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## No. Title Pages

1 Objective 3

2 Introduction 3-4

4 Procedure 4

## 5 Results and Graph 5-13

6 Discussion 14-16

7 Conclusion 16

8 Recommendation 17

9 Reference 18

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10 Appendix 19-20

OBJECTIVES:
1. To determine the head loss in pipe flow for different pipe diameter.
2. To estimate the friction factor for pipes with different pipe diameters.
3. To determine the head losses in bends and find pressure drop along the pipe.

INTRODUCTION:
Pipe flows belong to a broader class of flows, called internal flows, where the fluid is
completely bounded by solid surfaces. In contrast, in external flows, such as flow over a flat
plate or an airplane wing, only part of the flow is bounded by a solid surface. The term pipe
flow is generally used to describe flow through round pipes, ducts, nozzles, sudden
expansions and contractions, valves and other fittings. In this experiment, the flow through
round pipes and pipe fittings are studied.
The goal of this experiment is to study pressure losses due to frictional effects in fluid
flows through pipes. When a gas or a liquid flows through a pipe, there is a loss of pressure in
the fluid, because energy is required to overcome the viscous or frictional forces exerted by
the walls of the pipe on the moving fluid. In addition to the energy lost due to frictional
forces, the flow also loses energy or pressure as it goes through fittings such as bends or
valves. This loss in pressure is mainly due to the fact that flow separates locally as it moves
through such fittings. The pressure loss in pipe flows is commonly referred to as head loss.
These pressure losses are a function of various geometric and flow parameters including pipe
diameter, length, internal surface roughness and type of fitting.
In hydraulic engineering practice, it is frequently necessary to estimate the head loss
incurred by a fluid as it flows along a pipeline. When the pipeline is short, the major part of
the head loss will be due to the local mixing near the fittings. While for a long pipeline, on
the other hand, skin friction at the pipe wall will predominate.

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Figure 1 Illustration of fully developed flow along a pipe.
In this experiment, the influence of pipe diameter on head loss in pipe flows will be
evaluated by measuring flow rates through different pipes diameter. By measuring the
pressure drop and flow rate through a pipe, an estimate of the friction factor will be obtained.
The experimentally obtained values of the friction factor will then be compared with
established results.

APPARATUS:
- LS-18001-15 Pipe Friction Apparatus

PROCEDURE:
1. The LS-18001-15 Pipe Friction Apparatus was placed on the hydraulic bench.
2. The water inlet and outlet nipples were connected with flexible hose.
3. The quick coupling was connected to the copper pipe which has 11mm inner
diameter.
4. The water pump was switched on and the hydraulic bench was closed slowly over
flow valve.
5. The valves on the copper pipe were opened and air gap in the manometer was
removed by pressing the relief valve which was located on top of the manometer. The
water flow rate was measured by a measuring beaker and a stopwatch.
6. The reading at the manometer was recorded.
7. Step 4 to 6 was repeated with different flow rate and the reading of the manometer
was recorded.
8. Step 3 to 7 was repeated for other different diameter pipe.

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RESULTS AND CALCULATIONS
Tables 1.1, 1.2, 1.3: Recorded data of Time taken, Height of mercury ( H) and Flow
Rates(Q)

## For 5.3 mm: Table 1.1

No. Time (s) Volume of water collected (L) H (mm Hg) Flow Rate (L/s),Q
1 15.70 3 324 0.1911
2 15.90 3 295 0.1887
3 17.30 3 265 0.1734
4 18.60 3 234.5 0.1613
5 22.30 3 202 0.1345
6 23.10 3 167 0.1299

Sample calculations:
Volumeof water collected
Flow rate, Q = (L/s)
Timetaken
3L
For 324 mm Hg, Flow rate, Q1 =
15.70 s
= 0.1911 L/s

## For 8.3 mm: Table 1.2

No Time (s) Volume of water collected (L)
H (mm Hg) Flow Rate (L/s),Q
.
1 11.10 3 106 0.2703
2 12.00 3 98 0.2500
3 13.70 3 91 0.2190
4 15.60 3 81 0.1923
5 16.70 3 71 0.1796

