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ASEN 5050

SPACEFLIGHT DYNAMICS
Two-Body Motion

Prof. Jeffrey S. Parker


University of Colorado Boulder

Lecture 3: The Two Body Problem 1


Announcements
Homework #1 is due right now!
Either handed in or uploaded to D2L
Late policy is 10% per school day, where a day starts at
9:00 am.

Homework #2 is due Friday 9/12 at 9:00 am

Concept Quiz #4 will be available M-W.

Reading: Chapters 1 and 2

Lecture 3: The Two Body Problem 2


Space News
Visiting asteroid this Sunday. Maybe 60 feet in diameter?

Lecture 3: The Two Body Problem 3


Space News
Itll take a small
Visiting asteroid telescope to see it.

Lecture 3: The Two Body Problem 4


Concept Quiz #3

Lecture 3: The Two Body Problem 5


Concept Quiz #3

Lecture 3: The Two Body Problem 6


Concept Quiz #3

Lecture 3: The Two Body Problem 7


Concept Quiz #3

Lecture 3: The Two Body Problem 8


Challenge #2

For those of you who are very familiar with the


properties of conic sections:

Consider planar orbits (elliptical, parabolic, hyperbolic)


What do you get if you plot vx(t) vs. vy(t)?

vy Anyone have a guess,


who didnt email me?

vx
Lecture 3: The Two Body Problem 9
Challenge #2
Anyone who suggested a solution
even remotely similar earned a point.
Circles and circular arcs! Which was 3 people.

Lecture 3: The Two Body Problem 10


Homework #1

Darn orbital dynamics. The ISS is not cooperative at


the moment. Here are the last and next passes, as
viewed from Boulder:

Lecture 3: The Two Body Problem 11


ISS Passes

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ISS Passes

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ISS Passes

Lecture 3: The Two Body Problem 14


Todays Lecture Topics

Converting between the anomalies

Then: More two-body orbital element computations

Our toolbox:
Newtons law of gravitation
v2

r = 3r = Specific Energy
r 2 r
Vis-Viva Equation
2
v= Most everything else comes
r a
Lecture 3: The Two Body Problem
straight from these. 15
Properties of Conic Sections

v e a
2
Ellipses < <0 0e<1 a >0
r
2
Parabolas = =0 e=1 a =
r
2
Hyperbolas > >0 e>1 a<0
r h2
Since = a(1 e 2 ) is positive

Lecture 3: The Two Body Problem 16


Orbital Period

Last time we proved Keplers 2nd and 3rd laws and


arrived at an expression for the orbital period of an
ellipse:
s
s
a3 km3
P = 2 units = 3 2 = seconds
km /s

Lecture 3: The Two Body Problem 17


Mean Motion

We also arrived at an expression for the mean motion:


s
2 radians a3
n= P = 2
P sec

2 2
n= = q
P 2 a3

r

= rad/s
a3
Lecture 3: The Two Body Problem 18
Where are we in an orbit?
We have:
Our position in an orbit relative to Earth
The time
The true anomaly,

We want to know:
How long it will take to get
somewhere
The time profile of (t) r


We pose the answer by
determining how much
area is swept out in some
amount of time.

Lecture 3: The Two Body Problem 19


The Anomalies
The true anomaly,
The actual, measured angle
Notice that this does not advance at a constant rate in an elliptical orbit

Mean anomaly, M
An angle that does
advance at a constant
rate in an elliptical orbit.
M = n(t tp )
r

Eccentric anomaly, E
An angle that helps
translate from the true
anomaly to the mean
anomaly

Lecture 3: The Two Body Problem 20


The Anomalies
The true anomaly,
The actual, measured angle
Notice that this does not advance at a constant rate in an elliptical orbit

Mean anomaly, M
An angle that does
advance at a constant
rate in an elliptical orbit.
M = n(t tp )
r

Eccentric anomaly, E E
An angle that helps
translate from the true
anomaly to the mean
anomaly

Lecture 3: The Two Body Problem 21


The Anomalies
Some quick mental exercises:

Lecture 3: The Two Body Problem 22


The Anomalies

Satellite is at periapse

True Anomaly = 0 deg


r
Mean Anomaly = 0 deg

Eccentric Anomaly = 0 deg

Lecture 3: The Two Body Problem 23


The Anomalies

Satellite is at = 80 deg e = 0.3


r
True Anomaly = 80 deg
E
Mean Anomaly = 48 deg

Eccentric Anomaly = 63 deg

Lecture 3: The Two Body Problem 24


The Anomalies

Satellite is at = 120 deg e = 0.3


r
True Anomaly = 120 deg
E
Mean Anomaly = 87 deg

Eccentric Anomaly = 104 deg

Lecture 3: The Two Body Problem 25


The Anomalies

Satellite is at apoapse

True Anomaly = 180 deg


r
Mean Anomaly = 180 deg

Eccentric Anomaly = 180 deg

Lecture 3: The Two Body Problem 26


The Anomalies

The true anomaly advances quickly away from periapse


The mean anomaly advances steadily
The eccentric anomaly is in between

At apoapse, they all catch up.

