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Measurements

Methods of measurement and error analysis for Physical quantities pertaining to

the following experiments.

Experiments based on using Vernier Callipers and screw gauge (micrometer).

Determination of g using simple pendulum Young modulus by scarles method

specific heat of a liquid using Celorimeter focal length of a Concave mirror and a

convex lens using uv method speed of sound using resonance column verification

of ohm's law using voltmeter and ammeter specific resistance of the material of

the wire using bridge and P.O. box.

Work and power:

Lifting m/c.

Significant figures:

Measurements made by any instrument are not absolutely correct. The degree of

accuracy or precision is shown by the significant figures upto which the

measurement has been recorded.

Let us say, the length of an object is 14.5 cm. It shows that the measurement has

been made to the nearest of

1 th

10

of a centimeter which shows that figures 1

to 4 are absolutely correct and figure 5 is reasonably correct.

If the length recorded is 14.52 cm, then it shows that the measurement has been

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made correctly up to

1

th

100

of a centimeter. In this case, the figures 1, 4 and 5

are absolutely correct while the figure 2 is approximate.

Thus, significant figures are the number of digits upto which we are sure about

their accuracy. In other words, significant figures are those digits in a number

that are known with certainty plus one more digit that is uncertain.

For example, 14.5 cm has three significant digits and the measurement 14.52 cm

has four significant digits. Significant figures do not change if we measure a

physical quantity in different units.

For example, 14.5 cm = 0.145 m

= 14.5 × 10 2 m

Now 14.5 cm and 14.5 × 10

2

m both have three significant figures.

Rules for significant figures:

(1)

All non-zero digits are significant figures.

Example :

 Number Significant figures 17 2 178 3 1782 4 17825 5

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 (2) All zeros occurring between non-zero digits are significant figures. Example : Number Significant figures 401 3 4012 4 40056 5 400006 6 (3) crackiitjee.in All zeros to the right of the last non-zero digit are not significant figures: Example : Number Significant figures 20 1 210 2 2130 3 20350 4 (4)

All zeros to the right of a decimal point and to the left of a non-zero digit are not significant figures:

Example :

 Number Significant figures 0.04 1 0.004 1

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 0.0045 2 0.0456 3 0.0004564 4

(5) All zeros to the right of a decimal point and to the right of a non-zero digit are significant figures:

Example :

 Number Significant figures 0.20 2 0.230 3 0.2370 4

Rounding off the measurements:

The following rules are applied in order to rounding off the measurements:

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

If the digit to be dropped in a number is less than 5, then the preceding

digit remains unchanged. For example, the number 8.64 is rounded off

to 8.6.

If the digit to be dropped in a number is greater than 5, then the preceding digit is raised by 1. For example, the number 8.66 is rounded off to 8.7.

If the digit to be dropped in a number is 5 or 5 followed by zeros, then the preceding digit remains unchanged if it is even.

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For example,

 (i) the number 8.65 is rounded off to 8.6, (ii) the number 8.650 is rounded off to 8.6.

(iv) If the digit to be dropped in a number is 5 or 5 followed by zeros, then the preceding digit is raised by I if it is odd.

For example,

(i)

the number 8.75 is rounded off to 8.8,

(ii)

the number 8.750 is rounded off to 8.8.

SIGNIFICIENT FIGURES

The numbers of figure required to specify a certain measurement perfectly are

called significant figure.

The last figure of a measurement is always doubtful, but is included in the

number of significant figure.

Example: If length of pencil measured by vernier callipers is 9.48 cm, the number

of significant fig. in the measurement is 3.

RULES FOR SIGNIFICANT FIGRUES

(i) If a measurement contains no decimal point, the number of final zeros are ambiguous and are not counted in significant fig. i.e. all non zero digits are significant.

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(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

e.g. In 3320 no. of significant figures = 3

The power of 10 and the zeros on left hand side of a measurement are not counted while counting the number of significant fig.

e.g. 5 × 10 3

the zeros after a decimal are counted as to significant fig.,

e.g. 1.60 has three significant fig.

The zeros appearing in between the non zero digits are counted as

significant figures,

e.g. In 2.07, there are three significant figures.

(v)

The zeros appearing to the left of a non zero digit are not counted in

significant figures,

e.g. 0.0702 has only three significant figure (702)

(vi)

When the position of decimal point changes, then the number of

significant figures does not change,

i.e. 1.942, 194.2 all have four significant figures.

