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International Energy Agency

Bioenergy Agreement
Task 32
Biomass Combustion and Cofiring

Working Group Meeting


Arranged by:
Sjaak van Loo and Jaap Koppejan
TNO-MEP, the Netherlands

Content:
Minutes of the 2nd Task Meeting,
Working Group Meeting-Biomass Combustion and Cofiring

June 19-20, 2002


RAI Conference Centre
Amsterdam, Netherlands
IEA Working Group Meeting Task 32
Biomass Combustion and Cofiring
June 19-20, 2002, Amsterdam, Netherlands

Table of contents
Programme

Attendance list

Summary of the meeting

Wednesday June 19, meeting part 1

Opening, news from IEA ExCo

Report of last meeting

Distribution and follow-up of Handbook

Need for a separate task on cofiring

New or revised task proposals

Combustion and co-firing network of excellence (Sjaak van Loo)

Status of CHP overview (Ingwald Obernberger)

Internet site and database on biomass fuel, ash and condensate (Jaap Koppejan/Ingwald
Obernberger)

Thursday June 20: Task meeting Part 2

Country presentations

Next meetings and workshops (Sjaak van Loo)

Cofiring seminar (part of main conference)

Future actions

2
Annexes
Annex 1. Waste wood combustion (task proposal, Claes Tullin)

Annex 2. Inventory of cofiring experiences word-wide (task proposal, Jaap Koppejan /


Sjaak van Loo)

Annex 3. Comparison, validation and assessment of methods for the determination of


the annual efficiency of biomass-fired district heating plants
(Task proposal, Thomas Nussbaumer)

Annex 4. Stoichiometry Effects on Corrosion during Cofiring


(Task proposal, Larry Baxter)

Annex 5. Formation of Striated Flows During Biomass-coal Cofiring


(Task proposal, Larry Baxter)

Annex 6. Biomass Impacts on SCR Catalyst Performance


(Task proposal, Larry Baxter)

Annex 7. Combustion and co-firing network of excellence

Annex 8. Decentralised CHP technologies based on Biomass Combustion


(Task activity), Ingwald Obernberger

Annex 9. Internet site (Jaap Koppejan)

Annex 10. Country report Austria, Ingwald Obernberger

Annex 11. Country report Netherlands, by Ad van Dongen (Reliant Energy, NL)

Annex 12. Country report USA, by Larry Baxter

Annex 13. Country report - Norway, by yvind Skreiberg

Annex 14. Country report Switzerland, by Thomas Nussbaumer

Annex 15. Aerosols from Biomass Combustion Overview on Activities in IEA


Bioenergy Task 32 T. Nussbaumer and S. van Loo

Annex 16. Nanoparticle Emissions of Novel Wood Combustion Processes


C. Gaegauf, U. Wieser, R. Hermansson, V.-P. Heiskanen

Annex 17. Fuel Staging for NOx Reduction in Biomass Combustion: Experiments and
Modeling
Roger Salzmann, Thomas Nussbaumer

Annex 18. Quality Assurance for Planning and Construction of Biomass District
Heating Plants
R. Bhler, H.R. Gabathuler, J. Good, A. Jenni

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Programme

Wednesday June 19: Task meeting Part 1

9:00 Opening, news from IEA (Sjaak van Loo)

9:15 Report of last meeting (Sjaak van Loo)

9:30 Distribution and follow-up of Handbook (Sjaak van Loo)

10:00 Need for a separate task on cofiring (Sjaak van Loo)

10:20 Coffee break

10:45 New or revised task proposals:


- Activities on waste wood combustion (Claes Tullin)
- Overview of cofiring experiences (Jaap Koppejan)
- Methods for determination of annual efficiency (Thomas Nussbaumer)
- 3 proposals related to biomass cofiring (Larry Baxter)

12:45 Lunch

13:30 Combustion and co-firing network of excellence (Sjaak van Loo)

14:15 Status of CHP overview (Ingwald Obernberger)

14:45 Internet site and database on biomass fuel, ash and condensate
(Jaap Koppejan/Ingwald Obernberger)

15:15 End of day 1

19:00 Conference dinner

Thursday June 20: Task meeting Part 2

9:00 Country presentations (All)


10:20 Coffee break
10:45 Country presentations (All)
11:10 Next meetings and workshops (Sjaak van Loo)
14:30 Cofiring seminar (part of main conference)

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Attendance list

Representatives
Ms. Garbine Guiu (Task member) Richard Logie (Task member)
European Commission Department of Natural Resources
DG for Science Research and Development Renewable Energy Technology Group
Rue de la Loi, 200 Energy Technology Branch
B-1049 BRUSSELS 580 Booth Street 7th floor
Belgium Ottawa, Ontario K1A OE4
tel +32 2 2990538 Canada
fax +32 2 2993694 tel. +1 613 9950283
Garbine.GUIU@cec.eu.int Fax +1 613 9969416
email rlogie@nrcan.gc.ca
Peter Costelloe (Alternate Task member)
Technical Services Manager Jesper Werling (alternate Task member)
C.S. Energy dk-TEKNIK
Swanbank Power Station Gladsaxe Mollevej 15
MS 460 DK-2860 SOBORG
Qld 4306 Ipswich Denmark
Australia tel +45 39 555999
tel +61 7 3810 8802 fax +45 39 696002
fax +61 7 3810 8777 jwe@dk-teknik.dk
pcostell@csenergy.com.au
Sjaak van Loo (Task leader)
Ingwald Obernberger (Task member) TNO-MEP
Institute of Chemical Engineering P.O. Box 342
Fundamentals and Plant Engineering 7300 AH APELDOORN
Technical University of Graz Netherlands
Inffeldgasse 25 tel +31 55 5493745
A - 8010 GRAZ fax +31 55 5493740
Austria S.vanLoo@mep.tno.nl
tel +43 316 481300
fax +43 316 4813004 yvind Skreiberg, Ph.D. (Task member)
obernberger@glvt.tu-graz.ac.at Research Scientist
Department of Energy and Process
Jerome Delcarte (Alternate task member) Engineering
Dpartement de Gnie Rural Faculty of Engineering Science and
Centre de Recherche Agronomiques Technology
Chausse de Namur, 146 NTNU, N-7491 Trondheim
B 5030 Gembloux Norway
tel. +32 81 61 2501 tel +47 73 592970
fax +32 81 61 5847 fax +47 73 598390
delcarte@cragx.fgov.be Oyvind.Skreiberg@tev.ntnu.no

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Claes Tullin (Task member) William R. Livingston (Task member)
Swedish National Testing and Research Group leader - fuel technology
Institute Mitsui Babcock Energy Limited
Box 857 Technology Centre
S-501 15 BORAS High Street
Sweden Renfrew PA4 8UW
tel +46 33 16 5555 Scotland, UK
fax +46 33 131979 tel +44 141 8862201
claes.tullin@sp.se fax +44 141 8853370
wlivingsto@mitsuibabcock.com
Thomas Nussbaumer (Task member)
VERENUM Larry Baxter (Task member)
Langmauerstrasse 109 Brigham Young University
CH-8006 ZRICH Professor, Chemical Engineering
Switzerland JJ Christensen Professorship of
tel +41 1 3641412 Thermochemical Science
fax +41 1 3641421 350 Clyde Building
verenum@smile.ch Provo, UT 84602
tel: +1 (801) 422-8616
fax: +1 (801) 422-7799
email: larry_baxter@byu.edu

Observers:
Jaap Koppejan (Secretary) Sren Houmller
TNO-MEP dk-TEKNIK
P.O. Box 342 Gladsaxe Mollevej 15
7300 AH APELDOORN DK-2860 SOBORG
Netherlands Denmark
tel +31 55 5493167 tel +45 39 555999
fax +31 55 5493740 fax +45 39 696002
J.Koppejan@mep.tno.nl houmoller@dk-teknik.dk

Ad van Dongen
senior stafmedewerker
Reliant Energy Power Generation Benelux
BV
Postbus 8475
3503 RL Utrecht
Netherlands
tel +31 30 - 247 2853
fax +31 30 247 22 55
avandongen@reliantenergy.nl

6
Absent:
Peter Coombes (Task member, substituted Heikki Oravainen, (Task member)
by Peter Costelloe) senior research scientist
Business Development Analyst VTT Energy, Fuels and Combustion
Delta Electricity P.O. Box 1603
Level 12, Darling Park FIN-40101 Jyvskyl
201 Sussex Street Finland
Sydney 2000 tel +358 14 672532
Australia fax +358 14 672596
tel: +61 2 9285 2789 Heikki.Oravainen@vtt.fi
fax: +61 2 9285 2780
Peter.Coombes@de.com.au Kees Kwant (Operating Agent)
NOVEM
Yves Schenkel (Task member, substituted P.O. Box 8242
by Jerome Delcarte) 3503 RE UTRECHT
Dpartement de Gnie Rural Netherlands
Centre de Recherche Agronomiques tel +31 30 2393458
Chausse de Namur, 146 fax +31 30 2316491
B 5030 Gembloux k.kwant@novem.nl
tel. +32 81 61 2501
fax +32 81 61 5847 John Gifford (Task member)
schenkel@cragx.fgov.be Forest Research Institute
Private Bag 3020
Henrik Houmann Jakobsen (Task member, ROTORUA
substituted by Jesper Werling) New Zealand
dk-TEKNIK tel +64-7-343-5899
Gladsaxe Mollevej 15 fax +64-7-343-5507
DK-2860 SOBORG john.gifford@forestresearch.co.nz
Denmark
tel +45 39 555999
fax +45 39 696002
hhouman@dk-teknik.dk

7
Summary of the meeting

Wednesday June 19, meeting part 1


Opening, news from IEA ExCo
The second meeting of Task 32 was held June 19-20 in the RAI Conference centre and
coincided with the 12th European Conferences & Technology Exhibition on Biomass for
Energy, Industry and Climate Protection. The meeting was chaired by Sjaak van Loo (Task
leader). Due to national funding constraints for participation in IEA Bioenergy activities, a
number of Task members were represented by colleagues at the meeting. Twelve out of
fourteen member countries were represented at the meeting.

Sjaak van Loo opened the meeting welcoming all participants to Amsterdam. An earlier Task
meeting scheduled for November 19-21 in Jyvskyl, Finland organised by Heikki Oravainnen
(VTT) regretfully had to be cancelled a week in advance due to a lack of interest. It was
concluded that this was partly due to the situation after September 11, 2001.

It is a general observation from both IEA Headquarters and the ExCo of IEA Bioenergy that
measurable deliverables of the individual Tasks are often lacking. This is needed to keep going
with declining national budgets. It was argued by Task 32 that also the in future we should
continue to provide tangible results, such as the Handbook on Biomass Combustion, a
database on fuel and ash composition on the internet, workshops, etc.

Report of last meeting


The report of the first Task meeting was approved by the task members without further
comments. Comments on the draft version were already incorporated before.

Distribution and follow-up of Handbook


The Handbook on Biomass Combustion and Cofiring was finally presented at the 12th
European Conferences & Technology Exhibition on Biomass for Energy, Industry and
Climate Protection. Promotion materials (leaflets, posters) were prepared to attract attention
during the Conference and an introductory offer was made (39 , normal price 44).

While the first draft of the manuscript was prepared in 2000, based on a State of the Art
Overview on Biomass Combustion (a document translated from Dutch to English), the final
version of the book was significantly upgraded using the contributions of all task members
and contains an in-depth overview of all relevant issues, varying from domestic woodstoves to
the latest co-firing experiments.

All task members will receive a box with 15 copies for free for internal distribution, additional
copies can be ordered through the task internet site.

Need for a separate task on cofiring


An important question put forward by the ExCo to the members of Task 32 is whether or not
it would make sense to split Task 32 into two separate tasks on Combustion and Cofiring.

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After a brief discussion it was argued by the members on Task 32 that separating the current
task would not be preferable for a number of reasons:
- Not all countries would participate in both tasks, therefore less members would provide
input to either activities. At least Canada, Sweden and Switzerland would not be able to
participate in a separate task on cofiring.
- There are no scientific or technical differences between combustion and cofiring. With
biomass combustion applications varying from woodstoves to industrial boilers and coal
power plants, the main difference is the size range.
- If member countries would feel that one of both topics would need more attention, it
could be considered to appoint other representatives in the task.

Further it is considered important that we continue to identify options for cooperation with
other tasks, such as the Amsterdam cofiring seminar (together with Task 33), another cofiring
seminar at the next task meeting in Clearwater, USA and a seminar with Tasks 33 and 36 on
waste wood combustion (Japan, Autumn 2003).

New or revised task proposals


Six new proposals were presented on task-funded activities. Detailed descriptions of the above
proposals are enclosed in Annex 1 to Annex 3. These are:
- Activities on waste wood combustion (Claes Tullin, see Annex 1)
In this proposal it is suggested to either compile a report with results of different R&D
projects on waste wood combustion, or organise an international workshop on
experiences with combustion of waste wood. It was agreed to organise such a workshop in
conjunction with the final meeting of Task 32 in Japan, autumn 2003 with support from
Task 32. Topics to be covered in the workshop could include
o Utilization of contaminated wood
o Technologies
o Waste wood classification
o Emission guidelines (EU Waste Incineration Directive and EU Large Combustion
Plants)
o Experiences with wastewood combustion plants
o Aerosols
- Overview of cofiring experiences (Jaap Koppejan, see Annex 2)
This proposal was made after a strong suggestion from the ExCo 48 that it would be very
valuable if Task 32 could prepare an overview of cofiring experiences world-wide, similar
to the currently prepared overview of experiences with biomass fired CHP plants (Task
activity by Obernberger). It was agreed to perform this activity. As a start, a data format
will be first agreed upon, after which all will be asked to come up with reports, data etc.
that can be used to fill in the formats. As the budget does not allow an in-depth study on
each initiative, the overview will be a plain description of the initiatives, without a critical
review of every initiative.
- Comparison, validation and assessment of methods for the determination of the
annual efficiency of biomass-fired district heating plants and Assessment of methods
for boiler efficiency and measures for efficiency improvement (Thomas Nussbaumer,
see Annex 3).
During the task meeting no general agreement was reached on the need for implementing
this study. However, as two countries not present at the meeting showed a positive

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response afterwards, execution of this proposal was later suggested to Thomas
Nussbaumer by Sjaak van Loo.
- Three proposals from Larry Baxter:
Stoichiometry Effects on Corrosion during Cofiring (see Annex 4).
Formation of Striated Flows During Biomass-coal Cofiring (see Annex 5)
Biomass Impacts on SCR Catalyst Performance (see Annex 6)
Task members are asked to consider participation in either of these proposals individually
by contacting suitable coal fired power plants.

Combustion and co-firing network of excellence (Sjaak van Loo)


14 Dec 2001 a proposal was submitted by TNO to the European Commission for the
establishment of an EU-wide forum for exchange of knowledge on biomass combustion and
co-firing. This forum, with 17 partners containing all European participants in Task 32 and
others, should provide manufacturing industry, end-users, governmental authorities, EU and
national RTD Programme leaders and R&D organisations and universities with ideas,
knowledge, tools, latest research results and experiences on this topic. Regretfully, the
proposal was not accepted.

June 7, 2002 an expression of interest has been submitted to the Commission by approx. the
same consortium on the formation of a Network of Excellence on the same topic. It would be
desired to prepare a proposal together with Pyne and Gasnet. See Annex 7 for the overhead
sheets presented at the task meeting.

Status of CHP overview (Ingwald Obernberger)


This task activity was accepted at the start of Task 32 (dec 2000) and consists of the
production of a technological overview of innovative decentralised biomass CHP technologies
and demonstration projects. Factsheets will be produced for biomass CHP plants with a
description of the concept, costs and performance.

The documentation produced is based on data from national demonstration activities, such as:
- New steam turbine systems for small-scale applications (if available),
- the new steam engine with oil-free operation,
- the steam screw-type engine,
- ORC systems,
- Stirling engine systems,
- new technological approaches regarding gas turbine processes.

In his presentation (see Annex 8), Ingwald Obernberger showed an analysis of three
demonstration projects that have already been evaluated in the framework of this activity:
- EU demonstration project wit ORC (1000 kWe, Lienz, Austria)
- Stirling engine demonstration projects (Joanneum Research Graz, TU Copenhagen)
- New gas turbine technology with innovative recuperative heat exchanger (Pebble Heater)

A detailed technological description of the above initiatives was done in the country
presentation on Thursday June 20, see also Annex 10. Additional data is asked from all task
members on new biomass fired CHP plants up to 5 MWe. For this purpose, Ingwald
Obernberger will distribute a format with the type of information wanted.

10
Internet site and database on biomass fuel, ash and condensate (Jaap
Koppejan/Ingwald Obernberger)
Jaap Koppejan showed the progress made on the internet site (see Annex 9). Since the
previous meeting, the following topics have been added:
- The modelling spreadsheet Fuelsim Average (by yvind Skreiberg)
- Databases on composition of biomass fuels, ashes and condensates (supplied in Excel by
Ingwald Obernberger, converted into HTML by TNO)
- An overview of issues related to biomass combustion and cofiring (the Task 32 brochure)
- Information on the Handbook

The number of visitors to the internet site steadily increases, in June 2002 it amounted to
approximately 50 visits per day. Visitors show a main interest in the following documents (in
order of number of downloads):
- The fuel, ash and condensate composition databases
- The Task 32 brochure
- The Fuelsim Average model
- The report on barriers for cocombustion
- Reports from previous task meetings

In order to maintain a growing number of visitors, it is essential that the internet site remains
up to date and new information is added continuously. Further, all task members are asked to
check if their personal information displayed is correct and complete.

The internet database currently contains approx. 1000 biomass samples, 560 ash samples and
30 condensate samples. Larry Baxter analysed the data and came to the conclusion that a few
records seem to contain incomplete or partly erroneous data. Good quality, additional
composition data can be sent to Ingwald Obernberger.

Thursday June 20: Task meeting Part 2


Country presentations
Austria
Ingwald Obernberger presented three recently implemented demostration projects in Austria:
- EU demonstration project wit ORC
This refers to a biomass fired CHP plant of 1000 kWe in Lienz, Austria, based on an ORC-
process. Net electrical efficiency is approx. 14-15%, thermal 75%. The process is
controlled using fuzzy logic equipment. Flue gas cleaning consists of a multicyclone,
economiser, wet electrostatic filter combined with a flue gas condensation unit. The
investment costs of the CHP plant alone were 7,7 M. Details are provided in Annex 10.
- Stirling engine demonstration projects (Joanneum Research Graz and TU Copenhagen)
Joanneum Research (JR) is performing research and development of small scale biomass
fried stirling engines. Basic versions of 3 and 30 kWe have been produced and are currently
being tested for small scale CHP operation. Details are provided in Annex 10.
- New gas turbine technology with innovative recuperative heat exchanger (Pebble Heater)
The Pebble Heater is a regenerative heat exchanger which was originally developed for
applications in the steel industry. A new application for the Pebble Heater is the biomass
power plant. A license agreement between ATZ EVUS and SIEMENS has been closed in

11
2000, which includes the joint development and the marketing of the SiPeb technology.
BIOS, Graz, is a research partner investigating the ash related problems. In 2001 a pilot
plant has been built in Sulzbach-Rosenberg; the tests are running until August 2002; next
step is a full scale reference plant.
Biomass combustion is used to heat a batch of material with large heat capacity (e.g.
alumina oxides), after which the hot pebbles are used to produce hot air and drive a hot air
turbine. The system would be suitable to produce nominal electrical power of 2-5 MW
with electrical efficiencies exceeding 30%. Details are provided in Annex 10.

Netherlands
Ad van Dongen (Reliant Energy Power Generation Benelux, Netherlands) presented some of
the major issues with regard to the plans for cofiring biomass in coal power plants in the
Netherlands. Details of the situation are provided in the overheads, enclosed in Annex 11.

Of the central installed power generation capacity of 14.000 MWe, 4.000 MWe is coal-fired and
14.000 gas fired. Of this capacity, Reliant has approximately 4,650 MWe installed generation
capacity.

The Netherlands Kyoto targets are 6% reduction in 2010 as compared to 1990. Regarding
renewable energy, there is a policy target of 10% in 2020. On April 24, 2000, the Netherlands
government has signed an agreement with the electricity producers on the reduction of CO2
emission. In this coal agreement, it is stated that the coal power plants should reach the same
CO2 emission per kWhe generated as the gas fired plants. This implies a reduction of 5.8
Mtons of CO2 for the coal power sector. Of this target, 3,2 Mtons should be reached by
replacing coal by biomass, this is equivalent to an average 12% on energy basis. Significant
modifications will have to be carried out at the power plants to allow this high percentage of
cofiring. In the agreement however, the government promises to provide financial support and
instruments up to a level that an internal rate of return of 12% is reached on investments
needed.

The domestic availability of biomass in the Netherlands is by far not enough to fulfil the
obligations of the coal agreement. Approximately 2,5 Mtons of biomass is needed for the coal
power plants, in addition to the existing claim of about 1,6 Mtons from existing and other new
initiatives already in the pipeline. It is therefore expected that the Netherlands will import
biomass on a large scale.

USA
Larry Baxter presented some important recent developments with regard to biomass
combustion in the USA (see Annex 12). The government support structure for biomass
projects in general has been transformed significantly. As observed in other countries,
government support for pure research on cofiring and combustion is reducing, as it is
considered commercially viable. However, an increased attention on gasification and pyrolysis
can be observed. The biofuels program is essentially eliminated.

Further, Larry Baxter showed some results of recent work on modelling combustion and
corrosion mechanisms in grates and PC boilers. New models developed are able to predict
particle trajectories inside the boiler and vapour deposition and corrosion, based on local gas
composition. An interesting observation is that striated flows may occur in some boilers,

12
resulting in locally reducing conditions while the average conditions may be oxidising. Under
such reducing circumstances, the prevention mechanism of chloride corrosion on superheaters
through sulphur from coal does not work.

Other research has focussed on the impact of cofiring different types of biomass on the
mechanical properties of cement. Preliminary results indicate that one should add more
aerating agent to achieve good properties. The set time is also longer. However, the fluxural
and compressive strength are not very much affected.

Finally, BYU has nearly completed a review of over 40 US-based cofiring demonstrations,
which will be useful for the new Task activity that will overview past cofiring demonstration
trials world-wide (see p. 9).

Denmark
November 2001, the new Danish government has dramatically cut the budget for renewable
energy from over 300 MDkr to approx. 40 MDkr. Government support on bioenergy is also
suffering from this.

The Danish Kyoto targets for CO2 reduction are 20% in 2010, currently approx 12-14% is
achieved. The new government has allowed flexible instruments (JI, CDM) to be used for the
remaining part. Part of the reduction is currently achieved through the biomass agreement
between the government and the electricity producers of 1992, in which the electricity sector
promised to use 1,4 Mtons of biomass. Currently, some 900 ktons of straw are used in
addition to 500 ktons of woodfuels.

In 2000 a large joint project was initiated by a consortium consisting of consultants (Dk-teknik
also participated), euiqpment suppliers (Babcock and FLS), power producers and the
University of Aalborg. Important results of this so-called Joint Project are CFD models and
dynamic models that can be used for process optimisation and design of new grate boilers. A
second phase is currently initiated in which these models will be validated.

Finally, it is mentioned that the Danish Energy Agencys Follow-up Programme for
Decentralised CHP on Solid Biofuels has produced interesting reports on the performance of
Biomass CHP plants. These reports can be downloaded from the below links:

http://www.ens.dk/graphics/Publikationer/Forsyning_UK/CHP_Status_Report_1999.pdf
http://www.ens.dk/graphics/Publikationer/Forsyning_UK/CHP_plants_Status_2000.pdf

Australia
It was mentioned in an earlier task meeting that Australia accepted the mandate on 2%
additional Renewable Energy in 2010, which should result in 9500 GWh of additional
renewable energy. An important contribution to this target is expected from bagasse, burned
in upgraded sugar mills.

The price difference between producing green electricity as compared to electricity from coal
is currently approximately 30 Aus$/MWhe. If the power producers do not meet the above
target, they are forced to pay a penalty charge of 40 Aus$/MWhe. The current price of green
certificates is 35 Aus$/MWhe.

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Norway
A country report from Norway is attached in Annex 13.

Switzerland
Overhead sheets from the Swiss country report from are enclosed in Annex 14. Recently, a
number of R&D projects have been carried out in Switzerland on optimisation of combustion
processes (process control and NOx reduction, see Annex 17 for a paper on fuel staging),
aerosol formation, optimisation of pellet production and gasification. Recently a Swiss quality
standard has been introduced for wood pellets that guarantees limited abrasion, low contents
of heavy metals and forbids the use of additives during production. The Swiss norm is
therefore more stringent than the Austrian NORM M1735 and the German DIN 51731.

With regard to stimulating market implementation, significant progress has been made in the
field of Quality Assurance and System Optimisation of automatic biomass furnaces (see
Annex 18), standardisation as well as education/training of engineers on application of
biomass furnaces. Results of recent Swiss R&D projects can be downloaded from the
publications site of ENET (see www.energieforschung.ch , click on ENET publications
wood).

Further, Thomas Nussbaumer refers to two papers on aerosols from biomass combustion,
which were presented at the 12th European Conferences & Technology Exhibition on Biomass
for Energy, Industry and Climate Protection in Amsterdam.
Annex 15: Aerosols from Biomass Combustion Overview on Activities in IEA Bioenergy
Task 32, T. Nussbaumer and S. van Loo
Annex 16: Nanoparticle Emissions of Novel Wood Combustion Processes, C. Gaegauf, U.
Wieser, R. Hermansson, and V-P. Heiskanen

Another paper enclosed in the annexes are:


Annex 17: Fuel Staging for NOx Reduction in Biomass Combustion: Experiments and
Modeling. Roger Salzmann and Thomas Nussbaumer, Energy & Fuels 2001, 15,
575-582
Annex 18: Quality Assurance for Planning and Construction of Biomass District Heating
Plants, R. Bhler, H.R. Gabathuler, J. Good, A. Jenni

Canada
In Canada, bioenergy contributes about 6% or 6 PJ to the primary energy mix (mainly in pulp
and paper and lumber industries). There is an increased interest in landfill gas and pyrolysis.

Recently, the Canadian government policy for funding renewable energy has dropped from
approx. 40 to 15 million Canadian $. In addition, bioenergy has to compete with other RE
options on a basis on cost effectiveness for CO2 abatement.

Small dust particles have recently been declared as toxic material and has therefore become a
federal issue. In particular the residential woodstoves cause relatively high emissions.
Research on bioenergy is therefore focussing on emission reduction, with hardly any work on

14
CHP or cofiring (electricity production is mainly done using hydro power, with limited use of
coal and nuclear power).

UK
Under the Renewables Obligation, the UK regional electricity companies are forced to
generate 10% renewable energy by 2010, with a non-compliance penalty of 30 /MWh e. As a
result, the pull price has dropped from 20-25 /MWh e to 15 /MWh e. As in other European
countries, a trade in Renewable Energy Certificates has started. The British government is
considering to set a policy target of 20% renewable energy in 2020, which can only be
achieved if offshore wind and (especially in Wales/England) biomass cofiring are used on a
large scale.

