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Application Note

Moisture categories in DIRANA

Martin Anglhuber |
Stephanie Uhrig |


Related OMICRON Product


Application Area
Power transformer, Instrument transformer

Power transformer, FDS, PDC+, DIRANA, moisture


Document ID

This application note informs about moisture categories in the DIRANA software and shows how to
customize them.
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OMICRON 2017. All rights reserved. This Application Note is a publication of OMICRON.

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Table of Contents

1 About moisture categories ...................................................................................................................4

2 Changing the name and values of categories ....................................................................................6

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1 About moisture categories
After finishing the moisture assessment for e.g. power transformers with the DIRANA, the SW shows a
colored indicator for the different categories (Figure 1).

Figure 1: Moisture category shown in the Moisture Assessment

The default settings refer to the categories given in the IEC 60422 "Mineral insulating oils in electrical
equipment Supervision and maintenance guidance". This standard provides categories for moisture
contamination of power transformers based on moisture saturation (Table 1).

Moisture saturation in oil (in %) Condition of cellulosic insulation

<5 Dry

5 - 20 Moderately wet

20 - 30 Wet

> 30 Extremely wet

Table 1: Moisture categories based on moisture saturation in oil. Source: IEC 60422:2013

Moisture saturation can be converted into moisture content using sorption isotherms (Figure 2). Such
isotherms have been experimentally developed in laboratory environment using paper and pressboard
samples. They are only valid for equilibrium conditions.

Figure 2: Ratio of water saturation in oil to water content in paper (sorption isotherm)

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The isotherms allow to convert limits of water saturation to limits of water content in paper (Table 2).

IEC 60422 limits of moisture Corresponding condition Limits of water contents

saturation in oil (in %) of cellulosic insulation in paper (in wt.%)

<5 Dry < 2,2

5 - 20 Moderately wet 2,2 - 3,6

20 - 30 Wet 3,7 - 4,7

> 30 Extremely wet > 4,8

Table 2: Moisture categories based on moisture saturation in oil converted to water content in paper

The IEC rates moisture saturations of more than 5 % as "moderately wet", which is equivalent to a moisture
content of approximately 2.2 wt.% (Figure 2). In this area the water molecules become more and more active,
increasing the dangerous effects of water. At this level, maintenance actions such as drying should be
considered, taking into account the importance and future operation of the transformer.

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2 Changing the name and values of categories
The categories given in the IEC 60422 are rather general and do not distinguish between different equipment
types and the criticality of this equipment in the electrical network. Referring to the same water content,
transformers with high load fluctuations have a higher failure risk compared to transformers with moderate and
steady load. In some cases, a drying process is recommended for critical generator transformers having a
water content of e.g. 2.5 %, whereas no actions are taken for small distribution transformers under moderate
and steady load having even 3.5 % water content. Therefore it might be useful to define limits, different to the
default limits mentioned above.
The moisture categories as well as categories for oil conductivity can be changed in the DIRANA moisture
analysis section of the PTM settings (Figure 3). The categories are also be included in the DIRANA report.

Figure 3: Setting for the moisture categories in PTM

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