(vii)

(viii)

The limit and accuracy of a measuring instrument is equal to the least count of the instrument.

In the sum and difference of measurements, the result contains the minimum number of decimal places in the component measurements.

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Ex. The length of string of simple pendulum is 101.4 cm and diameter of bob is 2.64 cm. What is th effective length of simple pendulum up to required significant figures.

Sol.

0

Here 0 101.4 r cm,

r

= 2.64

2

1.32 cm

101.4 1.32 102.72 cm

Since we take least number of decimal figures in a measurement which is 1 in

Hence Effective length = 102.7 cm.

0

(ix) In the product and quotient of measurements, the result contains the

minimum number of significant figures in the component measurements.

Ex. The length, breadth and thickness of a block are given by

cm, t = 2.45 cm.

= 12 cm, b = 6

What is the volume of the block according to the idea of significant figures.

Sol. Volume = blt

= 6 × 12 × 2.45 = 176.4

= 1.764 × 10 4 cm 3

The minimum number of significant figures is 1 in thickness.

Vernier Callipers and Screw Gauge:

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The meter scale which commonly used in practice is the simplest instrument for

measuring length.

By meter scale we can measure upto 1 mm because the length of the smallest

division made on the scale is 1 mm. In order to measure still smaller lengths

accurately upto

 

1

10

th or

1

100

th

commonly used in laboratory are:

1. Vernier Callipers

2. Screw Gauge

Vernier Callipers:

It is used to measure accurately upto

 

1

10

of a millimeter, the instruments

th

of millimeter. Vernier Callipers

comprises of two scales, Wz, main scale S and vernier scale V which is called

auxiliary scale. The main scale is fixed but the vernier scale is movable. The

divisions of vernier scale are usually a little smaller in size than the smallest

division on the main scale. It also has two jaws, one attached with the main scale

and the other with the vernier scale. The purpose of jaws are to grip the object

between them. Vernier has a strip, which slides along with vernier scale, over the

main scale. The strip is used to measure the depth of hollow object.

Vernier Constant (VC):

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Suppose the size of one main scale division is S and that of one vernier scale

division is V units. Also suppose that length of n vernier division is equal to the

length of (n 1) division of main scale. Thus, we have

(n 1)S = nV

or nS S = nV

or S V =

S

n

The quantity (S V) is called vernier constant (VC).

Least Count:

The smallest value of a physical quantity which can be measured accurately with

an instrument is called the least count (L.C.) of the instrument.

For vernier calipers, its least count is equal to its venier constant. Thus

Least count = S V =

S

n

where, S = size of one main scale division

 V = size of one vernier scale division n = No. of division on vernier scale Length of one division of main scal =

No. of divisions on vernier scale

Length of the object = main scale reading + n (LC)

n = vernier division exactly coinciding with some main scale division.

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Determination of zero error:

When jaws of the vernier are made touch other and the zero mark of the vernier

scale coincide with the zero mark of the main scale, there will no zero error in the

instrument. However, in practice it is never so. Due to wear and tear of the jaws

and due to some manufacturing defect, the zero mark of the main scale and

vernier scale may not coincide, it gives rise to an error, is called zero error. It may

be positive or negative zero error.

Positive and negative zero error:

When the zero mark of the vernier scale lies towards the right side of the zero of

the main scale when the jaws are in contact, the measured length will be greater

than the actual length. Because of this fact the zero error is called positive zero

error. On the other hand, when zero mark of the vernier scale lies towards the

left side of the zero of the main scale when jaws in contact with each other, the

length of the object measured by the instrument will be less than the actual

length of the object. Because of this reason is called negative zero error.

True reading = Observed reading Zero error with proper sign.

Correction for positive zero error:

When its jaws are in contact with each other, suppose 3rd vernier division

coincides with the any of the divisions of main scale. They we have

Zero error = + [0.00 cm + 3(L.C.)]

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= + [0.00 + 3 × 0.01 cm]

= + 0.03 cm

Correct reading = Observed reading (0.03 cm)

Negative error:

Screw Gauge: It is used to measure small lengths like diameter of a wire or

thickness of sheet etc. It consists of a U' shaped metal frame as shown in fig.

A main scale which graduate in millimeter or half a millimeter. The main scale

also called pitch scale.

Pitch: It is defined as the linear distance moved by the screw forward or

backward when one complete rotation is given to the circular cap.