European Commission
The budget for renewable energy under FP5 was approx. 150 M/y with 35 M/y on biomass.
Under FP6 as a whole (duration of 4 years), this will amount to approx. 700 M with 100..150
M for biomass. There will be a preference for large projects covering the full conversion
chain, that can be implemented on a short or medium term. With regard to the type of topics
to be covered, the Commission has received approx. 15.000 Expressions of Interest from the
market on various topics. It will take significant effort to prioritise different topics based on
this response.

Sweden
Various developments related to bioenergy take place in Sweden. The use of wood pellets has
increased substantially. The pellet production capacity is about 1 million tons/y, the actual
production has reached approx. 800 ktons/y. With about 30.000 pellet burners and stoves in
households, the demand has reached a level where scarcity and price increases can now be
sensed. However, still most of the pellets are used in smaller district heating plants as such or
crushed in pulverised burners.

A ban on landfilling combustible waste is expected to result in a doubling of incineration


capacity, this may result in 4 TWh additional generation.

Until 2005, a framework programme on waste wood combustion is executed. This topic
comprises many issues including fuel quality, fouling and corrosion, emissions, etc. For an
overview of ongoing activities see Annex 1. Part of the results will be made available through
Task 32 (a.o. a workshop in Japan, see page 9).

Next meetings and workshops (Sjaak van Loo)


At the first meeting of Task 32 it was agreed to have our next meeting in New Zealand.
However, a significant cut in the financial budget of John Gifford has forced him to cancel his
involvement in this action. Instead, after a lengthy discussion task members agreed to try to
organise our next meeting during the 28th International Technical Conference on Coal
Utilization & Fuel Systems in Clearwater, USA, March 10-13, 2003. Efforts will be made to
(co)organise a cofiring seminar at this meeting.

15
The final meeting of Task 32 will be held autumn 2003 in Japan. At this meeting, Task 32 will
organise a seminar on waste wood combustion (see also page 9).

Cofiring seminar (part of main conference)


With inputs from Task 33 (biomass gasification) and the European Bioenergy Networks
(EUBIONET), Task 32 organised conference seminar WS5 cofiring biomass in coal power
plants. A summary of the contents of the presentations is provided below, the full report with
overhead sheets can be downloaded from the Task 32 internet site.

Bill Livingston (Mitsui Babcock) has presented an overview of cofiring issues. Cofiring
biomass with coal is becoming increasingly popular around the globe for various reasons. It is
often found to be a relatively low-cost measure for large-scale renewable energy generation.
Depending on the specifications of biofuels to be cofired, various configurations exist, varying
from directly mixing biofuel with coal and joint firing, pre-gasification and parallel firing.
However, there are several barriers that hinder actual implementation, such as uncertainty
about the legal and political environment, liberalization of the energy sector, as well as
uncertainties about long term fuel supplies at low costs. Another issue is the utilization of fly-
ashes, which is often not allowed if the ash is partly from biomass origin.

One of the companies that has practical experience with cofiring biomass fuels is Fortum. Kati
Savolainen (Fortum) presented the results of test trials in the Naantali Power plant. This
showed that up to 2,5% of pine sawdust could be cofired with coal, without investment. For
higher percentages, problems occurred with unburned carbon in the ashes, mill drying
capacity and mill clogging. In the Suomenoja power plant (Finland), a demonstration project
has been initiated aiming at replacement of coal by various types of biomass up to 20%. For
this purpose, other biomass pretreatment equipment is necessary.

In the USA, a lot of fundamental research work has recently been performed on the causes
and effects on emission reduction when cofiring biomass with coal. Larry Felix (Southern
Research Institute) highlighted some of the major results. Regarding NOx reduction, recent
R&D has indicated that there one should generally not expect any NOx reduction beyond that
of displaced fuel nitrogen (this was mentioned in the US National Energy Policy as important
argument for cofiring). The effects of boiler geometry, fuel specifications etc. on NOx
emission reduction, flame stability, slagging and fouling and other effects are further examined
in various R&D projects. In 2000, US DOE has funded 11 new R&D projects, which all aim at
better understanding such relations.

One major barrier for many cofiring initiatives worldwide is the marketability of the power
plant residues, if biomass is used as a secondary fuel next to coal. In the case of the
Netherlands, the EN450 norm for utilization of fly ash in cement is currently being revised,
based on maximum percentages of alternative fuels and the technical and environmental
performance of the resulting fly-ash. In the presentation and enclosed paper by Frans Lamers,
the impacts on quality of fly-ash are described in more detail.

Larry Baxter (Brigham Young University) also showed the results of recent research projects
in the USA on the characteristics of concrete produced with biomass derived fly-ash (concrete
strength, set time, etc.). It generally shows that for biomass fly ash, more aerating agent is
required and the set time increases. However, the compressive and flexural strength seem to

16
be hardly affected. Other major technical issues being examined are fuel handling and
preparation, NOx formation, deposition, ash deposition, corrosion, SCR deactivation, carbon
conversion and striated flows. Advanced models have already been developed that can be
used to predict these effects for various fuels, operating conditions and boiler designs,
however further research on such relations are necessary.

Martti Aho (VTT) showed interested results from coal/biomass cofiring tests in practical-size
fluidized bed boilers, with focus on emissions, superheat corrosion, ash composition and
fouling. For different flue gas components, results from measurements and calculated
catchment efficiencies have been analyzed. With regard to superheater corrosion from alkali
chlorides, Martti Aho showed that sulphur dioxide and aluminia silicates derived from coal
constituents can have a protective effect. Through a reaction with alkali chlorides under
oxidizing conditions, alkali silicates and sulphates are formed, which prevent chlorides from
condensing on the superheater tubes or leaving the boiler as fine fly ash. This mechanism was
also mentioned in the presentation of Larry Baxter.

Esa Kurkela (VTT) shared experiences with the Lahti CFB gasifier demonstration plant and
the Corenso gasifier for plastic wastes. In the Lahti plant, a 60 MW biomass/waste fired CFB
gasifier supplies gas to a 360 MW coal/natural gas fired steam generation boiler. The gasifier
fuel consists of a mixture of plastics, REF, and (glue containing) wood. It has been
commercially operating since 1998 with an availability of 86.6%. The effect of the gasifier on
the emissions of the main boiler was that most of the emission components (such as NOx,
SOx and particulates) decreased, except for HCl and some heavy metals. Investment costs of
this type of gasifier are approximately 600 /kWe.

Another gasifier successfully operating since 2001 is the 40 MW Corenso installation. This
gasifier is fed with plastic waste, consisting of a PE/Al mixture. The aluminum can be
recovered at the gasification stage after, while the remaining product gas is burned together
with oil to generate steam.

In addition to the experiences shared by Esa Kurkela, Mark Paisley (FERCO) explained some
more details on biomass gasification in combination with firing the producer gas in a coal
furnace. One major advantage of pre-gasification is the fact that the biomass ash does not
enter the coal furnace and mix up with the coal fly ash, causing marketing problems. Also, the
volume of producer gas is much smaller than that of flue gas, therefore removal of unwanted
components is simpler. Producer gas can often be fired in existing natural gas burners without
modification. If producer gas can be used as a reburn fuel instead of natural gas, NOx
emissions of an existing boiler could be reduced up to 60%. Experiences gained with the
Vermont gasifier and other installations make that there is a growing confidence and
familiarity with the concept of biomass gasification, not only in combination with utility
owned coal fired boilers but also in other sectors, such as the pulp and paper industries.

17
Future actions

The task leader will find out whether we can host our next meeting at the 28th International
Technical Conference on Coal Utilization & Fuel Systems in Clearwater, USA, March 10-
13, 2003. It may be an option to (co)organise a cofiring seminar at this conference.
The final meeting of Task 32 will be held in Japan, autumn 2003. A seminar on wastewood
combustion will be organised at this meeting.
All task members will be provided with information brochures on the Handbook. It is
encouraged that task members distribute this information in their respective countries.
A data format for initiatives on cofiring will be prepared, after which everyone will be asked
to come up with information.
Task members are asked to indicate interest in participation in either of the proposals on
cofiring, submitted by Larry Baxter.
Task members are invited to submit data on recently built biomass CHP plants to Austria
for the preparation of a technological overview.
The description of individual task members on the internet site is incomplete. Please email a
brief description + photograph to Jaap Koppejan.
Task members are invited to submit data on biomass fuel ash composition to Austria.

18
Annex 1. Waste wood combustion
(task proposal, Claes Tullin)

Background
Significant quantities of waste wood are produced annually from various sources. Waste wood is a
biomass fuel and therefore interesting to use in order to decrease the fossil CO2 emissions. Certain
waste streams contain material with a very low content of contaminants, whereas other waste streams
are heavily contaminated due to the use of wood preservatives, paints etc. (cf fig. 1). Consequently,
there are possibilities to sort and classify waste wood in (at least) two streams where one stream
containing most of the contaminants can be directed to incineration plants and the other stream
containing the clean fraction of the waste wood can be used in conventional plants.

In Sweden, the combustion of waste wood being a cheap fuel has increased rapidly in recent years.
However, problems not least with increased rates of deposition and corrosion have been noticed.
This is believed to be an effect of higher contents of metals such as zinc and lead. The waste wood is
burned in fludised beds or grate combustors usually burning only waste wood or a mixture of waste
wood and forest residues or in some cases also sorted waste fractions (RDF).

In Sweden, the practical experience in using waste wood is considerable and several studies regarding
waste wood is in progress (enclosure 1). Also in other IEA countries, the interest of using waste
wood as a renewable energy source is increasing and many projects has been carried out over the
years.

Since both the quality of waste wood differs from market to market depending on different uses for
instance of wood preservatives and since the combustion strategy also varies, it should be useful to
exchange information.

Proposal
The objective is to exchange and report information on the status in waste wood combustion among
the IEA countries. Issues such as fuel quality classification, upgrading processes, sources of
contaminants, handling and combustion experiences, formation of deposits, corrosion and emissions
should be covered.

This can be achieved either by


compiling a report
or
by arranging a seminar with invited speakers.

Organisation
Project leader: Claes Tullin

Participating Countries Sweden, others inteested

Time plan and costs


To be determined
Production of timber,
boards etc.

Treatments:
- Preservatives
- Paints etc.

Use

Upgrading &
Material
Recycling

Demolition,

Waste

Extraneous Waste
Contaminated Waste Clean Waste Wood
Wood Metals, glass, plastics,

CCA, painted,

Co-combustion with
Incineration biomass, coal etc.
Waste Wood- ongoing activities in Sweden
The use of wood in the society is extensive and significant amounts of waste wood are generated
anually for instance from demolition of buildings and from industrial products. In recent years, a
large interest for the use of waste wood in heat and power plants can be noted and in Sweden the
annual use of waste wood for heat and power production corresponds to more than 1.5 TWh
(Andersson and Tullin, 1999). The potential annual use has been estimated to be 4 TWh in 2005
(SoU, 1995) and at present a number of boilers for waste wood combustion are planned and under
construction.

However, the combustion of waste wood is not straight forward as it may contain contaminants due
to wood preservatives, paints etc. as well as extraneous materials such as plastics, glass, metals due to
inadequate sorting. Also problems with high dust concentrations during storing and handling have
been reported (Andersson and Tullin, 1999). Analyses of the ash from the combustion of sorted
waste wood compared to forest residues (virgin wood material) reveal that the waste wood in general
contains higher concentrations of arsenic, lead, zinc, copper and chromium (Andersson and Tullin,
1999). The presence of arsenic together with higher values of chromium and copper reveals the
presence of CCA1-treated wood. In Sweden, the use of CCA as a wood preservative has been
extensive and about 5% of the waste wood streams has been estimated to consist of treated wood
(Tullin and Jermer, 1998) and special efforts have been maid to identify and remove arsenic
containing wood.

Due to the complexity of the problems a research programme administrated by the Swedish Thermal
Engineering Research Institute has been initiated. The objectives are (1) to in detail define the
problems encountered when using waste wood, (2) explain the underlying mechanisms and (3) to
provide solutions for these problems. In the first phase, reported in 2001 (Jermer et al., 2001;
Andersson and Hgberg, 2001; Sjblom, 2001; Harnevie and Olvstam, 2001), the focus was on the
two first questions. It was stated that the problem when using chips from waste wood can be divided
into different categories; operational problems, environmental problems as well as restrictions related
to new EC-regulations. The environmental problems when burning wood waste are related to the
chemical composition of the fuel. In some fuel deliveries, sorted waste wood has a content of heavy
metals in the same range as for ordinary biofuels. In other cases, the degree of contamination is
unacceptable.

Fouling of heating surfaces is one of the most significant combustion problems for chips from waste
wood. The rate of fouling and deposition on the heating surfaces will increase three to five times
compared to ordinary biomass combustion in the same boiler and under the same conditions.
Fouling has been shown to occur regardless of the furnace used, whereas the dimensions and design
of the heating surfaces have a more significant influence. The deposits formed are more corrosive
over a broader temperature range compared to deposits formed during combustion of ordinary wood
chips. This expands the corrosion problems to surfaces constructed of lower alloyed steels such as
furnace walls and primary superheaters. In addition to the typical components of wood ash (such as
calcium, potassium and sulphur), zinc, lead and sometimes titanium are enriched in the deposits.

Most fuel fractions of sorted waste wood will be affected by the new EC-restrictions for combustion
of waste. This is due to the fact that analysis of these fuels show higher content of halogens and most
heavy metals than for example analysis of clean wood chips. The EC-restriction will mean more
stringent rules for emissions compared to the present levels for these plants.

1
CCA- Copper, Chromium, Arsenic
Annex 2. Inventory of cofiring experiences word-wide (task
proposal, Jaap Koppejan / Sjaak van Loo)
Coordinated by: Jaap Koppejan and Sjaak van Loo, TNO
Participating countries: All with cofiring experience
Duration: June 2002 - June 2003
Budget: 35.000 Euro

Cofiring of biomass in large thermal (power) plants is gaining popularity world-wide as an


alternative to dedicated biomass fired power plants based on relatively small-size steam cycles.
Reasons are the lower capital and operating costs, higher electrical efficiencies and increased
fuel flexibility and the avoidance of additional generation capacity. Besides the CO2 benefits
that take place when fossil fuels are substituted by biomass, both NOx and SO2 emissions can
often be reduced.

The technique of co-firing biomass as a supplementary energy source in existing high


efficiency boilers has been practiced, tested or evaluated for a variety of biomass types and co-
firing shares in combination with different combustion technologies and processes, including
grate firing, fluidised bed combustion and pulverised combustion. Cofiring usually refers to
bringing biomass into a pulverised coal furnace. In Scandinavian countries however, the
interest is growing for cofiring different forms of biomass with waste. In the pulverised coal
fired installations such as operating in central Europe, the percentage of biomass that is cofired
is relatively small as compared to the fluid bed installations operating in Scandinavia.

One of the aims of Task 32 is to accelerate market introduction of biomass cofiring systems by
exchanging experiences in the area of biomass cofiring. Supported by large power producers,
the Executive Committee of IEA Bioenergy has recently mentioned that it would be highly
desirably if Task 32 would prepare an overview of experiences with cofiring world-wide,
which also provides an overview of the key technical issues and ways to tackle these. As
mentioned before in earlier publications of Task 32, the main technical problems that may
arise in cofiring systems are related to the fuel feeding system, the combustion system, flue
gas cleaning system as well as the usability of the by-products.

It is therefore suggested to execute a task-funded project with the following components:


Overview of installations in the EU, the US and other IEA member states that cofire
different types of biomass, including the type of fuel, power plant, capacity, plant
configuration, etc.
Overview of technical problems faced in cofiring systems and ways to overcome these.
Discussion and evaluation of the results achieved
Compilation of the results in a report (title equal with the project title).

In the execution of this project, use will be made of recently prepared national and European
overviews as well as other information available to individual task members.

The activity will be co-ordinated by the Sjaak van Loo (Task leader) and Jaap Koppejan with
support of interested task members. Financial support will be made available to Task members
willing to contribute to this project with relevant information on experiences, etc. (the amount
depends on the type of contribution). Coordination costs are covered by the task leader.
Annex 3. Comparison, validation and assessment of methods
for the determination of the annual efficiency of
biomass-fired district heating plants
(Task proposal, Thomas Nussbaumer)
IEA
Bioenergy Task 32
Project Proposal

Proposal 1) Comparison, validation and


assessment of methods for the
determination of the annual efficiency of
biomass-fired district heating plants

Proposal 2) as an alternative to 1:
Assessment of methods for boiler efficiency
and measures for efficiency improvement

Thomas Nussbaumer
Verenum
Background: Part load operation

100
momentan erzeugte
Combustion
Feuerungsleistung
heat output
(Abgas)

80 Boiler abgegebene
momentan
Leistung [%]

Wrmeleistung (Wasser)
heat output
Load 60 Sollwert
Heat demand
Wrmeleistung

40

20

0
Minimum cont. heat output intermittierende Glutbettunterhalt intermitt.
Zeit
Teillast Teillast

kontinuierlicher diskontinuierlicher Betrieb kontinuierlicher


Betrieb = Schwachlastbetrieb Betrieb

Verenum
Automatic ignition and load control

+ TK
Leistungs- Soll
regelung
-

Soll - TK
+

Verbrennungs-
regelung

Verenum
Accounting of delivery of biomass
To enable economic operation of district heating plants, the accounting for delivered fuel should be
done in a re liable and easy way. There are several possibilities to charge the delivery of biomass to
combustion plant which can in principal be d istinguished in three categories (if there are further
relevant methods, please let me know):

- M easurement of mass and humidity. Example: 30 MWe power plant for wood in Cujik, NL that
1 we visited recently during an IEA meeting, straw fired power plants in Denmark. Disadvantages:
An accurate measurement of the humidity is difficult as it can vary within one delivery. Further,
also the content of ash and non-combustible parts should be measured. This method is well suited
for large plants. For small plants, the infrastructure for a balance for trucks is too expensive and
hence the opportunity of weighing does not exist.
- M easurement of volume and humidity. Example: Delivery in district heating plants in Switzerland
2 from 0.5 MW to 5 MW. Disadvantages: Humidity and ash (see 1). Further, the bulk density of dry
biomass can vary in wide ranges and hence should be measured or well known for the specific
fuel, which is usually not the case.
- M easurement of produced heat and calculation of annual efficiency of the plant. Example of
3
application: District heating plants in Switzerland from 0.5 MW to 5 MW (as an option to method
2). Advantage: Simple, fast, and cheap.Disadvantage: Uncertainty in the determination of the
annual efficiency, limitation to one single fuel supplier or a consortium of suppliers.

Verenum
Aim of the activity
A cheap accounting of delivery of biomass fuels with different water content, density, and ash content
is proposed using a m easurement of the heat production and an estimation of the annual efficiency.
Since the annual efficiency is crucial for this method, a comparison, validation and assessment of
existing methods for the determination of t he annual efficiency of biomass-fired district heating plants
is carried out. The proposed formula and assumptions are evaluated. If n ecessary, a new formula will
be proposed.

Work plan and time schedule

No Activity Months after


start
1 Collecting and comparative description of methods applied for determination of 2
annual efficiency
2 Collecting and comparative evaluation of measurements of annual efficiencies 6
mainly in heating plants and if available power plants
3 If measurements of the necessary data are available from different plants and 8
countries, the measurements can be used for an evaluation of the accuracy of
the (one or more if available) empiric formula
4 Presentation and discussion of the findings in an IEA meeting 8...10*

5 Report with results, findings, and recommendations 12

*depending on schedule of IEA meetings

Verenum
Interested countries
Switzerland:
Verenum, Swiss Federal Office of Energy, QA (R. Bhler)

Denmark:
dk-Teknik: Expression of interest by H.H. Jakobsen
(correspondence before meeting)

Belgium:
CRA Gembloux: Expression of interest by J. Delcarte
(correspondence after meeting)

Further countries:
If interested, please contact T. Nussbaumer and TNO

Verenum
Option
To enable a broader application of the results and as an
option to the above described target annual efficiency for
accounting of biomass, the project can also be formulated
with the following aims and topics:

Comparison of methods for the determination of


boiler efficiency,

Influence of part load operation, automatic ignition, and


heat management on average boiler efficieny, and

Assessment for measures for efficiency


improvement.

Verenum
Annex 4. Stoichiometry Effects on Corrosion during Cofiring
(Task proposal, Larry Baxter)
Coordinated by: Larry Baxter, BYU
Participating countries: All with cofiring experience
Duration: 12 months
Budget: 20.000-22.500 Euro
_______________________________________________________________________

Objective
The objective of this project is to measure the effects of overall stoichiometry on tube
corrosion potential during cofiring of biomass and coal.

Background
Under oxidizing biomass-coal cofiring conditions, SO2 contributed largely by coal reacts with
alkali chlorides contributed largely by biomass to form alkali sulfates on tube surfaces, greatly
reducing the corrosion rates of metals compared to those observed when alkali chlorides do
not remain on the surface without reacting with sulfates. However, many modern boilers have
low NOx burners or other features that create locally reducing conditions even if the overall
stoichiometry is oxidizing. Theoretical calculations indicate that such locally reducing
conditions, if present at metal surfaces, prevent chlorides from sulfating, thus greatly
increasing the potential for corrosion reactions. These theoretical calculations are relatively
recently completed and are based on equilibrium, ideal solution theory assumptions that are
rational but not proven. Experimental verification of these predictions is required to develop
more definitive evidence of corrosion mechanisms and rates.

Work statement
Four blends will be formulated from two biomass fuels (one herbaceous and one woody fuel)
mixed with two coals (subbituminous and bituminous) and will be used to generate deposits
in a pilot-scale facility under conditions of burnout, tube temperature, gas temperature, and
particle loading similar to those found in superheater regions of commercial, pc boilers (>98%
burnout, 550 C tube temperature, 1200 C gas temperature, etc.). Local stoichiometry will be
varied from reducing conditions to oxidizing conditions (total of 12 combustion tests).
Deposits will be mounted in epoxy, cross sectioned, and examined under a microprobe to
determine the extent to which chlorine layers form at the deposit surface interface. Local
concentrations of CO2, CO, O2, SO2, and NOx will be monitored to verify conditions set by
metered fuel and air feed rates.

Budget and Schedule


This task requires $20 000US and will be completed in 12 months providing existing fuels are
used (which we are happy to donate). If new fuels must be used, two additional months for
fuel procurement and preparation and an additional $2 500 dollars will be required.
Annex 5. Formation of Striated Flows During Biomass-coal
Cofiring (Task proposal, Larry Baxter)
Coordinated by: Larry Baxter, BYU
Participating countries: All with cofiring experience
Duration: 10 months
Budget: 10.000 Euro
_______________________________________________________________________

Objective
The objective of this project is to use state-of-the-art CFD models specifically adapted to
biomass-coal cofiring conditions to predict the extent to which cofiring biomass with coal
leads to the formation of striated flows in the convection passes or elsewhere in commercial
boilers. Striated flows exist when local concentrations of biomass or coal and its combustion
products are much higher or lower than the overall average concentration of the fuel and have
the effect of producing conditions in a boiler that represent cofiring percentages in the
combustor that differ markedly from the cofiring percentage inferred from total overall feed
rates.

Background
Ash deposition, corrosion, NOx formation and other fire-side issues often influence maximum
cofiring percentages in commercial boilers. In other cases, fuel preparation, storage, and
handling limit the amount of cofiring. Such maximum cofiring percentages are almost always
based on total coal vs. biomass feed rates. Many issues of substantial importance to short- and
long-term viability of cofiring depend strongly on the amounts of coal and biomass in the
boiler. However, biomass cofired at more than trivial amounts is most commonly fired
through dedicated burners, in which case the cofiring percentage in that burner is 100%. Many
(probably most) boilers poorly mix the flows, to the extent that individual burner performance
is often inferred from grid-based oxygen measurements near the precipitators of boilers. In
such boilers, the effective percentage of biomass at one region in the convection pass is often
much higher than is suggested by the overall feed rate. Such boilers have the potential to
experience failures from tube bank plugging, tube corrosion, etc. that might seen avoidable
based on overall cofiring percentages. This project attempts to quantify the risks of such
behavior using the best available predictive technologies.

Work statement
Simulations of two principal pc boiler designs, tangential firing and wall firing, will be
completed using existing CFD capabilities for describing such flows at Brigham Young
University. Each simulation will assume and overall biomass contribution of 10-20% based on
energy input (gross calorific values). The specific cofiring percentage will be determined by the
total number and the number of biomass-based burners. The boiler will be assumed to be in
overall balance (stoichiometric ratio of each burner identical). Biomass will be assumed to be
fed from dedicated burners located in the middle of the burner levels of the boiler, as is typical
in commercial cofiring. The extents of mixing of biomass particles and their combustion
products will be predicted as a function of position in the boiler, with local calculations of the
mixing extent. If possible, simulations of actual cofiring demonstrations will be made,
although this will require the cooperation and exchange of proprietary information by the
utilities and possibly the boiler manufacturers. In the absence of such cooperation, typical
cofiring configurations will be used. This project involves no field work to collect data
supporting the predictions, although such data would be a valuable (and expensive) addition
to the work.

Budget and Schedule


This task requires $10000US and will be completed in 10 months.
Annex 6. Biomass Impacts on SCR Catalyst Performance (Task
proposal, Larry Baxter)
Coordinated by: Larry Baxter, BYU
Participating countries: All with cofiring experience
Duration: 24 months
Budget: 25.000 Euro
_______________________________________________________________________

Objective
The objective of this project is to develop data from a variety of combustion systems on the
impact of biomass and biomass cofiring on SCR catalyst performance.

Background
SCR control systems for NOx control are being installed in most OECD countries. This
technology represents the only commercially demonstrated option for NOx reductions
beyond 70%, which are required by many new or pending environmental standards. However,
biomass fuels appear to affect SCR catalysts deleteriously. Specifically, catalyst activation
rapidly decreases when biomass flue gases pass through catalysts. Anecdotal evidence
indicates this effect is more severe when biomass is fired under high-intensity conditions.

Work statement
Under this task, samples of initial and exposed catalyst materials from biomass or biomass
cofired systems will be examined in BYU's catalysis characterization laboratory. In addition, a
technical report on the commercial and laboratory experiences from the member countries will
be compiled in a single review document. A critical evaluation of these experiences will be
conducted in the context of the laboratory analyses. This work will be done in collaboration
with an existing project on a similar subject but limited to US experiences and focused on slip
stream measurements in which BYU is involved.

