s pivot till th e i n t rc pt b ecom s of th e


a a e e e

g i v en l ength I n Pr op 6 9 we h ve circl with c en tre 0


. s .

a a e ,

a ch ord A B l e s th n the di am t r in it OM th e perpen dicular


s a e e ,

from O on A B B T th tang n t t B OT th e s tr ight l in


, e e a , a e

thr ough 0 p ar ll el to A B ; D E i ny r ti o l es s o great r


a : s a a r e ,

a s th c s m y be th n th rati o B M M O P rop s 6 7
e a e a , a e : . .
,

(F i g 2 ) h ow th t it is po s ibl e to draw s tr ight li n e OFP


. s a s a a

FI G 3 . .

m eet i ng A B in F an d th e c i rcl e in P s uc h th at FP P B = D E
(OP mee tin g A B in th e c as e wh er e D E B M : M O an d ,

m e e ti n g A B produc e d wh en D E B M M O) I n P r op s 8 9 . .
,

(Fig t i prov d th t it is poss ibl e to dr w s traight li n e


. 3) i s e a a a

OEP m ti n g A B in F th e circl in P an d th t n g n t t B in
ee , e e a e .a

G s uch th t FP B G = D E (OP m e ti n g A B i t s elf in th e c ase


, a : e

wh r D E B M M O an d m eeti n g A B pr oduce d in th e
e e : ,

c s wh e r D E B 11] M O)
a e e : : .

We w ill illu str t e by th con s tructi on s in P rop s 7 8 a e .


, ,

as it is th es e prop o i ti ons w hich e ctually cit d l t r s ar a e a e .

Pr op 7 If D E is ny r ti o B M M O it is r e quire d (Fig 2 )
. . a a : , .

to dr w OP F meeti n g th c ircl e in P an d A B produc e d in



a e

F s o th t

a

DzE .

Dra w OT p ara ll e l to A B ,
an d let the tangent to the circle at
B mee t OT in T .
O N S P I R A LS 67

T h en hypothe i
D: E BM : M O by , s s,

OB B T by si mila r tri an gl es , .

T ke s tra ight li n e P H
a a
(le s th an B T) s uch t h t D E

s a

n d pl a c e P H be tw ee n the ci r cl n d OT

OB P H

z ,
a e a

v ergi ng tow rd s B (con s truc ti on s u me d )


a

a s .

FP

PB

OP P H
: :

'
0B

P H

P rop 8 If D E is any giv en r ati o B M M O it is r equire d


. . : ,

to dr aw OEP O m ee ti n g A B in F th e circle P th e ,

tang n t at B to th e circl in G s o that


e e

OT is par lle l to A B
a an d m ee t s th e t n g e n t a t B in
a

B ZV
I 111 0 OB B T, by s imilar tri ngles a ,

wh n ce e D E OB : BT .

Produc e TB to 0 maki n g B O of s uch


,
length th at

so th at BO B T .

Des crib circl thr ough the thr ee p oi nt s 0 T O and let OB


e a e , ,

produce d me et thi s circle in K .

Th en s i n c e B O

B T n d OK is p erp en di cul a r to C T it i s
, , a ,

pess ible to pl c e QG [ b e tw ee n th e c ircl e TK O and B 0 ] equ l to


-
a a

B K n d v e rgi n g t ow ard s O (c on s tru cti on ass u med)


a .
68 A R C H M EDES I
Le t OGO mee t th e origi n a l c i rcl e in P an d AB
OFP G is th e s tra ight li n e r e quir e d .

For
But OF : OG B T : GT , by p ar ll l a e s,

wh en c e OF GT . OG B T . .

Th er for e e GG GT : OF GT . OG BK OG
wh en ce C G OF : BK BT
B O : OB

BO : OP .

Pa ppu s o bj ct
rch i m e des s u s of th m g s u m ed
e s to A

e e ue as

P r op 8 9 . w ords
,
in th ese

i t s eem to b gr v rror i n t o wh i ch geom et er f ll


s e a a e e s a

whene v r ny on e di s c ov rs th s oluti on of a pl n e probl em


e a e e a

by m n of conics o li n e r (hi gh e r) curv s o gen r lly


ea s r a e ,
r e a

s olv es i t by m e n of a for ign k i n d s is th c s


a e
s g ( 1 ) w i th e ,
a e a e . .

th e pr obl m in th e fth B ook of th e C on ic of A p oll on iu


e s s

r l ti ng to th p rabol nd (2 ) wh en A rchi med s s u m in


e a e a a, a es a es

h is w ork on th s pir l s ol i d ch aract r with


0 9 of
"
e a a 1 4 0 1 a e

r efer en ce to circl ; fo it is p o ibl e with out ca lli ng in th


a e r ss e

a id of nythi ng olid to n d th e proof of th e th or m giv n by


a s e e e

A rchi me d th t i to prov th t th c i rcu m f ren ce of th


es , a s, e a e e e

c i rcl e rrived at in th r t r evoluti on is e qual to th e tr ight


a e s s a

l in e dr w n t right n gl to th i n itial lin e to meetth e t n gen t


a a a es e a

to th e pir l (i e th
s a . . e

T h re is howe v r th i xcuse fo A rchi m ed s th at h e on ly


e , e , s e r e ,

as su m th t th pr obl em c n b olved n d doe n ot as su me


es a e a e s a s

th e ctu l oluti on
a P ppu
a hi m elf giv es
s olu t on of th e
. a s
1
s a s l

p arti cular g by m e n of coh ics A pollon iu s wr ot e tw o


ue a t a s .

B ook of no u s an d i t is qu i t p o s ibl th t by A rchi m e d e



s ve ,
e s e a s s

ti me th er e m y lre dy h ve b een coll cti on of s uch probl em s


a a a a a e

to which t cit re f r e n c W s p er m i s ibl e


a e e a s .

P rop 1 0 r p ts th e res ul t of th e Lemma to P r op 2 of On


. e ea .

1
P appu s, i v, pp 2 9 8 3 02 . .
O N S PI R A LS 69

Con oi d s an d Spher oi d s i n v olvi n g the s u mmati on of th e s ri es e

12 + 22 + 32 n
2
. P r op 1 1 pr oves an oth e r pr op os i ti on in

s u mmati on ,
n a me ly th at
(n
(
2
na
) : a 2
)}
(n + (n a )

Th e sa me pr op os iti on is a sol tru e if t er ms of the s eries


th e
1 b) and it is s u me d in
2
ar e a , ( a + 2 b)
2
(a + n
2
, as

th e mo r e gen er al for m in P r op s 2 5 2 6 .
, .

A rchi m e d es n ow i n troduc es h is De n iti on s of th e spir a l ,

it self th e or igi n th e i n i ti l li n e the r s t d i stan ce


, , th e a ,

radiu s v ector at th e en d of on e r e voluti on) th e secon d d i st n c , a e

th e e qu l l en gth a dd d to th e r diu ve ctor d uri n g th e


a e a s

e c on d c ompl e t e r v oluti on
s
) an d s o on ; th e s t ar ea (th ar ea
e ,
r e

bou n de d by th e pira l d es crib d in the r s t r voluti on an d s e e

th e r s t th e s econd ar ea (th t bou n de d by th e s pir l a a

des cr i b d in th e econ d r volu ti on a n d th e secon d di s t n ce


e s e

a

n d s o on ; th r s t ci r cle (th e circl e with th r s t di s tan c e


a e e

as r diu s ) th e s econ d ci cle (th e circl e with r diu s e qu l to th


a ,
r a a e

s u m of th e r t an d s e c on d di s tan c e s or twic e th e r s t


s ,

di s tan c e) an d s o on , .