Least count (L.C.)

Pitch

=

Total number of divisions on the circula r scale

Ex. In Four complete revolution of the cap, the distance travelled on the pitch

scale is 2 mm. If there are 50 divisions on the circular scale, then calculate the

least count of the screw gauge.

Pitch = 2mm

4

0.5 mm

L.C. = 0.05 mm

50

0.01 mm

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Zero error:

When the studs P and Q of the screw gauge are brought in contact without apply

induce pressure and if the zero of the circular scale coincides with the reference

line, then there is no zero error, otherwise there will be zero error.

Positive zero error:

In this case, the zero of the circular scale lies below the reference line as the gap

between studs P and Q reduces to zero.

Suppose the zero line of the circular scale is 4 division below the reference line. In

other words, the 4th division of the head scale is in line with the line of

graduation.

Zero error = + 4 (L.C.)

= + 4 (0.01 cm)

= + 0.04 cm

Zero correction = zero error

Negative zero error:

When zero of the circular scale lies above the reference line when the gap between the studs P and Q become zero.

Zero error = 3 × 0.01 mm

= 0.03 mm

Zero correction = + 0.03 mm.

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Experiments

(i) Measurement of length

The simplest method measuring the length of a straight line is by means of a meter scale.

There exists some limitation in the accuracy of the result:

(i) the dividing lines have a finite thickness.

(ii) naked eye cannot correctly estimate less than 0.5 mm

For greater accuracy we use devices like vernier calipers and micrometer scales

(screw gauge).

LEAST COUNT

The minimum measure that can be actually taken by an instrument is called the

least count.

Least count of meter scale graduated in millimetre mark is 1 m.

Least count of watch having second hand is 1 sec

VERNIER CALLIPERS

It consists of a main steel scale (S) with a fixed jaw J 1 and a sliding jaw J 2 carrying

a vernier scale. When the two jaws are made to touch each other, the zero of vernier scale coincides with the zero of main scale.

If a body is held gently between the jaws of vernier calipers and the zero of vernier scale lies ahead of a n division of main scale reading = N (cm). If nth

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division of vernierscale coincides with any division of main scale than vernier scale reading = n × vernier constant.

Total reading = MSR + VSR = (N + n × VC)

Therefore diameter (D) = a + b × LC

(where a = MSR, v = VSD & LC = Least Count)

Least Cont of Vernier Callipers:

Least count of vernier calipers = values of one part of main scale value of one

part of vernier scale

Also Least count of vernier calipers

Value of 1 part on main scale

=

Number of parts on vernier scale

LC = 1 Main Scale Division 1 Vernier Scale Division

=

=

1 M.S.D.

1 mm

10

Zero Error:

9

10

M.S.D.

0.1 mm

0.01 cm

If the zero of main scale coincides with zero of Vernier scale when jaws C and D are brought in contact with each other then the instrument is free from error or it is said to have no zero error. But in actual practice it is never so.

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Due to wear and tear of jaws and some time due to manufacturing defects the zero mark of the Vernier scale does not coincide with zero of main scale. It gives rise to an error called zero error. Zero error can be positive and negative.

Determination of Zero Error

(i) Positive zero error and its correction.

The zero error is positive when the zero mark of the Vernier scale lies towards

the right side of the zero of the main scale when jaws C and D are made to touch

each other. In such case measured length will be more than the actual length and

therefore, the zero error is called positive zero error. In figure +ve zero error is

calculated from the division coinciding with main scale.

Zero Error = 0.00 + 5 × VC = 0.00 + 5 × .01

Zero Error = 0.05 cm

To get correct reading : 0.05 cm is to be subtracted from the observed value.

(ii) Negative zero error and its correction.

The zero error is negative when the zero mark of the Vernier scale lies towards

the left side of the zero of the main scale when the jaws are in contact. The length measured by such instruments is less than the actual length and therefore, the zero error is called negative zero error.

Zero error = 0.00 (10 6) × VC = 4 × .01 = 0.4 cm

Correct reading = observed reading (0.04)

= OR + 0.01 cm

Determination of Least Cont of Vernier Constant:

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Least count is the smallest value of a physical quantity which can be measured accurately with an instrument.

For an instrument where Vernier is used its Vernier Constant (VC) is its Least Count (LC)

10 div. of scale coincides with 9 div. lof main scale and the length of 1 div. onmain

scale is 1 mm.