Budget and Schedule


This task requires $25.000US and will be completed in 24 months.
Annex 7. Combustion and co-firing network of excellence
European network on biomass combustion and cofiring

COMBINET

TNO Environment, Energy and


Process Innovation

Sjaak van Loo, Task leader

Aim:
To establish
an EUforum for exchange of knowledge on biomass combustion
and co-firing
to provide:
manufacturing industry
end-users
governmental authorities
EU and national RTD Programme leaders
R&D organisations and universities
with:
ideas, knowledge, tools, latest research results and experiences

t COMBINET IEA Bioenergy Task 32, 2


19 June 2002

t
1
Aim (2):
Through
Internet-based networking, newsletters, workshops &
conferences, status and progress reports, etc.
To:
promote and accelerate the development and demonstration of
innovative, cost-effective technologies and related installations
for environmentally sound energy generation from biomass by
combustion and co-firing
stimulate and direct research
inform EU and Member State RTD Programme planners of
research needs and priorities, and to improve the synergy and
effectiveness of research projects in these EU and national RTD
programmes.

t COMBINET IEA Bioenergy Task 32, 3


19 June 2002

Target subjects / problems


Economy Cost-effective biomass/-waste supply and pre-treatment
Cost-effective (co-)combustion technologies competitive to coal-firing

Biomass/-waste Biomass/-waste characterisation


Biomass/-waste resource assessment, including security of supply
Preparation and handling
Ash related problems During combustion/co-firing: Agglomeration, Deposit formation, Corrosion,
Aerosol formation
Ash handling and disposal: Characterisation, Legislation, treatment/reuse

Emissions Reduction of:


Greenhouse gases
Aerosols
Modelling Compatiblity of models; guidelines for linking
Classification of models

Market/Implementation EU internal market for energy; technology take up and diffusion


Centralised, large scale plants versus decentralized installations
Opportunities for SMEs

CHP Opportunities with biomass/-waste


General experiences

t COMBINET IEA Bioenergy Task 32, 4


19 June 2002

t
2
COMBINET
First proposal submitted 14 dec 2001
Priority area: Biomass (including waste) conversion systems
(EESD-1999-5.2.1), Target Action B: Bio-electricity
17 partners, 750 k
Scored 26 points, not accepted
Expression of Interest for European Network of
Excellence submitted June 7
Aim: biomass (co)firing is priority on the European research
Agenda
Possibly later NoE with at least 18 partners
Other countries are welcome to participate

t COMBINET IEA Bioenergy Task 32, 5


19 June 2002

Proposal 1 (rejected): 17 Partners


1. TNO Energy, Environment and Process innovation
2. Technical university Graz (TU Graz)
3. Mitsui Babcock Europe
4. Agricultural Research Centre (CRA)
5. Dk-TEKNIK Energy and Environment
6. Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT)
7. University of Stuttgart
8. Aston university; Bio-Energy Research Group
9. Laboratory of Steam Boilers and Thermal Plants (NTUA)
10. Neth. Agency for Energy and Environment (Novem)
11. Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU)
12. Ansaldo Ricerche (ARI)
13. Institute for Chemical Processing of Coal (IChPW)
14. Instituto Superior Tcnico (IST)
15. Swedish National Testing and Research Institute (SP)
16. Biomass Technology Group (BTG)
17. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZK)

t COMBINET IEA Bioenergy Task 32, 6


19 June 2002

t
3
At least 18 Partners in proposed NoE
Initiators and initial partners Type of organisation Country
1 TNO Energy, Environment and Process innovation R&D organisation NL
2 Technical University Graz (TU Graz) University A
3 Mitsui Babcock Europe Industrial development UK
4 Agricultural Research Centre (CRA) R&D organization B
5 Dk-TEKNIK Energy and Environment R&D organization DK
6 Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) R&D organization SF
7 Norwegian University of Science and Technology University N
8 Swedish National Testing and Research Institute (SP) R&D organization S
9 Verenum Research R&D organization CH
10 University of Stuttgart University D
11 Laboratory of Steam Boilers and Thermal Plants University G
12 Neth. Agency for Energy and Environment (Novem) R&D Program Mgt. NL
13 Ansaldo Ricerche (ARI) Industrial development I
14 Institute for Chemical Processing of Coal (IChPW) R&D organization PL
15 Instituto Superior Tcnico (IST) University P
16 KEMA R&D organization NL
17 Centre for Renewable Energy Sources R&D organization G
18 SINTEF R&D organization N

t COMBINET IEA Bioenergy Task 32, 7


19 June 2002

Project structure
Secretariat Network Co-ordination European
(WP 4) (WP 1) Commission

Management Team Other networks


ThermoNet (EU)
Theme Working Group - PyNe (pyrolisys)
(WP 2) - GasNet (gasification)
Network co-ordinator (NC) IEA (combustion and
Theme Leader: Combustion co-firing)
Theme Leader: Co-firing (WP 2)

Tasks Working Group


(WP 3)

Target groups
(participants to ComBiNet)

R&D Manufacturing End-users Authorities &


industry Industry Decision makers
Universities Engineering Energy suppliers Governmental
R&D Equipment City
organisations Control equipment

t COMBINET IEA Bioenergy Task 32, 8


19 June 2002

t
4
Annex 8. Decentralised CHP technologies based on Biomass
Combustion (Task activity),
Ingwald Obernberger
Decentralised CHP Technologies Based on
Biomass Combustion - State of Development,
Demonstration Activities, Economic Performance
Ingwald Obernberger

T AIN AB
U S L
ERGY MA
EN BIO S S

E
S P Ca
Mg K

EC ASH
ON OMY

Institute of Chemical Engineering Fundamentals


and Plant Engineering,
Graz University of Technology, Austria
TAINAB
U SE R G OM AS
L Research Group
EN Y BI S

E
S
Thermal Biomass Utilisation
Institute of Chemical Engineering
Fundamentals and Plant Engineering
Objectives (1)
P Ca
Mg K

EC ASH
ON OMY Graz University of Technology

The main objectives of the project are:


! Overview of technological developments and demonstration activities
regarding small-scale biomass CHP systems in the EU, the US and
other IEA member states.
! Documentation as well as technological and economic evaluation of
innovative small-scale biomass CHP technologies based on the information
supplied from the project participants (data from national demonstration
activities):
" New steam turbine systems for small-scale applications
(if available),
" the new steam engine with oil-free operation,
" the steam screw-type engine,
" ORC systems,
" Stirling engine systems,
" new technological approaches regarding gas turbine processes.
TAINAB
U SE R G OM AS
L Research Group
EN Y BI S

E
S
Thermal Biomass Utilisation
Institute of Chemical Engineering
Fundamentals and Plant Engineering
Objectives (2)
P Ca
Mg K

EC ASH
ON OMY Graz University of Technology

! Collection of the economic and legal side constraints for decentralised


biomass CHP plants in the countries of the project participants.
! Discussion and evaluation of the results achieved (identification of weak
points, of interesting fields of application for the different technologies
addressed as well as of key parameters relevant for a successful realisation
of such systems).
! Compilation of the results in a report.
TAINAB
U SE R G OM AS
L Research Group
EN Y BI S

E
S
Thermal Biomass Utilisation
Institute of Chemical Engineering Description of Demonstration
Fundamentals and Plant Engineering
Projects Already Considered
P Ca
Mg K

EC ASH
ON OMY Graz University of Technology

! EU demonstration project Lienz (1.000 kWel ORC)

! Stirling engine demonstration projects


(Joanneum Research Graz, TU Copenhagen)

! New gas turbine technology with innovative


recuperative heat exchanger (Pebble-Heater)
TAINAB
U SE R G OM AS
L Research Group
EN Y BI S

E
S
Thermal Biomass Utilisation
Institute of Chemical Engineering Technological Evaluation of
Fundamentals and Plant Engineering
Decentralised Biomass CHP Plants
P Ca
Mg K

EC ASH
ON OMY Graz University of Technology

Relevant parameters to be evaluated


! Basic technology description
! Interface power process / combustion plant
! Operating mode / parameters
! Operating behaviour
! Control system
! Maintenance
! Ecological aspects
! State of development
! Weak-point analysis
! Cost analysis
! Benefit analysis
TAINAB
U SE R G OM AS
L Research Group
EN Y BI S

E
S
Thermal Biomass Utilisation
Institute of Chemical Engineering Economic Evaluation of De-
Fundamentals and Plant Engineering
centralised Biomass CHP Plants I
P Ca
Mg K

EC ASH
ON OMY Graz University of Technology

! VDI guideline 2067 as basis for the cost calculations


Distinction of four types of costs
" capital costs (depreciation, interest costs)
" consumption based costs (fuel, materials)
" operation based costs (personnel, maintenance)
" other costs (administration, insurance)
! Separate calculations of the heat production costs and the
power production costs
! Data for the comparison with other CHP-technologies are
available
" biomass CHP applications in Austria, Denmark and
Germany. Data from other partner countries are
welcome and needed.
TAINAB
U SE R G OM AS
L Research Group
EN Y BI S

E
S
Thermal Biomass Utilisation
Institute of Chemical Engineering Economic Evaluation of De-
Fundamentals and Plant Engineering
centralised Biomass CHP Plants
P Ca
Mg K

EC ASH
ON OMY Graz University of Technology

Distinction between:
Electricity only production
! Total annual costs (capital, consumption, operation and other
costs) must be considered for the calculation of the electricity
production costs
Combined heat and power production
! Split of heat and power production
(calculation of additional annual costs in comparison to a
heat-only plant with the same thermal power output)
" capital costs
(additional investments for power production)
" consumption based costs (e.g. additional fuel costs)
" operation based costs (e.g. additional personnel costs)
" other costs (additional insurance, administration costs,)
TAINAB
U SE R G OM AS
L Research Group
EN Y BI S

E
S
Thermal Biomass Utilisation
Institute of Chemical Engineering Example: Economics
Fundamentals and Plant Engineering
ORC Process / Technical Data
P Ca
Mg K

EC ASH
ON OMY Graz University of Technology

Technical data

Net electricity power P el [kW el ] 500


Electric efficiency (CHP) el [%] 14
Total efficiency (CHP) total [%] 80

Thermal efficiency (heat-only plant) th [%] 85

Electrical flow index - 0.21


Annual net electricity production Q el [kWh/a] 2,500,000
Annual heat production Q th [kWh/a] 11,785,714
Overall annual fuel demand (CHP) Q fuel [kWh/a] 17,857,143
Additional fuel demand for electricity
Q CHP [kWh/a] 3,991,597
production (in comparison to a heat-only unit)
TAINAB
U SE R G OM AS
L Research Group
EN Y BI S

E
S
Thermal Biomass Utilisation
Institute of Chemical EngineeringExample: Economics - ORC Process
Fundamentals and Plant Engineering
Additional Investment Costs
P Ca
Mg K

EC ASH
ON OMY Graz University of Technology

Additional investment costs in comparison to a heat-only plant


with the same thermal power output

Thermal oil boiler, thermal oil cycle, economiser [] 145,400


Hydraulic installations [] 40,700
ORC plant [] 814,200
Generator [] inclusive
Process control and electric cabling [] 36,350
Grid connection and transformer [] 109,000
Engineering [] 123,289
Other additional costs (building, transport, installation) [] 87,240
Total additional costs I [] 1,356,179
Specific investment costs without subsidies I spez [/kW el ] 2,712
TAINAB
U SE R G OM AS
L Research Group
EN Y BI S

E
S
Thermal Biomass Utilisation
Institute of Chemical EngineeringExample: Economics - ORC Process
Fundamentals and Plant Engineering
Full Costing Method (VDI 2067) I
P Ca
Mg K

EC ASH
ON OMY Graz University of Technology

Additional annual costs in comparison to a heat-only plant with


the same thermal power output

Interest rate ir [%/a] 6


Life time of CHP installation n [a] 15
Capital costs Kk [/a] 139,636
Specific capital costs [/kWhel ] 0.056

Fuel costs [/a] 43,508


Amount of other operating equipment [(% of I)/a] 0.3
Other operating costs [/a] 4,069
Consumption costs Kv [/a] 47,577
Specific consumption costs [/kWhel ] 0.019
TAINAB
U SE R G OM AS
L Research Group
EN Y BI S

E
S
Thermal Biomass Utilisation
Institute of Chemical EngineeringExample: Economics - ORC Process
Fundamentals and Plant Engineering
Full Costing Method (VDI 2067) II
P Ca
Mg K

EC ASH
ON OMY Graz University of Technology

Personnel hourly rate [/h] 22

Annual working hours 200

Personnel costs [/a] 4,400

Amount of maintainance costs [(% of I)/a] 1.5

Maintainance costs [/a] 20,343


Operating costs Kb [/a] 24,743
Specific operating costs [/kWhel ] 0.010

Amount of insurance and administration


[(% of I)/a] 0.5
costs
Insurance and administration costs [/a] 6,781
Other costs Ks [/a] 6,781
Specific other costs [/kWhel ] 0.003

Total annual costs K total [/a] 218,736


Specific electricity production costs [/kWhel] 0.087
TAINAB
U SE R G OM AS
L Research Group
EN Y BI S

E
S
Thermal Biomass Utilisation
Institute of Chemical Engineering Example: Composition of Electricity
Fundamentals and Plant Engineering
Production Costs ORC process
P Ca
Mg K

EC
ON OMY
ASH
Graz University of Technology
Specific electricity production costs [/kWhel ]

0,10
Full load operating hours = 5,000 h/a
0,09 Fuel price = 1.1 /MWh (NCV)
No investment subsidies
0,08
0,07 specific other costs
0,06
0,05 specific operating costs

0,04
0,03 specific consumption costs

0,02
0,01 specific capital costs

0,00
ORC 500kWel ORC 1.000kWel
TAINAB
U SE R G OM AS
L Research Group
EN Y BI S

E
S
Thermal Biomass Utilisation
Institute of Chemical Engineering
Fundamentals and Plant Engineering
Economic Comparison (1)
P Ca
Mg K

EC ASH
ON OMY Graz University of Technology

Economic performance of different CHP technologies


other costs
160
full load operating hours = 4,000 h/a
fuel price = 10/MWh (NCV)
production costs for electricity [/MWh(el)]

140
no investment subsidies operation based costs

120

100 consumption based costs

80
capital costs

60

40 range for electricity


production costs from
large-scale nuclear
20 power, coal or natural
gas power plants

0
ST SPE SCE ORC STE DGP HGP
TAINAB
U SE R G OM AS
L Research Group
EN Y BI S

E
S
Thermal Biomass Utilisation
Institute of Chemical Engineering
Fundamentals and Plant Engineering
Economic Comparison (2)
P Ca
Mg K

EC ASH
ON OMY Graz University of Technology

120 other costs


full load operating hours = 3,000 h/a (*...4,000 h/a)
electricity production costs [/MWh(el)]

fuel price = 10 /MWh NCV


100 investment subsidies = 0%
operation based costs

80

consumption based
costs
60

40 capital costs

20
range for electricity
production costs from
large-scale nuclear
0 power, coal or natural

Zeltweg (pilot plant)


gas power plants
Co-firing in PCC

Co-firing CFB
Biomass grate

Separate biomass

St.Andr (pilot

Steam turbine*

ORC process*
gasification
Biomass

plant)
plant

boiler
TAINAB
U SE R G OM AS
L Research Group
EN Y BI S

E
S
Thermal Biomass Utilisation
Institute of Chemical Engineering
Fundamentals and Plant Engineering
Economic Comparison (3)
P Ca
Mg K

EC ASH
ON OMY Graz University of Technology

400 ST

fuel price = 10/MWh (NCV)


350 SPE
no investment subsidies
production costs for electricity [/MWh(el)]

300
SCE

250
ORC

200
STE
150

DGP
100

50 HGP

0 range for electricity production


1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 8,000 costs from large-scale nuclear
power, coal or natural gas
full load operating hours [h p.a.] power plants
TAINAB
U SE R G OM AS
L Research Group
EN Y BI S

E
S
Thermal Biomass Utilisation
Institute of Chemical Engineering
Fundamentals and Plant Engineering
Economic Comparison (4)
P Ca
Mg K

EC ASH
ON OMY Graz University of Technology

4000
Stirling engine
electricity production [/kW el ]

3500
Specific investment costs for

ORC process
3000
Steam turbine
2500

2000

1500

1000

500

0
0 1.000 2.000 3.000 4.000 5.000 6.000
nominal electric power [kW]
TAINAB
U SE R G OM AS
L Research Group
EN Y BI S

E
S
Thermal Biomass Utilisation
Institute of Chemical Engineering
Fundamentals and Plant Engineering
Economic Comparison (5)
P Ca
Mg K

EC ASH
ON OMY Graz University of Technology

potential for further development DGT

high STE
SCE
HGT
ORC

SPE
ST
low

low high
state of development
TAINAB
U SE R G OM AS
L Research Group
EN Y BI S

E
S
Thermal Biomass Utilisation
Institute of Chemical Engineering Conclusions and Recommendations
Fundamentals and Plant Engineering
for Biomass CHP Plants (1)
P Ca
Mg K

EC ASH
ON OMY Graz University of Technology

Relevant technical side constraints for decentralised


biomass CHP systems:

! Highly robust technology (high availability)

! High degree of process control and automatisation

! Low operation and maintenance costs

! Good partial load behaviour


TAINAB
U SE R G OM AS
L Research Group
EN Y BI S

E
S
Thermal Biomass Utilisation
Institute of Chemical Engineering Conclusions and Recommendations
Fundamentals and Plant Engineering
for Biomass CHP Plants (2)
P Ca
Mg K

EC ASH
ON OMY Graz University of Technology

Relevant economic side constraints for decentralised


biomass CHP systems:

! High number of full load operation hours (> 4,000 h/a)

! High overall efficiency (heat controlled operation)

! Low operation costs

! Utilisation of economy of scale and learning curve


effects regarding a reduction of investment costs
Annex 9. Internet site (Jaap Koppejan)
Internet site of Task 32

Www.ieabioenergy-task32.com

TNO Environment, Energy and


Process Innovation

Jaap Koppejan

Internet site
Operational since July 2001
Growing number of visitors
Growing amount of information
Maintenance is necessary

t Www.ieabioenergy-task32.com IEA Bioenergy Task 32, 2


19 June 2002

t
1
Average visits per day

600

500

400 Hits
Files
300
Pages
200 Visits

100

0
jul- aug- sep- okt- nov- dec- jan- feb- mrt- apr- mei- jun-
01 01 01 01 01 01 02 02 02 02 02 02

t Www.ieabioenergy-task32.com IEA Bioenergy Task 32, 3


19 June 2002

t Www.ieabioenergy-task32.com IEA Bioenergy Task 32, 4


19 June 2002

t
2
Visitors have main interest in:
Publications:
Reports on barriers for co-combustion
Workshop reports on co-combustion and aerosols
Information brochure
The combustion emission model AVERAGE FUELSIM
The databases on biomass fuel and ash composition

t Www.ieabioenergy-task32.com IEA Bioenergy Task 32, 5


19 June 2002

t Www.ieabioenergy-task32.com IEA Bioenergy Task 32, 6


19 June 2002

t
3
To be added:
New data for biomass fuel and ash database, supplied
by task members
Short description of task members + photograph

t Www.ieabioenergy-task32.com IEA Bioenergy Task 32, 7


19 June 2002

t
4
Annex 10. Country report Austria, Ingwald Obernberger

- EU demonstration project with ORC (1000 kWe, in Lienz, Austria)


- Stirling engine demonstration projects (Joanneum Research Graz, TU Copenhagen)
- New gas turbine technology with innovative recuperative heat exchanger (Pebble Heater)
Biomass Combined Heat and Power Plant
Based on ORC Technology -
EU Demonstration Project Lienz

T AIN AB
U S L
ERGY MA
EN BIO S S

E
S P Ca
Mg K

EC ASH
ON OMY

BIOS BIOENERGIESYSTEME GmbH


Sandgasse 47, A-8010 Graz, Austria
TEL.: +43 (316) 481300; FAX: +43 (316) 4813004
E-MAIL: office@bios-bioenergy.at
HOMEPAGE: http://www.bios-bioenergy.at
BIOENERGIESYSTEME GmbH
EU Demonstration Project Lienz
Sandgasse 47, A-8010 Graz EU-Project Consortium

Project Title: Fuzzy logic controlled CHP plant for biomass


fuels based on a highly efficient ORC-process
Project Number: NNE5-2000-00475

Project Co-ordinator: Stadtwrme Lienz Vertriebs und Produktions


GmbH, Austria
Project Partners: TURBODEN SRL, Italy
BIOS BIOENERGIESYSTEME GmbH, Austria
Technische Universitt Bergakademie Freiberg,
Germany
BIOENERGIESYSTEME GmbH
EU Demonstration Project Lienz
Sandgasse 47, A-8010 Graz Main Data

Technical data
! Net electric power ORC: 1,000 kW
! Nominal power thermal oil boiler and ECO: 6,500 kW
! Nominal power hot water boiler: 7,000 kW
! Nominal power warm water economiser: 1,500 kW
! Start of CHP operation: 01/2002
! Site: Lienz, Tyrol / Austria
BIOENERGIESYSTEME GmbH
EU Demonstration Project Lienz
Sandgasse 47, A-8010 Graz Annual Energy Production
25.000

Solar thermal collector


Peak load boiler
20.000 Heat recovery
Power at CHP plant [kW]

Hot water boiler


CHP-unit
Electricity production
15.000

10.000

5.000

0
0 1.200 2.400 3.600 4.800 6.000 7.200 8.400

operating hours per year [h]


BIOENERGIESYSTEME GmbH
EU Demonstration Project Lienz
Sandgasse 47, A-8010 Graz Scetch CHP Plant
BIOENERGIESYSTEME GmbH
EU Demonstration Project Lienz
Sandgasse 47, A-8010 Graz Acts & Facts I
Biomass CHP Plant Lienz
Roofed storage capacity 5,000 Srm
Open storage capacity 10,000 Srm
Solar thermal collector 630 m
Nominal power thermal oil boiler 6,000 kW
Nominal power thermal oil ECO 500 kW
Nominal power hot water boiler 7,000 kW
Nominal power hot water ECO 1,500 kW
Nominal power oil boiler (peak load coverage) 11,000 kW
Maximum thermal power solar thermal collector 350 kW
Net electric power ORC 1,000 kW
Production of heat from biomass 60,000 MWh/a
Production of heat from solar energy 250 MWh/a
Production of electricity from biomass 7,200 MWh/a
BIOENERGIESYSTEME GmbH
EU Demonstration Project Lienz
Sandgasse 47, A-8010 Graz Acts & Facts II

Primary Energy
Bark, saw dust, wood chips from local saw mills 90,000 Srm/a
Rural wood chips 10,000 Srm/a

Investment Costs
CHP plant 7.7 Mio
District heating grid 15.4 Mio

Technological Innovations
First 1,000 kWel biomass combined heat and power plant based on the ORC-
process worldwide
First use of a heat recovering system in combination with a thermal oil boiler to
increase the electric efficiency
Use of a Fuzzy Logic control for process optimisation
Efficient, multi-stage flue gas cleaning system consisting of multicyclone,
economiser, wet electrostatic filter combined with a flue gas condensation unit
BIOENERGIESYSTEME GmbH
EU Demonstration Project Lienz
Sandgasse 47, A-8010 Graz Thermal Oil Boiler
flue gas recirculation

thermal oil boiler

flue gas
fan

thermal oil
inlet
thermal oil
outlet multicyclone
secondary-air
inlets

thermal oil ECO combustion air pre-heater

II

I primary combustion zone


II secondary combustion zone

I
primary-air
inlets

grate

bottom ash
BIOENERGIESYSTEME GmbH
EU Demonstration Project Lienz
Sandgasse 47, A-8010 Graz Flue Gas Cleaning System

dust precipitation heat- recovery, flue gas condensation unit &


Stage I wet ESP

external air flue gas devapourisation air

cleaned flue gas

flue gas

coarse fly-ash sludge & condensate condensate

multi-cyclone economiser & flue gas devapourisation unit stack


wet electrostatic filter
BIOENERGIESYSTEME GmbH
Sandgasse 47, A-8010 Graz EU Demonstration Project Lienz
BIOENERGIESYSTEME GmbH
EU Demonstration Project Lienz
Sandgasse 47, A-8010 Graz ORC-Process I
turbine
thermal oil cycle
generator
G
thermal oil ECO
thermal oil
boiler ORC-
process
biomass regenerator
evaporator

Silicon oil condenser


furnace
pump

heat
combustion flue gas consumer
air pre-heater economiser

combustion air
BIOENERGIESYSTEME GmbH
EU Demonstration Project Lienz
Sandgasse 47, A-8010 Graz ORC-Process II

9
11

10

1 Regenerator 5 Circulation pump 9 Hot water outlet


2 Condenser 6 Pre-heater 10 Thermal oil inlet
3 Turbine 7 Evaporator 11 Thermal oil outlet
4 Electric Generator 8 Hot water inlet
BIOENERGIESYSTEME GmbH
EU Demonstration Project Lienz
Sandgasse 47, A-8010 Graz ORC-Process III
BIOENERGIESYSTEME GmbH
EU Demonstration Project Lienz
Sandgasse 47, A-8010 Graz ORC-Process IV

Thermal power input (thermal oil) 5,800 kW


Heating medium Thermal oil
Inlet temperature (at nominal load) 300C
Outlet temperature (at nominal load) 250C
Working medium Silicon oil
Thermal output (condenser) 4,650 kW
Cooling medium Water
Inlet temperature (at nominal load) 60C
Outlet temperature (at nominal load) 80C
Net electric power (at nominal load) 1,050 kW
Electric efficiency (at nominal load) 18.1%
BIOENERGIESYSTEME GmbH
EU Demonstration Project Lienz
Sandgasse 47, A-8010 Graz Energy Flow Sheet

Thermal oil boiler - ORC-process - heat recovery


radiation and
heat losses
8%

thermal oil ECO


hot water ECO
thermal
output
combustion air 75%
pre-heater

electricity
output
14 - 15%
biomass input (NCV) thermal oil boiler
= 100%
ORC-process heat and
electricity
losses ORC
2- 3 %
Institute of
Energy Research

Decentralised CHP Technologies


Based on Biomass Combustion
in the Micro-Scale Range
Stirling Engine Development

Joanneum Research-activities
Institute of
Energy Research

Stirling Engine Activities at JR


Kamin
Heizungsverteiler

RL VL
Zyklon
FEUERUNG/KESSEL 3MWth
Saugzug
Ventilator
LADEPUMPE

STIRLINGMOTOR
Sekundrluft
Biomasse Fernwrme
3x400V, 50 Hz, 30 kW
netz

GENERATOR
Primrtluft
Khlwasser-
pumpe

Khlwasser des
Stirlingmotors 55...70

Netzpumpe
Entaschung

1 MWth Biomass District Heating Plant with CHPP


(30 kWel Biomass Stirling Engine)
Application 1

3 kWel Biomass Test Stirling Engine Grid Independent Electricity Production


Basic engine concept
Application 2
with Biomass Stirling Engine
Institute of
Energy Research

Biomass CHP Plant with a Stirling Engine

Kamin
Heizungsverteiler

RL VL
Zyklon
FEUERUNG/KESSEL 3MWth
Saugzug
Ventilator
LADEPUMPE

STIRLINGMOTOR
Sekundrluft
Biomasse Fernwrme
3x400V, 50 Hz, 30 kW
netz

GENERATOR
Primrtluft
Khlwasser-
pumpe

Khlwasser des
Stirlingmotors 55...70

Netzpumpe
Entaschung
Institute of
Energy Research

3 kW-Biomass
Stirling Engine
Institute of
Energy Research

30 (50, 100) kWel - Biomass


Stirling Engine
SiPeb- New
Amsterdam, June 17-21, 2002 Innovative Approach
to Biomass Power
Plants

SiemensIndustrialServices Your Success is Our Goal


SiemensIndustrialServices

SiPeb Biomass Power Plants


Research & Development

! The Pebble Heater is a regenerative heat exchanger which has


been developed for applications in the steel industry

! Various applications for the Pebble Heater have been developed by


ATZ EVUS, a research institute. One of these applications is the
Biomass Power Plant

! A license agreement between ATZ EVUS and SIEMENS has been


closed in 2000. This includes the joint development and the
marketing of the SiPeb technology.

! BIOS, Graz, is a research partner investigating the ash related


problems.

