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DESIGNING ENGLISH MATERIAL FOR ACADEMIC CULINARY ENGLISH

PROGRAM FOR VOCATIONAL SCHOOL

ABSTRACT

The study aims to design an academic English book of culinary program of vocation school.
Vocational school prepares students to become proffesional workers by shaping their interest
earlier. Therefore, since in the grade X the students deal with the course based on their program.
In learning English, goverment provides general book to help students learn English. However,
the students actually needs to learn English which related to their course in terms of topic,
activity, vocabulary and etc. The writer uses the instructional design from Dick & Carey as the
guidelines and the methodology is research and development from Borg and Gall. Besides, the
writer also apllies text - based learning since the book is going to provides texts or passages
related to culinary to keep enggaging the students with their program. As the result, the are
nine units of material that will be included in the books. Each unit contains for parts which are:
(1) goal which represents the objectives needed to achieve by the students at the end of the unit,
(2) Process which refers to ongoing activities needed to perform by the students, (3) learning
material to support the goals and (4) content which refers to the linguistic aspects to support
students ability in English such as grammatical, tenses and vocabularies.
Keywords: Instructional design, Text-based learning, Research and development, Culinary
program.

A. Introduction.
The needs of working field which is relevant with the workers competencies are important for
in this era. Since companies and agencies requires professionalism from the worker to support
the quality of their places. Based on this, it is benefit to shape someones interest in earlier level
of education in order to prepare for the relevant working.
Vocational school is one of the solutions in preparing the students learn their majoring in the
future. In this school, the students are trained to engage with world working since in the early
stage. The students in vocational is the same level as high school but the students in vocational
school are already shaped with their main courses based on the program that has been chosen.
Therefore, their courses focus to support their professional skill of the program.
Furthermore, vocational school is a school which has orientation to produce the students who
are ready to work. It does not only prepare related materials which focus on their major but
also facilitate the students with working field experience or PKL (Praktek Kerja Lapangan).
The students who graduate from this school are expected to have a criteria as professional
workers. It means that the students will not only study about the general courses but also the
specific course based on their program. Therefore, the students need to gain the soft skill as
well as the hard skill of their courses. Based on this, it is possible for the students to work after
their finish the study.
One of the programs offered by vocational school is culinary program where the students are
trained with hard skill and soft skill to deal with culinary deal. It includes the nature of culinary
and business of culinary. However, this research focuses to explore about the science of
culinary program in order to design the academic English book which can be used for culinary
program students. This book specifies in the areas of culinarys nature. Therefore, the paper
focuses to elaborate the academic culinary English program.
There are two main reasons in designing the academic culinary English materials. First, the
students are supported with the general book of English which cover the school administration,
social competence and workplace competence. However, the curriculum of 2013 should also
able to cover professional culinary program enterprise. Therefore, the designing offers to
complete this parts which is not included in curriculum of 2013 so that the students from this
program have the ability to produce English which is related to their proffesional skill in the
future. Second, it is benefit to maintain the knowledge, skill and attitude of the students. In
order to do so, they need to acknowledge from different sources and most of the knowledge
which experience in English will be helpful for them in supporting their future career since
culinary program is also a global business in this era. Moreover, through academic culinary
English book, it is expected that the students can wide their knowledge about culinary around
the world. in this paper, the researcher is going to make a schematic model of academic culinary
English program which consist of nine units.
B. Dick and Careys model

Dick and Carey (2009) state that all of the elements of the instructional such as the
instructor, learners, materials, instructional activities, delivery system, and learning and
performance environment are connected to work with each other (p. 1) The goal is to create
desire student learning outcomes. Dick and Careys model is divided into 9 stages which can
be seen as follows:
Figure 2.1: Dick and Careys Model of Instructional Design (2009:1)

Identify Instructional Goal: According to Dick and Carey (2009) Goals are clear statement of
behaviors that learners are to demonstrate as a result of instructions (p. 33). In the first stage,
teachers are required to describe what the learners are expected to perform at the end of the
instruction. Instructional goals are normally broad statements of what teachers are trying to
accomplish. Moreover Dick and Carey said that identifying the instructional design is the most
critical event in the process of instructional design. If done improperly, the instruction may not
intend the learners real needs (p. 15).

Conduct Instructional Analysis: In this stage teachers need to identify the exact performance
that used to connect the present performance and the desired performance. It means that what
is done by learners during the instructional materials should be the same with the desired
performance. Teacher also should convince that the relevant between steps taken in performing
goal with objectives should be achieved by learners. Therefore, the materials and performances
learned by learners support and lead them to the goals of learning.

Identify Entry Behaviors and Learner Characteristics: Identifying the background and general
characteristics of the learners includes skills, experience, motivation levels, and basic
demographics; those are related skills and topics that will be taught by teachers. The
information should have enough detail to identify the correct starting point of the instruction
so that students do not waste time reviewing material they already known and does not omit
content they need to know. This step helps teacher in designing the materials, techniques and
strategies used. It also helps teachers to start the learning process at level that appropriate for
students.

Write Performance Objectives: Performance objectives consist of a description of the task or


skills to be learned, the standards or criteria, and the conditions that the task must be performed.
This stage is the most important part of the instructional design since it describes description
of what learners are able to do after following a unit of instruction. Moreover, it also describes
what learners are able to do outside the learning situation or when they are in real situation
using the skills and knowledge from the instruction in daily life.

Develop Criterion-Referenced Test Items: On this stage, teachers develop tests or evaluation to
assess the performance of the learners. The test item is benchmark which is to measure whether
learners have already reached the objectives and ready to move to new skill. Furthermore, it
can also evaluate the instructional design whether it is already support the student to get the
learning outcomes.