10 VCD = 9 MSD

1 VSD =

9 MSD

10

The Quantity (1 MSD 1 VSD) is called Vernier Cosntant (VC)

 

1

VC =

1

=

10

 

9

10

MSD

1 mm 1 MSD

1

10

MSD

1 mm

VC = 0.1 mm = .01 cm

HOW TO TAKE VERNIER READINGS

l = Main scale observation + [coinciding vernier scale division × vernier constant]

or l = a [b × V.C.]

Hence l = {1.6 + [5 × 0.01]} cm

or = {1.6 + 0.05} cm = 1.65 cm

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SCREW GAUGE (OR MICROMETER SCREW)

In general venier calipers can measure accurately upto 0.01 cm and for and for greater accuracy micrometer screw devices e.g. screw gauge, spherometer a re used. These consist of accurately cut screw which can be moved in a closely fitting fixed nut by tuning it axially.

The instrument is provided with two scales:

(i) The main scale or pitch scale M graduated along the axis of the screw.

(ii) The cap-scale or head scale H round the edge of the screw head.

Pitch:

The translational motion of the screw is directly proportional to the total rotation

of the head. The pitch of the instrument is the distance between two consecutive

threads of the screw which is equal to the distance moved by the screw due to

one complete rotation of the cap. Thus for 10 rotation of cap = 5 mm, then pitch

= 0.5 mm.

Pitch p =

Distance moved by screw

No. of rotations given to screw

Least count:

m

In this case also, the minimum (at least) measurement (or count) of length is equal to one division on the head scale which is equal to pitch divided by the total cap divisioins.

Thus in the aforesaid Illustration: if the total cap division is 100, the least count = 0.5 mm/100 = 0.005 mm

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Least Count =

pitch

No. of division on circular scale

mm

Measurement of length by screw gauge:

L = n × pitch + f × least count, where n = main scale reading and f = circular scale reading

ZERO ERROR

When the two studs of a screw gauge are brought in contact with each other, the

zero of the circular scale should coincide with the graduation line of main scale.

In that case there is no zero error. However when the zero of the circular scale

does not coincide with the graduation line the screw gauge is said to have zero

error. A correction is then applied to the observed thickness or diameter to get

the correct value. Zero error may be +ve or ve.

Positive Zero Error:

The zero error is said to be +ve if on bringing studs in contact, zero of the circular

scale is below the line of graduation.

Negative Zero Error.

The zero error is negative if on bringing, the studs in contact, the zero of the circular scale is above the graduation line on the main scale.

Zero correction is always, negative of zero error:

(i) If the linear scale reading is zero and circular scale reading is 4 and zero of C.S. is above the graduation line then zero correction is given by

8. Statemennt-1

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If

x

a

n

b

m

the

x

x

n

  a   a

m

  b   b

 The chang and Statement-2

(A)

(C)

A

C

9. Statement-1

(B) B

(D) D

If the measuring instruments used are perfect, then measurements made can be

perfect.

and

Statement-2

Measurements depend upon the error free instruments only.

(A)

(C)

A

C

10. Statement-1

(B) B

(D) D

Systematic errors and random errors fall in the same group of errors.

and

Statement-2

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Both systematic and random errors are based on the cause of error.

 (A) A (B) B (C) C (D) D

11. Statement-1

Absolute error may be negative or positive.

and

Statement-2

Absolute error is the difference between the real value and the measured value

of a physical quantity.

(A) A

(C) C

(B) B

(D) D

Now lets see how to do arithmetic operations i.e. addition, subtraction,

multiplication and division according to significant figures.

(a)

Addition Subtraction

Rules for Addition Subtraction.

First round off an quantities to the decimal place of least accurate quantity.

Then the addition/subtraction in normal manner.

e.g. 423 + 20.23

486.2 35.18

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 486.2 423.5  35.18  20.23   35.2 443.7 451.0

Rules for multiply Division

Suppose we have to multiply

2.11 × 1.2

2.1

1.2

422

211

2.532

2.5

So Answer will come in least significant figures out of the two numbers.

Multiply/Divide in normal manner.

Round off the answer to the weakest link

(number having least S.F.)