P r op s 1 2 1 4 1 5 giv e th e fu n dam en tal pr op erty of th e


.
, ,

s piral conn e cti ng the l en gth of th e r d i u ve ctor w i th th e angl e a s

through w hi ch th e i n it i l lin e h as r ev olv e d from it or ig i n l a s a

po iti on an d corr es pon ding to th e e quati on in pol r c oor d i n t e


s ,
a a s

r z a 0 A A rchi me d e s d o
. n ot s p e k of an gl es gr e t r
s es a a e

th an o 2 h e h in th c se of p oi n t s on any tur n ft er
7 T, r 7r ,
as , e a a

th e r s t to u se m ultipl ,
of th e circu m fer e nc e es

of circl s w ell s rc s of it H e u s es th e
a e a a a .

r st circl e fo thi purp os e Thu s if P Q



r s .
, ,

ar e two p oin t s on th e r s t tur n ,


0p OQ ( ar c AKP ) (ar c

if P Q a ,
r e p oi n t s on th e n th turn of th e

s piral nd ,
a c is th e circu mfer en ce of th e r t circl s e,

OQ {( n 1 c + ar c A K ) Q
OP z {( n

P rop 1 3 .
pr oves th t if a ,
a s tr ight li n touch
a e es th e s p i ra l it
,
ON SP I R A LS 7 1

LetOF meet th e s piral in Q


.

Th en we h av e , alter na nd o, s n e i c P0 QO ,

FQ QO P Q OU

(ar c P Q) (ar c A S P ) by hyp oth es i s , and a


for ti or i .

Componen d o , F0 Q0 (ar c A S Q) (ar c A S P )


OQ : OP
'
.

But QO OP ; therefore F0 OQ

which is i m pos s ibl e .

Th e re for e OT is n ot grea te r than th e ar c A SP .

11 . N ex t s uppos e if poss ible that


, , OT ar c A SP .

Me as ure 0 V a lon g OT s uch th at O V is gr eate r than OT bu t


less th an the ar c A SP .

Then th e rati o P O O V is l es s th n th e rati o P O OT i e a ,


. .

than the rati o of P S to th e p erpen dicular from O on P S ;


th erefore it is p oss ibl e (P r op 8 ) to draw a s traight li ne OF R G
.

meeting P S th e circl e P S A an d th e t n gent to th e circle at P


, ,
a

in F R G r es p ectiv e ly n d uch th t

, , , a s a

FR
z GP z P O z OV .
72 A R C H M EDES I
Let OF G me et th e pir l
in R

s a .

Th en ,
i
s n e c P0 R0 , we hav e , a l ter na n d o,

FR R O = GP

: z OV

(ar c P R ) (ar c A S P ) ,
a for ti or i ,

wh n c e e F O BO

(ar c A S R ) (ar c A S P )
OP ,

OR :

so th t F O OR ; wh i ch is i mpos ibl
a

s e .

Th re for OT e n ot l s s th n th e c A SP e 18 e a ar . A nd it w as
proved n ot gr t r th n th s m e c Th er for e ea e a e a ar . e

OT z (ar e A S P ) .

particul r c s (s eparat ly pr ov d by A rch i m d es ) if


As a a es e e e ,

P be th xtr mi ty of th e r t turn and 0 th circu m f r en c


e e e s 1
e e e

of th e r s t c i rcl th e ubt n gen t c ; if P b e th e e xtr m i ty


e, s a e
l

of th s c on d tur n nd th e c i rcu mfe r n c e of th e e c on d



e e a c e s
2

circl e th e ubt ng n t

,
20 ; n d g en e r lly
s i f o b tha e
2
a a , n
e e

circumfer n c e of th e n th circle (th e circl e w i th th e r adiu


e s

v ctor to th xtr mity of th e n th turn as r d i u s) th s ub


e e e e a ,
e

t ng nt to th t ngen t t th extremi ty of th n th turn n o


a e e a a e e n
.

If P is p oi n t on th n th turn n ot th e extr emity n d th e


a e , ,
a

c i rcl w i th O c ntr nd OP s r ad i u s cuts th e i n it i l l i n


e as e e a a a e

in K wh i l e p is th e c i rcu m f er n c of th e circl e th
,
ub e e ,
e s

t n g n t to th tan g en t at P (n 1 )p + rc K P (m as ur d
a e e a e e

forw rd a

Th r m i n d r of th
e book (Props 2 1 8 ) is d v ot d to
e a e e .

e e

n d in g th r e s of porti ons of th e s pir al n d its v er l


e a a a se a

turn s cut off by th e i n i ti l l i ne o n y two r di i v ctor a r a a e es .

W w i ll illu s trat by th e g n ral c e (P r op


e Ta k e
e e e as .

OB 0 0 tw o b ou n d i n g r di i v e ct or es i n cludi n g n
, , c BO a ,
a ar

of th p i r l W i th c n tr e 0 n d r diu 0 0 d s cribe a circl


e s a . e a a s e e .

D i v i d e th e n gl B OO i n to ny n u m b r of qu l p a rt s by
a e

a e e a

r dii of th i s c i rcle Th s pir l m t th s r di i in p oints


a . e a ee s e e a

P Q ,
Y Z s uch th t th e r ad ii v ct or es OB OP OQ
, OZ OO a e , , ,

1
On th e w h o e l c ou se r of A r hi m
c ed e s s

r
p oof of th e p ope r rty of th e
s u b an gent t ,
s ee n o te i n th e A ppe n d ix .
O N S PI R A LS 73

ar e in a rith
me i at c l progr es s i on Dra w arcs of circl e w ith . s

radii OB OP , OQ
, s s h ow n ; thi s produc es a gur e circu m
a

s crib e d to th e s pir al an d c on s i s ti ng of th e s u m of s mall s e ct ors

of circl e s an d n i n s cribe d gur e of th e s am e ki n d


, a A s th e .

rs t s e ctor in the circu ms cribe d gure is e qu al to the s e con d


s e c tor in th e i n s crib e d i t is eas ily se en th at th e a r eas of th e
,

circu ms crib ed n d i n s crib ed gures differ by the d iffe r ence


a

b etw een th e s e ctors 0 3 0 n d OB p ; th ere fore by i n cr eas i ng a



,

n u mb er divi s i on s of th e n gl e B OO w e c n mak e th a , a e

differen c e betw een th e r eas of th e circu ms crib ed n d in a a

s crib e d gur es s m all s w pl eas ; w h av e th er for e th e


a s a e e e ,
e ,

e l e me n t n e c ess ry fo
s th e applic ati on of th e m eth od of
a r

e xh au ti on s .

If th e r e n ra di i OB
ar e 0 0 th ere e (n 1 ) pa rt s of
, ,
ar

th e an gl B OO e S i n c th e ngl es of l l th e m all s ct or a
. e a a s e s r e

e qu al th e s e ct or s a
,
as th e s qu r on th eir r adii
r e a e .

T hu s (w hol e se ct or Ob O)

(circu m s cribed gure)



(n OQ2 +

an d (wh ol e s e c tor Ob O)

(in s cribe d gur e)

(n
74 A R C H MEDES I
A n d OB OP OQ , , , OZ 0 0 is an , a rith me t i cal progres s ion
of n t er m s ; th ere for e
(cf Prop 1 1 . .