! In 2001 a test plant has been built in Sulzbach-Rosenberg; the tests


are running until August 2002;

! Next step is a full scale reference plant


SiPeb Biomass Power Plants Your Success is Our Goal
SiemensIndustrialServices

SiPeb- the Process

Exhaust Gas

Changeover

Biomass

Air

Steam / ORC turbine


Steam / ORC
and/or heat consumer

SiPeb Biomass Power Plants Your Success is Our Goal


SiemensIndustrialServices

Basic Technical Data

! Nominal Electric Power 2 5 MW

! Electric Efficiency > 30%

! CHP applications on various temperature levels

! Maximum temperature in the Pebble Heater: 860C

! Temperature at turbine inlet: 830C

SiPeb Biomass Power Plants Your Success is Our Goal


SiemensIndustrialServices

Pebble Heater
Innovative Heat Exchanger

ATZ EVUS
How does a Pebble - Heater work? Exhaust Cold Air

! A Pebble Heater is a regenerator which


uses a pebble bed to store thermal energy External
Shell
! Small pebble diameters allow a great Cold
Grate
specific surface in relation to the volume Hot
and thus an intensive heat transfer. The Grate
temperature gradient is 1500-2000 K/m.
The pebble bed is relatively thin in radial Pebble
direction to minimise the pressure loss. Bed

Valve

Hot Gas from


Combustion Hot Air to
Turbine

Heating Phase Cooling Phase

SiPeb Biomass Power Plants Your Success is Our Goal


SiemensIndustrialServices

Hot Air Turbine

How does the turbine work?


! In the compressor the inlet air is compressed to a
level of 4 bar
! No combustion chamber, the thermal energy of the
pebble bed heats the air up to 830C
! After the expansion in the turbine the hot air can
be used as a heat source for another process (i.e.
steam production) and as pre-heated combustion
air

Hot Air Turbine

SiPeb Biomass Power Plants Your Success is Our Goal


SiemensIndustrialServices

Pilot Plant

SiPeb Biomass Power Plants Your Success is Our Goal


Annex 11. Country report Netherlands,
by Ad van Dongen (Reliant Energy, NL)
20-6-2002

ISSUES

FOR

LARGE SCALE CO-FIRING

IN THE

NETHERLANDS.

Ir. A.C. van Dongen.

REPGB

Reliant Energy Power Generation Benelux

Avandongen@reliantenergy.nl
Tel : (31) 30-2472853
Fax : (31) 30-2472255

Date; 20-6-2002

Large scale co-firing in NL 1/13


20-6-2002

1. INTRODUCTION
E-producers in the Netherlands.

2. POWER GENERATION IN THE NETHERLANDS

3. DUTCH POLICY FOR GREEN ENERGY.

4. COAL AGREEMENT

5. FUELS, FUEL ANALYSES AND CLASSIFICATION

6. INTEGRATION WITH A COAL FIRED POWER PLANT.

7. TECHNICAL CONTRAINTS FOR LARGE SCALE APPLICATION.

8. NON TECHNICAL CONTRAINTS.

9. CONCLUSION

Large scale co-firing in NL 2/13


20-6-2002

INTRODUCTION OF RELIANT ENERGY.

UNA WAS FORMED IN 1988.


Due to the law to separate the E-generation and E-distribution sector in the Netherlands.
Combination U(Utrecht), N(North Holland) and A(Amsterdam) was formed

UNA WAS SOLD TO RELIANT ENERGY IN 1999.


Due to the privatisation (liberalisation) of energy market.
First company who was sold in the Netherlands.

RELIANT ENERGY ORGANISATION/BUSINESS IN EUROPE


1 Power Generation.
UNA renamed in REPGB (Reliant Energy Power Generation Benelux).

2 Power trading.
sell own and buy energy from the market.
optimise own plant dispatch.

3 Fuels trading.
buy fuels (gas, oil and coal)
sells fuels

LOCATIONS of Reliant Energy.


Main office in Houston.
European offices in Amsterdam, Frankfurt and London.
Power plant locations in the Netherlands.
* Utrecht (with district heating)
* Amsterdam (Hemweg site)
* Diemen (with district heating)
* Purmerend (with district heating)
* Velsen (with firing Blast Furnace gas, 36 and 480 MWe plants and one
combined cycle plant of 145 MWe with heat delivery to Corus)

Large scale co-firing in NL 3/13


20-6-2002

POWER GENERATION IN THE NETHERLANDS.

Installed capacity
Central 14.000 MWe
- Gas fired 10.000 MWe
- Coal fired 4.000 Mwe
Decentral 5.000 Mwe

Import capacity 3.350 MWe

Data of the year 2000


- Total E-production (Centr. and decentr.) 104.700 GWh
- E-production companies delivered 88.700 GWh
- Import 22.950 GWh
- Export 4.030 GWh

Change as a consequence of the liberalisation.

Original At this moment Installed (in MWe)


UNA Reliant Energy 3476

EPON Electrabel 4647

EZH E.ON 1770

EPZ(1) Essent 5345 (Note x)


EPZ (2)

Demkolec NUON (PWC) 253


(coal gasification)

- Z (1) to (2) Z changed from Zuid-Nederland to Zeeland (50% Essent/50% Delta)


- Note x: This is total for Essent and EPZ including the many small combined cycle
units in the distribution networks.

Remarks:
- original E-producers owners were provinces and cities; now private companies.
- SEP (Dutch electricity generating board) acted as co-ordinator for the E-producers.

Large scale co-firing in NL 4/13


20-6-2002

DUTCH POLICY FOR CLEAN ENERGY.


Government is very ambitious for cleaner energy generation and application.

Many fiscal instruments available for project stimulation; such as for


- Investment -> Dutch CO2 reduction fund, EU subsidy etc.
Exploitation -> Ecotax, greencertificates, EIA, Vamil

Much research and many feasibility studies have been executed.


now time to harvest what has been done.

Target is 10% green energy in 2020; in 1999 only 1,2%.


In 2020 expected 26% from biomass and 16% from waste; total 42%
For split up of green sources see attached sheet.

Government proposed to fire natural gas instead of coal.


Not accepted by the producers.

Alternative coal agreement replace ca 15% coal by biomass.

Signing of the agreement took a long time


- problems financial support and emissions limits
- E-producers wanted a level playing field in Europe.

Target of coal agreement based on Kyoto protocol (10-12-1997).


6% reduction with respect to 1990 for 6 greenhouse gases in period 2008-2010.
Reduction in Holland 25 Mt CO2 eq in 2010
For E-producers 5,8 Mt per year.
For all coal fired plants 3,2 Mt per year.
For consequences of the coal fired plant see attached sheet..

Ecotax in 2002 for green E-power generation depending on consumption.


Zone cent/kWh
0 10 MWh 6,01
10 50 MWh 2,00
> 50 MWh 0,60

Large scale co-firing in NL 5/13


20-6-2002

Coal agreement (1).

CO2 reduction
Coal substitution in power plants 3,2 Mton/y
Bench mark agreement (6-7-99) 2
(coal and gas plants >0,5PJ)
Extra on voluntary basis 0,5
Extra in Coal gasifier 0,1
Total 5,8 Mton/y

No national fuel import tax anymore to control the choice of the fuel

A special notification (so called Circulaire), based on the LCP and WID
directives, has been prepared to specify the emission limits.

A distinction has been made between dirty and clean fuel.


They different emission limits are indicated in the attachment.

The white (clean) and yellow (dirty) list is still in preparation and subject
of final approval.
designation in clean and dirty fuel is in principle based on origin not on
chemical composition because they contain in general less heavy metals and
halogens.

From dirty to clean fuel is possible (clean should meet natural gas quality)

Alternatives for coal substitution by biomass

Closing of the coal fired power plant

Change to natural gas firing - expemsive

Alternative - eg SRF fuels.

Large scale co-firing in NL 6/13


20-6-2002

Coal agreement aspects (2).

Signed on april 24 by Ministers of EZ (econ.affairs), VROM (housing,


physical planning and environment), the E-producers and EnergieNed

Duration from 4 month after signing up to the end of 2012.

Discussion about continuation shall be timely before 1-1-2011

At this moment, the attachments are worked out and a request letter is in
preparation for approval by the EU Commission.

The government will stimulate the routing of alternative fuels (SRF) to


the coal fired plants to meet the agreement.
in the LAP (national waste routing plan) fuel >11,5 MJ/kg should be converted in a
plant with a efficiency > 30%.
biogenic part in alternative fuels to be measured (see next page)

A QA document is in preparation to certify the biogenic part in the fuel.


-> document still to be approved by the government.

Imported fuel shall be certified (must come from sustainable forestry)

Target is level playing field- what to do when requirements and


circumstances change (negatively) in the future.

Financial support and instruments are described for the case the income
from co-firing projects is to low.
The method to assess this is well described in a attached protocol

Large scale co-firing in NL 7/13


20-6-2002

Coal agreement aspects (3)

Monitoring, reporting and evaluation.


- progress each year by each partner in the yearly environment report
- collectively what has been reached by EnergieNed
- verification by the minister
- evaluation of progress in 2003/5/8/12.

The parties should have a positive intention for the unwanted suituation
that basic aspects are changing.

Aspects which may be discussion points;


No normal exploitation results.
No fuel
No satisfactorily technology
Problems with discharge/disposal of the residues due to a to high
percentage co-firing
Change of government policy

Biogenic portion in the alternative (not 100% biomass) fuel


Various determination methods have been investigated and assessed by doing
an actual case
A preferred method has been selected for using in the first years.
Alternative determination methods are in discussion and also still welcome
A certification system is being set up to convince the quality of determination
CO2 credits count as 100% for the biogenic portion and partly for the non
biogenic portion.
The non biogenic portion is based on the efficiency difference between firing the
waste in the dedicated waste incinerator and the power plant.
Efficiency for the waste incineration is 22 %

Large scale co-firing in NL 8/13


20-6-2002

FUELS AND FUEL ANALYSES.

Clean/fresh wood (pellets and chips)

Thinnings, tree loppings

Demolition wood

Charcoal (import)

Road side grass

Sewage and paper sludges

Chicken manure; poultry litter

Olive industry residues

Rice husk; citrus pellets

Cacao shells

Palm stone expellers

Fullers earth (bleekaarde)

SRF (solid recovered fuels; former RDF)

MBM (meat and bone meal; low and high risk)

Which elements to analyse in the fuel will be standardised.


-> see attached list in which the need for analysing is summarised

Classification system for fuel trading is in preparation.


-> see attached for the set up of the work to be done.
-> the results will be evaluated in a sounding board of the standardisation commission

Large scale co-firing in NL 9/13


20-6-2002

INTEGRATION WITH COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.

Integration options and emission limits see attached sheet .


Biomass feed direct on coal conveyor before and after the coal mills.
Pre-gasification followed by firing of the gas in the coal fired plant
Parallel combustion with steam/water side integration
Pyrolysis oil firing by a separate oil burner

Hemweg 8 power plant data.


in operation since 1995
capacity 630 MWe
efficiency 42,3 % (max 44%)
Benson type boiler
36 burners (40 MWth) is 6 rows of 6 and located in opposite position
low NOx burners and low NOx firing technology.
Plant is provided with DeSOx installation
DeNOx (SCR type) in discussion; depends on NOx trading.
Operation experience is excellent

Large scale co-firing in NL


10/13
20-6-2002

TECHNICAL CONTSTRAINTS FOR LARGE SCALE APPLICATION.

1 When is a technology proven for a client.


what is needed to convince a client.
studies are often much to optimistic.
what is the worth of the knowledge besides the supplier and client?
.
2 Which guarantees can/will be given and by whom?.

3 Reliable mass and energy balances incl. element distribution model


For coal plant in NL are semi-emperical correlations (within certain range) available
based on many measurements in power plants.
Are good distribution models available far gasifiers/incinerators.

4 Operating window of the unit should not be small.


design should be flexible for different feedstocks.
process should operate relative stable
fluctuations in feed should be possible
unit shall follow the coal fired plant load change of the connected

5 Storage, handling and transport of large quantities.


Needs much design attention

6 Effect on the construction material behaviour of the power plant.


- selection to minimise corrosion .

7 Behaviour of the fuel in and wear of the coal mill.

8 Slagging, agglomeration, fouling, corrosion and erosion in the boiler.


prelimenary data are available but more info is needed to determine the risks

9 DeNox catalyst deactivation (high priority for investigation)

10 Effect on and operation costs of the DeSOx installation.

11 Influence of the bottom and fly ash and gypsum.


-> selling to the cement/concrete industry shall be maintained

12 Acceptance criteria for and QA for the fuel.


depends also on the coal quantity
a good set of criteria shall be set up (bases should be operating experience)

Large scale co-firing in NL


11/13
20-6-2002

NON TECHNICAL CONSTRAINTS.

1 Fuel prices uncertain in a growing market


(long term fuel supply contracts are not possible or can only be made with a higher than
usual fuel price)

2 Open market/ liberalisation


more competitors, cost cuttings and staff reduction
problem with introduction of new technology.

3 Construction costs (may be higher than based on first information).


Who will subsidy and make a bid with guarantees.

4 E producers try to buy units as black boxes


with extreme guarantees and
only from companies which can take the risks in case of malfunction.

5 Long term government support should be sustainable.


how sustainable are the temporary government financial instruments
there is a great need for a European level playing field by implementing uniform
policies

6 Marketability of the residues


Selling of the ashes from the power plant to use for cement or as a concrete additive
should not become problematic (or be contaminated by the burning of the oil and
charcoal)

7 Emission limits.
local authorities may put stringent requirements
Dutch rules are going to be more stringent than elsewhere in Europe
level playing field

8 Permitting issues
Logistic problem (large transport volumes)
many items cannot be described at this moment
info from demo plant operation required.

Large scale co-firing in NL


12/13
20-6-2002

9 Public acceptance and perception

10 Financing and insurance

11 Risk assessment needed for investors

CONCLUSIONS.

1. Tendency for using biomass is towards direct co-firing instead of pre-


gasification and parallel combustion.

2. Import of biomass is a must to meet the coal agreement.

3. Much knowledge available but there is not a combined effort to realise a plant
which can be used as a reference.

4. Financial support should be concentrated by making choices (by whom??)

5. Government should remain active now and in the future.


To support the investment and share in the costs in case of malfunction. ..
investment willingness is low because potential clients are now driven in a competitive market

6. Cost estimation at the start of a project shall not be to optimistic


(who do you serve with a to optimistic price??)
Data from a B-IGCC (32 MWe)
study phase 2150 EURO/kWe
official bid 2800
including infra 3300
plant 12 MWe 4550 (original)
actual 5000

7. Coal agreement may speed up the use of biomass.

Large scale co-firing in NL


13/13
DoA 20-6-2002

DUTCH RENEWABLE ENERGY POLICY


(Data in PJth as reduced fossil fuel use)

Basis Status Targets (PJth)


Source 1990 1999 2000 2007 2010 2020
total in %
Wind 5,3 16 33 45 16
Solar (PV) 0,1 1 2 10 3
Solar (thermal) 0,4 2 5 10 3
Waste 12,1 30 40 45 16
Biomass 16,0 24 45 75 26
Heat pumps 0,2 7 50 65 23
Hydro(intern) 0,7 0 3 3 1
Hydro(Norway) 0 18 18 6
Thermal storage 0,5 3 8 15 5
Geothermal 0,0 0 0 2 1
35,3 83 204 288

Share of Renewable Energy Sources


In the Netherlands 1,20% target 10%
In EU countries 6% target 12%

CO2 reduction Kyoto Period 2008-2010


In the Netherlands From 6% reduction
In EU countries From 8% reduction

White paper From 1995 18%


(impr.energy efficiency)

Green paper Maintaining security of supply


DoA 20-6-2002

Dutch pulverised coal fired power plants with targets


to meet the Coal agreement

Power plant Owner MWe/ Eff. Operation CO2 reduction Biomass


MWth % since Kt CO2 MWe Kton/y
Gelderland 13 Electrabel 602 38,0 1983 466 74 335

Amer 8 Essent 645/250 40,0 1981 931 147 665


Amer 9 Essent 600/350 41,3 1994
Borssele 12 EPZ 403 40,0 1988 310 49 225

Maasvlakte 1 E.ON 518 40,6 1989 805 128 575


Maasvlakte 2 E.ON 518 40,6 1988
Hemweg 8 Reliant 630 42,3 1995 488 77 350
Energy
Totaal 3875 3.000 475 2.150
Buggenum NUON 253 1994 200 28 360
Coal gasifier
Total 4028 3.200 503 2.510

Assumptions
- Based on 7500 operating hours/year (otherwise correction)
- Average LHV(ar) of the biomass = 15 GJ/ton
- Coal substitution = 94 kgCO2/GJth

Additional plans taken from the EIR's (environmental impact reports)


Eemshaven Electrabel Gasification of sewage sludge and gas in GT's 120
Amer Essent Biomass (+SRF?) 600
Borsele EPZ Biomass (+SRF?) 400
Maasvlakte EON SRF + Biomass 300

Vathorst Remu Biomass Combined cycle with motor 30

Existing Cuijk Essent CFB combustion of real biomass 200


Existing Lelystad NUON Combined cycle 20
Total 1.670
Biomass total required in kton/y. 4.180
20-6-2002
INTEGRATION OPTIONS WITH A COAL FIRED POWER PLANT

Stack Stack

Coal fired Power Plant

Coal Coal Burners Elektro- Desulpheri-


mills Existing filters sation plant

Direct feed Grinding Boiler


Optional
Pyrolyses oil Burners
New
CFB Fuelgas cooling Steam-
Gasifier and clean-up turbine Electricity
generator
Fluegas treatment cycle
CFB semi-dry system
Combustion

Bottom Fly Waste water Bottom Fly Gypsum


ash ash treatment ash ash

Existing Notification as part of the agreement


BLA Co-firing Stand-alone >20MWth
Description Unit Clean Dirty Clean Dirty
11% O2 6%O2 6% O2(N0) 6% O2 11% O2
1 Dust mg/nm3 5 20 5 20 5
2 NO(asNO2) mg/nm 3 70 200(N4) (N4) (N4) (N4)
3 SO2 mg/nm3 40 200 40 200 40
4 HCl mg/nm3 10 10 10
5 HF mg/nm3 1 1 1
6 CO mg/nm3 50 50 50
7 CD + Tl mg/nm3 - 0,015 0,05
8 Hg (asHg) mg/nm3 0,05 (N3) 0,05
9 CxHy(volatiles) mg/nm3 10 10 10
10 Heavy metals(N1) mg/nm3 1(N1) 0,15(N2) 0,5
11 PCDD/PCDF ngTEQ 0,1 0,1 0,1
Notes N0 In case of mixing application 11% O2
N1 Heavy metals As. Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, Te, V
N2 Heavy metals As, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, V
N3 Input req't at <10 wt% = 0,4mg/kg; at >10% different. Gasunit 0,01 mg/nm3 at 11%O2
N4 No limit in case of NOx trading. However limits are in discussion
Emissions from power plant to be calculated with mixing rule
Limits derived from LCP 2000/76/EG and WID 2001/80/EG
Set-up for the classification work

Limits as set by the notification


(separate for clean and dirty fuels)

No corrosion and DeNOx catalyst


agglomeration degradation ???
Limits as set by the notification
DeSOx
Parties ESP
Fuel cooperation Boiler
suppliers to set up of a
system. Gasifier.
Various (iterative)
methods
Gas-
Combustion
cleaning
installation Bottomash Fly ash Gypsum

Bottom ash Fly ash Bottom and flow shall remarkeble


Eural req't fly ash

Afvalwater-
Lozingseisen

Red == requirements from the operation of the power plant


Blue == requirements from the emission limits

DoA 20-6-2002
RELIANT ENERGY
DoA 20-6-2002
Nr. Element/ Unit Needed to know for; Analysis Max limit for conversion in
Description A B C D E F G H I J K Analysis method Detection limit Cost Priority Direct in boiler Gasification Incineration
1 C wt% dry
2 H wt% dry
3 O wt% dry
4 N wt% dry x
5 S wt% dry x x
6 Cl wt% dry x x x x
7 F wt% dry ? x x x
8 Ash wt% dry
9 Total
10 Moisture wt% ar
11 Ash wt% dry
12 Volatile matter wt% dry
13 Fixed carbon wt% dry
14 Total
15 LHV MJ/kg ar
16 LHV MJ/kg dry
17 Macro elements
18 Al wt% dry
19 Ca wt% dry
20 Fe wt% dry
21 K wt% dry x
22 Mg wt% dry
23 Na wt% dry x
24 P wt% dry x x x
25 Si wt% dry x
26 Ti wt% dry x
27 Micro elements
28 Ag mg/kg dry x ?
29 As mg/kg dry x x x x x x
30 B mg/kg dry
31 Ba mg/kg dry x x x x
32 Be mg/kg dry x x
33 Br mg/kg dry x
34 Cd mg/kg dry x x x x x
35 Ce mg/kg dry x ?
36 Co mg/kg dry x x x x x
37 Cr mg/kg dry x x x x x1)
38 Cs mg/kg dry x ?
39 Cu mg/kg dry x x x x
40 Eu mg/kg dry x ?
41 Ge mg/kg dry x ?
42 Hf mg/kg dry x ?
43 Hg mg/kg dry x x x x
44 I mg/kg dry
45 La mg/kg dry x ?
46 Mn mg/kg dry x x
47 Mo mg/kg dry x x x x
48 Ni mg/kg dry x x x x x
49 Pb mg/kg dry x x x x x x
50 Rb mg/kg dry ?
51 Sb mg/kg dry x x x x x
52 Sc mg/kg dry x ?
53 Se mg/kg dry x x x x x
54 Sm mg/kg dry x
55 Sn mg/kg dry x x x
56 Sr mg/kg dry x
57 Te mg/kg dry x
58 Tl mg/kg dry x
59 Th mg/kg dry x
60 U mg/kg dry x
61 V mg/kg dry x x x x x
62 W mg/kg dry x x
63 Zn mg/kg dry x x x x
64 Sulphates x
65 Cyanides x
66 PAHS (total)
--> Needed for A B C E D F G H I J K
Why this?
Corrosion
Lifetime SCR catalyst Automatically deleverd with INAA method.
Critical for bottom/flyash Carcinogenic + ARBO (=V)
EURAL Besluit Stortverbod Afvalstoffen (27 juni 1995).
BVA = Besluit Luchtemissie Afvalverbranding.
Bouwstoffenbesluit gebonden spoorelementen
Nr. Element/ Unit Needed to know for; Analysis Max limit for conversion in
Description A B C D E F G H I J K Analysis method Detection limit Cost Priority Direct in boiler Gasification Incineration
Al/Si ratio wt %(ash)
Al2O3 wt %(ash)
CaO wt %(ash)
Fe2O3 wt %(ash)
K2O wt %(ash)
MgO wt %(ash)
Na2O wt %(ash)
P2O5 wt %(ash)
SiO2 wt %(ash)
TiO2 wt %(ash)
SO3 wt %(ash)
CO2 wt %(ash)
Cl wt %(ash)
Pb wt %(ash)
Cd wt %(ash)
Cu wt %(ash)
Hg wt %(ash)
Cr wt %(ash)
wt %(ash)
67 Ash deformation temperature
68 Initial deform. C
69 Softening C
70 Hemispherical C
71 Fluid C
72 Morphology Shape
Bulk density kg(ar)/m3
A B C E D F G H I J K

INAA = instrumental neutron activation analysis (no dissolution required > low cost, high accuracy)
Annex 12. Country report USA, by Larry Baxter
Country Report: USA
Larry Baxter, Sren Kr, Matt Hall

Brigham Young University


Provo, UT 84602

June 20, 2002

Outline
Overall trends in US
Cofiring moving toward commercial rather than research
support
Gasification and pyrolysis increased research attention
Significant reorganization of DOE and other major support
organizations
Modeling
Grates, pcs, etc.
Deposition
Corrosion
Ash Utilization

1
Previous DOE Structure

Biomass
was here

New DOE Structure

Biomass is
now here

2
Consequences for Biomass
Includes OPT/ Biopower, OTT/ Biofuels, OIT/ Black
liquor gasification, OIT Agriculture and black liquor
from OIT / Forestry.
Biofuels program essentially eliminated.
Large reduction in combustion & cofiring efforts
(deemed as commercially viable).
Increased attention on gasification and pyrolysis.

Other US Developments
Broad (Denise Swink) and specific (Ray Costello)
reviews of DOE biomass programs presented earlier in
this meeting.
Modular systems review presented by NREL (Rich
Bain).
DOE support for EPRI and NETL cofiring programs
completed/terminated.
BYU has nearly completed review of over 40 US-based
cofiring demonstrations, which will be available
(possibly through this task) shortly.
A few technical developments follow.

3
US Energy Policy
Realistic path to CO2 reductions with
achievable goals.
Taxpayer vs. ratepayer.
Impacts of other policy and economic
decisions (nuclear power, natural gas).
Energy crops vs. residues.

Fuel Characterization Scheme


2
Hydrogen/Carbon

1.5

0.5 Selected Biomass Hardwood Lignin


Softwood Lignin Grass Lignin
Hemi-/cellulose Lipids
0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
Oxygen/Carbon

4
Biomass Chemical Characterization
1.0
0.9
0.8
Other (Lipid?)
Mass Fraction

0.7
Protien
0.6 Lignin
0.5 HemiCellulose
Cellulose
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.0
Oak Spruce Straw

Droplet inner temperature @ 30 Hz

1500
1400
1300
1200
1100
1000
Temperature / C

900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80
Time / s

5
Required Aerating Agent

2.5
Pure Cement
Class C Fly Ash (25%)
2 Class F Fly Ash (25%)
Co-fired Fly Ash (25%) (10% switchgrass)
oz/100 lbs cement

Co-fired Fly Ash (25%) (20% switchgrass)


1.5

0.5

Set Time Delayed by Fly Ash


3500
Pure Cement
3000
Class C Fly Ash (25%)

2500 Co-fired Fly Ash (25%)


Resistance (psi)

(20% switchgrass)
2000 Co-fired Fly Ash (25%)
(10% switchgrass)
1500

1000

500

0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Elapsed Time (hrs)

6
Fluxural Strength Unaffected
10.00

9.00

8.00
Flexural Strength (kips)

7.00

6.00 Pure Cement


5.00
25% Class C Fly Ash
4.00
25% co-fired biomass
3.00
(10% switchgrass)
2.00 25% co-fired biomass
(20% switchgrass)
1.00

0.00

Compressive Strength Variations


8000 100% Cement

7000 75% Cement 25% Class C Fly Ash

75% Cement 25% Class F Fly Ash


6000
75% Cement 25% co-fired biomass
5000 (10% switchgrass)
75% Cement 25% co-fired biomass
(20% switchgrass)
psi

4000

3000

2000

1000

0
1 day 3 day 7 day 28 day 56 day 91 day

7
Oxygen Isosurfaces

BL mechanisms

Inertial deposition flux [g/m2/h] BL deposition flux [g/m2/h]

8
Vapor deposition

Vapor deposition flux [g/m2/h]

Fuel Properties Predict Corrosion

Increasing Time

9
Stoichiometry Affects
2

0.1
8
6

4
Mole Fraction

0.01 T = 450 C
8
Gas Phase
6
H2 O CO2
4
H2 O2
CH4 CO
2

0.001
0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4
Stoichiometric Ratio

Oxidizing Conditions Favor Sulfates


-3
25x10 12

10
Mole Fraction x 10

20

8
15 NaCl
Mole Fraction

Na2SO 4
6
Na2SO 4(l)
10
4

5
2

0 0
0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4
Stoichiometric Ratio

10
Reducing Conditions Favor Chlorides
600
0.25

500
0.20

Moles x 10
400
0.15 NaCl
FeCl2 300
Moles

CaCl2
0.10
200

0.05 100

0.00 0
0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4
Stoichiometric Ratio

11
Annex 13. Country report - Norway, by yvind Skreiberg
The total annual theoretical biomass production in Norway amounts to about 400 TWh in
gross energy units. Of this, 30 TWh is regarded as technically possible for energy utilisation,
whereof about half of this is utilised today. Utilisation of the other half (mainly low quality
biomass fractions such as forest residues, crop residues, straw, landfill gas, manure) is mainly
an economical question. In this respect one should keep in mind that the net Norwegian
annual electricity production by hydropower is about 120 TWh (equivalent to about 33000
MW) and that the electricity price in Norway is rather low compared to other European
countries. About 30 TWh of the electricity produced is used for direct heating! The official
goal in Norway is an increase in the heat production from biomass, heat pumps and waste
heat of 4 TWh within 2010 compared to 2000. This is a moderate goal, especially compared to
the EU goal for the same period. See our Handbook for further information about the Biomass
Energy situation in Norway.