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Ex# 312.65 × 26.4 = 8253.960

 5 S.F. 3 S.F. round off to three S.F. 8250

Ex# A cube has a side l = 1.2 × 10 2 m. Calculate its volume.

l = 1.2 × 10 2

V (1.2 × 10 2 ) (1.2 × 10 2 ) (1.2 × 10 2 )

Two S.F. Two S.F. Two S.F.

= 1.728 × 10 6 m 3

Round off of 2 S.F.

1.7 × 10 6 m 3

Ex# In ohm's law exp., reading of voltmeter across the resister is 12.5V and

reading of current I = 0.20 Amp. Estimate the resistance in correct S.F.

R

=

V

1

round off

to 2 S.F.

= 62

3 S.F.

12.5

0.20 2 S.F.

62.5

Ex# Using screw gauge radius of wire was found to be 2.50 mm. The length of

wire found by mm. Scale is 50.0 cm. If mass of wire was measured as 25 gm, the

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density of the wire in correct S.F. will be.

Sol.

f =

m

2

r l

two S.F.

=

25

0.250

2



50.0

three S.F. three S.F.

=

2.5465

two



S.F.

2.5

gm

cm

3

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ERRORS IN MEASUREMENT

To get some overview of error, least count and significant figures, lets have the

below example.

(i) Lets use a cm scale (a scale on which only cm marks are there).

We will measure length = 4 cm.

Although the length will be a bit more than 4, but we cannot say its length to be

4.1 cm or 4.2 cm as the scale can measure upto cms only, not closer than that.

* It (this scale) can measure upto cms accuracy only.

* So we'll say that its least count is 1 cm.

To get a closer measurement we have to use a more minute scale, that is mm

scale.

(ii)

Lets use a n mm scale : (a scale on which mm marks are there.

We will measure length l = 4.2 cm, which is a more closer measurement. Here

also if we observe closely, we'll find that the length is a bit more than 4.2 but we

cannot say its length to be 4.21, or 4.22, or 4.20 as this scale can measure up to

0.1 cms (1 mm) only, not closer than that.

* It (this scale) can measure upto 0.1 cm accuracy.

Its least count is 0.1 cm.

Max. uncertainty in l can be = 0.1 cm.

Max. possible error in l can be = 0.1 cm.

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Measurement of length = 4.2 cm has two significant figures; 4 and 2, in which 4 is

absolutely correct, and 2 is reasonably correct (Doubtful) be cause uncertainty of

0.1 cm is there.

To get more closer measurement.

(iii) We can use Vernier Callipers (which can measure more closely, upto 0.01 cm).

Then we'll measure length l = 4.23 cm which is more closer measurement.

* It can measure upto 0.01 cm accuracy

Least count = 0.01 cm

Max. uncertainty in l can be = 0.01 cm

Max. possible error in l can be = 0.01 cm

Measurement of length = 4.23 cm has three significant figures; 4, 2 and 3; in

which 4 and 2 are absolutely correct and 3 is reasonably correct (Doubtful)

because uncertainty of 0.01 cm is there.

To get further more closer measurement.

(iv) We can use screw Gauge : (which can measure more closely, upto 0.001

cm)

We'll measure length l = 4.234 cm.

* Max possible uncertainty (error) in l can be

= 0.001 cm

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length = 4.234 cm has 4 significant figures.

4, 2, 3 are absolutely correct and 4 is reasonably correct.

To get further more closer measurement.

(v) We can use microscope :

We'll measure length l = 4.2342 cm.

* Max. possible uncertainty (error) in l can be

= 0.0001 cm

* Length = 4.2342 cm has five significant figures; 4, 2, 3, 4 and 2.

Least Count :

We have studied that no measurement is perfect. Every instrument can measure

up to a certain accuracy, called least count.

Least Count : The smallest quantity an instrument can measure





|







 mm scale Vernier Screw gauge Stop Temp. L.C. = 1 L.C. = 0.1 L.C. = 0.01 watch thermo mm mm mm L.C. = 0.1 meter sec. L.C.= 1°C

Permissible error:

Error in measurement due to limitation (least count) of the instrument, is called

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permissible error.

From mm scale we can measure upto 1 mm accuracy (least count). Fro this we will get measurement like l = 34 mm.



Max uncertainty can be 1 mm

Max permissible error (l) = 1 mm

But, if from any other instrument, we get

l = 34.5 mm then max permissible error

(l) = 0.1 mm

and if from a more accurate instrument, we get l = 34.517 mm then max.

permissible error (l) = 0.001 mm

= Place value of last number.

