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Create in-text citations

When using numbered references, cite a source by using the number assigned to that source in
the reference list.

Number your citations

Depending upon the system used in your field, either:

Arrange the sources you cite alphabetically and then number them; or
Number the citations consecutively according to the first mention of each source in the
text (using the same number for subsequent references to the same source).

Format your citations

Place the number in parentheses or in square brackets; or as a superscript number.

Make the citation part of your sentence

Place the number directly after the author's name or mention of the work :

The work of Nelkin and Pollack (6) supports this theory.

A 1979 study (4) showed. . . .

You can refer to a number of works within one pair of parentheses or brackets or in a series of
superscript numbers:

Numerous studies (1, 3, 4, 8, 9) refer to . . .

Eg: References
1. Walton J, Barondess JA, Lock S, editors. The oxford medical companion. Oxford: Oxford
University Press; 1994.

2. Parkinson J. An essay on the shaking palsy. London: Whittingham and Rowland; 1817

3. Mayo R, Stern P, Williams TW. An estimate of the prevalence of dementia in idiopathic

Parkinson's disease. Arch Neurol 1988; 45: 260-263
4. Brown PG, Robinson PJ. The level of depression in Parkinson's disease. Am J Psychiatry
1987; 149: 122-129

5. Meakin CJ, King DA, White J, Scott JM, Handley H, Griffiths A, et al. Screening for
depression in the medically ill. J Nerv Ment Dis 1991; 12: 45-53

In the text - a number is allocated to each reference and this is inserted in the text as a superscript
number or in parentheses. For example:

"Double flowers are being sought by one breeder (10), but others consider the single flower more
beautiful. The hybrid clone 'Annie J. Hemming' (11) frequently produces six or seven petals
rather than the five typical of the genus Hibiscus."

If a reference is cited more than once, the same number is used.

In the bibliography or list of references the references are usually listed in number order. For

10. Kennedy, C.S. (1960). Adventures with hardy herbaceous Hibiscus. Amer. Hort. Mag. 39 (4):

11. Hemming, E.S. (1952). The perfect Mallow (Hibiscus) Marvel. Plant Life. 8: 153-154.

Citation 1: (book)
Caldwell, Martin, & Briggs, Emily S. (1993). Appreciating the
importance of proper articulation in Latin multimedia materials. Ajo, AZ: Ajo
University Press.

Citation 2: (journal article)

Duckworth, V. L. (1978). A series of checklists for evaluating Latin
performance. Logical Form in Education, 9, 110-115.

Citation 3: (book)
Latin pronunciation in North and South Korea. By Hong, J., & Leung, M.
X. Seoul, Korea: Korean Association of Language Educators, 1994.

Citation 4: (Internet resource)

Lerner, K. L., University of Northern Nevada (n.d.). Latin resources on
the World Wide Web [WWW page]. URL
Retrieved on 10th. October 2014

Citation 5: (journal article)

Jesperson, R., & Shaw, U. P. (1995). Anticipatory stress in Latin
phonetics: Overexplaining the obvious. Latin colloquium, 3, 89-113.

Citation 6: (book)
Unwin, R., & Pinkersh, E. D. (1996). Mistakes and errors: Paying the
price of an effective Latin education. Bristol, England: Tyrth and Sons.

Citation 7: (journal article)

Sidlecki, W., & Yertz, M. M. (1989). Getting the Sounds on Paper:
Transcribing Latin Using Simplified IPA. Sound and language, 16, 99-108.
There is an interesting article by Razak bin Sani and Judy Blume. The article
is called The Third Gender. The web address is http//
You saw the article on January 2nd. 2012. It was put on the internet on
November 23rd. 2011.