The Norwegian Government plans to ratify the Kyoto protocol in August, and the Kyoto
protocol is a driving force for the increase of Biomass for energy use in Norway. To meet our
Kyoto obligations with respect to reduction of CO2 equivalents emitted to the atmosphere
several actions are recently planned/suggested by the government:

Extended CO2 taxation


Onshore electrification of offshore installations
Reduced use of mineral oil
Import taxes on HFK/PFK
Reduced CH4 emissions from landfills
Increased landfill tax
Increased combustion of combustible MSW fractions
Biodiesel mix with diesel
Bioethanol
Water based heating

More information can be found at these www-addresses (unfortunately mainly in Norwegian):


http://www.stortinget.no/inns/inns-200102-240.html
http://www.enoknorge.no/
http://www.enova.no/

An evaluation of implementation projects financially supported by the government has


recently been made and shows that 2.5 TWh increased heating capacity has been built during
the last 5 years based on both MSW, biomass, waste heat, heat pumps and other minors. Of a
total of 808 applications 262 projects was granted financial support. 49 of these projects were
stopped for various reasons. A total of 425 millions NOK (about 50 millions EUR) was given
in financial support to these projects. The average heat production in each project was about
10 GWh.

From an economical point of view, 36% of the overall heat production in all supported
projects was in the MSW projects, while these received only 22% of the overall financial
support. For the biomass projects the numbers are 26% and 40% respectively. Hence, in
general the need for financial support to biomass projects is larger compared to MSW
projects.

Activities in Norway on biomass combustion/gasification/pyrolysis are mainly located at the


Norwegian University of Science and Technology. Several Ph.D. studies on aspects connected
to biomass use for energy purposes have been performed or are in progress. Recently, two
Ph.D. studies were finished:

Maria Barrio (2002). Experimental investigation of small-scale gasification of woody


biomass.
Morten Fossum (2002). Biomass gasification Combustion of gas mixtures.

Information on these theses is enclosed below.

Other ongoing Ph.D. studies in the biomass area are connected to:
Hot gas cleaning
Evolution of primary N-species from MSW fractions
Catalytic upgrading of pyrolysis oil
Gasification in combination with Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC)

Our laboratory at the Institute of Thermal Energy and Hydropower (http://www.tev.ntnu.no/)


is quite unique in Norway and the experimental equipment has recently been upgraded with a
new FTIR and RAMAN laser system, and an advanced fixed bed reactor for well controlled
experimental studies is now being built.

SINTEF Energy Research (http://www.energy.sintef.no/uk_index.asp) takes care of the more


applied/commercial research in the biomass area and is involved in projects with major
companies within the MSW/biomass area in Norway. Much of the focus both at SINTEF and
NTNU is now at CO2-free power production and the Hydrogen Society. Hence, rather long
term focus ranging from overall system studies to very fundamental studies.

The Nordic Energy Research Programme, which have been active for many years, also with a
separate group on biomass combustion, will continue also for a new four year period (2003-
2006). However, major changes are in progress. Even though, the biomass group will continue
its work also within the new program structure.
Nordic Energy Research Programme link: http://www.nordisk.energiforskning.org/
BIOMASS GASIFICATION

COMBUSTION OF GAS MIXTURES

by

Morten E. N. Fossum

A thesis submitted to
The Norwegian University of Science and Technology
for the degree of

Doktor Ingenir

The Norwegian University of Science and Technology


Faculty of Engineering Science and Technology
Department of Thermal Energy and Hydropower

May 2002
Report no:
NTNU: 2002:42
ITEV: 2002:06
Classification
Open
The Norwegian University of Science and Technology

POSTADRESSE TELEFONER TELEFAX


NTNU Sentralbord NTNU: 73 59 40 00 Instituttkontor: 73 59 83 90
INSTITUTT FOR TERMISK ENERGI Instituttkontor: 73 59 27 00 Vannkraftlaboratoriet: 73 59 38 54
OG VANNKRAFT Vannkraftlaboratoriet: 73 59 38 57
Kolbjrn Hejes vei 1A
N-7491 Trondheim - NTNU

Title of report Date


GASIFICATION OF BIOMASS COMBUSTION OF GAS 10.04.2002
MIXTURES
No. of pages/appendixes
173

Author Project manager


Morten E. N. Fossum Johan E. Hustad

Division Project no.


Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Department of Thermal Energy and Hydropower
ISBN no. Price group
82-471-5437-4

Abstract
The work presented in this study is primarily experimental and covers the following two main areas;
gasification of biomass and combustion of gas mixtures.
The work on biomass gasification includes the design of a laboratory scale gasification unit and
integration with a gas engine with the necessary equipment for gas cooling and filtration. The
performance of both the gasifier and the integrated system is documented in three enclosed papers.
The work on gas combustion covers mainly experimental studies of jet diffusion flames with respect to
NOx formation and emission, flame geometry and thermal radiation, flame stability and laminar burning
velocities. The gas mixtures investigated are low calorific value (LCV) gases, typically from biomass
gasification, and mixtures of natural gas and LCV gas. From the experimental data found in this study
new correlations for prediction of NOx emission, flame geometry, thermal radiation and laminar burning
velocity are suggested.
The novelty of this work is mainly related to the investigation of combustion characteristics of gas
mixtures. Few data has previously been published on combustion characteristics of gas mixtures similar
as found from biomass gasification. For mixtures of LCV gases and natural gas no previous publications
have been found which covers the topics presented in this study. The mixed-fuel operation of a gas
engine presented in this thesis also represents a novelty compared to documented operation of engines
with product gas from biomass gasification.

Indexing Terms: English Indexing Terms: Norwegian


Bioenergy Bioenergi
Group 1
Gasification Gassifisering
Group 2
Selected Gas mixtures Gassblandinger
by author
Combustion Forbrenning
TABLE OF CONTENT

PREFACE

1 INTRODUCTION 7

2 BIOMASS GASIFICATION 11
2.1 Gasification processes 12
2.1.1 Fixed bed gasification. 13
2.1.1.1 Fixed bed, updraft gasification 13
2.1.1.2 Fixed bed, downdraft gasification 14
2.1.1.3 Fixed bed, crossdraft gasification 15
2.1.2 Fluidised bed gasification 16
2.1.3 Other gasification processes. 16
2.1.4 Characteristics of gasification processes 17

2.2 Design of a laboratory scale gasifier integrated with a gas engine 19

3 COMBUSTION OF GAS MIXTURES 22


3.1 Low calorific value gases 22

3.2 Combustion characteristics and problems 23


3.2.1 Lower heating value and flame temperatures 23
3.2.2 Flame geometry and thermal radiation 24
3.2.3 Laminar burning velocity and flame stability 25
3.2.4 Pollutant emission 26

3.3 Improvement of the combustion characteristics 27


3.3.1 Co combustion applications 31

3.4 The use of natural gas and low calorific fuel gas mixtures discussion and
recommendations 34

4 A SMALL-SCALE STRATIFIED DOWNDRAFT GASIFIER COUPLED


TO A GAS ENGINE FOR COMBINED HEAT AND POWER
PRODUCTION 44

5 OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF A SMALL-SCALE


STRATIFIED DOWNDRAFT GASIFIER 60
6 EMISSIONS AND OPERATIONAL EXPERIENCES FROM A GAS
ENGINE FIRED WITH LOW CALORIFIC VALUE GAS AND NATURAL
GAS MIXTURES 69

7 NITRIC OXIDE EMSISSION FROM DILUTED CH4/CO/H2 JET


DIFFUSION FLAMES 77

8 NITRIC OXIDE FORMATION IN JET DIFFUSION FLAMES OF


CH4/H2/CO MIXTURES 103

9 EFFECTS OF METHANE ENRICHMENT OF LOW CALORIFIC


VALUE GASES ON FLAME GEOMETRY AND THERMAL RADIATION
FROM DIFFUSION FLAMES 110

10 STABILITY AND DYNAMIC DEVELOPMENT OF METHANE


ENRICHED LOW CALORIFIC VALUE GAS FLAMES 144

11 LAMINAR BURNING VELOCITIES OF INERT DILUTED MIXTURES


OF METHANE, HYDROGEN AND CARBON MONOXIDE 152

12 OVERALL CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER


WORK 171
EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SMALL-SCALE
GASIFICATION OF WOODY BIOMASS

by

Maria Barrio

A thesis submitted to

The Norwegian University of Science and Technology

for the degree of

Doktor Ingenir

May 2002
The Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Department of Thermal Energy and Hydropower
7491 Trondheim, Norway
Report no:
2002:05

Classification
Open
The Norwegian University of Science and Technology

POSTADRESSE TELEFONER TELEFAX


NTNU Sentralbord NTNU: 73 59 40 00 Instituttkontor: 73 59 83 90
INSTITUTT FOR TERMISK ENERGI Instituttkontor: 73 59 27 00 Vannkraftlaboratoriet: 73 59 38 54
OG VANNKRAFT Vannkraftlaboratoriet: 73 59 38 57
Kolbjrn Hejes vei 1A
N-7491 Trondheim - NTNU

Title of report Date

May 2002
EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SMALL-SCALE No. of pages/appendixes
GASIFICATION OF WOODY BIOMASS
204/32
Author s) Project manager (sign.)

Maria Barrio Johan E. Hustad


Division Project no.

Faculty of Engineering Science and Technology


Department of Thermal Energy and Hydropower
ISBN no. Price group

82-471-5435-8

Abstract

A small-scale stratified downdraft gasifier has been built and operated under stable conditions using wood
pellets as fuel and air as gasification agent. The problems observed during the preliminary experiments
have been described and explained; they are mainly related to the stability of the process. The stable
operation of the gasifier has been characterised by the gas composition and the product gas tar and
particle content. The biomass feeding rate has varied between 4,5 and 6,5 kg/h. The CO content of the
product gas (23-26 % vol.) is higher than in similar gasifiers and the H2 content has been found to vary
3
between 14 and 16 % vol. The tar content in the product gas (ca. 3 g/Nm ) is rather high compared with
similar gasifiers. The temperature profile, together with other relevant parameters like the air-excess ratio,
the air to fuel ratio and gas to fuel ratio have been calculated. The experiments show that the air excess
ratio is rather constant, varying between 0,25 and 0,3. Experiments have been conducted with a gas
engine using mixtures of CH4, CO, H2, CO2 and N2 as a fuel. NOx and CO emissions are analysed.
The char gasification process has been studied in detail by means of Thermogravimetric Analysis. The
study comprises the chemical kinetics of the gasification reactions of wood char in CO2 and H2O,
including the inhibition effect of CO and H2. A kinetic model based on Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics has
been found which relates the mass loss rate to the temperature, gas composition and degree of
conversion for each reaction. The ratio CO/CO2 has been found to be a relevant parameter for reactivity.
The gasification experiments in mixtures of CO2 and H2O give reasons to believe that the rate of
desorption for the complex C(O) varies depending on the gas mixture surrounding the char. It has been
found that if the experimental data are obtained from separate H2O/N2 and CO2/N2 experiments, the
reactivity of the char in mixtures of CO2 and H2O can be fairly predicted.

Indexing Terms English Indexing Terms Norwegian


Heat Engineering Varmeteknikk
Group 1
Solid Fuels Faste brensler
Group 2
Selected Biomass Biomasse
by author
Gasification Gassifisering

Reactivity Reaktivitet
TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS i
TABLE OF CONTENTS iii
LIST OF FIGURES v
LIST OF TABLES vii
SUMMARY ix

1. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND 1


1.1 Objectives of the work 1
1.2 Thesis overview 1
1.3 Biomass as an energy source 2
1.3.1 Biomass composition and types 2
1.3.2 Comparison with other fuels 5
1.3.3 Biomass production and costs 9
1.4 Thermochemical conversion processes 13
1.4.1 Pyrolysis or devolatilization 15
1.4.2 Gasification 17
1.4.3 Combustion 19
1.4.4 Liquefaction 20
1.4.5 Comparison and interaction between the different conversion processes 20
1.5 Biomass gasification 21
1.5.1 Gasification reactions 21
1.5.2 Gasification processes 22
1.5.3 The water-gas shift reaction 31
1.5.4 Types of reactor 32
1.5.5 Gas conditioning 35
1.5.6 Pressurized gasification 39
1.6 Power generation from biomass gasification 41
1.6.1 Introduction 41
1.6.2 Types of cycle 41
1.6.3 Gas turbines for product gas 42
1.6.4 Gas engines for product gas 48
1.6.5 Emissions 49
1.7 Challenges and prospects for biomass gasification 50
1.8 References 50
2. THE SMALL-SCALE DOWNDRAFT GASIFIER 57
2.1 Introduction and background 57
2.2 Gasification agent 59
2.3 Biomass feeding system 59
2.4 Reactor size and design 60
2.5 Operation pressure 61
2.6 The CHP plant 61
2.7 Work progress 62
2.8 Filtration and other upgrading processes 62
2.9 Safety considerations 64
2.10 Gasifier calculations 65
2.10.1 Mass and energy balances 65
2.10.2 Evaluation of stable operation 68
2.10.3 Gas chromatography 70
2.11 Summary of papers I, II and III 73
2.12 References 74
Paper I 75
Paper II 93
Paper III103

iii
3. REACTIVITY STUDIES 111
3.1 Introduction 111
3.1.1 Objectives112
3.2 Experimental information 112
3.2.1 Experimental apparatus112
3.2.2 Calibration procedures115
3.3 Relevant reactivity aspects 121
3.3.1 Pyrolysis conditions 121
3.3.2 The effect of the degree of conversion121
3.3.3 Influence of ash components122
3.3.4 The presence of O2 130
3.3.5 Heat of reaction for gasification reactions131
3.3.6 The influence of the experimental apparatus132
3.4 Summary of papers IV, V and VI134
3.5 References 136
Paper IV 137
Paper V155
Paper VI 171
4. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER WORK 185
4.1 The small scale downdraft gasifier185
4.2 Reactivity studies186
4.3 Connection between the experimental work with the gasifier and the
reactivity studies 188

APPENDIX A: PICTURES 191


APPENDIX B: PROCEDURES 201
APPENDIX C: TECHNICAL DATA209
APPENDIX D: EXPERIMENTAL RECORD 215

iv
Annex 14. Country report Switzerland,
by Thomas Nussbaumer
Biomass Combustion Activites
in Switzerland 2002
Thomas Nussbaumer

Verenum, Zrich

Swiss Delegate in IEA Bioenergy Task 32


on behalf of the

Swiss Federal Office of Energy

Verenum
1 Research & Development
NOx Reduction, Air & Fuel Staging
Process Control
Aerosol Formation
Pellet Production
(Gasifer + IC engine, Tar Conversion, GC)

2 Implementation
Quality Assurance (QA)
System Optimisation (SO)
Investigations on Ash Utilisation from native Wood
Implementation of Type Test for Boilers

3 IEA Activity
Seminar on Aerosols, here: Poster V2.162
Verenum
1 Research and Development (1)

Influence on particulate emissions


Project: Verenum, Mller AG, EMPA
Project Manager: M. Oser (Verenum)
> Formation mechanisms, influences, and primary measures
> Particle reduction can be achieved with specific operation (see Paper V 2.140)
[Oser et al. 2000]

dN/dlog dp [1/Ncm3] (13% O2)


3E+8
Lambda = 3.0
Lambda = 1.8
Lambda = 1.4
2E+8

1E+8

0E+0
10 100 1000
Elektrischer Mobilittsdurchmesser dp [nm]

Further information: Poster V2.140 at this conference


Verenum
1 Research and Development (2)

Particulate emissions from different furnace types


Project: kozentrum Langenbruck (CH), Lulea (S), VTT (F)
Project Manager CH: Ch. Gaegauf
> Comparison of particulate emissions from different furnace types
> Influence of pulsating combustion and load

[Gaegauf et al. 2002]

Further information: Poster V2.37 at this conference

Verenum
1 Research and Development (3)

Wood heating for low energy buildings


Project: kozentrum Langenbruck and HTA Luzern
Project Manager: Ch. Gaegauf
> Optimisation of heat distribution and storage for low energy houses

[Gaegauf et al. 2002]


Further information: Poster V2.36 at this conference

Verenum
1 Research and Development (4)
Pellet production
Project: Verenum, Brli AG
Project Manager: T. Nussbaumer (Verenum)
Aim
> optimization of pellet production (energy demand, cost)
> influence of natural additives on production, composition, and emissions

Motivation: Potential for pellets in Switzerland


180 000 t/a saw dust and similar wood res.
= 3,2 PJ/a
= 0,37% of total tnergy consumption
= 45000 households with 4 t/a (2000 l l/a)

Further information: Download: www.energieforschung.ch

Verenum
Pellet standards
Ordinance on Air Pollution Control (OAPC)
(corresponds to TA Luft (GER)): No additives

DIN / SN NORM

Abrasion unlimited Abrasion limited


Additives prohibited Additives allowed

Heavy metals limited no limits

Verenum
Pellet production Abluft
Gewebefilter

Siebanlage
Abgas Pellets
Zyklon

Luft

l Frderschnecke
Trockner

Zyklon
Sgemehl Presse

Absack- Big bag- Silo


Schlagmhle Bettkhler anlage Station

Hygroskopy ....
and influence of storage
Detailed results in report [Hasler &
Nussbaumer 2001]: Download:
www.energieforschung.ch

Verenum
Results on abrasion of dust from pellets

Brli Pellets ohne Presshilfsmittel (V1; Standard)


Base
Brli Pellets ohne Presshilfsmittel (Standard)

Brli Pellets ohne Presshilfsmittel (mehr Rinde; V8)


Bark
Brli Pellets mit Presshilfsmittel 1 (V2)

Brli Pellets mit Presshilfsmittel 1 (V7)

Brli Pellets mit Presshilfsmittel 1 (mehr Rinde)

Brli Pellets mit Presshilfsmittel 2 (V3)

Brli Pellets mit Presshilfsmittel 3 (V4)

Brli Pellets mit Presshilfsmittel 4 (V5)

Brli Pellets mit Presshilfsmittel 4 (V9)

Brli Pellets mit Presshilfsmittel 5 (V6)

0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0

Abriebfestigkeit (60 s) [Gew.-%]

Verenum
Combustion behaviour
Emissions including particle size distribution
Efficiency
Ash slagging
Brli Pellets ohne Presshilfsmittel (V1), Vollast, Partikel-Anzahlvert
Datum: 9.8.01 Anlage: Std Code: 1 hi Power: 14.6

1.2E+08
S
F
S
G
1.0E+08
R

NC = dN/dlog(dp) [Ncm^-3, @ 13% O2 ]


M
1
8.0E+07

L
6.0E+07

4.0E+07

2.0E+07

0.0E+00
10 15 100 550 1000
Partikeldurchmesser [nm]

Verenum
LCA [BUWAL 315, 2000; Hasler und Nussbaumer 2001]
Ecological Scarcity Method
Base case of greenhouse effect(Oil,
effect Gas)
Pellet (<50 kW), eigene Messwerte 8

Pellet (<50 kW), Prfstand-Emissionen 7

Stckholz (100kW) 6

Holzschnitzel (50kW) 5

Erdgas (<100kW) 4

Heizl (100kW) 3

Pellet (<50 kW), ko-Pelletherstellung,


eigene Messwerte 2

Pellet (<50 kW), Emissionen wie


Holzschnitzel 1

0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000


Total UBP/GJ

Verenum
2 Implementation

a) Projects:
Quality Assurance (QA) for automatic biomass furnaces
System Optimisation (SO) for automatic biomass furnaces

b) Standardisation:
Type test for biomass stoves and boilers
Fundings are limited to certified stoves and boilers
Fundings are limited to plants with QA for automatic plants

c) Education and information exchange:


Courses for engineers for planning
of automatic biomass furnaces
Lectures at ETH and Universities
Information exchange at conference for research,
industry, and authorities: 7. Holzenergie-Symposium
Verenum
Quality Assurance (QA) for Planning
and Construction of Biomass District
Heating Plants

Coordinator: Ruedi Buehler, rbuehler@mus.ch


Team: Gabathuler H, Good J, Jenni A, Steinmann P

Motivation:
Modern wood boilers have a good technical standard.
Planning often leads to low plant efficiency, high investment cost, unreliable
operation, and elevated emissions.

Aim:
The tool-set Quality Certification for Biomass Heating Plants improves the
quality of biomass district heating plants:
Higher efficiency, lower emissions, lower investment and operation costs.
More biomass plants are realized in future if bad examples are safely avoided !

Further information: Oral P. O3.B1 at this conference

Verenum
Quality Assurance (QA) for Planning
and Construction of Biomass District
Heating Plants
Method:
Quality Guide with 45 detailed requirements, which have to be met.
For each project, the quality is defined in the Quality Plan.
The Quality Manager is responsible, that the quality is defined according to the
requirements of the plant-owner and the special situation.
During planning and construction, he supervises the design engineer and ensures
that the requirements are fulfilled.

Tools:
Standard Solutions, Standardised Tender for Wood Boilers, Handbook
Planning and Construction of automatic wood heating systems, Electronic
business plan

Results:
Since 2000, all projects, that are subsidised, must apply QA.
In 2001, 80% used the Standardised Tender for wood boiler
Many examples show, that quality improvement was achieved.

Verenum
Quality Assurance (QA) for Planning
and Construction of Biomass District
Heating Plants
Example: 6.4 MW plant in Wilderswil bei Interlaken (Schmid AG)

Verenum
System Optimisation (SO) of automatic
Biomass Combustion Plants

Project Manager: Juergen Good, verenum@smile.ch


Team: Buehler, R. Jenni A, planning companie
Wood Energy Switzerland
Industry: Furnace Manufacturers from CH and A
Funding: SFOE, SFOE

Aim:
High efficiency, low emissions, optimised economy of plants erected before 1997
Programme of measures with cost / value assessment
Status:
Phase 1: 5 plants investigated and SO completed, high potential of improvement of
economy, efficiency, emissions, and safety (the latest as additional target that was not
expected to be necessary)
Phase 2 for high number of plants from 2002 to 2004

Further information: Report Good et al. 2002


Download: www.energieforschung.ch
Verenum
7. Holzenergie-Symposium
Datum: 18. Oktober 2002
Ort: ETH Zrich
Leitung:PD Dr. Thomas Nussbaumer
Themen: Holzenergie-Frderung, TA Luft, Altholzkonzept
Feinstaubemission, Staubabscheidung, Systemoptimierung,
Holzvergasung, Stromerzeugung

Anmeldung: ENET, Egnacherstrrasse 69, CH 9320 Arbon


Tel. 0041 (0)71 440 02 55, Fax 0041 (0)71 440 02 56
Email enet@temas.ch, www.energieforschung.ch

Patronat: Bundesamt fr Energie

Further information: www.energieforschung.ch

Verenum
3 IEA Activity AEROSOLS FROM BIOMASS
COMBUSTION

THOMAS NUSSBAUMER (ED.)

Seminar on Aerosols
from Biomass combustion
INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR

Project: Verenum and TNO AT 27 JUNE 2001 IN ZURICH (SWITZERLAND)

ORGANISED ON BEHALF OF
Project Manager: Th. Nussbaumer
> Exchange of information on aerosols INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY (IEA)

> Statement on relevance of aerosols BIOENERGYTASK 32: BIOMASS COMBUSTION AND COFIRING

by IEA Task 32 AND THE

SWISS FEDERAL OFFICE OF ENERGY

Results:
- Statement (Homepage Task 32)
- Proceedings(Homepage Task 32)
- Joint IEA Paper in Amsterdam
[Nussbaumer and van Loo 2002]

Further information: Poster V2.36 at this conference


Download at: http://www.ieabioenergy-task32.com

Verenum
Annex 15. Aerosols from Biomass Combustion Overview on
Activities in IEA Bioenergy Task 32
T. Nussbaumer and S. van Loo

(Appeared as poster V2.162 with elaborating paper at the


12th European Conferences & Technology Exhibition on
Biomass for Energy, Industry and Climate Protection in Amsterdam.)
Aerosols from Biomass Combustion
Activites in the IEA Bioenergy Task 32
T. Nussbaumer, Verenum, Zurich, Switzerland, Swiss Delegate in Task 32
S . v a n L o o , T a s k l e a d e r I E A B i o e n e r g y T a s k 3 2 , T N O -M E P , A p e l d o o r n , N e t h e r l a n d s

Biomass combustion leads to rela- Table 1: Environmental Impact Points (EIP) acc. to the Ecological Scarcity
Method for heating with wood chips (base case for greenhouse effect[3])
tively high emissions of particulates, [EIP/GJ] [%]
i.e. well above 50 mg/Nm3 at 11 vol.- NOX 13 030 38.6%
% O2. The majority of the particulates PM 10 12 600 36.5%
are smaller than 10 micron CO2 670 2.0%
SOX, NH3, CH4, NMVOC, primary 8 200 22.9%
(particulate matter PM 10) with a high energy, residues, and others
share of submicron particles (PM 1). Total 34 500 100%
Cyclones have poor efficiencies for
particulates in this size range, while Table 2: Immission limits on PM 10 (PM 2.5) in some IEA countries
filtration techniques are very costly Annual Daily
for appliances smaller than 2 MW and Country limit value
3
limit value
even not available for household fur- g/m g/m3
Switzerland 20 50
naces. Hence aerosols lead to a rele- (1 exceed p.a.)
vant environmental impact of biomass EC to 1.1.2005 40 50
combustion and particle reduction is (35 exceed p.a.)
EC from 1.1.2010 20 50
regarded as a key issue by the IEA (indicative) (7 exceed p.a.)
Bioenergy Task 32. USA 50 150 (99% for 3 a)
PM 2.5: 15 PM 2.5: 65 (98% for
3a)
As a basis for further activites, an in-
formation exchange has been estab-
lished in an international seminar on
aerosols from biomass com-bustion. Braun-Fahrlnder et al. Am J Respir Crit Care Me d 1 9 9 7
Fine particle Mass Size Distributions
0.60
bark (2)
waste wood (3)

The seminar revealed a large number 0,06

0,05
NACL
0.50

0.40
waste wood (10)
spruce (5)
Fibre board 1 (6)

of scientific investigations. The


KCL

K2SO4 beech (8)


0,04
K-exp
0.30
Cl-exp

results are summarized in the paper, 0,03

0,02
0.20

while detailed informations are given 0,01 0.10

in the proceedings [1] available as


0,00
0,01 0,10 1,00 10,00 100,00 0.00
Dp [m] 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175
emission [mg/Nm]

download.
Figure 1: Prevalence rate (%) of Figure 1: Comparison between si- Figure 1: Mean diameter of the
On the other hand, efforts for particle nocturnal dry cough in children as mulated and measured aerosol fraction versus aerosol
function of the annual mean PM 10 composition for fine particle size emissions at 13 vol.% O 2
reduction techniques are scarce and (Braun in [1]) mode (Jokiniemi et al. in [1]) (Obernberger et al. In [1])
primary measures with sufficient re-
duction potential, i.e. by at least a Start-up phase Operation phase 50

factor of 10, are not known so far and


K wt.%
Burn-out phase Mean value 40 S wt.%
Cl wt.%
30
5.E+08
8.E+07 20

since fuel composition is identified 4.E+08


7.E+07
10

0
0.010 0.100 1.000 10.000

as a main parameter for aerosols


6.E+07 dp m ae.d.