Max. permissible error in a measured quantity = Place value of the last number.

Max. Permissible error in Result due to error in each measurable quantity:

Let Result f(x, y) contains two measureable quantity x and y.

Let error in is = + x i.e. x (x x, x + x)

error in y is = y i.e. y (y y, y + y)

Case (i) If f(x, y) = x + y

(f) max. = x + y

Case (ii) If f = x y

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(f) max. = x + y

Ex# In resonance tube exp. we find l 1 = 25.0 cm and l 2 = 75.0 cm. If there is no

error is frequency what will be max permissible error in speed of sound (take f 0 =

325 Hz).

V = 2f 0 (l 1 l 1 )

V max. = max. of 2f 0 (+ l 2 l 1 )

= 2f 0 (l 2 + l 1 )

l 1 = 25.0 cm l

1

= 0.1 cm

(Place value of last number)

l 2 = 75.0 cm l

2

= 0.1 cm

(Place value of last number)

V = 2f 0 (l 2 l 1 )

= 2(325) (75.0 25.0) = 325 m/s

and V max. = 2(325) (0.1 + 0.1) = 1.3 m/s

So V = (325 + 1.3) m/s

Cose (III) If f(x, y, z) = constant x a y b z c



 

f

 

f

max.

=

a

x

x

b

max. of

y

y

c

z

z

 

a

x

x

b

y

y

c

 

z

z

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Sign should be adjusted, so that errors get added up.

Ex# f = 15x 2 y 3/2 z 5



 

f

 

f

max.

2

x

3

y

x

z

y

5

z

z

Ex#

length l = 75.3 cm, then find max. permissible error in

Resistivity () =

  

 

R

 

4

 

 

d

2

max.

l

R

R

2

d

d

R

= 1.05 R = 0.01

l

d

= 0.60 mm d = 0.01 mm

l

l = 75.3 cm l = 0.1 cm

 



max.

= 0.0759

0.01

1.05

2

 

0.01

0.60

0.1

75.3

Ex# In ohm's law experiment, potential drop across a resistance was measured as

V = 5.0 volt and current was measured as I = 2.00 amp. Find the maximum

permissible error in resistance.

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Sol. R =

V

i

%

V

 

 

R

 

R

i

1

max.

 

0.1

0.01

5.0

2.00

Value of R from the observation

R

V

i

5.0

2.00

2.5

So we can write R = (2.5 + 2.5%)

100%

2.5%

In searle's exp. to find Young's modulus, the diameter of wire is measured as D =

0.05 cm length of wire is L = 125 cm, and when a weight m = 20.0 kg is put,

extension in wire was found to be 0.100 cm. Find maximum permission error in

Young's modulus Y.

mg

d

2

4

Y

 

 

 

Y

Y

Y

x

l

mgl

4

2

d x

max.

m

l

m

l

m = 20.0 kg

l = 125 m

2

d

d

x

x

m = 0.1 kg

l = 1 cm

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 d = 0.050 cm d = 0.001 cm x = 0.100 cm x = 0.001 cm

 

 

Y

Y

max.

= 4.3%

 0.1 1 0.001 0.001    20.0 125 0.05 0.100

100%

Exp. To find the value of 'g' using simple pendulum T = 2.00 sec, l = 1.00 m was

measured. Estimate maximum permissible error in 'g'. also find value of 'g'.

(use  2 = 10)
l
2
T =
g
  g
  
g
max.

g

 

l

l

2

4

2

T

2

T

T

l

0.01

1.00

= 2%

Value of g =

 g

 

g

max.

4

2

l

T

2

2

100

4

10

1.00

2.00

g

 

0.2

2

g = (10.0 + 0.2) m/s 2

2

 

0.01

2.00

100%

10.0 m /s

2

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EXPERIMENT

Determining the value of 'g' using a simple pendulum.

In this exp, a small spherical bob is hanged with a cotton thread. this arrangement is called simple pendulum. The bob is displaced slightly and allowed to oscillate. To find time period, time taken for 50 oscillations is noted using a stop watch.

