Sei sulla pagina 1di 9

A stationary gas-turbine power plant operates on a simple ideal Brayton cycle with air as the

working fluid. The air enters the compressor at 95 kPa and 290 K and the turbine at 760 kPa and
1100 K. Heat is transferred to air at a rate of 35,000 kJ/s. Determine the power delivered by this
plant (a) assuming constant specific heats at room temperature and (b) accounting for the
variation of specific heats with temperature.

A stationary gas-turbine power plant operates on a simple ideal Brayton cycle with air as the
working fluid. The power delivered by this plant is to be determined assuming constant and
variable specific heats.
Assumptions
1 Steady operating conditions exist.
2 The air-standard assumptions are applicable.
3 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible.
4 Air is an ideal gas.
Analysis
(a) Asumsi panas spesifik konstan ,
P2
P1


T 2 s=T 1

8


T 2 s= 290 K )
(
P4
P3


T 4 s=T 3

1
8


T 2 s=( 1100 K )

1
q out C p ( T 4T 1 ) ( T 4 T 1 )
th =1 =1 =1
q C p ( T 3T 2 ) ( T 3T 2 )
( 607.2 K 290 K )
th =1 =0.448
( 1100 K 525.3 K )

W net ,out = th Q =( 0.448 )(35000 kW )=15680 kW


(b) Assuming variable specific heats (Table A-17),


T 1 =290 K h1= 290.16 kJ/kg

Pr1= 1.2311
P2
r 2== P
P1 r 1
P

r 2==( 8 ) ( 1.2311 )=9.38488 h2=526.12 kJ /kg


P

T 3 =1100 K h3= 1161.07 kJ/kg

Pr3= 167.1
P4
r 4== P
P3 r 3
P

r 2== ( 18 )( 167.1 )=20.89 h4 =651.37 kJ /kg


P
q out ( h4 h1 )
th =1 =1
q ( h3 h2 )

( 651.37290.16 )
th =1 =0.431
( 1161.07526.11 )

2
W net ,out = T Q =( 0.431 )(35000 kW )=15085 kW

A stationary gas-turbine power plant operates on an ideal regenerative Brayton cycle ( = 100
percent) with air as the working fluid. Air enters the compressor at 95 kPa and 290 K and the
turbine at 760 kPa and 1100 K. Heat is transferred to air from an external source at a rate of
75,000 kJ/s. Determine the power delivered by this plant(a) assuming constant specific heats for
air at room temperature and (b) accounting for the variation of specific heats with temperature.

Penyelesaian :
A stationary gas-turbine power plant operating on an ideal regenerative Brayton cycle with air as
the working fluid is considered. The power delivered by this plant is to be determined for two
cases.

Assumptions
1 The air standard assumptions are applicable.
2 Air is an ideal gas.
3 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible.

Properties When assuming constant specific heats, the properties of air at room temperature are
cp = 1.005 kJ/kg.K and k = 1.4 (Table A-2a). When assuming variable specific heats, the
properties of air are obtained from Table A-17.

Analysis (a) Assuming constant specific heats,

3
P2
P1


T 2 =T 1

8


T 2 = 290 K )
(
P4
P3


T 4=T 3

1
8


T 2 =( 1100 K )

= 100 % T 5 =T 4=607.2 K dan T 6 =T 2=525.3 K

q out C p ( T 6T 1 ) ( T 6T 1)
th =1 =1 =1
q C p ( T 3T 5 ) ( T 3 T 5 )
( 525.3 K 290 K )
th =1 =0.5225
( 1100 K 607.2 K )

W net ,out = T Q =( 0.5225) (75000 kW )=39188 kW


(b) Assuming variable specific heats,


T 1 =290 K h1= 290.16 kJ/kg

Pr1= 1.2311

4
P2
r 2== P
P1 r 1
P

r 2==( 8 ) ( 1.2311 )=9.8488


h2=526.12 kJ /kg
P

T 3 =1100 K h3= 1161.07 kJ/kg

Pr3= 167.1
P4
r 4== P
P3 r 3
P

r 4== ( 18 )( 167.1 )=20.89 h4 =651.37 kJ /kg


P
= 100 % T 5 =T 4=607.2 K dan T 6 =T 2=525.3 K
q out ( h6 h1 )
th =1 =1
q ( h3h5 )

( 526.12290.16 )
th =1 =0.5371
( 1161.07651.37 )

W net ,out = T Q =( 0.5371) (75000 kW )=40283 kW


5
A gas-turbine power plant operates on the simple Brayton cycle between the
pressure limits of 100 and 700 kPa. Air enters the compressor at 30C at a rate of 12.6 kg/s and
leaves at 260C. A diesel fuel with a heating value of 42,000 kJ/kg is burned in the combustion
chamber with an airfuel ratio of 60 and a combustion efficiency of 97 percent. Combustion
gases leave the combustion chamber and enter the turbine whose isentropic efficiency is 85
percent. Treating the combustion gases as air and using constant specific heats at 500C,
determine (a) the isentropic efficiency of the compressor, (b) the net power output and the back
work ratio, (c) the thermal efficiency, and (d) the second-law efficiency.

Answer :
A gas-turbine plant uses diesel fuel and operates on simple Brayton cycle. The isentropic
efficiency of the compressor, the net power output, the back work ratio, the thermal efficiency,
and the second-law efficiency are to be determined.

Assumptions
1 The air-standard assumptions are applicable.
2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible.
3 Air is an ideal gas with constant specific heats.

Properties
The properties of air at 500C = 773 K are cp = 1.093 kJ/kgK, cv = 0.806 kJ/kgK, R = 0.287
kJ/kgK, and k = 1.357 (Table A-2b).

Analysis
(a) The isentropic efficiency of the compressor may be determined if we first calculate the exit
temperature for the isentropic case

6
P2
P1


T 2 s=T 1

700 kPa
100 kPa


T 2 =( 303 K )
( T 2 sT 1 )
C =
( T 2 T 1 )
( 505.6303 )
C = =0.881
( 533303 )

(b) The total mass flowing through the turbine and the rate of heat input are
ma
ma=ma + mf =ma +
AF
12.6 kg/ s
ma=12.6 kg / s + =12.6 kg /s+ 0.21 kg/ s=12.81 kg /s
60

Q =mf q HV c

Q =(0.21 kg /s)( 42000 kJ /kg)(0.97)=8555 kW

The temperature at the exit of combustion chamber is

7
Q =mC P ( T 3T 2 )

8555 kW =(12.81 kg /s)(1.093 kJ /kg . K ) ( T 3505.6 K )

T 3 =1144 K

The temperature at the turbine exit is determined using isentropic efficiency relation
P4
P3


T 4 s=T 3

100 kPa
700 kpa


T 4 s= (1144 K )
( T 3T 4 )
T =
( T 3 T 4 s )
( 1144T 4 ) K
1144 K = =0.881
(1144 685.7 ) K

T 4=754.4 K

The net power and the back work ratio are


C ,=m a C P ( T 2T 1)
W

C ,=(12.6 kg / s)(1.093 kJ /kg . K ) (533303 ) K=3168 kW


W

W T ,out = mC P ( T 3 T 4 )

W T ,out =(12.81 kg/ s)(1.093 kJ /kg . K) ( 1144754.4 ) K =5455 kW

8
C ,
W net =W T ,out W

W net =5455 kW 3168 kW =2287 kW

W C ,
W T , out
r bw =

3168 kW
r bw = =0.581
5455 kW

(c) The thermal efficiency is

W net
th =
Q

2287 kW
th = =0.267
8555 kJ /s