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Measurements
Methods of measurement and error analysis for Physical quantities pertaining to
the following experiments.
Experiments based on using Vernier Callipers and screw gauge (micrometer).
Determination of g using simple pendulum Young modulus by scarles method
specific heat of a liquid using Celorimeter focal length of a Concave mirror and a
convex lens using uv method speed of sound using resonance column verification
of ohm's law using voltmeter and ammeter specific resistance of the material of
the wire using bridge and P.O. box.
Work and power:
Lifting m/c.
Significant figures:
Measurements made by any instrument are not absolutely correct. The degree of
accuracy or precision is shown by the significant figures upto which the
measurement has been recorded.
Let us say, the length of an object is 14.5 cm. It shows that the measurement has
been made to the nearest of
^{1} th
10
of a centimeter which shows that figures 1
to 4 are absolutely correct and figure 5 is reasonably correct.
If the length recorded is 14.52 cm, then it shows that the measurement has been
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made correctly up to
^{1}
th
100
of a centimeter. In this case, the figures 1, 4 and 5
are absolutely correct while the figure 2 is approximate.
Thus, significant figures are the number of digits upto which we are sure about
their accuracy. In other words, significant figures are those digits in a number
that are known with certainty plus one more digit that is uncertain.
For example, 14.5 cm has three significant digits and the measurement 14.52 cm
has four significant digits. Significant figures do not change if we measure a
physical quantity in different units.
For example, 14.5 cm = 0.145 m
= 14.5 × 10 ^{–}^{2} m
Now 14.5 cm and 14.5 × 10
–2
m both have three significant figures.
Rules for significant figures:
(1)
All nonzero digits are significant figures.
Example :
Number 
Significant figures 
17 
2 
178 
3 
1782 
4 
17825 
5 
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(2) 
All zeros occurring between nonzero digits are significant figures. 

Example : 

Number 
Significant figures 

401 
3 

4012 
4 

40056 
5 

400006 
6 

(3) 
crackiitjee.in All zeros to the right of the last nonzero digit are not significant figures: 

Example : 