4
6 18.40 3 60 0.1630

## For 11.0 mm: Table 1.3

No Time (s) Volume of water collected (L)
H (mm Hg) Flow Rate (L/s),Q
.
1 6.15 3 46 0.4878
2 8,95 3 42 0.3352
3 14.70 3 39 0.2041
4 15.60 3 38 0.1923
5 15.80 3 36 0.1899
6 16.75 3 35 0.1791

Tables 2.1, 2.2, 2.3: Calculated values of Flow Rates (m 3/s), Cross-sectional Area,
Velocity
For 5.3 mm: Table 2.1
No. Cross-sectional Area, A1 Flow Rate, Q
x 10-5 m2 Velocity, v (m/s)
(L/s) x10-4(m3/s)

## 1 2.206 0.1911 1.911 8.663

2 2.206 0.1887 1.887 8.554
3 2.206 0.1734 1.734 7.860
4 2.206 0.1613 1.613 7.312
5 2.206 0.1345 1.345 6.097
6 2.206 0.1299 1.299 5.888
Calculating cross-sectional area of pipes:
Sample calculations: d2
Area, A=
4
Converting flow rates, Q from (L/s) to (m3/s):
For diameter, d1 = 5.3mm
Knowing that 1000 L = 1m3
d 12
0.1911 L 1 m3 A1 =
Flow rate, Q1 = 4
s 1000 L
(5.3 x 103)2
=
4 5
-5 2
=2.206 x10 m
= 1.911x10-4 m3/s

Calculating velocity, v :
Flow rate , Q
Velocity, v =
crosssectional area of pipes , A

1.911 104 m3 /s
For No.1,v1= 5 2
2.206 10 m
= 8.663 m/s

## For 8.3 mm: Table 2.2

No. Cross-sectional Area, Flow Rate, Q
A2 x 10-5 m2 Velocity, v (m/s)
-4 3
(L/s) x10 (m /s)

## 1 5.411 0.2703 2.703 4.995

2 5.411 0.2500 2.500 4.620
3 5.411 0.2190 2.190 4.047
4 5.411 0.1923 1.923 3.554
5 5.411 0.1796 1.796 3.319
6 5.411 0.1630 1.630 3.012

## For 11.0 mm: Table 2.3

No. Cross-sectional Area, A3 Flow Rate, Q
x 10-5 m2 Velocity, v (m/s)
-4 3
(L/s) x10 (m /s)

## 1 9.503 0.4878 4.878 5.133

2 9.503 0.3352 3.352 3.527
3 9.503 0.2041 2.041 2.148
4 9.503 0.1923 1.923 2.024
5 9.503 0.1899 1.899 1.998
6 9.503 0.1791 1.791 1.885

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Tables3.1, 3.2, 3.3: Calculated values of Reynolds Number
vd
Using the formula: Re = V
Where v = velocity in pipes
d = diameter of pipes
V = kinematic viscosity of the fluid at 25oC
Noting that:
The length of the pipe, L = 0.425m
Coefficient of kinematic viscosity of the fluid at 25oC, V=9.04x10-7m2/s

Sample calculations:
For d = 5.3 mm 8.663(5.3 103 )
Re =
9.04 107
v = 8.663 m/s
= 50789.712
V=9.04x10-7m2/s

## Table 3.1: For d = 5.3 mm

Velocity (m/s), v Re
8.663 50789.712
8.554 50150.664
7.860 46081.858
7.312 42869.027
6.097 35745.686
5.888 34520.354

## Table 3.2 : For d = 8.3 mm

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Velocity (m/s), v Re
4.995 45861.173
4.620 42418.142
4.047 37157.190
3.554 32630.752
3.319 30473.119
3.012 27654.425

## Table 3.3 : For d = 11.0 mm

Velocity (m/s), v Re
5.133 62459.071
3.527 42917.035
2.148 26137.168
2.024 24628.319
1.998 24311.947
1.885 22936.947