(n

00 2
:
{ OG .
2
O )}
R

(n
C ompres s i ng th e circu m cr i b ed n d i ns cribe d gures t og eth r s a e

in th e u su l w y A rchi med s pr ov s by e xh us tion th t


a a , e e a a

( ect or Ob G) (ar of s pir l OB O)



s ea a

2
{ OG OE)
2
00 : .
} .

If OB b 0 0 c and (c b) (n 1 )h , ,

,
A rch i m ed e s s

r e ult is th equiv l n t of yi ng that wh en h di mi n i s h es


s e a e sa ,
an d

n i n cr se i n d en i te ly whil
ea c b r em i n s con s tan t
s ,
e a ,

li mit of z h
)}
2

2
( c b) b) }

r
s
r );
th ta is, w i th ou r n o a i on ,t t
z

J
3
a dx % (c
b

In pa rt i cul r th e r e in clude d by th e r s t tur n n d th e


a ,
a a a

i n i t i l l i n e i b oun d d by th r d ii v e ct or es O a n d 2 d ;
a s e e a 1r

th e a r e th er efor e i to th e c i rcl e w i th r diu 2 a as % (2 a )


a, , s a s 1r 1r
2

to (2 a ) th t i to s y it i s
7r
z
, of tha circl e o s a ,
e r

Thi i s e p r t ely
s
p ov d in P r op 2 4 by m e n of P r op 1 0
s a a r e . a s .

an d C orr 1 2 .
, .

Th r e of th rin g dd d wh i le th e ra diu s v ector d es cribe


e a a e a e s

th e e con d turn i th e r e b ou n d ed by th e r a d i i v e ctor s 2 d


s s a a e 7r

a nd 4 m nd i
1 to th c i rcl e w i th ra diu s 4 a in th e r t i o
,
a s e
1r a

of ) } to wh er 2 a
nd r 4 a ; 1
2
r
2
e r 1r a r
2 7r

th r at i o i s ? 1 2 (Pr op
e .

If R b e the are of th e r t turn of th e s pir l boun de d by


I
a s a

th e i n it i al li n R th re of th e ri ng dd d by th e e con d '

e, e a a a e s
2
complete turn R th t of th rin g dd d by th third tur n , 3
a e a e e ,

a nd o on th en (P r op 2 7 )
s ,
.

1 .
1,
n R4 = 3R R5 = 4R 1
)R 2 .

A l so R 0
= 6R , .
ON SP I R A LS 7 5

La s tly , if
porti on of th e ector b OO boun de d by
E b e th e s

c b z G of th e circl n d th e a c B O of th e s pir l an d

b B th e , ar

e a r a ,

F th e p orti on cut off betw een th e ar c B O of th e s pir l th a , e

ra diu s 0 0 an d th e ar c i n terc ept ed b tw een OB and 0 0 of e

th e circl e with c en tr e 0 an d r adiu s OB it s pr ov e d th at ,


I

E OB O OB
)} (Pr op

:
{ + O .

O n P lane E qu ilibr iu ms , I , I I .

thi tr eati se w e h av e the fun d men t l prin cipl es of


In s a a

m e ch n ic s e t bli s h e d by th e m e th od of g eome try in it


a s a s s

s tricte t se n se The r e w r e d oubtl es s earli e r treati ses on


s . e

m e ch n ic s but it m ay b e as s u me d th t n on e of th em h ad
a ,
a

b een w orke d ou t with s uch g eometric l rigour A rchi med es a .

begi n s with s e v en P os tulat e s i n cludi n g th e foll owin g prin


cipl e E qu l w e ight s at e qu l di t an c s b lan c e ; if u n e qu l
s . a a s e a a

w e ight s op e r at e at e qu l di s t n c th l rg e r w igh d ow n a a es , e a e s

th e ma ll e r sIf w h en e qu al w ei ght a e in quili briu m s ome


. s r e

thi n g b e dd ed to o s ubtr cte d fr om one of th em qu i libriu m


a ,
r a , ,
e

is n ot m a i n t i n d but th w e ight which is i n cr e e d o i s n ot


a e e as r

di mi n i s h d pr v il s Wh en e qual an d s imil r plan e gur es


e e a . a

coi n cid e if ppl i ed to on e n oth er th ir cen tr s of gr avity


a a ,
e e

s i milarly coin cid ; nd in gur s which e un equ al but e a e ar

s i m il a r th e c en tr es of gr vity will b s i m il arly s i tu at e d



a e .

I n an y gur e th e c on t our of which is c on c av e in on e n d th e a

sa m e dir e cti on th e c n tr e of gr vity m u s t be within th e gu re a e .

S i m pl e pr op os iti on s (1 5 ) foll ow d educ e d by ed u cti o d


,
r a

a bs u r d itm ; th s e l ea d to th fu n d men t l th or em prov ed


e e a a e ,

rs t fo c ommen s ur ble n d th en by r ed u cti o a d a bs u r d u m


r a a

fo i n comm en s urable m gn itud


r th t Two m agn i tu d es a es , a ,

whether co mm en su r a ble or i n commen su r a bl e bala nce , at d s i


ta n ces r ecipr oca lly pr op or ti on a l to the m agn i tu d es (P rop s .

6, P r op
h ows h ow to nd th c en tr e of gravity of
. 8 s e

a p art of m gn itud e wh en th e c en tres of gr vity of th e


a a a

oth e r pa rt n d of th e wh ol e magn itud e a e gi ven


a A rchi me d e r . s

th en addres s es hi ms elf to the mai n pr oblems ofBook I n me ly ,


a

to nd th e c en tr es of gr a vi ty of (1 ) a p arall e l ogr am (Prop s


a tri an gl e P r op n d (3 ) p r all e l
9 , ( )
2 ( 13 s .
,
a a a

tr p e ium (Prop
a z an d h e r e w e h v e an illu s tr ti on of th
. a a e

e xtr aordi n ry r i g our wh i ch h e r e quir es in h is g ome tric l


a e a
76 A R C H I M EDES

or oofs . We he re as uming as in The Method


do not nd h im s , ,

Lhat if ,
ll th e li n e s th at can b dr w n in a gur e pa ra ll l to
a e a e

[a n d i n cludi n g ) on e s id e h av e th e i r m iddl e p oi nt s in s tr igh t a a

.ine th c en tre of grav ity m u s t lie s ome wh ere on th a t s tr aight


,
e

li ne ; h e i n ot con tent to r eg rd th e gur e as ma d e u p of an


s a

inn ity of s uch par all e l li ne s ; pur e g eometry r eali es th at z

the par ll e l ogram is mad e up of l eme n t ary p ar ll l ogr ams


a e a e ,

in d en it ly n rrow if you pl as but s till pa ra ll e logram s and


e a e e, ,

the tri n gl of el emen t ary t p e i a n ot s tr aight lin es s o


a e r a z , ,

th at to s u m e dir e c tly th at th e c n tre of gr avity li


as on th e e es

straight li n e bi s ecti ng th e p r all l ogr ams w ould r e l ly be a e a

a peti ti o p i n cipii A cc ordi n gly th e r es u lt no d oubt d is


r . ,

cov ere d in th e i nformal way is cl i n ch ed by a pr oof by r ed u cti o


,

ad a bs u d u m in eac h c ase
r I n th e case of th e p ra ll e l ogr am
. a

A B CD (P r op
'
if th e c entr of gr vity is not on th e s traight
. e a

lin e E F bi s cti ng two oppo it e s i d s let it b e at H Dr aw


e s e ,
.