Number 
Significant figures 

20 
1 

210 
2 

2130 
3 

20350 
4 

(4) 
All zeros to the right of a decimal point and to the left of a nonzero digit are not significant figures:
Example :
Number 
Significant figures 
0.04 
1 
0.004 
1 
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0.0045 
2 
0.0456 
3 
0.0004564 
4 
(5) All zeros to the right of a decimal point and to the right of a nonzero digit are significant figures:
Example :
Number 
Significant figures 
0.20 
2 
0.230 
3 
0.2370 
4 
Rounding off the measurements:
The following rules are applied in order to rounding off the measurements:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
If the digit to be dropped in a number is less than 5, then the preceding
digit remains unchanged. For example, the number 8.64 is rounded off
to 8.6.
If the digit to be dropped in a number is greater than 5, then the preceding digit is raised by 1. For example, the number 8.66 is rounded off to 8.7.
If the digit to be dropped in a number is 5 or 5 followed by zeros, then the preceding digit remains unchanged if it is even.
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For example,
(i) 
the number 8.65 is rounded off to 8.6, 
(ii) 
the number 8.650 is rounded off to 8.6. 
(iv) If the digit to be dropped in a number is 5 or 5 followed by zeros, then the preceding digit is raised by I if it is odd.
For example,
(i)
the number 8.75 is rounded off to 8.8,
(ii)
the number 8.750 is rounded off to 8.8.
SIGNIFICIENT FIGURES
The numbers of figure required to specify a certain measurement perfectly are
called significant figure.
The last figure of a measurement is always doubtful, but is included in the
number of significant figure.
Example: If length of pencil measured by vernier callipers is 9.48 cm, the number
of significant fig. in the measurement is 3.
RULES FOR SIGNIFICANT FIGRUES
(i) If a measurement contains no decimal point, the number of final zeros are ambiguous and are not counted in significant fig. i.e. all non zero digits are significant.
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(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
e.g. — In 3320 no. of significant figures = 3
The power of 10 and the zeros on left hand side of a measurement are not counted while counting the number of significant fig.
e.g. — 5 × 10 ^{3}
the zeros after a decimal are counted as to significant fig.,
e.g. — 1.60 has three significant fig.
The zeros appearing in between the non zero digits are counted as
significant figures,
e.g. — In 2.07, there are three significant figures.
(v)
The zeros appearing to the left of a non zero digit are not counted in
significant figures,
e.g. — 0.0702 has only three significant figure (702)
(vi)
When the position of decimal point changes, then the number of
significant figures does not change,
i.e. — 1.942, 194.2 all have four significant figures.
(vii)
(viii)
The limit and accuracy of a measuring instrument is equal to the least count of the instrument.
In the sum and difference of measurements, the result contains the minimum number of decimal places in the component measurements.
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Ex. The length of string of simple pendulum is 101.4 cm and diameter of bob is 2.64 cm. What is th effective length of simple pendulum up to required significant figures.
Sol.
Here _{0} 101.4 r cm,
_{r}
_{=} 2.64
2
^{} 1.32 cm
101.4 1.32 102.72 cm
Since we take least number of decimal figures in a measurement which is 1 in
Hence Effective length = 102.7 cm.
(ix) In the product and quotient of measurements, the result contains the
minimum number of significant figures in the component measurements.
Ex. The length, breadth and thickness of a block are given by
cm, t = 2.45 cm.
= 12 cm, b = 6
What is the volume of the block according to the idea of significant figures.
Sol. Volume = blt
= 6 × 12 × 2.45 = 176.4
= 1.764 × 10 ^{4} cm ^{3}
The minimum number of significant figures is 1 in thickness.
Vernier Callipers and Screw Gauge:
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The meter scale which commonly used in practice is the simplest instrument for
measuring length.
By meter scale we can measure upto 1 mm because the length of the smallest
division made on the scale is 1 mm. In order to measure still smaller lengths
accurately upto
1
10
th or
1
100
th
commonly used in laboratory are:
1. Vernier Callipers
2. Screw Gauge
Vernier Callipers:
It is used to measure accurately upto
1
10
of a millimeter, the instruments
th
of millimeter. Vernier Callipers
comprises of two scales, Wz, main scale S and vernier scale V which is called
auxiliary scale. The main scale is fixed but the vernier scale is movable. The
divisions of vernier scale are usually a little smaller in size than the smallest
division on the main scale. It also has two jaws, one attached with the main scale
and the other with the vernier scale. The purpose of jaws are to grip the object
between them. Vernier has a strip, which slides along with vernier scale, over the
main scale. The strip is used to measure the depth of hollow object.
Vernier Constant (VC):
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Suppose the size of one main scale division is S and that of one vernier scale
division is V units. Also suppose that length of n vernier division is equal to the
length of (n – 1) division of main scale. Thus, we have
(n – 1)S = nV
or nS – S = nV
or S – V =
^{S}
n
The quantity (S – V) is called vernier constant (VC).
Least Count:
The smallest value of a physical quantity which can be measured accurately with
an instrument is called the least count (L.C.) of the instrument.
For vernier calipers, its least count is equal to its venier constant. Thus
Least count = S – V =
S
n
where, S = size of one main scale division
V 
= 
size of one vernier scale division 
n 
= 
No. of division on vernier scale 
Length of one division of main scal 