Beyond apoapse, its all in reverse (i.e., symmetric)


True anomaly advances the slowest away from apoapse
Mean anomaly advances steadily
Eccentric anomaly is in between

Lecture 3: The Two Body Problem 27


The Anomalies

Lets see
some math!

Lecture 3: The Two Body Problem (Vallado, 2013) 28


The Anomalies

True Anomaly
Note: c = a rp
Mean Anomaly = a a(1-e)
=ae
Eccentric Anomaly

For a coordinate system centered on Earth, write the location of


the satellite in terms of E
X SAT = a cos E ae
2 2
X SAT YSAT
Eq. of Ellipse 2
+ 2 = 1 YSAT = b sin E
a b
Lecture 3: The Two Body Problem 29
Derivation of Keplers Equation

Now,
2 2 2 a 1 e2
r = XSAT + YSAT
= (a cos E ae)2 + (bsin E)2
= a 2 "#cos2 E 2ecos E + e2 + (1 e2 )sin 2 E $%

= a 2 "#1 2ecos E + e2 (1 sin 2 E)$%

= a 2 "#1 2ecos E + e2 cos2 E $%


2
= a 2 (1 ecos E ) r = a(1- ecos E)

Now we will derive Keplers Equation


Lecture 3: The Two Body Problem 30
Derivation of Keplers Equation

p
Remember r =
1+ ecos
p (esin ) p ( esin ) r 2 hesin
r = 2
= =
(1+ ecos ) p2 p
But also r = a (1 ecos E )
r = aesin EE
hesin
So, aeE sin E =
p Note b sin E = r sin
he " b % b
aeE sin E = $ sin E ' sin = sin E
p #r & r

Lecture 3: The Two Body Problem 31


Derivation of Keplers Equation

p
Remember r =
1+ ecos
p (esin ) p ( esin ) r 2 hesin
r = 2
= =
(1+ ecos ) p2 p
But also r = a (1 ecos E )
r = aesin EE
hesin
So, aeE sin E =
p Note b sin E = r sin
he " b % b
aeE sin E = $ sin E ' sin = sin E
p #r & r

Lecture 3: The Two Body Problem 32


Derivation of Keplers Equation

rE =
hb
=
a (1 e 2
) a 1 e 2
h2
=p
Thus,
pa a(1 e 2 )a
3

rE =
a a (1 e ) 2

=
a 2
=

4
a 2 (1 e 2 ) a2 a


Thus, a(1 e cos E )E =
a
1
2

E e cos EE = 3 =n
a 2

Integrating, E e sin E = nt + constant


Lecture 3: The Two Body Problem 33
Derivation of Keplers Equation

rE =
hb
=
a (1 e 2
) a 1 e 2
h2
=p
Thus,
pa a(1 e 2 )a
3

rE =
a a (1 e ) 2

=
a 2
=

4
a 2 (1 e 2 ) a2 a


Thus, a(1 e cos E )E =
a
1
2

E e cos EE = 3 =n
a 2

Integrating, E e sin E = nt + constant


Lecture 3: The Two Body Problem 34
Derivation of Keplers Equation

rE =
hb
=
a (1 e 2
) a 1 e 2
h2
=p
Thus,
pa a(1 e 2 )a
3

rE =
a a (1 e ) 2

=
a 2
=

4
a 2 (1 e 2 ) a2 a


Thus, a(1 e cos E )E =
a
1
2

E e cos EE = 3 =n
a 2

Integrating, E e sin E = nt + constant


Lecture 3: The Two Body Problem 35
Derivation of Keplers Equation

If reference time is perigee, E = 0,


0 0
Et esin Et = nt p + constant constant = -nt p
p p

E esin E = n(t t p ) M Kepler's Equation

Angle swept out at the M = Mean Anomaly


mean angular velocity,
n, the mean motion

M = n(t tp ) = E e sin E
Keplers Equation relates the Mean
Anomaly to the Eccentric Anomaly
Lecture 3: The Two Body Problem 36
Derivation of Keplers Equation

Can we relate either the Mean or Eccentric Anomaly to the True


Anomaly?