40
-3

5.E+07 Ca wt.%
3.E+08 30 Na wt.%
O2]

Mg wt.%

also not really expected to be


4.E+07
20

2.E+08 3.E+07
10

identified. Since most biomass is


2.E+07 0
0.010 0.100 1.000 10.000
1.E+08 1.E+07 dp m ae.d.

8
7 Si wt.%

used in household furnaces and in


0.E+00
6 Zn wt.%
0.05 0.09 0.14 0.22 0.34 0.53 0.84 1.33 2.09 3.28 5.41 8.64
1.E+03 aerodynamic diameter / m
5
Cd wt.%
Pb wt.%
wt.%

10 15 100 550 1000


4
3

appliances up to 5 MW, there is a Particle mobility diameter [nm] 2


1
0
0.010 0.100 1.000
dp m ae.d.
10.000

strong need in particulate reduction Figure 1: Particle size distribution Figure 1: Particle number size dis- Figure 1: Composition of
for such applications. over a burn cycle of a batch wise tribution measured by ELPI and particulates from bark combustion
fired stove (Gaegauf et al. in [1]) averaged over a two complete as function of aerodynamic
For this purpose, the Task 32 advises periods (Schmatloch et al. In [1]) diameter by Berner Low Pressure
to support research and development Impactor (Brunner et al. In [1])
on reduction of aerosols, encourages
Literature
equipment manufacturers to develop [1] Nussbaumer, Th. (Ed.): Aerosols from Biomass Combustion, International Seminar, June 27 2001, Zurich 2001, ISBN 3-908705-
00-2. With contributions from: Ch. Braun, H. Burtscher, H. Livbjerg, J. Jokiniemi et al., F. Ebert,C. Tullin et al., L. Baxter, Ch.
novel combustion and filtration tech- Ehrlich et al., M. Oser et al., L. Lilleblad et al., I. Obernberger et al., Th. Brunner et al.:, Ch. Gaegauf et al., L. Johansson et al.,
niques, and offers an ongoing plat- V. Schmatloch et al.
Download http://www.ieabioenergy-task32.com
form for cooperation and information
Ackhowledgments
exchange on this topic Swiss Federal Office of Energy (BFE)
International Energy Agency (IEA) Bioenergy Task 32

IEA IEA Bioenergy Task 32:


verenum Bioenergy Biomass Combustion and Co-Firing
www.ieabioenergy.com www.ieabioenergy-task32.com
AEROSOLS FROM BIOMASS COMBUSTION
OVERVIEW ON ACTIVITIES IN IEA BIOENERGY TASK 32

T. Nussbaumer1) and S. van Loo2)


1)
Verenum, Langmauerstrasse 109, CH 8006 Zurich, Switzerland
phone +41 1 364 14 12, fax +41 1 364 14 12, email verenum@smile.ch
2)
Task leader IEA Bioenergy Task 32, TNO-MEP, PO Box 342, 7300 AH Apeldoorn, Netherlands
phone +31 55 5493745, fax +31 55 5493287, email S.vanLoo@mep.tno.nl, www.ieabioenergy-task32.com.

ABSTRACT: Biomass combustion witout efficient flue gas cleaning leads to relatively high emissions of particu-
lates, i.e. well above 50 mg/Nm3 at 11 vol.-% O2. The majority of the particulates are smaller than 10 micron (parti-
culate matter PM 10) with a high share of even submicron particles (PM 1). Cyclones have only poor efficiencies
for particulates in this size range, while filtration techniques are very costly for appliances smaller than 2 MWt and
even not available for household furnaces. Hence aerosols lead to a relevant environmental impact of biomass
combustion and the reduction of particle emissions is regarded as a key issue by the IEA Bioenergy Task 32. As a
basis for further activities, an information exchange has been established in an international seminar on aerosols
from biomass combustion. The seminar revealed a large number of scientific investigations. The results are summa-
rized in the present paper, while detailed information is available in the proceedings [1]. On the other hand, efforts
for particle reduction techniques are scarce and primary measures with sufficient reduction potential, i.e. by at least
a factor of 10, are not known so far and since fuel composition is identified as a main parameter for aerosols
also not really expected to be identified. Since most biomass is used in household furnaces and in appliances u p
to 5 MWt, there is a strong need in particulate reduction for such applications. For this purpose, Task 32 advises t o
support research and development on reduction of aerosols, encourages equipment manufacturers to develop novel
combustion and filtration techniques, and offers an ongoing platform for cooperation and information exchange
on this topic.
Keywords: Emissions, aerosols, bio-energy strategy.

1 INTRODUCTION limits, a reduction of 50 % of the PM 10 concentration


in the ambient air is necessary [2]. As a consequence,
1.1 Definitions and characteristics of aerosols major sources of fine particles and precursors of
Aerosols are defined as a suspension of particles atmospheric aerosols need to be reduced significantly.
and droplets in the size range between 0,001 m and
100 m in a surrounding gas phase. The total mass of Table 1: Immission limits on PM 10 (USA: PM 2.5).
particles and droplets is described as particulate Annual Daily
matter (PM). Since fine particles smaller than 10 m Country limit value limit value
are only partly precipitated in the nose, they can be g/m3 g/m3
inhaled and transported to the human lungs. Hence the Switzerland 20 50
particle fraction PM 10 is commonly used for immis- (1 exceed p.a.)
sion limits and in some cases PM 2.5 and PM 1 are EC to 1.1.2005 40 50
also applied. The number indicates the aerodynamic (35 exceed p.a.)
particle diameter in m according to a separation effi- EC from 1.1.2010 20 50
ciency of 50 % in the sampling system. Beside PM, the (indicative) (7 exceed p.a.)
total suspended particulate matter (TSP) was used USA 50 150 (99% for 3 a)
earlier. This particle fraction is defined as fine particu- PM 2.5: 15 PM 2.5: 65 (98% for 3a)
late matter with a setting velocity of less than 10 cm/s.
For emission limits, the expressions particulate 1.3 Sources of aerosols
emissions or total dust particles are commonly used There are two main sources for aerosols from bio-
and defined by the sampling of all particles (and mass combustion:
droplets) precipitated on a filter. 1. Particles from incomplete combustion: Soot, con-
Since PM 10 are of major concern for the human densable organic matter (PAH, tar), unburnt carbon
health, and close to 100% of biomass aerosols are (char), and unburnt biomass fragments.
smaller than 10 m, this fraction is of main interest. As 2. Particles from inorganic material in the fuel: Bio-
it has been shown in many investigations, the main mass ash and inorganic contaminants.
fraction of particulates in the flue gas from biomass In simple combustion systems or under unfavour-
combustion is even smaller than 1 m and hence most able combustion conditions, the mass fraction of un-
investigations focus on submicron particles. burnt particles can reach more than 90% of the total
particle mass, while it can drop to less than 1% under
1.2 Immission limits good combustion conditions. Hence one of the main
Table 1 shows the limit values for particulate im- targets is to design and operate combustion devices
missions in different countries. With respect to the for complete combustion.
typical share of PM 2.5 in PM 10, the limit values i n The combustion of biomass leads to relatively
Switzerland and USA are comparable. The indicative high emissions of PM 10, PM 2.5, and PM 1. Parti-
limit values from the European Community, which are culates in this size range are health relevant (including
planned to be introduced by 2010, are also compa- mortality, respiratory and heart disease, asthma and
rable. In Switzerland, the indicated immission limits lung function) and lead to a significant environmental
are often or substantially exceeded in all areas, i.e. impact. With existing technology, the policy aim t o
urban, suburban and rural areas. To met the immission increase the contribution of energy from biomass as a
renewable energy source may conflict with the aim t o Braun-Fahrlnder et al. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1997

reduce aerosol emissions to acceptable levels. There-


fore, mitigation of aerosols that result from biomass
combustion deserves increased attention from research
organizations, manufacturers of boilers and particle re-
moval technologies as well as policy makers.

1.4 Relevance of aerosols in Switzerland [2]


Wood combustion in furnaces contributes t o
approximately 3.9 % of the total PM 10 emissions i n
Switzerland but only to 2.4 % of the total energy de-
mand. Hence wood combustion leads to PM 10 emis-
sions above average. Since wood is mainly used for Figure 1: Prevalence rate (%) of nocturnal dry cough
heat production, it has to compete with fuel oil and
natural gas. Although wood contributes with less than in children as function of the annual mean PM 10 [3].
10 % to household heating, 90 % of the PM 10 emissi-
ons from household furnaces result from wood. The 1.6 Measurement of combustion aerosols [4]
same is true for furnaces in craft, while for furnaces i n The size of combustion particles ranges from a few
industry, also other relevant sources like coal and nanometers to some ten micrometers. Several princi-
heavy oil exist. pals are needed to cover the whole size range. When
A life cycle assessment shows that PM 10 contri- measuring combustion aerosols, sampling, dilution
butes to more than one third of the total environ- and pre-treatment play an important role, since particle
mental impact of wood heating appliances (Table 2) properties may alter by coagulation, diffusion losses,
and hence particulate reduction is essential to reduce nucleation or condensation. An important part is the
the environmental impact of wood furnaces. Since treatment of volatile species. The frequently used dilu-
other biofuels than wood (e.g. straw, miscanthus etc.) tion tunnels do not allow to independently adjust
lead to even higher particulate emissions, the rele- temperature and dilution ratio. Other systems as
vance of aerosols is even higher for such fuels. ejector- and rotating disk dilutor offer more flexi-
bility. Volatile material can be removed by a ther-
Table 2: Environmental impact points (EIP) accor- modesorber, which also allows to characterize volatile
ding to the ecological scarcity method for heating species.
with native wood chips in a modern automatic furnace A basic measurement is the determination of the
[2]. particle size distribution. For ultra fine particles this
[EIP/GJ] [%] is most frequently done by differential mobility
analysis, often implemented as Scanning Mobility
NOX 13 030 38.6%
Particle Sizer (SMPS). A recently introduced technique
PM 10 12 600 36.5%
is the electrical diffusion battery, which allows a
CO2 670 2.0%
transient measurement of size distributions. The Elec-
SOX, NH3, CH4, NMVOC,
trical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI) is based on aero-
primary energy, residues, and 8 200 22.9%
dynamic precipitation and yields the aerodynamic
others
diameter, depending on geometry and density. Meth-
Total 34 500 100% ods to characterize carbonaceous particles are often
based on optical absorption, which is dominated b y
1.5 Health effects of aerosols [3] the carbon fraction. Methods or devices to measure
The epidemiological link between air pollution optical absorption are opacimetry, Aethalometer,
and mortality was established many years ago b y photoacoustic spectroscopy, laser induced incandes-
smog episodes with high concentrations of smoke, cence or photoelectric charging.
sulphur oxides, and other noxious substances. Al-
though the biological mechanisms were poorly under- 2 EMISSIONS OF DIFFERENT COMBUSTION TYPES
stood, there remained little disagreement that, at high
levels, air pollution can be an important risk factor for 2.1 Aerosols from straw combustion [5]
cardiopulmonary disease and mortality. Since the mid Straw is an important residue from agriculture i n
1970 research on health effects of air pollution has Denmark and used as fuel in district heating and elec-
been conducted by use of data on mortality and hospi- tric power stations. With regard to aerosol formation,
tal admissions. A vast literature has emerged for aero- straw has typically high contents of potassium (K),
sols with two types of epidemiological studies. Short- chlorine (Cl) and silicon (Si) and a lower but signifi-
term exposure studies use temporal changes as source cant content of sulphur (S). The composition varies i n
of exposure variability and have been studied in con- broad ranges due to soil, fertilization and precipita-
trolled exposure settings. Although this experimental tion during the harvest season. Combustion particles
methodology has some advantages, the complexity of from straw and other biomass are formed in two paths:
real-world exposures to particulate matter limits the
utility of such investigations. Thus, most of recent 1) the solid-to-particle path comprises particles
reports of associations between PM exposure and formed by the release of ash inclusions and unburnt
health are based on observational epidemiological fuel to the flue gas without phase change leading t o
studies. Although many investigations indicate in- relatively large particles called coarse mode and
fluences of increased air pollution (and of aerosols i n 2) the solid-vapour-particle path comprises par-
particular) on mortality, a clear attribution of health ticles formed by recondensation of volatilised (hence
effect to aerosols is difficult due to interactions temperature is important) ash constituents leading t o
between the different pollutants. submicron particles in a high number concentration,
called fine mode particles.
The flue gas contains submicron particles, SO2 and efficiency of an electric filter showed a minimum i n
HCl. They constitute some of the problems caused b y the same particle size range as known from coal fired
large content of volatile salts in straw. In particular boilers. The hygroscopic growth of particles with a dry
KCl vaporizes during combustion and causes slagging diameter in the range of 20 nm to 265 nm was high and
and corrosion. The submicron particles mainly contain would be considered as more hygroscopic if classified
K, Cl, and S and can exceed 1000 mg/m3 in the raw gas. in the same way as an ambient aerosol. This i s
The composition of the flue gas is assumed to be explained by the presence of high contents of alkali
determined by chemical equilibrium at a temperature salts like KCl and K2SO4. The unimodal behaviour also
of 820C. Below this temperature only phase trans- indicates that the particles of a certain size has a
formations occur. similar chemical composition

2.2 Aerosol formation in fluidised bed combustion 2.5 Aerosols from fixed bed combustion [13]
[6] In this project test series were carried out with
In fluidised bed combustion of biomass ultra fine wood chips, bark, chipboards and waste wood. The test
particles are formed by alkali sulphates and chlorides runs included the characterisation of the fuel, aerosols
nucleation and condensation on metal oxide seed par- and fly ash (Figure 3). The results indicate that the
ticles. The supermicron particles are composed of bed concentration of coarse fly ashes in the flue gas
material and residues of fuel particles. The composi- mainly depends on the ash content of the fuel and the
tion of submicron and supermicron particles is clearly operation mode of the combustion unit. The chemical
distinctive as the fine particles are composed mainly composition and the concentration of aerosols in the
of K, Cl, S, Na and Ca and the coarse particles of Ca, flue gas are mainly influenced by the chemical com-
Si, K, S, Na, Al, P, Fe (Figure 2). The distribution of position of the fuel. Three different types of aerosol
these elements between the fine and coarse mode de- formation processes were identified relating to three
pends on fuel composition and combustion condi- different types of woody biomass fuels, namely
tions. From experimental investigations and model- chemically untreated wood chips, bark and waste
ling on aerosol formation it is concluded that the fuel wood.
composition is a key parameter affecting deposition,
corrosion and emission. Increased chlorine, alkali and 0.60

trace element concentrations in the fuel increases both, bark (2)


waste wood (3)
fine particle and trace element emissions. However 0.50
waste wood (10)
mean diameter [m ae.d.]

more understanding of reaction kinetics is needed spruce (5)


0.40 Fibre board 1 (6)
before the model can predict the full particle size beech (8)
distribution. 0.30
Fine particle Mass Size Distributions

0.20
0,06

NACL 0.10
0,05
[g/Nm**3]

KCL
K2SO4
0,04
K-exp 0.00
Cl-exp
dM/dlogDp

0,03 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175


emission [mg/Nm?]
0,02

0,01 Figure 3: Mean diameter of the aerosol fraction versus


aerosol emissions at 13 vol.% O2 [13].
0,00
0,01 0,10 1,00 10,00 100,00
Dp [m]
2.6 Particles from log wood combustion [17]
Fi The emissions of several wood fired heating appli-
Figure 2: Comparison between simulated and ances were analysed by SMSP, CPC, ELPI, and gravi-
measured composition for fine particle size mode [6]. metric measurement in order to characterise the parti-
cle emission under various combustion conditions.
2.3 Activities on aerosols in Sweden [8] For the tested furnaces a typical particle size between
Small-scale wood combustion in Sweden results i n 80 nm and 180 nm was found. Particle size as well as
annual particulate emissions in the same range as from concentration change significantly at different phases
traffic. The environmental impact depends on a num- during log wood combustion (Figure 4).
ber of factors, for instance fuel quality, installation
and operation. Few field measurements are available 8.E+07

and there is a need to quantify and characterize the 7.E+07

emissions in detail. Accurate data can be used t o 6.E+07

evaluate the need to implement the best available


-3
dN/dlog dp / cm

5.E+07
technology and to develop new technology. In order
to resolve these issues a research programme, Bio- 4.E+07

fuels, health and environment, has been initiated with 3.E+07

investigations in three areas: Emissions from biomass 2.E+07

combustion, ambient air, health effects. 1.E+07

0.E+00
2.4 Aerosols from commercial boilers [12] 0.05 0.09 0.14 0.22 0.34 0.53 0.84 1.33 2.09 3.28 5.41 8.64

Particles formed during combustion of biofuels i n aerodynamic diameter / m

commercial boilers were studied. Potassium, chlorine Figure 4: Particle number size distribution measured
and sulphur dominate the particle composition for by ELPI and averaged over a complete period. Two
three different tested biofuels. The particle removal separate periods are compared [17].
3 INFLUENCES ON EMISSIONS such as particle sampling with a 9-stage Berner type
low-pressure impactor (BLPI), total dust sampling and
3.1 Particle separation for biomass combustion [7] particle sampling with polycarbonate filters were
The main principles for particle separation are cy- applied. The results show a strong dependency of the
clones, fabric filters, electric filters, wet scrubbers, and particle composition on size. K, S, Cl and Zn are
flue gas condensation. The separation of particulate mainly found in the submicron fraction of the PM,
matter poses particular problems in the fine (submi- while the content of Ca is increasing with increasing
cron) fraction because of their chemical composition particle size (Figure 5).
(salts) and the content of heavy metals respectively.
Most of these problems have been encountered i n 50
other fields of combustion. Thus, the manufacturers of K wt.%
40 S wt.%
gas cleaning equipment dispose of know-how to offer
Cl wt.%
solutions. However, unsolved problems remain in the 30

wt.%
fields of operational behaviour and economical limi-
20
tations, especially for small and medium size applica-
tions, which are of main interest for biomass. 10

0
3.2 Activities on aerosols in USA [9] 0.010 0.100 1.000 10.000
Experiences on health impact of aerosols in the dp m ae.d.
USA show that aerosols are relevant for bronchitis,
40
asthma and increased mortality. Recent investigations Ca wt.%
revealed that the composition of the particulates from 30 Na wt.%
biomass combustion varies with size and that fuel Mg wt.%
composition influences the aerosol formation. Espe-

wt.%
20
cially chlorine in the fuel plays an important role, as i t
can significantly increase the release of submicron 10
particles. The following topics are regarded as major
unresolved problems: Role of secondary versus pri- 0
mary particles, role of composition, shape, etc. i n 0.010 0.100 1.000 10.000
dp m ae.d.
addition to amount, formation mechanisms other than
vapour condensation, capture efficiencies in commer- 8
cial systems, deposition mechanisms and rates. 7 Si wt.%
6 Zn wt.%
3.3 Activities on aerosols in Germany [10] 5
Cd wt.%
Pb wt.%
wt.%

In different field investigations, the influence of 4


fuel size and proportions o PM 10 was investigated. 3
The results show that there is a high amount of fine 2
particles in the waste gases, dependent on the kind of 1
industrial plants and on the used fuel. Approximately 0
75% of the examined installations have at least an 0.010 0.100 1.000 10.000
average PM 10-proportion > 90 %. Higher proportions dp m ae.d.

of PM 2.5 and PM 1.0 were found at firing installa- Figure 5: Composition (wet chemical analyses) of
tions with coarser structured solid fuel in contrary t o particulates from bark combustion as function of aero-
installations using finer structured pulverized fuel. dynamic diameter by Berner Low Pressure Impactor
[14].
3.4 Influences on aerosol formation [11]
In this project, the influences of operation, design
parameters, and fuel characteristics on particulate Start-up phase Operation phase
emissions in an automatic wood furnace are investi- Burn-out phase Mean value
gated. The results show, that the content of fines in the 5.E+08
fuel has no significant influence on the particulate
emissions, if the furnace is operated at similar com-
NC = dN/dlog(dp) [cm-3, @ 13%

bustion conditions. Further, also the excess air has 4.E+08


only a slight influence if all other combustion pa-
rameters are similar; with a tendency to higher particle 3.E+08
number at slightly lower mean size and smaller parti-
O2]

cle mass at high excess air. Both results are in contra-


diction to practical experiences. It is assumed, that the 2.E+08
apparent influences in practice are indirect: High fines
or large variations in excess air often lead to unfa- 1.E+08
vourable combustion conditions, which may result i n
high concentrations of unburnt particles.
1.E+03
10 15 100 550 1000
3.5 Behaviour of ash compounds in combustion [14]
In this project two methods, wet chemical analyses Particle mobility diameter [nm]
as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Figure 6: Typical particle size distribution over a burn
energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX) are used cycle of a batch wise fired appliance (heat accu-
for the characterisation of particulates on shape, struc- mulating stove [15].
ture and composition. Different sampling methods,
3.6 Field investigations of nanoparticles [15] Bioenergy Task 32, who has identified aerosols as a
In this investigation, emission factors in terms of major issue for future activities. IEA Bioenergy Task
particle numbers and size distribution from typical 32 advises to support research and development on re-
wood fuels were evaluated in 14 different wood furna- duction of aerosols. Equipment manufacturers need t o
ces in the field. SMPS was utilized to determine nano- be encouraged to develop novel, low cost combustion
particle numbers and size distribution up to 0.6 m installations and filtration techniques that result i n
and total suspended particles (TSP) were measured si- low particulate emissions. Task 32 will be instrumen-
multaneously. The results show that the major part of tal in market introduction of such systems by provid-
the particles is in the range of 30 to 300 nm. The par- ing a platform for information exchange.
ticle distribution of manual operated appliances varies
during a burn cycle, while wood log or continues fed
boilers show a fairly constant particle size distri- ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
bution (Figure 6).
The Seminar Aerosols from Biomass Combustion
3.7 Field investigations on district heating [16] was organised on behalf of and with support from the
The objective of this investigation is to character- Swiss Federal Office of Energy (BFE) and the Interna-
ise the emissions of particulates and gases from dis- tional Energy Agency (IEA) Bioenergy Task 32, which
trict heating plants (23 MW) equipped with cyclones. is gratefully acknowledged.
The particle number size distributions were found t o
be dominated by submicron particles with peaks in the
size range of 0.10.3 m. The dust emissions were i n REFERENCES
the range of 60200 mg/mn3 at 13% CO2. The number
concentrations during normal operation are 107 cm3. [1] Th. Nussbaumer (Ed.): Aerosols from Biomass
An influence of load, excess air and fuel quality was Combustion, International Seminar, June 2 7
found. 2001 Zurich, ISBN 3-908705-00-2. Download
http://www.ieabioenergy-task32.com
[2] Th. Nussbaumer: Relevance of aerosols for the air
4 CONCLUSIONS quality in Switzerland, [1], 110
[3] Ch. Braun: Health effects of aerosols, [1], 1118
Aerosols are identified as a key issue for future [4] H. Burtscher: Sampling, measurement, and cha-
improvements and applications of biomass combusti- racterization of combustion aerosols, [1], 1928
on, since particulates are health relevant and biomass [5] H. Livbjerg: Aerosol formation from straw com-
furnaces emit significant concentrations of particu- bustion, [1], 2930
lates. [6] J. Jokiniemi et al.: Modelling and experimental
The overview on ongoing activities reveals a large results on aerosol formation, deposition and
number of scientific investigations on formation and emissions in fluidized bed combustion of bio-
characterisation of aerosols. It is clearly shown, that mass, [1], 3140
the particulates from biomass are mainly in the sub- [7] F. Ebert: Particle separation for biomass combus-
micron range with a maximum around 100 nm to 200 tion, [1], 4146
nm. The particle composition is strongly dependent [8] C. Tullin et al.: Overview of projects on aerosols
on the particle size. While K, Cl, S, and Na are cons- from biomass combustion in Sweden, [1], 4750
tituents in high concentrations of submicron particles, [9] L. Baxter: Investigations on aerosols from bio-
Si is mainly found in coarse particles. Beside the com- mass in the United States, [1], 5152
bustion conditions, the fuel composition is identified [10] Ch. Ehrlich et al.: Overview of investigations o n
as a main parameter for particle formation and among aerosols from combustion (including biomass) i n
the constituents, Cl, K, and S play a dominant role. Germany, [1], 5358
Although profound knowledge on aerosol forma- [11] M. Oser et al.: Influences on aerosol emissions i n
tion has been gathered, primary measures (for a given an automatic wood furnace, [1], 5964
fuel) with significant reduction potential (i.e. by a [12] L. Lilleblad et al.: Investigation of aerosol for-
factor of 10 or more) are not known so far. As the fuel mation and cleaning efficiency in commercially
composition plays a key role, it is not expected that operated biomass fired boilers, [1], 6568
primary measures will enable an almost quantitative [13] I. Obernberger et al.: Characterisation and forma-
reduction of aerosols from biomass combustion. tion of aerosols and fly-ashes from fixed-bed bio-
Hence focus should be given on secondary measures mass combustion, [1], 6974
for particle removal from the flue gas or also on alter- [14] Th. Brunner et al.: Measurement and analyses of
natives to combustion. aerosols formed during fixed-bed biomass com-
Among the established secondary measures, fabric bustion, [1], 7580
filters achieve the highest particle reduction and are [15] Ch. Gaegauf et al.: Field investigation of nano-
regarded as promising. However, efficient filtration particle emissions from various biomass com-
techniques at reasonable cost are not available for bustion systems, [1], 8186
small and medium scale application, i.e. up to 1 or 2 [16] L. Johansson et al.: Particulate emissions from
MW. Further, technical problems to implement filtra- small-scale biomass combustion, [1], 8792
tion techniques in biomass furnaces have to be prop- [17] V. Schmatloch et al.: Small particles from com-
erly resolved. Since most biomass is used in house- bustion of wood logs in a wood stove, [1], 9396
hold furnaces and appliances up to 5 MW, there is a
strong need in particulate reduction for such applica-
tions.
The exchange of information on aerosols from bio-
mass combustion has been established within the IEA
Annex 16. Nanoparticle Emissions of Novel Wood Combustion
Processes
C. Gaegauf1, U. Wieser1, R. Hermansson2, V.-P.
Heiskanen3

1: Centre of Appropriate Technology, Schwengistr. 12, CH-4438 Langenbruck,


Switzerland, gaegauf@oekozentrum.ch

2 Lule University of Technology, Div. of Energy Engineering, S-971 87 Lule, Sweden,


Roger.Hermansson@mt.luth.se

3 VTT Energy, FIN-40101 Jyvskyl, Finland, Veli-Pekka.Heiskanen@vtt.fi

(Appeared as paper V2.37 at the


12th European Conferences & Technology Exhibition on
Biomass for Energy, Industry and Climate Protection in Amsterdam.)
Laboratories for Sustainable Energy Systems

NANOPARTICLE EMISSIONS OF NOVEL WOOD COMBUSTION PROCESSES

C. Gaegauf1, U. Wieser1, R. Hermansson2, V.-P. Heiskanen3


1
Centre of Appropriate Technology, Schwengistr. 12, CH-4438 Langenbruck, Switzerland, gaegauf@oekozentrum.ch
2
Lule University of Technology, Div. of Energy Engineering, S-971 87 Lule, Sweden, Roger.Hermansson@mt.luth.se
3
VTT Energy, FIN-40101 Jyvskyl, Finland, Veli-Pekka.Heiskanen@vtt.fi

ABSTRACT: The goal of the project was the development of novel combustion technologies for wood fuels aimed to
achieve rigorous restrictions on emissions over a load range from 10% up to 100% of nominal heat output. Three
combustion concepts were developed, the first concept based on a partitioned primary combustion chamber, the
second design applied pulsating combustion by a self-exciting Rijke-tube and the third comprised a two-stage vortex
combustion system designed to adapt to the combustion rate. For the comparison of nanoparticle emissions of particle
size smaller than 600nm the three prototype boilers have been tested with the similar type of fuel over the entire heat
load range. At all heat output levels, all three systems showed very similar particle number concentrations in the flue
gas. The two-stage chamber system had lowest concentrations at minimum heat output and highest concentrations at
maximum output. The pulsating Rijke-tube burner had lowest particle concentrations at medium heat output. The
burner with the partitioned chamber showed lowest particle emission running at full load. For all three combustion
systems the total particle number concentration and the most frequent particle diameter were quite similar.