_{=} 
No. of divisions on vernier scale
Length of the object = main scale reading + n (LC)
n = vernier division exactly coinciding with some main scale division.
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Determination of zero error:
When jaws of the vernier are made touch other and the zero mark of the vernier
scale coincide with the zero mark of the main scale, there will no zero error in the
instrument. However, in practice it is never so. Due to wear and tear of the jaws
and due to some manufacturing defect, the zero mark of the main scale and
vernier scale may not coincide, it gives rise to an error, is called zero error. It may
be positive or negative zero error.
Positive and negative zero error:
When the zero mark of the vernier scale lies towards the right side of the zero of
the main scale when the jaws are in contact, the measured length will be greater
than the actual length. Because of this fact the zero error is called positive zero
error. On the other hand, when zero mark of the vernier scale lies towards the
left side of the zero of the main scale when jaws in contact with each other, the
length of the object measured by the instrument will be less than the actual
length of the object. Because of this reason is called negative zero error.
True reading = Observed reading – Zero error with proper sign.
Correction for positive zero error:
When its jaws are in contact with each other, suppose 3rd vernier division
coincides with the any of the divisions of main scale. They we have
Zero error = + [0.00 cm + 3(L.C.)]
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= + [0.00 + 3 × 0.01 cm]
= + 0.03 cm
Correct reading = Observed reading – (0.03 cm)
Negative error:
Screw Gauge: It is used to measure small lengths like diameter of a wire or
thickness of sheet etc. It consists of a U' shaped metal frame as shown in fig.
A main scale which graduate in millimeter or half a millimeter. The main scale
also called pitch scale.
Pitch: It is defined as the linear distance moved by the screw forward or
backward when one complete rotation is given to the circular cap.
Least count (L.C.)
Pitch
^{=}
Total number of divisions on the circula r scale
Ex. In Four complete revolution of the cap, the distance travelled on the pitch
scale is 2 mm. If there are 50 divisions on the circular scale, then calculate the
least count of the screw gauge.
Pitch = ^{2}^{m}^{m}
4
^{} 0.5 mm
_{L}_{.}_{C}_{.} _{=} ^{0}^{.}^{0}^{5} mm
50
0.01 mm
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Zero error:
When the studs P and Q of the screw gauge are brought in contact without apply
induce pressure and if the zero of the circular scale coincides with the reference
line, then there is no zero error, otherwise there will be zero error.
Positive zero error:
In this case, the zero of the circular scale lies below the reference line as the gap
between studs P and Q reduces to zero.
Suppose the zero line of the circular scale is 4 division below the reference line. In
other words, the 4th division of the head scale is in line with the line of
graduation.
Zero error = + 4 (L.C.)
= + 4 (0.01 cm)
= + 0.04 cm
Zero correction = – zero error
Negative zero error:
When zero of the circular scale lies above the reference line when the gap between the studs P and Q become zero.
Zero error = – 3 × 0.01 mm
= – 0.03 mm
Zero correction = + 0.03 mm.
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Experiments
(i) Measurement of length
The simplest method measuring the length of a straight line is by means of a meter scale.
There exists some limitation in the accuracy of the result:
(i) the dividing lines have a finite thickness.
(ii) naked eye cannot correctly estimate less than 0.5 mm
For greater accuracy we use devices like vernier calipers and micrometer scales
(screw gauge).
LEAST COUNT
The minimum measure that can be actually taken by an instrument is called the
least count.
Least count of meter scale graduated in millimetre mark is 1 m.
Least count of watch having second hand is 1 sec
VERNIER CALLIPERS
It consists of a main steel scale (S) with a fixed jaw J _{1} and a sliding jaw J _{2} carrying
a vernier scale. When the two jaws are made to touch each other, the zero of vernier scale coincides with the zero of main scale.
If a body is held gently between the jaws of vernier calipers and the zero of vernier scale lies ahead of a n division of main scale reading = N (cm). If nth
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division of vernierscale coincides with any division of main scale than vernier scale reading = n × vernier constant.
Total reading = MSR + VSR = (N + n × VC)
Therefore diameter (D) = a + b × LC
(where a = MSR, v = VSD & LC = Least Count)
Least Cont of Vernier Callipers:
Least count of vernier calipers = values of one part of main scale – value of one
part of vernier scale
Also Least count of vernier calipers
Value of 1 part on main scale
_{=}
Number of parts on vernier scale
LC = 1 Main Scale Division – 1 Vernier Scale Division
=
_{=}
1 M.S.D.
^{1} mm
10
Zero Error:
9
10
M.S.D.
0.1 mm
0.01 cm
If the zero of main scale coincides with zero of Vernier scale when jaws C and D are brought in contact with each other then the instrument is free from error or it is said to have no zero error. But in actual practice it is never so.
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Due to wear and tear of jaws and some time due to manufacturing defects the zero mark of the Vernier scale does not coincide with zero of main scale. It gives rise to an error called zero error. Zero error can be positive and negative.
Determination of Zero Error
(i) Positive zero error and its correction.
The zero error is positive when the zero mark of the Vernier scale lies towards
the right side of the zero of the main scale when jaws C and D are made to touch
each other. In such case measured length will be more than the actual length and
therefore, the zero error is called positive zero error. In figure +ve zero error is
calculated from the division coinciding with main scale.
Zero Error = 0.00 + 5 × VC = 0.00 + 5 × .01
Zero Error = 0.05 cm
To get correct reading : 0.05 cm is to be subtracted from the observed value.
(ii) Negative zero error and its correction.
The zero error is negative when the zero mark of the Vernier scale lies towards
the left side of the zero of the main scale when the jaws are in contact. The length measured by such instruments is less than the actual length and therefore, the zero error is called negative zero error.
Zero error = 0.00 – (10 – 6) × VC = – 4 × .01 = – 0.4 cm
Correct reading = observed reading – (– 0.04)
= OR + 0.01 cm
Determination of Least Cont of Vernier Constant:
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Least count is the smallest value of a physical quantity which can be measured accurately with an instrument.
For an instrument where Vernier is used its Vernier Constant (VC) is its Least Count (LC)
10 div. of scale coincides with 9 div. lof main scale and the length of 1 div. onmain
scale is 1 mm.
10 VCD = 9 MSD
1 VSD =
^{9} MSD
10
The Quantity (1 MSD – 1 VSD) is called Vernier Cosntant (VC)
1
VC =
1
=
10 ^{}
9
10
MSD
1 mm 1 MSD
1
10
^{}
MSD
1 mm
VC = 0.1 mm = .01 cm
HOW TO TAKE VERNIER READINGS
l = Main scale observation + [coinciding vernier scale division × vernier constant]
or l = a [b × V.C.]
Hence l = {1.6 + [5 × 0.01]} cm
or = {1.6 + 0.05} cm = 1.65 cm
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SCREW GAUGE (OR MICROMETER SCREW)
In general venier calipers can measure accurately upto 0.01 cm and for and for greater accuracy micrometer screw devices e.g. screw gauge, spherometer a re used. These consist of accurately cut screw which can be moved in a closely fitting fixed nut by tuning it axially.
The instrument is provided with two scales:
(i) The main scale or pitch scale M graduated along the axis of the screw.
(ii) The capscale or head scale H round the edge of the screw head.
Pitch:
The translational motion of the screw is directly proportional to the total rotation
of the head. The pitch of the instrument is the distance between two consecutive
threads of the screw which is equal to the distance moved by the screw due to
one complete rotation of the cap. Thus for 10 rotation of cap = 5 mm, then pitch
= 0.5 mm.
_{P}_{i}_{t}_{c}_{h} _{p} _{=}
Distance moved by screw
No. of rotations given to screw
Least count:
m
In this case also, the minimum (at least) measurement (or count) of length is equal to one division on the head scale which is equal to pitch divided by the total cap divisioins.
Thus in the aforesaid Illustration: if the total cap division is 100, the least count = 0.5 mm/100 = 0.005 mm
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Least Count =
pitch
No. of division on circular scale ^{}
mm
Measurement of length by screw gauge:
L = n × pitch + f × least count, where n = main scale reading and f = circular scale reading
ZERO ERROR
When the two studs of a screw gauge are brought in contact with each other, the
zero of the circular scale should coincide with the graduation line of main scale.
In that case there is no zero error. However when the zero of the circular scale
does not coincide with the graduation line the screw gauge is said to have zero
error. A correction is then applied to the observed thickness or diameter to get
the correct value. Zero error may be +ve or –ve.
Positive Zero Error:
The zero error is said to be +ve if on bringing studs in contact, zero of the circular
scale is below the line of graduation.
Negative Zero Error.
The zero error is negative if on bringing, the studs in contact, the zero of the circular scale is above the graduation line on the main scale.
Zero correction is always, negative of zero error:
(i) If the linear scale reading is zero and circular scale reading is 4 and zero of C.S. is above the graduation line then zero correction is given by
8. Statemennt1
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If
x
a
n
b
m
the
x
x
n
a a
m
b b
The chang 