Theoretically, T =

Where

g

2

4

2

L

g

L

T

2

…(1)

L

=

= Equivalent length of pendulum

length of thread (l) + radius (r) of bob

T

= time period of the simple pendulum

= time taken for 50 oscillations

50

So, g can be easily determined by the eqn. (1)

Experiment:

Determining Young's Modulus of a given wire by Young's Searle's method:

To determine Young's modulus, we can perform an ordinary experiment. Let's hang a weight 'm' from a wire. From Hook's law

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mg

Y

 

x

 

l

0

x

 

l

0

mg

2

r Y

If we change the weight, the elongation of wire will change proportionally.

If we plot elongation v/s mg, we will et a straight line

By measuring its slope and equating it to

l

0

2

r Y

, we can estimate Y.

Experiment:

Determining specific heat capacity of an unknown liquid using colorimeter:

Regnault's apparatus to determine the specific heat capacity of a unknown liquid.

A solid sphere of known specific heat capacity s

temperature 1 is mixed with the unknown liquid filled in a calorimeter. Let

masses of liquid and calorimeter are m

capacities are s 2 and s

hot sphere is dropped in it, the sphere looses heat and the liquid calorimeter

system takes heat. The process continues till the temp. of all the elements

and initially they were at room temperature 2 when the

respectively, specific heat

having mass m 1 and initial

1

and m

3

2

3

becomes same (say ).

Heat lost by hot sphere = m 1 s 1 (1 )

Heat taken by liquid and calorimeter

= m 2 s 2 (2 ) + m 2 s 2 (2 )

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It there were no external heat loss.

Heat given by sphere = Heat taken by liquid-Calorimeter system

m 1 s 1 (1 ) = m 2 s 2 (2 ) + m 3 s 3 (2 )

Get s 2 =

m s

 

 1 1 1 2 3 m 2   2   m 2

m s

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Exp. Determining speed of sound using resonance tube.

The experiment to find velocity of sound in air using Resonance tube measured.

Principle: Resonance tube is a kind of closed organ pipe. So its natural frequency will be

V

4 l

eq

,

3V

4 l

eq

,

5V

4 l

eq

,

or generally f n =

2n

1

V

4 l

eq.

If it is forced with a tuning fork of frequency f , for resonance,

0

Natural frequency = forcing frequency

2n

l

eq

1

V

4 l

eq

2n

1

f

0

V

4 f

0

For the first resonance

l eq

l

1

V

4 f

0

e

V

4 f

0

For the second resonance

…(1)

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l eq

l

1

3V

4 f

0

e

3V

4 f

0

From (1) to (2)

V = 2f 0 (l 2 l 1 )

Observation table:

…(1)

Room temp. in beginning = 26°C

Room tempered = 28°C

 Freq. of tun. fork in viz (f 0 ) Resonance Water Water Mean Speed of level is level is resonant sound falling rising length 340 Hz 1st resonance 23.9 24.1 l 1 = … V = 2f 0 2nd resonance 73.9 74.1 l 2 = … (l 2 – l 1 )

Verification of ohm's law using voltmeter an ammeter.

Ohm's low states that the electric current flowing through a conductor vs

directly proportional t the P.d. (V) across its ends provided that the physical

conditions of the conductor (such as temp. dimensions etc.) are kept constant

mathematically

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V

I or

V

IR

Here R is a constant known as resistance of the conductor and depends on the

nature and dimensions of the conductor.

Procedure: By shifting the rheostat contact, reading of ammeter and Winterer are noted down.

At least six set of observation are taken. Then a graph is plotted between

potential difference (V) across R and current (I) through R. The graph comes to be

a straight line.

V I

I =

1

R

V

tano

BP

AP

1

R

Get R = …

Ext. : Specific resistance of the material of a wire using meter bridge and post

office box.

Meter Bridge:

Meter Bridge is a simple case of wheat stone Bridge and 1s used to find the

unknown resistance. The unknown resistance is placed in place of R and in place

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of s, a known resistance is used, using R.B. (Resistance Box). There is a 2m long

resistance wire between A and C. The Jockey's moved along the wire. When

R(100 l) = S(l) then the Bridge will be balanced and the galvanometer will give

zero deflection.

'l' can be measured by the meter scale.

The unknown resistance is R =

l

S 100 l

…(1)

If length of unknown wire is L and diameter of the wire is d, then specific

resistance of the wire



R

 

4

 

 

d

2

L

From eqn. (1),



d

2

4L

 

l

100

End Corrections

 

l

s

In meter Bridge circuit, some extra length comes (is found under metallic strips)

at end point A and C. So some additional length (and ) should be included at

ends for accurate result. Hence in place of

we use

+ and in place of 100

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, we use 100

+ (where and are called end correction. To estimate

and , we use known resistance R 1 and R 2 at the place of R and S in meter Bridge.

