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Atomic Radius Questions (6.5.

17)
1. Identify which metal has the larger atomic radius lithium or caesium. Justify your answer.
Lithium and caesium are both metals in the same group (group 1) in the periodic table. Though caesium has a larger
atomic radius compared to lithium, this is because as you go down the group the atomic radius increases in size as the
amount of electron shells increase. Caesium has more electron shells than lithium (as of the different periods the
elements are in), causing the inner electrons to shield the outer electrons from the electrostatic charge from the
positively charged nucleus.

2. Identify which element has the larger atomic radius lithium or fluorine. Justify your answer.
Lithium and fluorine are in the same period being period 2 in the periodic table. Though lithium has a larger atomic
radius compared to fluorine, this is because as you go across the periodic table the atomic radius decreases. Atomic
radius decreases across the periodic table as there are electrons being added across the period to the same shell and,
with the charge on the nucleus increasing, the electrons in fluorine are more attracted to the nucleus, causing an
increase in electrostatic charge allowing electrons to be pulled closer in to the nucleus.

3. Use a spreadsheet to graph the information shown in the table below Group I and describe the trend in atomic
radius shown in the graph.

Atomic Radius Size of Group 1 elements


300

250
Atomic radius (pm)

200

150

100

50

0
Li: 2 Na: 3 K: 4 Rb: 5 Cs: 6
Elements/Periods

The trend in the graph of group 1 elements, is the atomic radius size increases as the line continues in a positive linear
line. This increase in atomic radius size is because the elements electron shells increase, causing the outer most
electrons to be pushed and repelled by the inner electrons away from the positively charged nucleus.

4. (a) Use a spreadsheet to graph the atomic radius of the elements in Period 3 against their Group number.

Atomic Radius Size of Period 3 Elements


200

150

100

50

0
Na Mg Al Si N O Cl

Period 3 Elements

(b) Describe the trend shown in the graph.


The trend in the graph of atomic radius size of period 3 elements is that the atomic radius size is decreasing as the line
continues. The trend if decreasing atomic radius size is because of the elements have an increasing number of protons
in their nucleus causing a greater pull from the outer most electrons in the outer shells.
(c) Across Period 3, each atom has one more electron. If the number of the particles in the atoms is increasing, why
does the size of the atom get smaller.
The size of the atom is smaller due to the increase of protons in the nucleus, which allows for the outer most
electrons in the last electron cloud to be pulled further closer to the positively charged nucleus.

5 (a) Outline the relationship between the position of elements in the Periodic Table and atomic radius.
Group 1-7 elements: The atomic radius increases in size as you go down the group
Period 1-7 elements: The atomic radius decreases in size going across the period.
(b) Explain this relationship.
Group 1-7 elements increase in atomic radius size, as the amount of electron shells increases as you go down
the group, causing the electrons to be further away from the positively charged nucleus, which is pulling the
inner and outer most electrons towards it, though the outer most electrons are being repelled and pushed away
from electrostatic as of inner most electrons shells.
Period 1-7 elements decrease in atomic radius size, as the number of protons increase in the nucleus as you go
across the periods, causing a greater pull from the outer most electrons towards the positively charged nucleus,
allowing for the size of the atomic radius to decrease.

6 What is the atomic radius of sodium in metres?


D) as the picometre is 10^-12m
7 Which part of the Periodic Table has the elements with highest atomic radius?
(A)
8 Check your knowledge with this quick quiz.
(a) Atomic radius (increases/decreases) down a Group of the Periodic Table.
(b) Atomic radius (increases/decreases) across a Period of the Periodic Table.
Electronegativity (6.5.17)

1. Define what is meant by electronegativity


The ability of the atom of an element to attract the electrons of another atom in a bond.

2. In general, which are more electronegative- metals or non-metals?


Non-metals.

3. Describe and explain the trend in electronegativity of the metals down Group 1 of the Periodic Table?
The trend in Group 1 the electronegativity decreases as you go down the group. The electronegativity decreases as
you go down the group due to the increase in atomic radius causing the outer most electrons to be further away from
the nucleus which causes the outer most electrons not to be electronegativity.

4. Describe and explain the trend in electronegativity of the elements across Period 2 of the Periodic Table?
The trend in Period 2 elements is that the electronegativity increases as you go along Period 2 elements. The
electronegativity increases as the atomic radius decrease as there are more protons in the nucleus to pull the outer
most electrons closer to the nucleus allowing the electrons to be electronegativity.

5. Identify the most electronegative element.


Fluorine.

6. Identify the least electronegative element.


Francium.

7. Explain how the electronegativity values of two elements decides the type of bond between them.
The electronegativity values of two elements decides the type of bond between them is if the difference between
them is bigger than 1.5 the two elements bond is ionic, though if the difference between them is lower than 1.5 the
two elements bond is covalent.
8. Predict which one of the following compounds is covalent.
C)

9. Predict which compound is ionic.


B)

10. Table 19.2 lists the electro negativities of the elements in Period 2.
a) Use a spreadsheet to graph electronegativity against the Group number of each element.
Group vs Electronegativity

5
electronegativity

4
3
2
period 2 elements
1
0
I II III IV V VI VII
Group number

b) Describe the trend shown by this graph.


The trend of the graph is that the electronegativity increases by 0.5 as you go from group to group, which is showing
that as you go along the period the electronegativity increases.
11. a) (i) Across the periods electronegativity increases.
(ii) Down the group electronegativity decreases.
b) Fluorine
c) Francium
12. a) Complete this table
Symbol Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
Formula Na2O MgO Al2O3 Si2O4 P 20 3 SO Cl2O Cant
of oxide have
Name of Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Silicon Chlorine Cant
oxide Oxide Oxide Oxide Oxide oxide Oxide Oxide have
Type of Ionic Ionic Ionic Ionic Covalent Covalent Covalent Cant
bonding in have
oxide

b) The teacher marked it incorrectly due to the bonding of the are ionic as the compound is made up of a metal and
non-metal and metallic is a compound that is made up of two metals.
c)

13. Electronegativity and ionisation energy both involve attraction of electrons.


a) Define these two terms
Ionisation: The energy needed to lose their electrons from a neutral atom in a gaseous state.
Electronegativity: The ability of the atom of an element to attract the electrons of another atom in a bond.
b) Outline any difference between them
Ionisation energy is the amount of energy needed to lose their electrons from an atom, whereas electronegativity is
the atoms ability to attract electrons from another atom in a bond.
c) Compare the trends in electronegativity and ionisation energy.
Electronegativity trend in the periodic table is that going down the groups the electronegativity decreases though
going across the periodic table in periods the electronegativity increases and ionisation energy decreases as well going
down a group and as well increases going across a period.

14. a) electrons
b) decreases
c) increases
d) ionic.