and 

Statement2 
(A)
(C)
A
C
9. Statement1
(B) B
(D) D
If the measuring instruments used are perfect, then measurements made can be
perfect.
and
Statement2
Measurements depend upon the error free instruments only.
(A)
(C)
A
C
10. Statement1
(B) B
(D) D
Systematic errors and random errors fall in the same group of errors.
and
Statement2
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Both systematic and random errors are based on the cause of error.
(A) 
A 
(B) B 
(C) 
C 
(D) D 
11. Statement1
Absolute error may be negative or positive.
and
Statement2
Absolute error is the difference between the real value and the measured value
of a physical quantity.
(A) A
(C) C
(B) B
(D) D
Now lets see how to do arithmetic operations i.e. addition, subtraction,
multiplication and division according to significant figures.
(a)
Addition Subtraction
Rules for Addition Subtraction.
First round off an quantities to the decimal place of least accurate quantity.
Then the addition/subtraction in normal manner.
e.g. 423 + 20.23
486.2 – 35.18
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486.2 

423.5 


35.18 


20.23 



35.2 

443.7 

451.0 
Rules for multiply Division
Suppose we have to multiply
2.11 × 1.2
2.1
1.2
422
211
2.532
2.5
So Answer will come in least significant figures out of the two numbers.
Multiply/Divide in normal manner.
Round off the answer to the weakest link
(number having least S.F.)
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Ex# 312.65 × 26.4 = 8253.960
5 S.F. 
3 S.F. round off 
to three S.F. 