E X p r ll l to A D Th en it is pos s ibl e by bi s e cti n g A E E D


a a e . , ,

then bi se cti ng th e h alv es nd s o on ulti mat ly to reach ,


a ,
e

a l ength l s th an K H es L t thi s b e d one an d thr ough th e


. e ,

p oin t of divi s ion of A D dr aw p rallel s to A B o DC making


s a r

a n u mb r of e qu al an d s i mil r p r all e l ogr ams as in th e gur e


e a a .

Th e c en tr e of grav ity of e ch of th es e p ar all logr ms is a e a

s i mil rly itu at e d with regard to it


a s H en c e w e h v e a n u mb er . a

of e qu al m gn itud es with th ir c entr es of gr vity


a t equ al e a a

d is t n c
a alon g a s traight
es l i n e Th er efor e th e c n tr e of . e

gr v i ty ofth e whole is on th e l i n e j oi ni ng the centr s ofgr avity


a e

of th tw o m iddl e p ar all l ogr m s (Prop 5 C or


e e B u t thi s a .
,
.

is i m pos s ibl e b ecau se H is outs id e th ese p rall l ogr ams


, a e .

Th r for th e c entr e of gr vity c annot but lie on E F


e e e a .

S im i l rly th e c en tr e of gr vity li es on the s traight l ine


a a

bi s e cti ng th e other oppos ite s id es A B OD ; the r efor it li es at , e

th e i nt rs e cti on of thi s li ne w i th E F i e at th
e p oi n t of , . . e

i nt rs cti on of the di agonals


e e .
ON P LA N E EQU I LI BR I UM S , 1 7 7

Th e proof in th e cas e of th e tr i angl e is s i mil ar (P rop .

Le t A D b e the me dian through A Th e c en tre of gra vi ty


.

mu s t lie on A D .

For , if n ot let it be at H and draw H I p arall l to B C


, , e .

Th en if w e bi sect DC th e n bi s e ct th e h al ves a nd s o on
, , , ,

w e h l l a rrive at a l ength DE l ess th an I H


s a Di v id B C i nto . e

len gth e qu a l to DE draw par ll l s to DA through th e poin ts


s , a e

of divi s ion and c ompl e te th e s m ll p ara ll e l ograms as s h ow n in


, a

th e g ur e .

Th e cen tr es of gr avity of th e wh ol e p ar all elogr ms S N TP a , ,

FQlie on A D (Prop 9 ) th er e for e th e c en tre of grav ity of th e


.

gur for me d by th em all li s on A D ; let it be 0 Jom OH


e e .
,

an d pr oduc e it to me et in V th p rall el through C to A D e a .

N ow i t is eas y to s ee t h t if n be th e n u mb er of p rt s i n t o
a , a

w hi ch D C A C ar e di v ide d r s p e ctively
,
e ,

(s u m of s ma ll A s A II R M LS A R N N UP
I
, (A A B C ) ,
:

n AN2 AC 2

when c e

(s u m of s ma ll p r llelogr ams ) l (n
A s) (su m of a a

Th e r e for e th e c en tr e of gr v ity of th e gur e mad e up of all


a

th e s mall tri angles is at a p oi n t X on OH pr oduc ed s uch th at

XE :
(
n 1 )OH .

Bu t VH z HO there fore XH > VH


CE z E D or (n l ): 1 ; .

I t follow s th a t th e c en tr e of grav ity of all th e s mall


tri an gl s tak en t og eth e r li es t X notwith s tandi n g t h t all
e a a

th e tri n gl es lie on one s id e of th e p ar all el to A D drawn


a

thr ough X w h ich is i mpos s ibl e .


ON PLA N E EQU L BR U M S , I I I I II,
79

Thi s is m e r e ly pr li mi n ary Th n begi n s th e r al rgumen t e . e e a ,

th e c ours e of which is ch ar ac t ri s tic nd d es e rv e to b e t ou t e a s se .

A rchi m e d e s u ses a s e ri e s of gur es i n s cribe d to the seg men t ,

s h e s ys in th e r ec ogn i e d man n e r Th e rul e



a a ,
z

is s follow s I n s cribe in th e seg m n t the tri n gle A BB with


a . e a

th e s m e b se an d h e ight ; th v ert e x A i th en th e p oi n t
a a e s

of c on t ct of th e t n g n t p a r all e l to B B Do th e sam e with



a a e .

th r em ai n in g seg men t cut off by A B A B th en with th



e s , ,
e

s e g m en t s r e m i n i n g an d s o on If a i s uch , . s

a gure th e di amet er s through Q Q P P R R bi ct th e


, ,

, ,

, ,

se

s traigh t li n e A B A B A Q A Q QB QB r s p ectiv e ly an d

s , , , , ,
e ,

BB i s divide d by th e di m e t e r i n t o p ar ts which

e ll a s ar a

e qu l It is e y to prov e l s o th at P P QQ R R a
a . as ll a , ,
r e a

p a ralle l to BB n d th t A L LM M N N O
, a 7 th e a : : : ,

sa m e re l a ti on holdi n g if th e n u mb e r of s id of the p olygon es

i s i n cr s d ; i e th e eg m e n t of A O a e a lw y s in th e r ti o
ea e . . s s r a a

of th s ucc ess iv e od d n u m b e r s to P rop


e
(Lemm Th e as .

c n tr of gr vity of th e i n s crib d gur l i s on A O (Prop


e e a e e e ,
.

If th ere b e tw o p r bolic egm en t n d tw o gure i n crib d a a s s, a s s e

in th m in th e r e c ogn i e d m n n r with n qu l n u m b er of
e

z a e a e a

s id s th e ,
c n tres of gravity divide th e r p ct i v x es in th
e e es e e a e

s am e pr op orti on fo th e r ti o d e p en d on th e sam ,
r ti o of odd
r a s e a

n u mb er 1 3 5 7 s
(Prop Th e c en tr of gr vity of th e . e a

p r b ol i c s egm en t it elf li s on th e d i m ter A O (th i s is prove d


a a s e a e

in P rop 4 by ed u cti o d a bs u r d u m in e x ctly th s m e w y


. r a a e a a

as fo th r tri n gl e in I
e It is n xt prov e d (Prop 5 ) th at
a . e .

th c en tr e of gr vity of th
e eg m en t i n ear e r to th e v rt x A
a e s s e e

th n th e c entr e of gr vity of th i ns cri b d gur e is ; but th at


a a e e

it is pos ibl e to i n s crib in th s egm n t in th e re cogn i e d


s e e e z

m ann e r a gur e s uch th at th di s t n c e b etw e n th e c n tr es of e a e e

gr vity of th egmen t an d of th e in s crib ed gure is l s th n


'

a e s e s a

a ny s s ig n d l en gth for w e h a v e on ly to i n cr e s
a e th n u m b er,
a e e

of id e s u fc ien tly (Prop


s s I n cid n tally it is ob e rv ed in . e ,
s

P rop 4 th t if in ny seg m n t th e tr i ngl e with th e s me


. a ,
a e a a

b a s e an d e qu a l h ight is i n s crib e d th t i an gl e i gr e t e r th an
e ,
e r s a

h alf th e eg men t wh en ce it follow s th at each ti me w e in cr e


s , ,
eas

th n u m be r of s id s in th e i n s crib e d gur e w e t k e aw y
e e ,
a a

mor e th n h alf of th e s gm en t s r em i n i n g ove r ; an d in Prop 5


a e a .

th t corr p on d i n g eg men t s on oppos it e s ides of the xi s e g


a es s a ,
. .