Develop Instructional Strategy: The term instructional strategy is used generally to cover the
various aspects of choosing a delivery system, sequencing and grouping cluster and content,
describing learning components these will be included in the instruction, and selecting media
for delivering instruction

Develop and Select Instructional Materials: On this stage, the teachers need to design the
instructional which can be implemented by learners in real context. Therefore, teachers select
the instructional materials to focus on the goals that should be accomplished by the learners.
the materials are the most chosen topic by the students.

Develop and Conduct Formative Evaluation: In this stage, the teachers are required to obtain
more data to revise the instructional materials and make it more efficient and effective for the
learners. Besides, teachers must identify areas in the instructional material that need
improvement before releasing the instruction for actual use. It can be from the mediated,
strategies or techniques that used before.

Develop and Conduct Summative Evaluation: In this last stage, the teachers are required to
develop and conduct summative test to verify the effectiveness of the instructional materials to
the learners target. If the teachers found inappropriate instruction during the instructional, it
will be rejected and will be evaluated. It also can be evaluate from learners, from the summative
test teacher can decide students who need to learn more and those who ready with new level.

Dick and Careys model explores the steps taken to create a good instructional design detailed.
It can be seen that all of the steps are connected to make the goals which are the result of the
instructional design itself can be delivered successfully to the students. Therefore, in order to
get good instructional designs according Dick and Carey, a teacher must performs all of the
steps.
C. Text Based Learning

Text based learning directs the students to achieve the goals of learning through reading
text and acquiring words and typical language environment from text. Thornbury claims that
language always happens as text and not as isolated words and sentences (2005: 8). Texts
include rich word information such as word family, word meaning, lexical chains, and word
association. A text as a stimulus for production means using a text as a springboard for
another task usually a reading or writing task (Johns & Davies 1983:9). Texts help learners
speak and write words rightly. Doing role-play and talking about the text are the ways to
speak certain words; writing issues about the text is to use the words in the written form.
Both speaking and writing make students use the contexts and collocation words. Texts are
treasures for learners to learn vocabulary. Short literary texts are good choices. Poets often
choose their words carefully from phonological and semantic perspectives; they try to use the
right words in the right order.

D. Methodology
The methodology of this research is Research and Development which is well-known

as R&D. Borg. W.R (1987) defines that research and development is a model developing

in which the findings of research are used to design new products and procedures, which

then are systematically field tested, evaluated, and refined until they meet specified criteria

of effectiveness, quality or similar standard (p. 589). The writer chose this type of research

because the steps of the research could help the writer answered the problem formulation.

Moreover, R&D holds great promise for improving education because it involves a close

connection between systematic program evaluation and program development.

Born and Gall (1983: 772) says that educational research and development (R &

D) is a process used to develop and validate educational products. Learning materials is

going to be the product of this educational research and development. The main steps in R

& D cycle D (Borg, & Gall, 1983: 775) are research and information collecting, planning,

developing preliminary form of product, preliminary field testing, main product revision,

main field testing, operational product revision, operational field testing, final product

revision, dissemination and implementation.


E. The Schematic Model of Academic Culinary English Program
In order to answer the formulated problem, the writer is going to create a schematic model
of academic culinary English program which consist of nine units. Each unit contains goal,
process learning material and content. Goal represents the objectives needed to perform by the
students at the end of each unit. The goal of each unit should be clear to help the teacher and
student work together to achieve it. Process refers to the ongoing activities which need to
perform by the students to accomplish the goal. Learning materials are the items include to the
material which support the goal for example reading passage, conversation or expressions.
Content is linguistic aspect that should be included to the material to support students ability
in English such as grammatical, tenses and vocabularies.
There are nine units that will be include in the book and the the writer compose the topics
for the units which can ne seen in the table E.1. Besides, the writers also provides the goals,
process, learning material and content that will be included in each units. Since there nine units
for six semester, there are three units that should be accomplish by the students every year.

No. Units Goals Processes Learning Contents


Materials
1. Menu and Recipe In this unit, the Reading, Reading Present
Planning students are Discussion, passage, tense.
expected to be Presentation procedure Vocabularies
able to plan text,
recipes for any
occasions inside
and outside the
country using
English
appropriately.
2. Appetiser and In this unit, the Reading, Reading Present
Dessert students are Discussion, passages, tense.
expected to be Presentation Pictures vocabularies
able to identify
kinds of appetiser
and dessert and
explore the place,
time and
occasions to
deserve it
3. Main course In this unit, the Reading, Reading Present
students are Discussion, passages, tense.
expected to Presentation Pictures vocabularies
identidy kinds of
main course and
explore the place,
time, and
occasions to
deserve it
4. Ilmu Pangan In this unit, the
students are
expected to be
able to identify
the the chemistry
and physic
knowledge about
the food.
5. Pengawetan In this unit, the
makanan students are
expected to
beable to find out
the way to ...........
the food and
prevent it from
bacteria
6. Ilmu gizi In this unit, the
students are
expected to be
able to ..............
the measurement
gizi of the food
based on the
needs of people
in certain age
7. Indonesian Food In this unit, the
students are
expected to be
able to explore
kinds of food
from Indonesia
8. Diet Practice In this unit, the
students are
expected to be
able to know the
diet of food to
prevent the
consumens from
certain illness
9. Food Deserving In this unit, the
students are
expected to be
able to
.................. the
prinsip of food
deserving such as
garnish, fruit
carving and
platting.