8250 
Ex# A cube has a side l = 1.2 × 10 ^{–}^{2} m. Calculate its volume.
l = 1.2 × 10 ^{–}^{2}
V (1.2 × 10 ^{–}^{2} ) (1.2 × 10 ^{–}^{2} ) (1.2 × 10 ^{–}^{2} )
Two S.F. Two S.F. Two S.F.
= 1.728 × 10 ^{–}^{6} m ^{3}
Round off of 2 S.F.
1.7 × 10 ^{–}^{6} m ^{3}
Ex# In ohm's law exp., reading of voltmeter across the resister is 12.5V and
reading of current I = 0.20 Amp. Estimate the resistance in correct S.F.
R
=
V
1
round off
to 2 S.F.
= 62
3 S.F.
12.5
0.20 2 S.F.
62.5
Ex# Using screw gauge radius of wire was found to be 2.50 mm. The length of
wire found by mm. Scale is 50.0 cm. If mass of wire was measured as 25 gm, the
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density of the wire in correct S.F. will be.
Sol.
f =
m
2
r l
two S.F.
=
25
0.250
2
50.0
three S.F. three S.F.
=
2.5465
two
S.F.
2.5
gm
cm
3
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ERRORS IN MEASUREMENT
To get some overview of error, least count and significant figures, lets have the
below example.
(i) Lets use a cm scale (a scale on which only cm marks are there).
We will measure length = 4 cm.
Although the length will be a bit more than 4, but we cannot say its length to be
4.1 cm or 4.2 cm as the scale can measure upto cms only, not closer than that.
* It (this scale) can measure upto cms accuracy only.
* So we'll say that its least count is 1 cm.
To get a closer measurement we have to use a more minute scale, that is mm
scale.
(ii)
Lets use a ^{n} mm scale : (a scale on which mm marks are there.
We will measure length l = 4.2 cm, which is a more closer measurement. Here
also if we observe closely, we'll find that the length is a bit more than 4.2 but we
cannot say its length to be 4.21, or 4.22, or 4.20 as this scale can measure up to
0.1 cms (1 mm) only, not closer than that.
* It (this scale) can measure upto 0.1 cm accuracy.
Its least count is 0.1 cm.
Max. uncertainty in l can be = 0.1 cm.
Max. possible error in l can be = 0.1 cm.
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Measurement of length = 4.2 cm has two significant figures; 4 and 2, in which 4 is
absolutely correct, and 2 is reasonably correct (Doubtful) be cause uncertainty of
0.1 cm is there.
To get more closer measurement.
(iii) We can use Vernier Callipers (which can measure more closely, upto 0.01 cm).
Then we'll measure length l = 4.23 cm which is more closer measurement.
* It can measure upto 0.01 cm accuracy
Least count = 0.01 cm
Max. uncertainty in l can be = 0.01 cm
Max. possible error in l can be = 0.01 cm
Measurement of length = 4.23 cm has three significant figures; 4, 2 and 3; in
which 4 and 2 are absolutely correct and 3 is reasonably correct (Doubtful)
because uncertainty of 0.01 cm is there.
To get further more closer measurement.
(iv) We can use screw Gauge : (which can measure more closely, upto 0.001
cm)
We'll measure length l = 4.234 cm.
* Max possible uncertainty (error) in l can be
= 0.001 cm
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length = 4.234 cm has 4 significant figures.
4, 2, 3 are absolutely correct and 4 is reasonably correct.
To get further more closer measurement.
(v) We can use microscope :
We'll measure length l = 4.2342 cm.
* Max. possible uncertainty (error) in l can be
= 0.0001 cm
* Length = 4.2342 cm has five significant figures; 4, 2, 3, 4 and 2.
Least Count :
We have studied that no measurement is perfect. Every instrument can measure
up to a certain accuracy, called least count.
Least Count : The smallest quantity an instrument can measure

mm scale 
Vernier 
Screw gauge 
Stop 
Temp. 
L.C. = 1 
L.C. = 0.1 
L.C. = 0.01 
watch 
thermo 
mm mm 
mm 
L.C. = 0.1 
meter 