Keywords: wood energy, combustion, emissions, nanoparticles

1 INTRODUCTION process in the second chamber with fuel rich gas. The
second chamber was built as a multi-stage chamber
Life cycle assessments of wood combustion processes designed to adapt to the combustion rate in the heat
show many advantages over fossil fuels [1]. There is output range (max. 150 kW).
nevertheless a remarkable disadvantage looking at the This publication reports on the comparison of the
wood combustion emission, particularly at particulate nanoparticle emissions of the three combustion concepts.
emissions and nitrogen oxides known as precursors for
particles contribute to the total suspended particles in the
ambient air. The abatement of these emission leads to a 3 MATERIAL AND METHODS
distinct improvement of the environmental rating of wood
combustion systems. The particulate matter (PM) in the 3.1 Partitioned combustion chamber
environment is of ever increasing concern to authorities A 500 kW boiler with partitioned combustion
and the public since it is known to be carcinogens and chamber was constructed according to the basic design of
respiratory irritants [2]. The major fractions of the the Lule University of Technology (LUT), Sweden. It
particles in the combustion process are in the size less was installed in a small district heating central that was
than 1 micron, typically in the range of 30 to 300nm [3]. supplied with a 35m3 water heat storage bin.
These nanoparticle fractions behave like gaseous effluents
and penetrate deeply into the human respiratory tract.

2 OBJECTIVES

The goal of the project funded by the European


Commission (Joule-Thermie III) was the development of
novel combustion technologies for wood fuels. The
approach of the project was to provide a theoretical and
experimental basis for the design of biomass fired boilers
for district heating systems suitable to achieve rigorous
restrictions on emissions. The key emissions to be
reduced in the combustion process were volatile organic
compounds, nitrogen oxides and particles. This to be
achieved over a load range from 10% up to 100% of
nominal heat output. Three novel combustion concepts
were developed which had different designs. The first
concept based on a partitioned primary combustion
chamber split in a small (150kW) and a large chamber
Figure 1: Boiler designed by LUT with a partitioned
(350kW). This to allow optimal combustion condition for
primary combustion chamber split in a small (150kW)
the variation of the heat output by running one or the
and a large combustion chamber (350kW).
other or both chambers. The second design applied
pulsating combustion by a self-exciting Rijke-tube burner
The boiler has been run for several hundred hours and
of 500kW power output. The acoustics in the combustion
delivered some 135MWh of heat to the district-heating
process is a measure to increase mixing in the combustion
network. The combustion chamber is divided into two
process under changing heat load. The third prototype
parts in order to maintain temperatures high enough in the
biomass burner comprised a two-stage vortex burner
primary combustion zone to enable low emissions even at
system. The first chamber supplied the combustion
low thermal rates. The larger combustion chamber has a
12th European Conference and Exhibition on Biomass for Energy, Industry and Climate Protection, June 2002 Amsterdam Page 1
Nanoparticle Emissions of Novel Wood Combustion Processes

maximum thermal output of 350kW, the smaller one has achieved with the 10kW pellet burner did not show
a maximum thermal output of 150kW. The primary distinguished effects on emissions such as nanoparticles
chamber has an inclined plane, where the combustion under superimposed sound conditions the decision was to
gases dry the wood chips. The combustion takes place on design the final prototype without applied sound.
the horizontal plane after the slope and on steps. Two The main components of the combustor are a primary
rectangular pistons are placed in the horizontal section, combustion chamber, a mixing zone where secondary air
which push the fuel forward to keep the height of the fuel is supplied and a secondary combustion chamber (Fig. 3).
bed constant. Furthermore the boiler has a horizontal The primary combustion chamber has a cross section of
cylindrical secondary combustion chamber. Downstream 700 x 700mm and a height of 450mm. The fuel is fed
of the secondary combustion chamber a heat recovery by feeding screws from an intermediate fuel hopper on a
unit and two cyclones are installed. horizontal perforated plate (grate) inside the primary
combustion chamber. Through the perforation of the plate
3.2 Pulsating combustion (Rijke-tube) primary air is supplied from below to the bed. The
The biomass fired pulsating combustor at the mixing zone has a height of about 680mm and a circular
laboratories of VTT Energy at Jyvskyl, Finland (VTT) cross section of 250mm in diameter. In this mixing zone
has a maximum heat output of 500kW. The main secondary air is supplied by eight tangentially arranged
component of the pulsating combustor is a vertical tube tubes at two different height levels, respectively.
with an inner diameter of 400mm and a height of
3500mm. The frequency of the sound in the process was 1
2
Fuel feed (auger)
9
Primary air
determined by the design of the chamber as a vertical 3 Grate
4 Primary combustion chamber
mounted circular tube (Fig. 2). 5 Secondary combustion air I
6 Secondary combustion chamber I
8 7 Secondary combustion air II
Flue Gas 8 Secondary combustion chamber II
to Stack 9 Flue gase
Cy clones
H eat Exchanger
7

4 1
L EVEL 2
( port D, E) Water 2 2
J acket 3
1
C oncrete
Refractory
3500

Combustion 2
Chamber

400 Side view Plan view


Secondary
Air Biomass in Figure 3: Vortex burner with integrated two-stage
550

LEVEL 1
450
3 50

(port A, B, C) combustion (FATSE).


Primary Rotating
Air G rate This causes a rotating and well stirred gas/air mixture.
The secondary combustion zone has a height of 600mm
Figure 2: Pulsating combustor (Rijke-tube) for acoustic and a cross section of about 560 x 560mm. This zone
enhanced heat and mass transfer (VTT). ensures a residence time, which is long enough for the
burnout of the gases. The flue gases leaving the secondary
This tube is provided with heat resistant materials and combustion chamber are led to a heat exchanger, to a
operates as primary and secondary combustion chamber. cyclone and to the stack. By the heat exchanger the heat
Pulsation increases mixing as well as heat and mass is transferred from the flue gases to air, which is used to
transfer of the flue gases with fuel particles in the heat the building.
secondary reaction zone. Primary air is delivered from
below of the rotating grate. Secondary combustion air is 3.4 Analysis of nanoparticle emissions
fed in radial direction to the combustor. The secondary A scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) was
combustion zone of the combustor has a height of approx. applied to analyze nanoparticles [3]. Size distributions
3m. By a heat exchanger, which is located at the top of and total number concentrations (TNC) of particles in the
the combustion chamber, the heat is transferred from the range from 0.01-0.6m are determined by analysis of
flue gases to the primary water circuit. The flue gases particle mobility. An impactor with a cut-off size of 1.0
leaving the heat exchanger are led into two cyclones, m was used to withdraw the coarse particle fraction.
which are installed to separate unburned fuel particles Exhaust gas was taken with a probe, which was also fed
from the gases. with particle free air. The resulting dilution factor was
adjusted by the flow rate of the diluting air and the total
3.3 Two-stage vortex burner flow. To prevent condensation of water onto the particle
Another option to improve combustion studied within surface, the dilution factor was chosen high enough, to
the project, was the use of thermo-acoustic effects, a achieve a dew point below ambient temperature. The
measure known to reduce emissions when burning fossil analytical set-up is shown in figure 4.
fuel [4]. Flame behaviour and emissions when sound was
applied, were comprehensively investigated with a 10kW
pellet burner by the Centre of Appropriate Technology,
Switzerland (FATSE). The sound was shown to reduce
emissions during phases with products of incomplete
combustion (PIC). If there were already few PIC in the
combustion process, the sound applied to the flame had
only minor effects on emissions. Since the results

12th European Conference and Exhibition on Biomass for Energy, Industry and Climate Protection, June 2002 Amsterdam Page 2
Nanoparticle Emissions of Novel Wood Combustion Processes

2
Power output
C 3
P max.
8
B D

3 P mean
A E 2 I

1 6 F H

1 G

4 5 P min.
7 Time

1 Flue duct 5 Flow controler


2 particlefree air 6 Differential mobility analyzer Figure 5: Test cycle performed at three power output
3 hot dilution 7 Condensed particle counter levels (13) and stepwise variation of power output
4 Impactor 0.6 m 8 Data management (AI).

Figure 4: Instrumental set-up for exhaust gas analysis


and nonoparticle measurement. 4 RESULTS

Polydisperse aerosol particles in the sample gas At all power levels, all three combustors show very
passes through a radioactive bipolar charger, establishing similar particle number concentrations in their fluegas
a bipolar equilibrium on the particles. The particles then (Fig. 6). Whereas the vortex burner showed lowest
enter the differential mobility analyzer (DMA, TSI 3071) concentrations at minimal load and highest concentrations
and are separated according to their electric mobility. A at maximum load, the Rijke-tube combustor had higher
subsequent condensation particle counter (CPC, TSI concentrations at minimal load but a lower increase
3025) evaluates the number concentration of the towards maximum load. For the partitioned combustion
monodisperse aerosol particles. The number size chamber the particle concentrations at average load and
distribution is measured by varying the DMA voltage maximum load were almost the same. For all three
over the measuring range and by recording the combustors at average load both the total number
accompanying particle concentrations with the CPC. This concentration (TNC) and the most frequent particle
scanning method is controlled by computer software. diameter (NC mode ) were quite similar, but at minimum
The characteristic data of particles are given by the load and maximum load they differed almost by a factor
mode diameter as the most frequent size of a particle of two.
population and the total number concentration (TNC) as
the total amount of particles over the whole measured
range. The TNC is based on the flue gas volume at a 3.E+14
standard oxygen content of 10%. TNC
[counts/mn3; FATSE LUT VTT
The following settings were chosen for the SMPS: 10%O2]
- hot dilution of sample, f 200
2.E+14
- sample impaction for dp > 600 nm
- sheath/sample flow in DMA 4/0.4 l/min
- up-/downscantime 240/60 sec
1.E+14
- charge correction on (software TSI 3.2).

3.5 Experimental setup for the comparative studies 0.E+00


P min P mean P max
The three firings were compared in an identical
program of load variations according to a defined cycle
with variations between minimum and maximum load. Figure 6: Total number concentration of nanoparticles in
Load span of the load for the respective boilers were: span experiments of all three combustors (FATSE: two-
- partitioned combustion chamber: 50 500 kW stage vortex; LUT: partitioned chamber; VTT Rijke-tube
- pulsating combustor: 92 343 kW combustor).
- vortex burner: 37 150 kW
The nanoparticle emissions of the three firings were For comparison, emissions of nanoparticles <600nm
measured during the three steady state power levels and from the three boilers are shown in figure 7. The stepwise
during the stepwise variation of the fuel load (Fig. 5). variation of load focussed on particle emission by
dynamic power output management. For the Rijke-tube
combustors and vortex burner both the TNC and the
NC mode were closely correlated with the power level.

12th European Conference and Exhibition on Biomass for Energy, Industry and Climate Protection, June 2002 Amsterdam Page 3
Nanoparticle Emissions of Novel Wood Combustion Processes

TNC NC mode 5.3 Pulsating combustion


[counts/m n 3 ; 10%O2]
[counts/m n3; 10%O2]
3.E+14 9.E+08
Acoustically effects in the Rijke-tube combustor may
TNC FATSE decrease particle emission. By using loudspeaker for
TNC VTT
NC mode FATSE externally induced oscillations, a minimum oscillation
2.E+14
NC mode VTT
6.E+08
amplitude level could always be maintained and
combustion stability could be improved to some extent.
Externally induced oscillations also meant that the self-
1.E+14 3.E+08
induced oscillations could be restarted more easily. Char
combustion rate is increased due to pulsations in the gas
flow, but the effect is about 10 % or less according to the
0.E+00 0.E+00
theoretical studies. However, the devolatilization and
A B C D E F G H I combustion rates in pulsating conditions have been
observed to increase much more than 10 %. The reasons
Figure 7: TNC and NCmode at variation of fuel load for this are:
(AI) for the Rijke-tube burner (VTT) and two-stage - Solid fuel particles are well-mixed with the hot gas and
vortex burner (FATSE). particles due to the increased particle motion induced by
gas oscillations.
Assuming particles as spheres with a density of - The temperatures in pulsating conditions are higher due
1500kgm-3 we calculated PM0.6 mass emission based on to the increase in the homogeneous and heterogeneous
fuel input, which was calculated by exhaust gas combustion phases, increasing further drying and
concentrations. Figure 8 shows the comparison of total devolatilization rate compared to non-pulsating
suspended particles (TSP) calculated by nanoparticle conditions.
emissions and by particle sampled on filter disks. - Fragmentation of particles due to mixing increases both
the devolatilization and char combustion rates due to
150 smaller particle size, the effect of pulsations is greater for
Particle mass emission
[mg/mn3]
these smaller particles formed.
- There is no significant ash layer formation on the
100
particles due to the oscillations and consequent particle
motion.

5.4 Vortex combustion and thermo-acoustic


50
The final test runs showed a smooth run of the
prototype over the entire power range up to 150kW. The
TSP PM0.6
CO-emissions were far below the set targets. The
0 hydrocarbons (HC) and total suspended particles (TSP)
0 50 100 150 emission met the requirements. Only the NOx emission
Power output [kW]
couldn't fulfil the set standard.
Figure 8: Correlation of TSP and PM 0.6 of the two-
stage vortex burner (FATSE) as mean values of all steady
state and stepwise variation experiments. 6 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The project was funded as part of a joint European


5 CONCLUSION project of the EUROPEAN COMMISSION in the
framework of the Non Nuclear Energy Programme
5.1 Nanoparticle emissions JOULE III and the Swiss Office for Education and
The comparison of nanoparticle emissions of the three Science.
wood combustion systems showed quite similar particle
emission results, both for TNC and NC mode.
Although gravimetric measuring of TSP and 7 REFERENCES
theoretically calculated PM0.6 are different methods, the
results show a quite close correlation. [1] Heizenergie aus Heizl, Erdgas oder Holz,
Complete combustion and optimized low flow supply kobilanzen, Schriftenreihe Umwelt Nr. 315,
of combustion air may be essential for reduction of Bundesamt fr Umwelt, Wald und Landschaft,
particle emission. (BUWAL), 2000 Bern, Switzerland.
[2] Non-Biological Particles and Health (1995). Com-
5.2 Partitioned combustion chamber mittee on the Medical Effects of Air Pollutants.
The boiler works very well with wood chips with HMSO Publication, 1995, London, Great Britain.
moisture content in the range of 40-60%. Emissions of [3] Hueglin C., Gaegauf C., Kuenzel S., Burtscher H.
CO, THC and particles were well below the set targets. (1997). Characterization of Wood Combustion
The system runs with very low emissions as long as the Particles. Morphology, Mobility and Photoelectric
larger combustion chamber is in operation. When the Activity. Environmental Science and Technology,
smaller chamber is started and runs alone the emissions 31, p. 3439-3447.
are substantially increased. Even though fast load [4] M.Q. McQuay, R.K. Dubey, W.A. Nazeer;
variations are possible and the average CO-emission An experimental study on the impact of acoustics
during one cycle of load variations between minimum and and spray quality on the emissions of CO and NO
maximum load is well below the set target. from an ethanol spray flame, Fuel 77, 5, 425-35
(1998)

12th European Conference and Exhibition on Biomass for Energy, Industry and Climate Protection, June 2002 Amsterdam Page 4
Annex 17. Fuel Staging for NOx Reduction in Biomass
Combustion: Experiments and Modeling
Roger Salzmann1, Thomas Nussbaumer2

1: Institute of Energy Technology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology , Sonneggstrasse


3, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland
2: Verenum, Langmauerstrasse 109, 8006 Zurich, Switzerland

Appeared in Energy & Fuels 2001, 15, 575-582


Energy & Fuels 2001, 15, 575-582 575

Fuel Staging for NOx Reduction in Biomass Combustion:


Experiments and Modeling
Roger Salzmann*,
Institute of Energy Technology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Sonneggstrasse 3,
8092 Zurich, Switzerland
Thomas Nussbaumer
Verenum, Langmauerstrasse 109, 8006 Zurich, Switzerland

Received June 30, 2000. Revised Manuscript Received January 26, 2001

With increasing use of biomass in combustion processes, the reduction of the related NOx
emissions which originate mainly from the fuel nitrogen becomes more and more important.
Efficient primary measures for NOx reduction are staged combustion techniques. Air staging
has been investigated earlier and has found its way into practice. Since fuel staging has not
been applied with nonpulverized biomass yet, the aim of the present work was to investigate the
potential of fuel staging for NOx reduction in fixed bed systems. For this purpose, a prototype
understoker furnace of 75 kW thermal input with two fuel beds in series was developed.
Experiments were performed with wood chips (low nitrogen content) and UF-chipboards (high
nitrogen content) to investigate the influences of the main process parameters, i.e., stoichiometric
ratio, temperatures, residence time, and fuel properties on the conversion of fuel nitrogen to
N-species. The most important parameters were found to be the temperature and the stoichio-
metric ratio in the reburn zone. The potential of fuel staging was measured and compared with
air staging and unstaged combustion. The experiments show that low NOx emissions are already
achievable with fuel staging at lower temperatures than with air staging, i.e., 900-1000 C, and
at a stoichiometric ratio of 0.85 in the reduction zone. The NOx reduction achieved under optimum
conditions for UF-chipboard as main fuel was 78% which is higher than with air staging, where
72% NOx reduction was measured. For wood chips both measures attained about 66%. The
nitrogen conversion during air and fuel staging has also been simulated using a furnace model
based on ideal flow patterns as perfectly stirred reactors and plug flow reactors. A detailed reaction
mechanism including the nitrogen chemistry (GRI-Mech 2.11) was implemented. The trends found
with this model are in good agreement with the experiments and they indicate that even higher
NOx reduction may be reached with improved process design. The investigations show that fuel
staging is a promising technology for NOx reduction also for fixed bed biomass furnaces.

Introduction
Biomass combustion systems emit nitrogen oxides
which should be reduced since they contribute to the
formation of acid rain and photochemical smog. The NOx
emissions from biomass combustion are mainly caused
by the nitrogen in the fuel.1 Thermal NOx formation
usually produces negligible amounts of NOx because the
lower heating values leads to lower combustion tem-
peratures compared to fossil fuels. Figure 1 shows the
calculated adiabatic flame temperature of wood combus-
tion as a function of the excess air ratio and the fuel
water content. In Figure 2, the contributions of the
different NOx formation mechanisms to the NOx emis-
sion as a function of temperature are displayed for fixed
bed biomass combustion systems.2 For any NOx forma-
Figure 1. Influence of water content (w) on the calculated
tion mechanism, the oxygen content in the flame region
adiabatic flame temperature of wood combustion with ambient
and the residence time are also important parameters. air as function of the stoichiometric ratio SR (total pressure 1
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed. bar, dry wood as CH0.7O1.4).
Current address: Bytics Technology, 8612 Uster, Switzerland.
During recent years, primary measures have been
E-mail: rsalzmann@bytics.ch.
(1) Nussbaumer, T. Schadstoffbildung bei der Verbrennung von developed to reduce the formation of nitrogen oxides
Holz. Ph.D. Thesis ETH No. 8838, 1989. during the combustion process. Staged combustion
10.1021/ef0001383 CCC: $20.00 2001 American Chemical Society
Published on Web 04/11/2001
576 Energy & Fuels, Vol. 15, No. 3, 2001 Salzmann and Nussbaumer

Figure 4. Influence of fuel-N content on the conversion to


N-species for biomass in combustion systems1,4,5 (FB: fixed
bed; FBC: fluidized bed combustor).
Figure 2. Influence of temperature on NOx emission for
biomass combustion.2

Figure 5. Principles of air staging (A) and fuel staging (B).


combustion techniques is the promotion of the second
reaction path by the creation of optimized conditions
during combustion.
Figure 3. Simplified reaction path diagram of the NOx The reduction of fuel-N to molecular nitrogen in air
formation and destruction in the gas phase. staging is favored in the fuel rich primary combustion
zone (Figure 5a). Investigations on fixed bed wood
techniques have been investigated for large scale power furnaces have shown that a minimum of the total fixed
plants mainly, fired with gas, oil, or pulverized coal. nitrogen (TFN ) HCN + NH3 + NO + NO2 + 2N2O)
Since the importance of renewable energy sources will emission from the primary combustion zone is reached
grow in the future, clean combustion of solid biomass for a stoichiometric ratio of 0.7 to 0.8 and a temperature
is important. But the fuel characteristics of biomass of 1100-1200 C and providing a mean residence time
differ from fossil fuels, hence it remains to show which of 0.5 s.6 After the reduction zone the combustion is
primary measures for low NOx combustion can be completed in the burnout zone by injection of the excess
applied for nonpulverized biomass. air.
During the thermal degradation of the biomass sub- Air staging has high demands concerning the fuel
stance the main products containing fuel nitrogen after properties. Because of the relatively high temperatures
this conversion process are HCN and NH3.3 Further needed in the reduction zone the fusibility of the fuel
reactions then lead to molecular N2 or to NO when they ash is an important fuel property because ash sintering
are oxidized by the reaction with radicals (O, H, OH). and slagging disturb the combustion process and there-
Figure 3 shows a simplified global reaction path of fuel fore limits fixed bed combustion. Native wood usually
nitrogen. Only part of the total nitrogen is converted to has the highest melting range, about 1300 C. The
NOx as Figure 4 illustrates.1,4,5 The goal of staged melting point of other wood fuels as UF-chipboard or
demolition wood as well as of other biomass can be much
(2) Nussbaumer, T. Primary and secondary measures for NOx lower, depending on their composition or whether they
reduction in Biomass combustion. In Developments in Thermochemical are mixed with other components. Herbaceous fuels for
Biomass Conversion; Blackie Academic and Professional: London,
U.K., 1997. example have melting points at 800-900 C because
(3) Aho, M.; Hamaleinen, J.; Tummavuori, J. Importance of solid they contain relatively high amounts of various inor-
fuel properties to nitrogen oxide formation through HCN and NH3 in ganic substances which can form new compositions with
small particle combustion. Combust. Flame 1993, 95, 22-30.
(4) Marutzky, R. Erkenntnisse zur Schadstoffbildung bei der Ver- low melting points.7,8
brennung von Holz und Spanplatten. WKI-Bericht; Fraunhofer Ar- Fuel staging or reburning has first been tested on coal
beitsgruppe fur Holzforschung 1991, 26.
(5) Winter; F.; Wartha, C.; Hofbauer, H. A NO/N2O classification fired utilities using natural gas as reburn fuel.9 In fuel
system of single fuel particles. In Developments in Thermochemical
Biomass Conversion; Blackie Academic and Professional: London, (6) Keller, R. Primarmassnahmen zur NOx Minderung. Ph.D. Thesis
U.K., 1997; pp 1303-1315. ETH No. 10514, 1994.
Fuel Staging for NOx Reduction in Biomass Combustion Energy & Fuels, Vol. 15, No. 3, 2001 577

staging the first stage of the combustion process oper-


ates slightly fuel lean, whereby the NOx production is
high (Figure 5b). Then, additional fuel is added which
creates fuel-rich conditions in the reburn zone. When
hydrocarbons are used as reburn fuel, the hydrocarbon
radicals entering the reburn zone can initialize the NO
reduction mechanisms. The major reaction path found
from research studying the reburning mechanism
through elementary chemical reactions under fuel rich
conditions is the formation of HCN.10

C, CH, CH2, CHi + N f HCN ... (1)

HCN + O, OH f N2 + ... (2)

Because the volatile content of wood is high (80-85%),


wood is highly reactive and therefore well suited as
reburn fuel. Also the nitrogen content may be beneficial
since it leads to additional reducing species.11,12

NHi + NO f N2 + ... (3)

Further improvement of the reburning in power plants


lead to the advanced reburning technologies where fuel
staging is combined with other NOx reduction technolo-
gies.13
The aim of the work presented is to investigate
whether a new concept for fuel staging based on fixed
bed systems is suitable for the NOx reduction of non-
pulverized wood fuels.14 Focus of the research is the
elaboration of the optimum combustion conditions for
an efficient NOx reduction. The measured potential is
compared with air staging. All the experiments pre-
sented are measured on a pilot-scale research facility
of about 75 kW thermal input. To investigate the effect
of the fuel nitrogen, wood chips (low nitrogen content)
and UF-chipboard (high nitrogen content) are chosen
for the experiments. The parameters investigated are
the temperatures, the stoichiometric ratio, and the
residence time in the reburn zone and the ratio of
primary fuel and reburn fuel. The research facility also
allows air staging conditions as well as unstaged
combustion for comparison.