Q R B Q R, B h av

e th e ir
a x e s e qu l

n d th e re for e e qu l in a a e ar a
80 A R C H I MEDES

r
a ea La tly (Pr op
. s if th er e be two p arabolic s g m en t s
.
e ,

th ir cen tres of gravity divide th eir di ameter s in th e s me


e a

rati o (A rchi medes enun ci ates thi s of s i milar s eg men ts on ly ,

but it is true of any two seg men t s and is requir ed of n y tw o a

segmen t s in Pr op P rop 8 n ow nd s th e c en tr e of gr vity


. .
a

of any s g men t by u s i n g th
e l s t propos iti on It i the e a . s

g om t i c l equi valen t ofth olution of a s i mpl e qu t ion in


e e r a e s e a

th e r t i o (m s ay) of A G to A O wh er e G is th e cen tr of
a , ,
e

gr vity of the s egmen t


a .

S in ce th e s eg men t g (A th e s u m of th e tw o s eg
m n ts A QB A QB
e
3, (A ,
1

Further i f QD QD a e th di meter s of th ese s g men ts


, ,

r e a e ,

QD QD e e qu al and s in c e th e c n tres

,
ar , ,
e

of gr vity H H of th e seg m n t s divide



a ,
e

QD QD proporti on ally E H i p r ll el

, ,
s a a

to QQ n d th e c en tre of gr vity of th e
'
,
a a

tw o seg m en t s toge th e r is at K th e poin t ,

wh r H H meets A O e e

.

Now A O 4 A V (Lemm 3 to P rop a .

Q D
an d
A O A V : A V . Bu t
H d i vid e s QD in th e s am e r ti o a as G
divid es A O (P o r p . th er efor e

Ta k i g moments about A of th e s egmen t the tri ngle A B B


n
,
a

a nd th s u m of th e s mall s egmen t s w e av e dividi n g ou t by


e
h ( ,

A V an d A A BB

)
4

1 5 m = 9,

an d m

Th a t i s , A G = % A O, or A G z GO

Th e n l proposition (1 0 ) n d s th centre of gra vity of the


a e

por ti on of a par abola cut off b tween two p arallel chord P P e s



,

BB

If P P is the s horter of th e ch ords and the diameter
.

bi s ectin g P P BB meet s th em in N 0 r es p ectiv ely A rchi



,

, ,

m des pr ov es that if N0 be d ivid e d i n t o ve equ al p rt s of


e , a
wh i ch L M is the middl e on e (L b ei n g n ear er to N th an M is
) 3
O N PLA N E EQUI LI BR I UMS , 11 81

th e cen tr e of grav ity G of th e porti on of th e parab ol b etw een a

nd B B divid es LM in s uch way th at



PP

a a

L G z GM = B 0 2 .
(2 P N + B O) : P N2 .

Th egeome trical pr oof is s omewhat d iicult and u s es a v ery ,

r em rka bl e Lemma which forms Prop 9 If a b c d as y r e


a . .
, , , , , a

s tra ight li n es sa ti s fyi n g th e c on diti on s

2 g
(a b c d) ,

2 a + 4 b+ 6 c+ 3d

th mu s t
'

en w+ y %a .

Th eproof is en tirely geom tric l but amoun ts of cou rs e to e a ,

th e li m i na ti on of thr e qu n titi
e b c l from th e bov four
e a es , ,
( a e

e qu ation s .

Th e S an d -
r e ckon e r
(P s ammites or A r enar i us) .

I ha v e alr eady des crib ed i n pr ev i ou s ch apt er th e r em rk a a

a bl s y s t em ex pl ain e d in thi
e ,tr e ti se an d in a los t w ork s a ,

Mpx P r i n ciples a ddr es e d to Z eu x ippu s for ex pres i n g v ry



az , , s , s e

large n u mb ers w hi ch w ere beyond th e range of th e ordin ry a

G r e k a rith me tic a l n ota ti on


e A rchi me d es s h ow e d th t his . a

s ys t em w ould ena bl e an
y n um be r to be e xpr ess ed up to th at
vwhi ch in ou r n otati on would re quire milli on m illion
ciph e r s and th en proc ee de d to prov e that thi s s ys tem mor e
th an s ufc e d to ex press th e n u mb er of grai ns of s an d which
it w ould tak e to ll th e u ri i e s e on a r eas onable V i ew (as it
v r ,

s eem e d to hi m) of the s i e to b attribut ed to th e u n iv e rs


z e e .

I n t r es ti n g as the b ook is fo th e cours e of th e argumen t by


e r

which A rchi medes es tabli s h e thi s it is in addition docu s , , ,


a

men t of the rs t i mp ortan c e hi toric lly It is here that w e s a .

l earn th t A ri s tarch u s pu t forw ard th e C opern ican th eory of


a

th e u n iv e r se with th e s u n in th e c entr e an d th e pl an ets


,

i n cludin g th e earth revol v i n g roun d it and th at A ri tarchu s ,


s

furth er di s cove red the angul r di ame ter ofthe s u n to be th a a

of th e circl e of the z odi a c o h a lf a d egr ee


_
S i n ce A rchi me d es
r .
,

in ord r to c alcul at e a s a fe gur e (n ot too s mall) for th e s i e


e z

G
82 ,
A R C H I M EDES

of th e un iverse has to m k e c rt in as s u mptions as to th


,
a e a e

i es and dis tan c es of th e s u n n d moon an d th e ir r e l ati on


s z a

to th e s i e of th e un iv er s z h e t kes th e O pp ortu n ity of e, a

quot i ng earli er vi ew s S ome h ve tri e d he s ays to prove . a , ,

th t th e p erimeter of th e rth is bout


a s tad es ; in ea a

ord r to b e quit e s afe h e w i ll t k


e it to be about ten ti mes a e

thi o s, rs ta d e an d n ot gr e at e r Th e di am et er of s, .

e arth like mos t e r l i er tron omers h e tak es to b


'

th e ,
a as ,
e

gr t r than that of th e moon but l e s s th an th at of the su n


ea e .

Eud ox u s h e say s d e cl ar d th di m t er of th e s un to be n i ne
, ,
e e a e

ti m s tha t of th e moon Ph i d i s h is ow n fath er tw elve tim


e ,
a , , e s,

wh i le A ri s tarchus tri ed to prov th at it is gr eater th an 1 8 bu t e

l ess th n 2 0 ti mes th e di met r of th e moon ; he will agai n be


a a e

on th e s afe id e an d t ak e it to b s3 0 ti me but not more Th e e s, .

p o i ti on is rath er more d i fcult as reg rd s the rati o of th


s a e

d i t an ce of the s un to the s i of th un ivers e H ere h e s i e


s z e e . e z s

upon a dictu m of A ris t rchu th t th e s ph ere of th e x d a s a e

s t rs is s o gr e t th a t the circl
a in which h e s uppos es th e e rth
a e a

to r v olv e (r ou n d th e s n) b r uch a proporti on to th


e u ea s s e

d i tanc e of th e x ed s tar s th c en tr e of th e s ph er e bear s to


s as e

it s urfac e
s If thi s is tak n in s tr i ctly math ematical s en e e a s ,

i t m e ns th at th e s ph er of th e x e d s t ar s is i nnit e in i e
a e s z ,

which w ould not s uit A rchi m d s s purp ose ; to get anoth r e e



e

m e n in g out of it h e pr e th e p oi nt th at A r i s t archu s s

a s s es

w ords c nnot be taken quit e l it r lly be cau s e the c entr e b i ng


a e a , e

with out magnitude cann ot be in ny ratio to any oth er mag ,


a

n itu d e h ence he ugg s ts th t r son able in terpretation of


s e a a ea

th e s t atemen t w ould b to s upp o that if we con c iv e se , e e a

s phere with radius e qu l to th d i s tan ce between the cen tre a e

of th e su n and th e c en tr e of th e e rth th en a ,

(di am of earth ) (di m of said s ph er e)


. : a .