sec. 
L.C.= 1°C 
Permissible error:
Error in measurement due to limitation (least count) of the instrument, is called
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permissible error.
From mm scale we can measure upto 1 mm accuracy (least count). Fro this we will get measurement like l = 34 mm.
Max uncertainty can be 1 mm
Max permissible error (l) = 1 mm
But, if from any other instrument, we get
l = 34.5 mm then max permissible error
(l) = 0.1 mm
and if from a more accurate instrument, we get l = 34.517 mm then max.
permissible error (l) = 0.001 mm
= Place value of last number.
Max. permissible error in a measured quantity = Place value of the last number.
Max. Permissible error in Result due to error in each measurable quantity:
Let Result f(x, y) contains two measureable quantity x and y.
Let error in is = + x i.e. x (x – x, x + x)
error in y is = y i.e. y (y – y, y + y)
Case (i) If f(x, y) = x + y
(f) _{m}_{a}_{x}_{.} = x + y
Case (ii) If f = x – y
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(f) _{m}_{a}_{x}_{.} = x + y
Ex# In resonance tube exp. we find l _{1} = 25.0 cm and l _{2} = 75.0 cm. If there is no
error is frequency what will be max permissible error in speed of sound (take f _{0} =
325 Hz).
V = 2f _{0} (l _{1} – l _{1} )
V _{m}_{a}_{x}_{.} = max. of 2f _{0} (+ l _{2} l _{1} )
= 2f _{0} (l _{2} + l _{1} )
l _{1} = 25.0 cm l
1
= 0.1 cm
(Place value of last number)
l _{2} = 75.0 cm l
2
= 0.1 cm
(Place value of last number)
V = 2f _{0} (l _{2} – l _{1} )
= 2(325) (75.0 – 25.0) = 325 m/s
and V _{m}_{a}_{x}_{.} = 2(325) (0.1 + 0.1) = 1.3 m/s
So V = (325 + 1.3) m/s
Cose (III) If f(x, y, z) = constant x ^{a} y ^{b} z ^{c}
f
f
max.
=
a
x
x
b
max. of
y
y
c
z
z
a
x
x
b
y
y
c
z
z
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Sign should be adjusted, so that errors get added up.
Ex# f = 15x ^{2} y ^{–}^{3}^{/}^{2} z ^{–}^{5}
f
f
max.
2
x
3
y
x
z
y
5
z
z
Ex#
length l = 75.3 cm, then find max. permissible error in
Resistivity () =
R
4
d
2
max.
l
R
R
2
d
d
R
= 1.05 R = 0.01
l
d
= 0.60 mm d = 0.01 mm
l
l = 75.3 cm l = 0.1 cm
max.
= 0.0759
0.01
1.05
2
0.01
0.60
0.1
75.3
Ex# In ohm's law experiment, potential drop across a resistance was measured as
V = 5.0 volt and current was measured as I = 2.00 amp. Find the maximum
permissible error in resistance.
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Sol. R =
V
i
%
V
R
R
i
1
max.
0.1
0.01
5.0
2.00
Value of R from the observation
R
V
i
5.0
2.00
2.5
So we can write R = (2.5 + 2.5%)
100%
2.5%
In searle's exp. to find Young's modulus, the diameter of wire is measured as D =
0.05 cm length of wire is L = 125 cm, and when a weight m = 20.0 kg is put,
extension in wire was found to be 0.100 cm. Find maximum permission error in
Young's modulus Y.
mg
d
2
4
Y
Y
Y
Y
x
l
mgl
^{}
4
2
d x
max.
m
l
m
l
m = 20.0 kg
l = 125 m
2
d
d
x
x
m = 0.1 kg
l = 1 cm
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d 
= 0.050 cm 
d = 0.001 cm 
x 
= 0.100 cm 
x = 0.001 cm 
Y
Y
max.
= 4.3%
0.1 
1 
0.001 
0.001 