Suppose we get null point at

1 distance then

R

1

R

2


1

1

100

Now we interchange the position of R

then

R

2

R

1


2

1

100

1

Solving equation (i) and (ii) get

R

2

R

1

1

2

=

R

1

R

1

R

1

R

1

2

R

R

and =

2

2

2

100

…(i)

and R

2

, and get null point at

…(ii)

2 distance

These end correction (and ) are used to modify the observations.

Exp. : POST OFFICE BOX

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In a Wheatstone Bridge circuit, if

P

Q

R

X

then the bridge is balanced. So

unknown resistance X = QR .

P

Office Box is described.

to Realize the Wheatstone's Bridge circuit, a Post

1000 resistance, to set any ratio Q .

P

These arms are called ratio arm.

Initially we take Q = 10 and P = 10 to set

Q

P

1

The unknown resistance (X) is connected between C and D and battery is

connected across A and C (Just like Wheatstone's Bridge). Now put Resistance in

part A to D such that the Bridge gets balanced.

For this keep on increasing the resistance with 1interval, check the deflection

in Galvanometer by first pressing key K

1

then Galvanometer key K 2 .

Suppose at R = 4, we get deflection toward left and at R = 5 we get deflection

toward right.

So we can say that for bridge balance, R should be between 4 to 5.

Now X = QR

P

10

10

R

R

 

So we can estimate that X shoul

4 to 5

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To get closer X, in the second observation,

lets choose Q

P

e.g.

 

Q

P

100  

10

1

10

Suppose now at R = 42 we are getting deflection towards left and at R = 43

deflection is toward right.

So R (42, 43)

Now X

= QR

P

10

100

R

1

10

R

where R (42, 43)

So we can estimate that X (4.2, 4.3)

Now to get partner closer,

Q

P

1

100

The observation table is shown:

No.

of

obs.

Resistance in the ratio arm

Resistance in arm AD (R) ohm

Direction of

Deflection

Unknown resistance X =

QR

P

AB = (P) (ohm)

BC = Q (ohm)

1

10

10

4

Left

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 5 Right (4 – 5) 100 10 40 Left (Large) 50 Right (Large) 4.2–4.3 42 Lefts 43 Right 3 100 10 420 Left 424 Left 4.25 425 No deflection 426 Right

TO FIND FOCUS DISTANCE OF A CONCAVE MIRROR USING U-V METHOD:

Principle : For different u, we measure different V and find F using minor formula

1
1
1
f
V
u

In this experiment, a concave mirror is fixed at position Mm' and a Knitting

needle is used as an object, mounted in front of the concave mirror.

This needle is called object needle (O in fig.). First of au, we make a rough

estimation of f.

For estimating F roughly, make a sharp image of a for away object (like sun) on a

filter paper. The image distance of the far object will be an approx. estimation of

focus distance.

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Now, the object needle is kept beyond F, so that its real and in verted image

can be formed. You can see this inverted image in the mirror by closing your

are eye and keeping the other eye along the pole of the mirror.

To locate the position of the image, use a second needle and shift this needle

such that its peak coincide with the image. The second needle gives the distance

of image (V). So it called "image needle".

Note the object distance 'n' and image distance 'V' from the mm scale on optical

bench.

Similarly take 4-5 more observations.

Determining of from u-V observation using mirror formula.

1

f

1

V

1

u

take average of an value of f.

Exp. To find focus distance of a convex lens using u-V method.

For difference u, we measure different V, and find f using lens formula.

1

f

1

V

1

u

In this experiment, a convex lens is fixed at position L and a Knitting needle is

used as an object. This needle is called object needle AB in fig.

First of all we make a rough estimation of F for estimating F roughly, make a

sharp image of a far away object (like sun) on a filter paper. The image distance

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of the far object will be an approx. estimation of focus distance.

Now, the object needle is kept beyond F, so that its real and inverted image

can be formed. To locate the position of the image, use a second needle and

shift this needle such that its peak coincide with the image. The second needle

gives the distance of image (V), so it called "image needle".

Note the object distance "u" and image distance "V" from the him scale on

optical bench.

Similarly take 4 5 more observations.

1

f

1

V

1

u

Take average of all f.