(di am of said s ph er ) (di m of s ph er e of x e d s tars )


. e a . .

Th i s is of c our se an a rbitra ry i n t erpr eta ti on ; A ri s tarchu


, , s

pr s u mably meant n o s uch thi ng but me r ely that th e s i of


e , z e

th e e arth is negligibl e in c om p ri on with th a t of th e s ph er a s e

of th e x e d s ta r s H ow e ve r th e oluti on of A rchi m d es

.
, s e s

probl em deman d s s ome s su mpt ion of th e kin d and in m king a , ,


a

thi s ass um pti on he w no doubt w ar e that h e was taking


, as a

a lib erty with A ri s t archu fo th e s ak e of gi v i ng his hypo s r


TH E S A ND R E CK ON ER -
83

A rchi me d e s h a s
l s tly to compar th dia m te r O f the s un,
a , e e e

with th e circu m fer en ce of th e c ircl de cribed by its centr e e s .

A ri t rchu h ad ma d e th a ppa r e n t di a
s a s m et e r of th e s u n 7 g th e a

of th e s id circu m f er n c e ; A rchi m ed e
a will pr ove that th e e s

s id circu m f e r n c e c an n ot c on t ai n m ny s s un s

a s e a a a

di am t r s o th t th e di amete r of th e s un is gr e t er th n the
e e ,
r a a a

side of r gular chili agon i n cribe d in th e circl e Fir t h


a e s . s e

m d e an e x pe rim en t of h i own to d e t er m in e th e pp r en t
a s a a

d iameter of th e s u n With sma ll cylin de r o dis c n a pl n . a r i a e

a t right n gl s to a l ong s tra ight s tick an d mov abl e al on g it


a e e ,

h e ob e rv e d th su ns t th e m om en t wh e n it cl eare d th e
e a

h ori on in ri s i n g m ovi ng th di c till it j u s t cove re d n d ju s t


z ,
e s a

f il ed to cov r th e s u n as h e looke d along th e s tr ight s tick


a e a .

H thu s fou n d th e n gul r di a me t e r to lie b etw e n T z R n d


e a a e a

%5
R wh e e R is a right n gl
,
1 Bu t s u n d r h is s s u mp a e . a , e a

t i on s th e s i of th e a rth s not negligible in c ompari s on with


,
z e e I

th e u n s c i rcl h h ad to ll ow fo p r ll x n d n d li m it

s e, e a r a a a a s

fo th r n gl s ubt n d e d by th e s u n
e a t th c n tr e of th
e e rth a e e e ea .

Thi s h d oe by g eome tric l rgu m n t v ry m uch in th


e s a a a e e e

m n n e r of A ri s t rchu s
a a .

Let th e circles with c en tr es O C repr esen t se cti on s of th e s un ,

an d e arth r e s p e ctiv e ly E th e p os iti on ofth e obs e rv e r ob s ervi ng


,

G 2
84 A R C H I M E DES

th e when it h s ju s t cl re d th e h ori on Dr w from E


sun a ea z . a

two t an g en t s E P E Q to th circl e With c n tr e 0


,
n d fr om e e ,
a

C l t C F C G b e d r w n t ouchi ng th s me c i rcl
e , a With c en tr e a e . e

C an d r diu s C O d e cr i b
a c i rcl e thi s will r epr e sen t th e path
s e a :

of th e c en tre O f th u n rou n d th e rth Let th i s circl m t


e s e a . e ee

th e t n g en t fr om C in A B
a s n d j oi n A B m e ti n g C O in M , ,
a e .

A rchi m ed es s O b s erv t i on h h ow n that



a as s

R > A FE Q > 5 55 B ;
a nd proc d to prov e th t A B i l s th an th e id Of
he ee s a s e s s e a

g l
1 e polygon of 6 5 6 s i d s i n cr i b d in th ci el A OB
u ar e s e e 1 e ,

but gr t r th n th s i d of n i n crib ed r egul r polygon of


ea e a e e a s a

s id s in oth r w ord s th t
e , e ,
a

R A FOG R .

Th e fi r t r l ti on
s e a is O bv i ou s, for ,
i c
s n e CO E0 ,

1 PEQ A FC G .

N e xt , th e p r im t r O f
e e e an
y polyg on i n s crib d in th circle e e

A OB l 1s ess th n a 0 0 (i
4 4
7
. e . ti me th di m t r ) s e a e e ,

Th ere for e AB
5
CO or 1 1 55 CO ,

an d , a for ti or i,
AB 5 55 C0 .

N ow th etr i an gl s CA M C OF b ing equ l in ll res p cts


, e , e a a e ,

AM OF s o th t A B ,
2 OF (di m t er of u n) OH OK
a : a e s ,

sin c th e di am t r Of th u n is gr eat e r th n th t of th e e rth


e
-

e e e s a a a
'

th r for OH + OK <
e e e CO nd H K 5 5 5 CO 1 5 5 ,
a
9
.

A nd CO OF whil e H K E Q s o th t E Q , T 5 , a
9 9
6

We can n ow c om p r e the an gl es OCF OE Q; a ,

A OOF tan
4 OE Q tan OE Q

EQ
>
CF
9 9
5 55 , a for ti or i .

Doubli ng th e an gl e s ,
we h ve a

A FCG 9 9
1 0 5
. A P EQ
9 9
5 5 5 5 5 R , i c
s n e A P EQ 2 55 -

R ,
TH E S A N D R E CK ONE R -

85

H en c e A B i s gr eat er th n th s ide of r egul r p olygon of a e a a

8 1 2 s id e s nd a f or ti o i gre t e r th an th e
, a id e f regul r r a s O a a

polygon of s id es i n crib e d in th e circl e A OB ,


s .

Th e p e ri me t er of th e chili g on as of an regul r p olygon a a


y ,

with mor e s id es th n s ix i n s cribe d in th e circle A OB i gr e t r a , s a e

than 3 ti mes th e di me ter of th e s u n orbi t but is l ess th an a



s ,

ti mes th e di am ete r of th e su n an d a for ti or i l ess th an ,

ti mes th di m te r of th e earth ; e a e

th er efor e (di am et er of s un s orbit) (di m of earth )



a .

s t d es a .

B u t (d i am of e arth ) (di m of s u n s orbit)



. a .

(di am of s u n orbit) (di am of u n iv ers e);



. s : .

th er e for th u n iv r s e o th s ph er e of th e x d t r s is les s
e e e ,
r e e s a ,

th an t i mes th e s ph er e in which th s un s orbit is a e


gr ea t circl e .