20.0 
125 
0.05 
0.100 
100%
Exp. To find the value of 'g' using simple pendulum T = 2.00 sec, l = 1.00 m was
measured. Estimate maximum permissible error in 'g'. also find value of 'g'.
g
l
l
2
4
2
T
2
T
T
l
0.01
1.00
= 2%
Value of g =
g ^{}
g
max.
4
2
l
T
2
2
100
4
10
1.00
2.00
g
0.2
2
g = (10.0 + 0.2) m/s ^{2}
2
0.01
2.00
100%
10.0 m /s
2
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EXPERIMENT
Determining the value of 'g' using a simple pendulum.
In this exp, a small spherical bob is hanged with a cotton thread. this arrangement is called simple pendulum. The bob is displaced slightly and allowed to oscillate. To find time period, time taken for 50 oscillations is noted using a stop watch.
Theoretically, T =
Where
g
2
4
^{2}
L
g
L
T
2
…(1)
L
=
= Equivalent length of pendulum
length of thread (l) + radius (r) of bob
T
= time period of the simple pendulum
_{=} time taken for 50 oscillations
50
So, g can be easily determined by the eqn. (1)
Experiment:
Determining Young's Modulus of a given wire by Young's Searle's method:
To determine Young's modulus, we can perform an ordinary experiment. Let's hang a weight 'm' from a wire. From Hook's law
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mg
Y
x
l
0
x
l
0
mg
2
r Y
If we change the weight, the elongation of wire will change proportionally.
If we plot elongation v/s mg, we will et a straight line
By measuring its slope and equating it to
l
0
2
r Y
, we can estimate Y.
Experiment:
Determining specific heat capacity of an unknown liquid using colorimeter:
Regnault's apparatus to determine the specific heat capacity of a unknown liquid.
A solid sphere of known specific heat capacity s
temperature _{1} is mixed with the unknown liquid filled in a calorimeter. Let
masses of liquid and calorimeter are m
capacities are s _{2} and s
hot sphere is dropped in it, the sphere looses heat and the liquid calorimeter
system takes heat. The process continues till the temp. of all the elements
and initially they were at room temperature _{2} when the
respectively, specific heat
having mass m _{1} and initial
1
and m
3
2
3
becomes same (say ).
Heat lost by hot sphere = m _{1} s _{1} ( _{1} – )
Heat taken by liquid and calorimeter
= m _{2} s _{2} (– _{2} ) + m _{2} s _{2} ( – _{2} )
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It there were no external heat loss.
Heat given by sphere = Heat taken by liquidCalorimeter system
m _{1} s _{1} ( _{1} – ) = m _{2} s _{2} ( – _{2} ) + m _{3} s _{3} ( – _{2} )
Get s _{2} =
m s
1 
1 
1 
2 
3 

m 
2 


2 


m 
2 
m s
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Exp. Determining speed of sound using resonance tube.
The experiment to find velocity of sound in air using Resonance tube measured.
Principle: Resonance tube is a kind of closed organ pipe. So its natural frequency will be
V
4 l
eq
,
3V
4 l
eq
,
5V
4 l
eq
,
or generally f _{n} = _{}
2n
1
_{}
V
4 l
eq.
If it is forced with a tuning fork of frequency f , for resonance,
0
Natural frequency = forcing frequency
2n
l
eq
1
V
4 l
eq
2n
1
f
0
V
4 f
0
For the first resonance
l eq
l
1
V
4 f
0
e
V
4 f
0
For the second resonance
…(1)
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l eq
l
1
3V
4 f
0
e
3V
4 f
0
From (1) to (2)
V = 2f _{0} (l _{2} – l _{1} )
Observation table:
…(1)
Room temp. in beginning = 26°C
Room tempered = 28°C
Freq. of tun. fork in viz (f _{0} ) 
Resonance 
Water 
Water 
Mean 
Speed of 