## Tables4.1, 4.2, 4.3: Calculated values of Friction factor, f

h
f=
Using the formula: Friction factor, L v
x
d 2g
Where h = difference in pressure, dH (m Hg)
L = Length of pipe = 0.425 m (given)
v = velocity in the pipes
d = diameter of pipes

Sample calculations:

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For d= 5.3 mm = 0.0053 m
v = 8.663 m/s
h = 324 mm Hg = 0.324 m
L = 0.425 m
g = 9.81 m/s2

h
Friction factor, f1= L v

d 2g
0.324
= 0.425 (8.663)

0.0053 2 9.81
= 1.056 x 10-3

Table 4.1: Velocity (v), Difference in pressure (h), Reynolds Number, Friction factor (f)\
For d = 5.3 mm
No Velocity, v Difference in pressure, Reynolds number Friction factor,
. (m/s) h (m Hg) f
1 8.663 0.324 50789.712 1.056 x 10-3

## 5 6.097 0.202 35745.686 1.330 x 10-3

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6 5.888 0.167 34520.354 1.179 x 10-3

Table 4.2: Velocity (v), Difference in pressure (h), Reynolds Number, Friction factor (f)\
For d = 8.3 mm
No Velocity, v Difference in pressure, Reynolds number Friction factor,
. (m/s) h (m Hg) f
1 4.995 0.106 45861.173
1.628 x 10-3
2 4.620 0.098 42418.142
1.759 x 10-3
3 4.047 0.091 37157.190
2.129 x 10-3
4 3.554 0.081 32630.752
2.457 x 10-3
5 3.319 0.071 30473.119
2.470 x 10-3
6 3.012 0.060 27654.425
2.534 x 10-3

Table 4.3: Velocity (v), Difference in pressure (h), Reynolds Number, Friction factor (f)\
For d = 11.0 mm
No. Velocity, v Difference in pressure, Reynolds number Friction factor,
(m/s) h (m Hg) f
1 5.133 0.046 8.866 x 10-4
62459.071
2 3.527 0.042 1.715 x 10-3
42917.035
3 2.148 0.039 4.292 x 10-3
26137.168
4 2.024 0.038 4.710 x 10-3
24628.319
5 1.998 0.036 4.579 x 10-3
24311.947
6 1.885 0.035 5.002 x 10-3
22936.947

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Graph of Friction factor, f against Reynolds Number, Re

0.01

5.3 mm
0
8.3 mm
Friction factor, f

11.0 mm
0

0
20000 25000 30000 35000 40000 45000 50000 55000 60000 65000

Reynolds Number, Re
11
DISCUSSION

In any real moving fluid, energy is dissipated due to friction. This dissipation is
also known as head loss and it is divided into two main categories: major losses and
minor losses. Major losses are normally associated with energy loss per length of pipe
whilst minor losses are associated with bends, fittings, values et cetera. In cases or
conditions where several number of bends and fittings, minor losses can easily exceed
major losses.

## A certain amount of energy must be supplied in order to move a given volume of

fluid through a distance in a pipe. As a matter of fact, an energy or pressure difference
must exist in order to move the fluid. Fluid cannot be moved without pressure difference
or energy difference. When the fluid is moving in the pipe, a certain portion amount of
energy is lost due to the resistance of flow of the fluid. This resistance of flow is known
as head loss due to friction. There are many forms of resistance to flow in real world
condition. One of the more famously known resistance to flow is due to the viscosity of
the fluid. Viscosity is the internal resistance of a particular fluid to its internal motion.
The higher the viscosity of the fluid is, the higher the resistance to flow and the higher is
the friction loss. Besides viscosity, the head loss of the flow of the fluid also depends
largely on the conditions inside the pipe. Such conditions include the roughness of the
wall inside the pipe, the degree of rusting inside the pipe as well as the length of the pipe.

Therefore, it is obvious that for a moving fluid in a pipe, there will certainly be a
head loss. Head loss is inevitable in real world moving fluid because of the existence of
friction between the fluid and the wall of the pipe. Head loss is the pressure lost due to
friction inside the pipe and it is the measurement of the reduction in the total head of the
fluid.