A r ch i m d es t ak e s qu n t i ty of s n d not gr eater th an
e a a a

a p oppy ee d an d s u m s th t i t c on t i n s n ot m or e th n
-

s a s e a a a

gr i n s ; th e di am et er of a p oppy e d h e t k s to be n ot l ss
a -
se a e e

th n 5 5 th of a nge br dth thu s a s ph er e Of d i met r


a
1
r -

ea a e

1 n e b
g d th i s n ot gr ea t e r th n
r ~
r ea p oppy s d s an d a -
ee

th ere for c on tai ns n ot m or e th n


e gr i n s of an d a a s

u n its of secon d o d e un its of s t o d ) r r r r er


an d a
for ti or i n ot mor e th n 1 ooooooooo 1 0 u n i t s of a , , ,

s econ d o d e of n u m b r r Gr du a lly i n cr eas in g th e di am e t r


r e s a e

of th e s ph r by m ultiplyi n g it ea ch t i m e by 1 0 0 (m aki n g th
e e e

s ph er e times l rg er ach t i m ) n d ubs tituti n g for a e e a s

ng br dth s a s t diu m er -
ng eabr e dths ) a er -

a ,

h e n d s th e n u mb r of gr ai n s of an d in a s ph er e of di m et er e s a

s t di to be les s than u n it of s eventh


a a s

or d e of n u m ber an d th e n u mb er in a s ph e r e
51
r o 10 s r ,

ti mes thi s s i to b e l e th n z e un its Of the eighth ss a

of n u m b er s o 1 0

63
o d r er r .

Th e Qu ad r atur e of th e P ar ab ola .

pr ef ce addr es s ed to Dosith eu fter th e de th of


I n th e a ,
s a a

C on on A rchi me d e s cl i m s or i gi n ality fo th
,
ol uti on of th e a r e s

pr obl m of n di n g th e r e of a segmen t of p r bol cut ff


e a a a a a a O

by ny ch ord which h e s ay s h e r s t di s cov er ed by m e n s O f


a ,
a

me chan ic s a n d th en c on r me d by m e n of g ome try u s i n g a s e ,

th l emm th a t if th er e
e e tw o u n e qu l ar e s (or m g n itud e
a ,
ar a a a s
TH E QU A DR A TU R E O F TH E P A R A BO LA 87

curve in R R 1 , 2 ,
Joi n QR I ,
an d pr oduce i t to mee t OE in
F QE me ti ng
,
2
e O1 E 1 in F1 , an d s o on .

rchi me d e h as pr ov e d in seri es of pr op os it i ons


A s a

(6 1 3 ) th a t if
-

tr ap e iu m s uch s O E E O is us p en ded
, a z a
1 1 2 2
s

from H H an d n r e P u s p en d d t A b al an ces O E E 0
1 2 ,
a a a s e a
1 1 2 2
s o s u s p en d e d i t will t k e gr eat er r e th n P u p en d d t
, a a a a a s s e a

A to b l an c th e s m e tr p e iu m s u p en d d fr om H
a e a nd a z s e
2
a

a l es s re th n P to b l n c e th e same tr p e iu m su s p en de d
a a a a a a z

from H A s i m i l r pr op os iti on h old s w i th r eg ard to a tr i n gl e


1
. a a

s uch s E H Qs u s p en d e d wh e r e i t is an d s u s p en d e d at Q n d
a a
n n

H r e s p e ctiv e ly
n .

S upp os e (Prop s 1 4 1 5 ) th e tri n gl e QgE s u s p en d e d wh r e


.
,
a e

it i from OQ n d s uppos th at the tr p e i u m E 0 s u s p n d ed


s ,
a e a z
1 , e

W h er e it is is b l n c d by an ,
r I f u p en d d t A th
a a e a ea s s e a ,
e

trap iu m E 1 0 s u p n d d wh er e i t is is b l n ce d by I
ez
2 , s e e ,
a a
;

s u s p en d e d at A a n d o on a nd n lly th e tri an gl e E O Q
,
s ,
a n n ,

s u s p en d e d wh e it is i b lan ce d by P s u pen de d at A ;
re ,
s a ,, + 1
s

th en R P R at A b l an ces th e w h ol e tri ngl e so th t


2 , +1
a a , a

l A E QQ,

i c
s n e wh ole tri angl e m ay b r eg rd d s s us p en d ed fr om
th e e a e a

th e poi n t on OQ v rtic ally bove its c n tr e of grav i ty


e a e .

N ow A O OH 1 Q0 OH 1
(29 3 9 0 1
E 1 O1 z O1 R 1 by Pr op 5 ,
.
,

(tr pe iu m E 0 ) (tr ap e iu m F0
a z 1
z
1 )
,
88 A R C H M EDES I
th at i it t ke th e trap e ium FO s u s p end e d at A to balan c e
s, a s z
1

th e tr ap e iu m E O s u s p n d e d at H
z A n d P bal an c e E 0
1
e 1
.
1
s 1

wh er e it i s .

Th r efor
e (F0 ) P
e 1 1
.

S i mil rly a (F 0 ) P n d o o n
1 2 Z , a s .

A g ai n A O OH E 0 O R 1 1 1
:
1 1

(tr p e iu m E O
) ( tr ap e i u m R O ) a z
1 2
z 1 2 ,

th t i (R 0 ) t A w i ll b lan ce (E 0 ) u s p n de d t H
a s, 1 2
a a 1 2
s e a 1 ,

wh i le P t A b l n c s (E O ) s u s p nd d wh er e it is
2
a a a e
1 2
e e ,

wh en c e P R 0 2 1 2
.

Th er fore e (F O ) R (R 0 ) 1 2 , 1 2 ,

(E2 0 3 ) 15 R20 an d s o on ;

an d n ally ,
A E ,, On Q

B y a dd i ti on ,

(R 1 0 2 ) + (A R n 0 n
-

Q) P2 + I +

th r efore
e ,
a for ti or i ,

3
1 1 + P2 +

h t is to y w e h v e an i n s crib d gur e con i t i n g of


T a sa , a e s s

trap i n d a tr i angle wh i ch is l s n d c i rcu ms cr i be d


ez a a es ,
a a

gur e com pos d in th e s me way wh i ch is gr te r th n


e a ea , a

i . e .
5 A Eq Q .

It isth re for i n ferre d and prov e d by th e m eth od of ex


e e ,

h au s tion th t th se gm n t it s lf is equ a l to 5 A E q Q (P r op
,
a e e e .

I n ord r to n bl e th m eth od to b appl i d it h s on ly


e e a e e e , a

to be pr ov e d th at by i n cre i ng th n u m b e r of p art s in Qq
, as e

s u ffici n tly th e diff r n ce betw een th e c i rcu ms crib d n d


e ,
e e e a

i n crib d gur es c n b e m d e as m ll s w e pl e s e Thi s


s e a a s a a a .

ca n b e s een thu s W h av rs t to s h ow th t ll the part s s


. e e a a , a

gF i n t o wh i ch qE is div i d e d
,
qu al ar e e .

We h ve E 0 O R a QO OH 1 1
:
1 l
z

l
or O R l . E 1 O1 , wh en c e a so l O2 S
n + 1
TH E QU A DR A TU R E O F TH E PA R A BOLA 89

E2 0 2 : 0 2 R 2 Q0 OH (n + 2,

2
2 2

It foll ow s th at O S SR n d s o on2 a .

C on s qu en tly O R
e O R 0 R 1 divid ed in to
1 , 2 3 2 , 3 3
ar e

e qu al p rt s r s p ctiv e ly by th
a e e l i n e from Q meeti ng qE e s .