level is 
level is 
resonant 
sound 

falling 
rising 
length 

340 Hz 
1st resonance 
23.9 
24.1 
l 
1 
= … 
V = 2f _{0} 
2nd resonance 

73.9 
74.1 
l 
2 
= … 
(l _{2} – l _{1} ) 
Verification of ohm's law using voltmeter an ammeter.
Ohm's low states that the electric current flowing through a conductor vs
directly proportional t the P.d. (V) across its ends provided that the physical
conditions of the conductor (such as temp. dimensions etc.) are kept constant
mathematically
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V
I or
V
IR
Here R is a constant known as resistance of the conductor and depends on the
nature and dimensions of the conductor.
Procedure: By shifting the rheostat contact, reading of ammeter and Winterer are noted down.
At least six set of observation are taken. Then a graph is plotted between
potential difference (V) across R and current (I) through R. The graph comes to be
a straight line.
V I
I =
^{1}
R
V
tano
BP
AP
1
R
Get R = …
Ext. : Specific resistance of the material of a wire using meter bridge and post
office box.
Meter Bridge:
Meter Bridge is a simple case of wheat stone Bridge and 1s used to find the
unknown resistance. The unknown resistance is placed in place of R and in place
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of s, a known resistance is used, using R.B. (Resistance Box). There is a 2m long
resistance wire between A and C. The Jockey's moved along the wire. When
R(100 – l) = S(l) then the Bridge will be balanced and the galvanometer will give
zero deflection.
'l' can be measured by the meter scale.
The unknown resistance is R =
l
S 100 l
…(1)
If length of unknown wire is L and diameter of the wire is d, then specific
resistance of the wire
R
4
d
2
L
From eqn. (1),
d
2
4L
l
100
End Corrections
l
s
In meter Bridge circuit, some extra length comes (is found under metallic strips)
at end point A and C. So some additional length ( and ) should be included at
ends for accurate result. Hence in place of
we use
+ and in place of 100 –
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, we use 100 –
+ (where and are called end correction. To estimate
and , we use known resistance R _{1} and R _{2} at the place of R and S in meter Bridge.
Suppose we get null point at
_{1} distance then
R
1
R
2
100
Now we interchange the position of R
then
R
2
R
1
100
1
Solving equation (i) and (ii) get
R
2
R
1
1
2
=
R
1
R
^{1}
R
^{1}
R
1
2
R
R
and =
^{2}
2
^{2}
100
…(i)
and R
2
, and get null point at
…(ii)
_{2} distance
These end correction ( and ) are used to modify the observations.
Exp. : POST OFFICE BOX
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In a Wheatstone Bridge circuit, if
^{P}
Q
^{R}
X
then the bridge is balanced. So
unknown resistance X = ^{Q}^{R} .
P
Office Box is described.
to Realize the Wheatstone's Bridge circuit, a Post
1000 resistance, to set any ratio ^{Q} .
P
These arms are called ratio arm.
Initially we take Q = 10 and P = 10 to set
Q
P
1
The unknown resistance (X) is connected between C and D and battery is
connected across A and C (Just like Wheatstone's Bridge). Now put Resistance in
part A to D such that the Bridge gets balanced.
For this keep on increasing the resistance with 1 interval, check the deflection
in Galvanometer by first pressing key K
1
then Galvanometer key K _{2} .
Suppose at R = 4, we get deflection toward left and at R = 5 we get deflection
toward right.
So we can say that for bridge balance, R should be between 4 to 5.
Now X = ^{Q}^{R}
P
^{1}^{0}
10
R
R
So we can estimate that X shoul
4 to 5
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To get closer X, in the second observation,
lets choose ^{Q}
P
e.g.
Q
P
100
10
^{1}
10
Suppose now at R = 42 we are getting deflection towards left and at R = 43
deflection is toward right.
So R (42, 43)
Now X
_{=} ^{Q}^{R}
P
^{1}^{0}
100
R
^{1}
10
R
where R (42, 43)
So we can estimate that X (4.2, 4.3)
Now to get partner closer,
Q
P
1
100
The observation table is shown:
No.
of
obs.
Resistance in the ratio arm
Resistance in arm AD (R) ohm
Direction of
Deflection
Unknown resistance X =
QR
P
AB = (P) (ohm)
BC = Q (ohm)
1
10
10
4
Left
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5 
Right 
(4 – 5) 

100 
10 
40 
Left (Large) 

50 
Right (Large) 
4.2–4.3 

42 
Lefts 

43 
Right 

3 
100 
10 
420 
Left 

424 
Left 
4.25 

425 
No deflection 

426 
Right 
TO FIND FOCUS DISTANCE OF A CONCAVE MIRROR USING UV METHOD:
Principle : For different u, we measure different V and find F using minor formula
In this experiment, a concave mirror is fixed at position Mm' and a Knitting
needle is used as an object, mounted in front of the concave mirror.
This needle is called object needle (O in fig.). First of au, we make a rough
estimation of f.
For estimating F roughly, make a sharp image of a for away object (like sun) on a
filter paper. The image distance of the far object will be an approx. estimation of
focus distance.
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Now, the object needle is kept beyond F, so that its real and in verted image
can be formed. You can see this inverted image in the mirror by closing your
are eye and keeping the other eye along the pole of the mirror.
To locate the position of the image, use a second needle and shift this needle
such that its peak coincide with the image. The second needle gives the distance
of image (V). So it called "image needle".
Note the object distance 'n' and image distance 'V' from the mm scale on optical
bench.
Similarly take 45 more observations.
Determining of from uV observation using mirror formula.
1
f
1
V
1
u
take average of an value of f.
Exp. To find focus distance of a convex lens using uV method.
For difference u, we measure different V, and find f using lens formula.
1
f
1
V
1
u
In this experiment, a convex lens is fixed at position L and a Knitting needle is
used as an object. This needle is called object needle AB in fig.
First of all we make a rough estimation of F for estimating F roughly, make a
sharp image of a far away object (like sun) on a filter paper. The image distance
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of the far object will be an approx. estimation of focus distance.
Now, the object needle is kept beyond F, so that its real and inverted image
can be formed. To locate the position of the image, use a second needle and
shift this needle such that its peak coincide with the image. The second needle
gives the distance of image (V), so it called "image needle".
Note the object distance "u" and image distance "V" from the him scale on
optical bench.
Similarly take 4 – 5 more observations.
1
f
1
V
1
u
Take average of all f.
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