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In this experiment, there are three objectives that must be studied: the head loss in
pipe flow for different pipe diameter, friction factor for each different pipe diameter and
head losses in bends. In the first part of the experiment, different diameter of the pipes
were employed. The diameter of the pipes were 5.3mm, 8.3mm, 11mm respectively.
These pipes were connected to the hydraulic bench so that head losses and pipe friction
can be studied. The results gotten showed the relationship of the greater the diameter of
the pipe, the higher the flow rate and the lower the pressure. Also, based on the results
obtained, it can be concluded that head loss increases with cross sectional area of the
pipe. The 11 mm diameter pipe registered the largest head loss value. Therefore, this
obeyed the theoretical assumption of the larger the cross sectional area of the pipe, the
larger the head loss. Based on the calculation, Reynolds number for the 11 mm pipe is the
lowest among all except for the first reading obtained. This may due to some errors that
occurred in the experiment.

Based on the graph plotted, it is obvious that the friction factor is directly
proportional to the Reynolds number which represents the head loss of the pipe. Thus, in
other words, the higher the friction factor, the higher the head loss and the lower the
friction factor, the lower the head loss. Besides all these, the moving fluid flow for all
diameters have identified to be turbulent flow since Reynolds number for all the readings
obtained were greater than 4000.

There were a few limitations and precautions done in this experiment that caused
the inaccuracy in the results. First and foremost, parallax error occurred in this
experiment when the experimenters read the readings on the tube. Besides that, before
starting the experiment, the valve was not fully closed that resulted in some water
flowing out from the tube that in turn affects the results. Next, in order to minimize the
error, the general startup of the experiment should be done a few times by few
experimenters to obtain an average result. There are also a few precautionary steps that
must be taken throughout the experiment to ensure the safety of the experimenters. First
and foremost, the water hose below must be held by the experimenters to prevent leakage

13
of water from the pipe. Besides, goggles must be worn throughout the experiment to
ensure the safety of the experimenters.

CONCLUSION:

The experiment was successful as all the objectives have been determined
throughout and after the experiment. Difference of pressure was found by comparing the
difference in height of both water levels. Head loss and friction factor both different pipe
diameter were also determined by performing mathematical calculation. The Reynolds
number was decreasing for both pipes.

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LIMITATIONS AND PRECAUTIONS:

The pressure sensing device might have systematic error that may cause it to be
calibrated wrongly showing inaccurate reading which will further affects the
reading of the measurement. Somehow, the readings were fluctuating from time to
time that caused difficulty in getting the precise result. Thiscan be located
andminimized by comparing the results to other results obtained independently or
by using different equipment or techniques.
Before starting the experiment, the over flow control valve must ensure to be fully
opened when the hydraulic bench was switched on to avoid high pressure in the
apparatus. This step is very significant as this will cause the results obtained to be
differs massively from the precise results.
When taking the readings on the manometer head, air bubbles contained within
the manometer head must be eliminated by hitting the part of manometer where
the air bubbles are contained softly to remove and further eliminate it.This step is
very important as it will directly affect the readings obtained.
Random error such as parallax error is the most common error in this experiment.
Whenever there is a gap between the scale and the mark to be read, parallax error
is present. For example, when taking the reading on the manometer, when
obtaining the reading of the volume of water flow et cetera. Parallax errors can be
minimized by viewing the reading at eye-level and at the meniscus when taking a
reading. It can also be minimized by averaging the readings taken by few people
out.
The hydraulic bench must be switched off when switching into different diameter
pipes to prevent the accumulation of high pressure in the apparatus. This step is
very significant to minimize the errors in the experiment besides prevent the
breaking of the manometer glass due to high pressure.

15
Reference

Internet

## - Friction Factor [Online]

Available from
http://www.fsl.orst.edu/geowater/FX3/help/8_Hydraulic_Reference/Darcy_Frictio
n_Factor.htm
[Accessed 5/3/2017]

## - Reynolds Number [Online]

Available from
http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/pturb.html
[Accessed 5/3/2017]

Available from