It foll ow s th at th di ff r en c e b tw een th e circu ms crib ed an d


e e e

i ns crib e d gur es is equ l to th e tri angl e FgQ which c n b e a


,
a

m a d e as s m a ll s w e pl eas by i n cr e s i n g th e n u m b r of
a e a e

divi s i on s in Qq i e in qE , . . .

S i n c e th e r e O f th e s g men t is e qu al to 5 A Eg Q an d i t is
a a e ,

e as ily prov e d
(Pr op 1 7 ) th at A E g Q 4 (tri n gl w ith s m e
. a e a

b as e n d equ l h ight with s eg m nt ) it follow s that th e r


a a e e ,
a ea

of th e s eg m n t e ti m s th e l tt er tri angl e
4
e a .

It is e s y to s ee th at thi s s oluti on is ess en ti lly th e sam s


a a e a

th t giv n in The M ethod (s ee pp 2 9 3 0 bov ) on ly in a mor e


a e .

,
a e ,

orth od ox form (g e om etric lly s p k i n g) Fo th re A rch i a ea . r e

m d es t ook th e s u m O f ll th e s t i ght li n e
e s O Ra O R r a s, a
1 1 , Z 2

a s m ki n g up th
a s g m en t n otw i th s t an di n g th t th e r e a
e e n a re a

in n i t e n u m b e r of th em n d s tr ight li n es h av n o br eadth a a e .

H er e h e t k s i n crib d n d circu ms crib ed tr p i prop or


a e s e a a ez a

tion al to th e s tr ight li n e an d h vi n g n it br e dth n d th n


a s a e a ,
a e

com pr ess es th e gur es tog th r i n to th gmen t it lf by e e e se se

i n cr eas in g i n d en i t ely th e n u mbe r of tr pe i in ch gur a z a ea e,

i
. e dim i n i s h i n g th i r breadth i n de n it ely
. e .

Th p oc d u
e r e is e quiv l n t to n i n t egr t i on thu s
r e a e a a ,
:

If X d en ot th e r e of th e tr i ngl Fg Q w e h av i f n b
e a a a e ,
e, e

th e n u m b e r of p art s i n Qq ,

(circu ms crib d gur e) e

su m QqF QR 1 F1 QR 2 F2
of A s , , ,

s um Of A s QqF Q0 1 R 1 QOZ S , , ,

(n (n z
r
2
71

l
n
2
X2 )
X
.
'
a z
n

S i m il arly , w e n d th at
(i n s crib ed gur ) e X { X2 +
TH E QUA DR A TU R E O F TH E PA R A B OLA 91
'

th e tri angle P Qg is h lf of th e p ara ll logram and th erefore


.
a e

more th an h lf th e s gmen t
a A n d s o on (Pr op e . .

We n ow h v e to s u m n t rms of th e abov e g eometric al


a e

seri es . A rchi me d es en u n ci ates th e probl em in th e for m Gi v en ,

a s e ri es of a r e as A B C D Z ofwh i ch A is th e gr eat es t an d
, , , , ,

each is e qu al to four ti mes th e n ex t in ord er th e n (Prop 2 3 ) , .

Z :
3A .

Th e a lgebr ic al e quival en t of thi s


a is of o c urs e
1

;i
n
1 _


<
1
ir (4 )
"
1 + + s
F
To nd th e a ear Of th e g ment A rchi me d es ns tea d of
se , ,

taking th e li mit ,
as we s h ould u s e s th e me th od of r ed u cti o a d
,
,

a bsu r du m .

S upp ose K 5 A P Qg .

(1 ) If poss ibl let the area of th e s egment be gr eater th n K


e, a .

W th en in s crib e gure in th e r cogn i e d man ner s uch


e a

e z

that th e s egm n t ex c eed s it by an ar e les s th an the exc ess of


e a

th e s egmen t ov e r K Th er efor e th e i n s cribed gur e m u s t b e


.

gr eat er th an K which is i mpos s ibl e sin ce


,

A + B + C+ 5A ,

wh er A A P Qq (P rop
e .

2 ) If p os s ibl e le t th e r ea of th e seg m en t b e l e s s th an K
,
a .

If then A P Qq A B 5 A C 5 B and s o on un t i l we , ,
:
, ,

arrive t an r ea X l ess th an th e e x c ess O f K ov e r th e r ea of


a a a

the s gme n t w e h av e
e ,

A +B+C+ X + 5X = 5A
+ K .

Thu s K ex c ee ds A r l ess th an X
B 0 + X by an a ea ,

and xceeds th e segmen t by an ar ea gr ater th n X


e e a .

It follows th at A + B 0 + +X (th e s egment) which


is i mp os s ibl e (P r op .

Th r e for e th e ar ea of th e s egmen t b ei n g neith e r greate r no


e ,
r

les s th n K is e qu a l to K or 5 A P Qq
a ,
.

O n Fl oating B odies , I ,
II .

I n Book
I of thi s treati se A rchi med s l ay s dow n the fun da e

ment l pri n cipl s of th e s ci en c e of hydros t atic s Th es e


a e e . ar
92 A R CH I MEDES
d e duce d from Postul te which a s ar e on ly two in n u mb r e . Th e
rs t which b egins Book I is thi s :

le t it
u d th t u i d is of s uch a n ature th t of th
b e a ss me a a a ,
e

p rt
a it which
s of ven ly n d e con t i n u ou s th t wh ch s
lie e a ar ,
a i i

pr d
e ss e l driv n l on g by th t wh i ch is pres ed th e
th e ess is e a a s

r ch
m o e ; a n d ea p rt is pr e s d by th e u d wh ch
of its a s se i i 1S

p rp d cul rly b v i t exc pt wh en th e u i d i s hut up n


.

e en i a a o e e s i

anyth g pr d by s om th i ng l s e
i n an d es s e e e

th e c d pl c d ft r Pr op
s e on ,
a e a e . 7 ,
sa y s

it b ass um d th at of bodi es wh i ch e b orn e upw rds in


l et e e ,
ar a

a u i d e ch i born e upw ard s al on g th e perp en d cul r dr w n


,
a s i a a

through its cen tr of gra v i ty e

P rop pr el i mi n ry propos i ti on about s ph er an d


. 1 is a a a e,

th en A rch i me d s plu ng es i n m ed i s r es with th th eor em


e a e

(P r op 2 ) th at.the s u r f c f yf
o n l u id a t es t

i s a phe e the a e a r s r

f which is the s a m e a s tha t ofthe ear th , an d in th e



cen tr e o
wh ol e of B ook I the s urfa c e of th e ui d is alw ays s h ow n in
th e d i agr ms s ph e ric al
a Th m eth od of proof i
as i mil r to . e s s a

wh t w e s h ould xp ect in a mode rn lem en t ry t extbook th e


a e e a ,

m i n prop os i ti on s s t abl i s h d b ei n g th e foll owi n g


a A s ol i d
e e .

wh i ch s i e fo S e is of equ l w ight w i th u i d w i ll i f l t
,
z r iz ,
a e a ,
e

d ow n i n to th e u i d s in k t i ll it is ju s t c ov er e d but not l ow er
,

(P rop . s olid l i ght r th n uid will if l t dow n i n to i t


a e a a ,
e ,

b on ly p artly i mm er d in f ct ju s t o f
e th t th e w ei ght
se , a s ar a

of th ol i d i
e qual to th w i ght Of th u i d d i s pl c d
s s e e e e a e

(Props 4 n d i f i t is forcibly i mm e r s e d it will b


.