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Geotechnical Earthquake

Engineering for Seismic Design


Prof. Ellen M. Rathje, Ph.D., P.E.
University of Texas at Austin
Jeff Bachhuber
Bachhuber, M M.S.,
S CC.E.G.
EG
Ranon Dulberg
Fugro/William Lettis and Associates
Prof. Brady R. Cox, Ph.D., P.E.
University of Arkansas

18-19 November 2010


Seismic Design
g Framework:
Characterizing sources and
estimating ground shaking for design

Prof. Ellen M. Rathje, Ph.D., P.E.

Department of Civil,
Civil Architectural
Architectural, and
Environmental Engineering
University of Texas at Austin

18 November 2010
Seismic Design Framework
Source Characterization
Locations of sources (faults)
Magnitude (Mw)
Ground Motion Recurrence
Characterization
Closest distance fault to site (Rrup)
Local site conditions For what level of shaking
Groundwe
should Motion Level
design?
Liquefaction?
Li f i ?
Palo Alto
Landslide?

Rrup

Soil conditions
Topographic conditions
Seismic Design Framework
Characterizing sources
Locations of sources
Expected maximum magnitude
R
Recurrence (h
(how often
ft ddo earthquakes
th k occur))
Focal mechanism
Characterizing ground shaking
Distance from source
Local site conditions
Ground motion =
fxn (magnitude, distance, site conditions)
Locations of Sources
Geologic mapping
Identify offsets
Identify linear features
Seismicity
S i i it
Small earthquakes
occur along
l active
ti
seismic zones
Need a sensitive
sensiti e
seismic network to
monitor small
earthquakes
USGS Seismicity Map of Haiti
Maximum Mw and Recurrence
Maximum Magnitude
Maximum Mw is related to length of fault
Mw = 6 ; Rupture length ~ 5 km
Mw = 7 : Rupture length ~ 50 km
Mw = 8 : Rupture length ~ 325 km
Recurrence
R (ti
(time b
between
t earthquakes)
th k )
Offsets from large earthquakes leave a record
within
ithi sediments
di t
Identify and date significant
offsets (paleoseismicity)
Characterizing Ground Motions

Closest distance (Rrup)


Closest distance between the fault rupture
plane and the site

Rrup

Rrup

Dipping Faults Vertically Dipping Faults


Characterizing Ground Motions

Local site conditions


Characterized by the shear wave velocity (Vs) of
the underlying materials
Vs is also a measure of the
maximum shear stiffness (Gmax)

Material Vs (m/s)

R k
Rock > 760 m/s
/

Stiff Soil ~400 500 m/s


Soft Soil < 180 m/s
Predicting Ground Shaking

Ground motion prediction equations (GMPE)


Statistical models to predict ground shaking
Based on thousands of recordings from
previous earthquakes
Developed for different tectonic regions (shallow
crustal regions
regions, subduction zones,
zones intra-plate)
intra plate)

ln (Y) = fsource (M, mechanism) + fdistance (M, Rrup)


+ fsite (Vs, others)
Predicting Ground Shaking

Ground motions have large scatter!


1994 Northridge (Mw = 6.7) Earthquake in California

Range in Acceleration
Acceleration (g)

0.17 g to 0.7 g
Peak A

Distance (km)
From D. Boore
Liquefaction

Liquefaction occurs in loose, saturated


sandd

Saturated: Below the ground


water table

Loose: Assessed by the


Standard Penetration
Test blowcount (N)
Standard Penetration Test (SPT)
63.5 kg mass dropped 0.75 m on
top of drill rod
5 cm diameter split spoon sampler
Count blows to advance sampler
3 15 cm intervals
3,

N = blowcount = # blows / 30 cm
from the 2nd and 3rd 15 cm intervals

Li
Liquefaction
f ti Potential
P t ti l N (bl/30 cm))
Not liquefiable > 30
Moderate 15 - 30
High 0 - 15
Earthquake-Induced Landslides

Earthquake shaking can destabilize


hill id and
hillsides d cause movementst

From USGS

Yield Acceleration (ky): acceleration that starts a failure


Influenced by slope angle and material strength
Maps of ky

ky Map

DEM

Slope Angle

Data from California Geological Shear Strength


Survey (CGS) for Mint Canyon
Quadrangle
(c, )
Seismic Design Framework
Characterizing sources
Locations of sources
Expected maximum magnitude, mechanism
Recurrence
R (h
(how often)
ft )
Characterizing ground shaking
Distance from source
Local site conditions
Additional effects
Liquefaction
q
Landslides