Yes! r = a(1 e cos E)


p
r=
1 + e cos
Useful Formula:
p a(1 e2 )
r = a(1 e cos E) = =
1 + e cos 1 + e cos
Lecture 3: The Two Body Problem 37
Conversions

Any issues with these relationships?

M = n(t tp ) = E e sin E
p a(1 e2 )
r = a(1 e cos E) = =
1 + e cos 1 + e cos

Quadrants! Two satellites with = 10 deg and =


-10 deg will be impossible to distinguish.
Lecture 3: The Two Body Problem 38
Quadrant Checks

True Anomaly Eccentric Anomaly (Eq 2-9)

Eccentric Anomaly True Anomaly

(both and E are either 0 180 deg or 180 360 deg)


Lecture 3: The Two Body Problem 39
More Quadrant Checks

True Anomaly Eccentric Anomaly (Eq 2-14)

Eccentric Anomaly True Anomaly (Eq 2-13)

Lecture 3: The Two Body Problem 40


If we have and need more:

If is given: p
r=
1 + e cos
r cos + ae
cos E =
a
r sin
sinE =
b
Solve E-e sin E = M for t (or M)
Lecture 3: The Two Body Problem 41
If we have t and need more:

If t is given: M = n(t - tp)


Solve E-e sin E = M for E
r = a( 1-e cos E)
a cos E ae
and cos =
r
b
sin = sin E
r
2
a 1e
= sin E
Lecture 3: The Two Body Problem
r 42
Derivation of Keplers Equation

If t is given: If is given:
M = n(t - tp) p
Solve E-e sin E = M for E r=
1 + e cos
r = a( 1-e cos E) r cos + ae
cos E =
a cos E ae a
and cos =
r r sin
b sinE =
sin = sin E b
r
2
Solve E-e sin E = M for t (or M)
a 1e
= sin E
r

1+e E
Another Useful Relation: tan = tan
Lecture 3: The Two Body Problem
2 1e 2 43
Solving Keplers Equation

Want to use Newton-Raphson Iteration.


Assume we want to solve f(y) = 0 for y.
Assume y = x+, where x is an approximate guess, and is a
small correction. Expanding in a Taylor Series:
f ""(x) 2
0 = f (y) = f (x + ) f (x) + f "(x) + +
2!
f(x)
Neglecting 2nd order terms and higher,
we can solve for : f(x0)
f (x)
=
f "(x)
x0 x
Lecture 3: The Two Body Problem 44
Solving Keplers Equation

We need to iterate this since we have neglected higher order


terms: f (X )
Xn+1 = Xn + n = Xn n Iterate until n is
f "(Xn ) acceptably small
( = y-x)

We want to solve E esin E = M f (E) = M E + esin E = 0


f '(E) = 1+ ecos E
So
M En + e sin En
E n +1 = En +
1 e cos En

Careful with e = 1, i.e., dont use for high e.

Lecture 3: The Two Body Problem 45


Summary

Today:
Keplers Laws
Properties of conic orbits
The Vis-Viva Equation! You will fall in love with this equation.
Converting between the anomalies

Monday:
Several examples of converting between the anomalies
Solving Keplers Problem
Satellite state representations

Lecture 3: The Two Body Problem 46


Announcements
Homework #1 is due right now!
Either handed in or uploaded to D2L
Late policy is 10% per school day, where a day starts at
9:00 am.

Homework #2 is due Friday 9/12 at 9:00 am

Concept Quiz #4 will be available M-W.

Reading: Chapters 1 and 2

Lecture 3: The Two Body Problem 47


Derivation of Keplers Equation
cos E e a (cos E e )
So, cos = =
1 + e cos E r
2 2
2 1 e sin E a 1 e sin E
sin = 1 cos = =
1 + e cos E r
cos E e
1
2 1 cos
1 e cos E 1 e cos E cos E + e
tan = = =
2 1 + cos cos E e 1 e cos E + cos E e
1+
1 e cos E
(1 + e )(1 cos E ) 1 + e 2 E
= = tan
(1 e )(1 + cos E ) 1 e 2

1+ e E
tan = tan
2 1e 2
Lecture 3: The Two Body Problem 48