Experimental Section
A new research facility was designed to investigate both air
staging and fuel staging in a fixed bed furnace shown in Figure
6. The main components of the facility are two understoker
Figure 6. Research facility at the ETH Zurich (1. understoker
(stage 1); 2. ash box; 3. and 4. air inlet; 5. primary zone; 6.
(7) Kaufmann, H.; Nussbaumer, T.; Baxter, L.; Yang, N. Deposit
formation on a single cylinder during combustion of herbaceous
burnout zone; 7. understoker (stage 2: reburn stage); 8. air
biomass. Fuel 2000, 79, 141-151. inlet (level variable); 9. mixing element; 10. reduction zone;
(8) Kaufmann, H. Chlorine compounds in emissions and residues 11. burnout zone; 12. flyash box; 13. boiler).
from the combustion of herbaceous biomass. Ph.D. Thesis ETH No.
12429, 1997.
(9) Smoot, L.; Hill, S.; Xu, H. NOx control through reburning. Prog. grates in series. The alignment chosen for the furnace tries to
Energy Combust. Sci. 1998, 24, 385-408. approximate a straight plug flow of the gases, preventing dead
(10) Miller, J.; Bowman, C. Mechanism and modeling of nitrogen zones and backflow regions.
chemistry in combustion. Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 1989, 15, 287-
338.
The first stage is a conventional understoker furnace
(11) Rudiger, H.; Greul, U.; Spliethoff, K. Pyrolysis gas of biomass equipped with an air supply for primary and secondary air.
as a NOx-reductive in a coal fired test facility. In 3rd International Then, a small burnout chamber for the combustion gas follows.
Conference on Combustion Technologies for a Clean Environment; 1995; The design of the second grate is adapted to the higher gas
Lisbon (Portugal).
(12) Kicherer, A.; Spliethoff, K.; Maier, H.; Hein, K. The effect of
flux due to the temperatures of 800-1200 C. The maximum
different reburning fuels on NOx reduction. Fuel 1994, 73, 1443-1446. fuel input of both understoker systems is equal.
(13) Zamansky; V.; Maly, P.; Ho, L. Family of advanced reburning The second understoker is protected by a water cooled shell.
technologies: pilot scale development. In Joint Power Generation
Conference; ASME 1997; pp 107-113.
To minimize the heat loss of the gas to the cooled surface the
(14) Salzmann, R. Fuel staging for NOx reduction in automatic wood understoker hosing is sheltered with bricks. Above the second
furnaces. Ph.D. Thesis ETH No. 13531, 2000. grate, the reburn or reduction zone follows. At the entrance a
578 Energy & Fuels, Vol. 15, No. 3, 2001 Salzmann and Nussbaumer

Table 1. Gas Analysis Equipment for the Measurements Table 2. Fuel Properties of Wood Chips and
on the Research Facility UF-chipboard
location species method wood chips UF-chipboard
flue gas O2 paramagnetic water g/100 g 17.9 4.7
NO, NO2 CLD ash wfa g/100 g 1.0 1.3
CO, CO2 NDIR volatiles wf g/100 g 83.0 79.9
reburn zone CxHy FID char wf g/100 g 16.0 18.8
CO, CO2 NDIR
CH4 NDIR HHV MJ/kg 16.13 18.9
H2 HCD LHV MJ/kg 14.74 17.54
O2 paramagnetic
NO, NO2 CLD C wf g/100 g 49.6 49.2
HCN, NH3, N2O FTIR H wf g/100 g 5.3 6.0
O wf g/100 g 44.9 41.1
N wf g/100 g 0.18 3.58
static mixing element provides an enhanced mixing of the S wf g/100 g 0.03 0.12
gases before passing the reburn zone. The reburn zone element NO2 max from N mg/Nm3 720 12300
has also a water cooled shell which keeps the reburn zone at at 11% O2
low temperatures. The heat transfer can be influenced by the bed ash properties:
composition of the insulation layers. The reburn section has initial deformation 1280 C 1230 C
three levels of nozzles for the injection of the burnout air. temperature
According to the injection levels, the mean residence times can hemispherical 1310 C 1260 C
temperature
be varied: depending on the fuel inputs and temperatures from fluid 1360 C 1290 C
about 0.4 to 2 s. The reburn section also has several openings temperature
at different locations for gas sampling and temperature a wf: water free base.
measurements. On the top, the burnout segment leads the
gases further to the boiler unit of the facility. The lower part The experiments were carried out with wood chips and UF-
of the boiler unit still is designed as a combustion chamber. chipboard (UF ) urea formaldehyde) representing two biofuels
The upper part is the heat exchanger where the flue gas is with different nitrogen content. UF-chipboard has a very high
cooled to 200-250 C. nitrogen content compared to native wood because most of the
The furnace has no automatic ash removal. The ash of the nitrogen originates from the glue that holds the matrix of the
first stage is collected in an ash box. The ash of the second chipboard. The wood chips were cut into small pieces of about
stage has to be removed manually after 8 to 12 h of operation. 2-5 cm length by an ordinary wood hacker. The fine chipboard
A part of the flyash is collected in a box at the last redirection chips were pressed to briquettes with a diameter of about 8
of the gas before entering the main heat exchanger. cm. But the briquettes were crushed on the way to the grate
Besides the fuel and the ash handling, the operation of the by the transport system (screw feeders). Table 2 provides
research facility is completely automated, controlled by a PLC. information about the fuel properties of the wood chips and
The first fuel stage is equipped with an oxygen control to keep the UF-chipboard used.
the oxygen content within a narrow range (SR1 ) 1.1 to 1.3).
For fuel staging, it is essential that the stoichiometric ratio of
the first stage is well controlled to enable understoichiometric Modeling
conditions in the reduction zone with little reburn fuel input. The aim of the modeling presented is the investigation
The amount of reburn fuel, namely, is dosed according to the
of the influence of stoichiometry and temperature in the
desired stoichiometric ratio in the reburn zone. The injection
of burnout air completes the combustion after the reduction
reburn zone on the NOx reduction by simulation of the
zone. The amount of burnout air is controlled the way that fuel staging experiments with a model that needs
complete burnout is achieved at a stoichiometric ratio between moderate computational effort. Focus is placed on the
1.5 and 2.0. The oxygen content in the flue gas is also homogeneous chemistry during reburning and influence
continuously measured with a second gas sensor. A flue gas of the operation conditions on the nitrogen oxides and
ventilator controls the pressure in the facility and guarantees their precursors. To keep the model as simple as
save operation. possible, concessions on the modeling effort for the flow
A more practical parameter than the stoichiometric ratio field are necessary.
in the reburn zone is the reburn fuel rate RFR, which is the The chemical reacting system is described as a
input of reburn fuel to the total fuel input.
combination of ideal reactor types such as the plug flow
reactor (PFR) and the mixed flow reactor (PSR). The
RFR ) m2 LHV2/(m1 LHV1 + m2 LHV2) (4)
reactors in question are the reburn and burnout section
of the fuel staged combustion. The resulting furnace
where m1, m2 are the mass flows and LHV1, LHV2 are the
heating values of the fuels of stages one and two. When the model used with all the possible variants for simulation
stoichiometric ratio of the first stage is known, the stoichio- is shown in Figure 7. The input of the model are the
metric ratio in the reburn zone can be calculated as a function combustion products of the first stage (gaseous only) and
of RFR. the reburn fuel. The combustion process after the reburn
The measurements were done at stationary or quasi sta- fuel input is separated and modeled as plug flow or
tionary conditions. The measurements of air flows, gas tem- mixed flow or both.
peratures, gas composition, and heat output were monitored An important and critical process of the simulation
online. The gas composition was analyzed in the flue gas right is the calculation of the adequate inputs for the reburn
after the boiler exit with industrial gas analyzers. For the zone modeling. Since all of the reburn fuel is converted
analysis of the hot gas in the reduction zone a suction
in a fixed bed into gaseous species, the conversion of
pyrometer combined with a probe for O2 detection was used.
With this probe also short fluctuations could be monitored with the solid reburn fuel is evaluated in a separate step,
almost no delay time. Besides, a hot gas sampling line with assuming complete fuel conversion.
different analyzers for measuring the gas in the reburn zone At first, the main components of the combustion gas
was installed. Table 1 gives an overview over the gas analysis of the fuel-lean first fuel stage are calculated (O2, N2,
equipment. CO2, H2O) by evaluating the combustion equation for
Fuel Staging for NOx Reduction in Biomass Combustion Energy & Fuels, Vol. 15, No. 3, 2001 579

Figure 7. Scheme of furnace model for simulation.

Table 3. Conversion of Fuel Nitrogen into HCN and NH3


Assumed for Simulation
wood chips UF-chipboard
O/N 223 11
conversion to HCN 0.03 0.007
conversion to NH3 0.05 0.005

wood as CxHyOz at a given stoichiometric ratio. Since


the combustion gas of the first stage also contains NOx
that effectively should be reduced, a specific amount of
NOx is added to the calculated composition. The amount
is derived from the measurements on the research
facility. For UF-chipboard as main fuel a primary NOx
emission of 385 ppm at SR1 ) 1.2 is assumed which
represents the measurements. Afterward, the calculated
gas of the fuel-lean first stage is used in the next step Figure 8. Calculated equilibrium composition for gasification
as donor of oxidizing agents for the gasification of the of 1 mole of wood with ambient air (1 bar, dry wood as
reburn fuel. CH0.7O1.4) at 800 C.
The detailed model for the thermal degradation of Figure 8 shows. An amount of char depending on the
biomass into low molecular components is out of the water content of the fuel and the process temperature
scope of the present work and reported elsewhere.15 The remains. In a real furnace in fact, the charcoal burns
model for the conversion of the fuel-bound nitrogen out completely, also in the reburn stage since char
during pyrolysis into HCN and NH3 is based on experi- burnout takes place after the pyrolysis. According to this
mental data of single particle pyrolysis at 800 C.16 fact, the amount of oxygen needed for the char burnout
Since the correlation found between the HCN/NH3 ratio is computed and subtracted from the amount of O2
and the fuel-O/fuel-N ratio is valid for various fuels and available in the gas coming from the first fuel stage.
nitrogen-containing model substances, it is also base for Then, the pyrolysis gas and the combustion gas are
the implemented model. Thus, the pyrolysis gas com- mixed proportionally to the given reburn fuel rate.
position of the reburn fuel is calculated next, assuming The main advance of the chosen model is the pos-
the conversion rates at a temperature of 800 C. The sibility of handling detailed reaction mechanisms for
specific amounts of HCN and NH3 corresponding to this investigating the gas-phase reactions. There are several
conversion are noted in Table 3. reaction mechanism for natural gas (methane) combus-
For the fuel conversion under fuel rich conditions a tion including nitrogen chemistry available, including
model assuming chemical equilibrium is used for the more or less species and elementary reactions. The
calculation of the main components CO2, H2O, CO, H2, mechanism selected for the present model is the GRI-
and CH4 including C as solid phase.17 Under adiabatic Mechanism version 2.11 (49 species, 279 reactions).18
conditions at 800 C, not all of the reburn fuel is For modeling the gas-phase reactions of the furnace
converted into gaseous products at pyrolysis state as described model, the CHEMKIN II software package

(15) Shafizadeh, F.; DeGroot, W. Thermal uses and properties of (17) Salzmann, R.; Good, J.; Nussbaumer, T.; Leiser, O. Tempera-
carbohydrates and lignins. Academic Press: New York, 1976. ture reduction by flue gas recirculation in biomass combustion with
(16) Hamaleinen, J. Effect of fuel composition on the conversion of air staging: modeling and experimental results. In 10th European
fuel-N to nitrogen oxides in the combustion of small single particles. Conference & Technology Exhibition; 1998; Wurzburg, Germany.
Ph.D. Thesis, University of Jyvaskyla, 1995. (18) http://me.berkeley.edu/gri_mech/.
580 Energy & Fuels, Vol. 15, No. 3, 2001 Salzmann and Nussbaumer

Figure 9. NOx emissons as a function of stoichiometric ratio


for conventional and air staged combustion of UF-chipboard. Figure 10. Influence of temperature in reburn zone on NOx
emission for different RFR (UF ) UF-chipboard; W ) wood
chips; CO < 500 mg/Nm3 at 11% O2 for all data, SR1 ) 1.2 to
was used.19 The calculation of the input and output data
1.3).
of the different processes is accomplished with separate
input routines.
The aim of the model simulations is to predict the
influence of the process parameters on the nitrogen
species as a group, and not the calculation of absolute
emission values. Therefore, a reference value named
reduction rate R is introduced, allowing a dimensionless
presentation of the results. The definition of R is

R ) 1 - (TFN/TFN0) (5)

where TFN0 is the input of all nitrogen species to the


reburn zone at the beginning of the simulations. As-
suming that all nitrogen species besides NO and NO2
emitted from the first fuel stage are negligible, this
value corresponds to the measured NOx emission of the Figure 11. Influence of the stoichiometric ratio in the
first fuel stage. reduction zone on the NOx emissions for air staging (UF-
chipboard: T in reduction zone at 1050-1080 C, CO < 250
mg/Nm3 at 11% O2) and fuel staging (UF-chipboard main, wood
Results and Discussion chips reburn fuel: T in reduction zone at 900 C, SR1 ) 1.25,
The experiments with air staging carried out on the CO < 300 mg/Nm3 at 11% O2).
research facility confirm the previously shown NOx different reburn fuel rates. The CO emissions of the
reduction potential. The experiments prove that the evaluated measurements were at least below 500 mg/
stoichiometric ratio in the reduction zone has a distinct Nm3 at 11% O2, but usually below 250 mg/Nm3. Al-
influence on the NOx emission of the combustion pro- though only a few settings were measured, some trends
cess, providing that the optimum conditions for tem- are visible. The measurements clearly demonstrate that
perature, mean residence time, and mixing rate are also the NOx emission can be reduced significantly with
accomplished. The experiments indicate the important reburning. Around 750 C the NOx emissions already
role of the fuel rich zone created by air staging. Figure begin to decrease. Minimum emissions for UF-chipboard
9 opposes air staging and conventional combustion and of 120 mg/Nm3 are reached, whereas for wood chip
shows the NOx reduction potential of air staging. combustion less than 100 mg/Nm3 at a temperature
Correlating the NOx emissions of air staging to the between 800 and 900 C are measured. The emission
corresponding total stoichiometric ratio demonstrates level for wood chip combustion is therefore comparable
the reduction potential of about 72% for UF-chipboard, to the one measured with air staging. The NOx emis-
meaning from 550 to 150 mg/Nm3 NOx at 11% O2. For sions reached for the combustion of UF-chipboard are
wood chips, the reduction measured is about 65%, about 20 to 25% lower than with air staging as Figure
corresponding to a NOx reduction from 260 to 90 mg/ 11 shows. The figure also indicates that the optimum
Nm3. stoichiometric ratio in the reduction zone is slightly
A summary of the experimental results for fuel higher for fuel staging than for air staging, meaning
staging with different fuel combinations is presented in about 0.85 compared to 0.8.
Figure 10. The measured NOx emissions are plotted as The optimum temperature range for NOx reduction
a function of the temperature in the reburn zone for begins above 850 C for all fuel combinations tested. But
above 700 C already the NOx reduction begins to be
(19) Kee, R.; Rupley, F.; Miller, J. Chemkin II: Fortran chemical
kinetics package for the analysis of gas-phase chemical kinetics. effective. A decrease of the reduction potential with
SAND89-8009 1990, Sandia National Laboratories. increasing temperature cannot be seen within the
Fuel Staging for NOx Reduction in Biomass Combustion Energy & Fuels, Vol. 15, No. 3, 2001 581

Figure 12. Influence of temperature on calculated reduction Figure 13. Influence of temperature on calculated reduction
rate after reburn zone for RFR ) 0.25 (0.92) for UF/UF (UF- rate after reburn zone for RFR ) 0.35 (0.79) for UF/UF (UF-
chipboard main and reburn fuel; total mean residence time in chipboard main and reburn fuel; total mean residence time in
reburn zone ) 2 s). reburn zone ) 2 s).

measured data range, although the data of fuel staging According to the GRI-mechanism, the decomposition
with wood chips at wood chip combustion (W/W) indicate of HCN and NH3 follows the reactions:
a minimum at about 800 C. However, concerning the
HCN + O ) NCO + H (6)
temperatures presented it has to be mentioned that the
gas temperature measured with the suction pyrometer HCN + OH ) CN + H2O (7)
are up to 100 C higher than the temperature indicated
by simple thermocouples which are the base for the HCN + O ) CN + CO (8)
data.
The residence time of the gas in the reduction zone HCN + OH ) HNCO + H (9)
is calculated with the approximated gas flow and the
given geometry. The maximum residence time is (air NH3 + OH ) NH2 + H2O (10)
nozzles at position 3), which corresponds to a mean
residence time of about 2 s for most of the experiments. NH3 + H ) NH2 + H2 (11)
If the air is injected through the nozzles at position 2,
the resulting mean residence time is shortened to about NH3 + O ) NH2 + OH (12)
(5/9). The measurements indicate little influence of the
residence time, i.e., the NOx emission at(5/9) is about This reaction path is valid over the entire temperature
range investigated. Toward low temperatures, almost
10% higher compared to the maximum residence time.
all NO is reduced, but the model predicts an increasing
The simulation results show the calculated influence formation of N2O and NO2.
of the reburn temperature and the reburn fuel rate on With increasing temperature, more and more HCN
the reduction rate R for UF-chipboard as main and and NH3 are decomposed, HCN in higher rates than
reburn fuel. To simulate the influence of the mixing NH3. The N2O formation is reduced drastically. The
conditions, once a simple plug flow (PFR) is imposed higher decrease of the reduction rate for RFR ) 0.25 is
and once a combination of a mixed flow (PSR) and a due to a diminished NO reduction. The main cause is
PFR with different mean residence times, the total the recombination of HNO with H, OH, or O to NO.
mean residence time for the reburn zone is fixed for all However, with increasing temperature at low RFR the
cases to 2 s. reaction rates of NO forming and reducing reactions fall.
First, the reburn zone of the fuel staging is simulated, The temperature has also a distinct influence on the
using different models for the mixing mode which is reaction velocities. Regarding the nitrogen species form-
modeled by a variable splitting of the mean residence ing and consuming reactions, the characteristic reaction
times between the mixed reactor (PSR) and the plug time at 800 C is about 10 times slower than at 1300
flow reactor (PFR). The reaction mechanism used is the C.
GRI-mechanism. Figure 12 and Figure 13 show the The NOx emissions presented are measured in the
reduction rate for different RFR. Considering the curves flue gas, after the burnout zone of the test facility.
for plug flow (PFR) only, their trends indicate a more Therefore, the measured emissions have to be compared
or less wide optimal temperature range starting at with simulation results that include the modeling of the
about 850 C and ending at 950 C or 1100 C, depend- burnout stage. This means that the gas of the fuel rich
ing on RFR. With increasing RFR, the temperature reburn zone has to react with the burnout air to the
range with high reduction becomes wider. When mixed flue gas. For the simulation, the input data for the
flow is allowed, the trends are shifted toward higher burnout modeling are the output data of the reburn
temperatures, but simultaneously the reduction rates simulations.
increase. The figures show that the choice of the mixing Figure 14 shows an example of the calculated reduc-
model parameters has a considerable influence on the tion rate after burnout assuming plug flow in the
results. burnout zone (isothermal PFR at 1300 C with 2 s mean
582 Energy & Fuels, Vol. 15, No. 3, 2001 Salzmann and Nussbaumer

Conclusions
The present investigation has demonstrated that fuel
staging can be successfully applied for the combustion
of nonpulverized wood fuels in fixed bed combustion. For
UF-chipboard as reburn fuel, a NOx reduction of up to
78% was achieved. The temperature range for an
efficient reduction of the nitrogen species by homoge-
neous reactions is lower than for air staging. The
experiments show that low NOx emissions are already
achievable at relatively low temperatures, meaning at
900-1000 C. Therefore, fuel staging may be a favorable
method for fuels with a high nitrogen content. Fuel
staging is also favorable for fuels with high ash contents
and low ash fusion temperature because it allows us to
keep the combustion temperature of the first fuel stage
Figure 14. Calculated reduction rate after burnout zone for below 1000 C. The temperature control can be ac-
RFR ) 0.30 (0.85) for UF/UF (UF-chipboard main and reburn complished by heat extraction. As the temperature in
fuel; total mean residence time of burnout ) 2 s).
the burnout zone after the reburn zone should be high
enough to ensure complete burnout of the gas, a
residence time). The two curves in the figure represent reasonable use of the transferred heat could also be the
the two different reburn models, once PFR only and once preheating of the burnout air.
PSR plus PFR in series. The figure shows that the low
All reburn fuels investigated showed a NOx reduction
reduction rates at lower temperatures calculated in the
potential at comparable optimum temperature and
reduction zone before are transformed to higher reduc-
stoichiometric ratio. For high reduction rates, a mean
tion rates. This observation is true especially for the
residence time in the reduction zone of about 1.5 s
PFR curve. Toward higher temperatures the influence
regarding the examined facility is provided.
of the burnout on the reduction rate is negligible. The
maximum reduction predicted varies between 82% and When a fixed bed is used for reburning with nonpul-
95%, depending on the model for the reburn zone. verized fuels, a high voidage of the fuel bed is beneficial
However, the calculated reduction rates are higher than to the reburning because a deep penetration of the
the measured. combustion gas enhances and accelerates the fuel
conversion rates and improves the mixing of the gas
The burnout conditions also have an important influ-
phase. For this reason, effects or conditions that make
ence on the emission of the nitrogen species. The
the passing of fuel bed for the gases more difficult, i.e.,
analysis of the simulations indicates that at high
a dense fuel bed or slagging conditions, should be
burnout temperature NH3 and HCN are destroyed
avoided. Concerning the design of the reburn zone, its
leading only to a weak increase of the NOx emission.
shape should promote the gas mixing and prevent an
N2O which is formed at low temperatures in the
inhomogeneous flow field.
reduction zone is also reduced to a negligible amount
at this burnout temperature. The emission of NO2 is Fuel staging demands some higher investment in the
small compared to NO. hardware and higher control of the furnace. On the
other hand, costs for additional reducing agents and
The observed change of the reduction rate at low
catalysts are saved, an important advantage over SCR
temperatures may be influenced by the burnout model-
and SNCR techniques. The reducing agent is the fuel
ing. A different temperature regime in the burnout zone
itself. Additionally, a sophisticated management of the
for example may modify the reduction rates for low
furnace switching between air staging and fuel staging
temperatures in the reburn zone. But calculations
may even result in advantages of the part load behavior
assuming isothermal plug flow at 1100 and 800 C show
compared to other NOx reduction techniques.
that the burnout temperature has less influence on the
overall reduction rate, providing that the preliminary The model which considers detailed chemical reaction
reburn temperature is higher than 900 C. Similar kinetics predicts a higher NOx reduction potential than
observations are reported from experiments on a labo- the measured. The difference between model simulation
ratory plug flow reactor.20 and measurements indicates that the furnace design
The comparison of the measured data with the and the process control can be further improved. The
calculated NOx reduction indicates that the theoretical influence of the reburn temperature and stoichiometry
potential of fuel staging is even higher than the experi- is well represented by the model.
ments on the research facility have demonstrated. However, the model is a suitable tool for the qualita-
However, the trends generally show a good concordance. tive study of the influence of the main process param-
The lower reduction rates at low temperatures confirms eters and allows a fast and easy simulation of the effect
the role of the temperature not only in the reburn zone, of each variation.
but also in the burnout zone. Additionally, the simula-
tions points at the importance of the mixing and flow Acknowledgment. The research was funded by the
conditions within the furnace. Swiss Federal Office of Energy and the Swiss Federal
Office for Education and Sciences. The technical support
(20) Kristensen, P.; Glarborg, P.; Dam-Johansen, K. Nitrogen of Tiba Muller Ltd. is gratefully acknowledged.
chemistry during burnout in fuel staged combustion. Combust. Flame
1996, 107, 211-222. EF0001383
Annex 18. Quality Assurance for Planning and Construction of
Biomass District Heating Plants
R. Bhler1, H.R. Gabathuler2, J. Good3, A. Jenni4

1: Umwelt + Energie,
2: Gabathuler AG
3: Verenum, Langmauerstrasse 109, 8006 Zurich, Switzerland

4:: Ardens GmbH

(Appeared as paper O3.B1 at the


12th European Conferences & Technology Exhibition on
Biomass for Energy, Industry and Climate Protection in Amsterdam.)
QUALITY ASSURANCE FOR PLANNING AND CONSTRUCTION OF BIOMASS DISTRICT HEATING PLANTS

R. Bhler1), H.R. Gabathuler2), J. Good3), A. Jenni4)


Umwelt + Energie1), Gabathuler AG2), Verenum3), ardens GmbH4)
Drflistrasse 7, CH 8933 Maschwanden
Phone +41 (0)1 767 15 16, fax +41 (0)1 767 15 54, email <rbuehler@mus.ch>

ABSTRACT: Investigations in Switzerland, Austria and Germany have shown that many of the biomass district
heating plants have much higher energy production costs than expected. They show that specific investment and
operating costs are closely related to the technical design of the plant. QA Wood Combustion enables consider-
able improvements of the technical quality of a biomass heating plant. But high technical quality alone is not suf-
ficient for financially sound plants. Professional management in organisation and finance as well as an efficient
marketing organisation are essential. The Business Plan Wood Combustion enables in a standardised electronic
format to document the organisation and structure of the enterprise and the financial and marketing activities. It
also calculates and shows the development of the financial statement and the income statement during 20 years.
With the tool QA Wood Combustion authorities can make sure that they only subsidise financially sound
biomass heating plants of high technical standard. There is great interest to introduce this tool also in Austria and
Germany. Wood Energy SWITZERLAND intends to improve QA Wood combustion in collaboration with
Austrian and German organisations.
Keywords: quality assurance, district heating, financial aspects

1 INTRODUCTION
2 ASSURANCE OF THE TECHNICAL QUALITY
In the actual situation wood and also other bio-
mass energy is mostly not competitive compared t o 2.1 Q guideline [6]
fossil energy. Therefore many European countries The requirements for a plant that is planned and
subsidise the construction of biomass (manly wood) constructed according to the state of the art are defined
district heating systems. Investigations in Switzer- in the Q guideline 45 single requirements define the
land, Austria and Germany have shown that many of best available technology in the areas:
such subsidised plants have much higher energy pro- Analysis of the initial situation,
duction costs than expected [1] [2] [3] [4]. Energy Heat production
production costs of well planned and designed wood Heat supply
district heating systems in Switzerland are depend- Documentation,
ing on the size of the plant in the range of 5 1 0 Acceptance procedure
ct./kWhuseful energy. But in many of the plants the pro- Optimisation of the plant operation
duction costs are between 13 25 ct./kWh [1] [5]. Final verification.
The main reason is unprofessional project manage- If all the 45 requirements are fulfilled during the
ment and poor planning. The investigations also show process of planning and construction, the awarding
that specific investment costs are closely related to the authority has the guarantee, that the plant is built
technical design of the plant [4]. Main technical according to the state of the art and that it operates
deficiencies are: under optimal conditions.
The heat demand of the consumers is overesti-
mated 2.2 Q plan
Reserve capacity in the heating station and in the It is for the awarding authority to decide, whether
water conduit, which is never needed all the quality requirements defined in the Q guideline
Size of the fuel silo much bigger than necessary shall be fulfilled in its plant. Sometimes there may be
Low utilisation ratio of the wood boiler reasons to differ from the usual state of the art. But i t
Fuel quality does not meet the quality require- is important, that the quality which has to be achieved
ments for the installed firing is defined and stipulated at the beginning of the
Faults in the hydraulic and the control system lead planning and that the project engineer and the
to high operation costs. contractors guarantee this. After commissioning, the
With professional project management and plan- functionality of the plant must systematically be
ning most of these deficiencies could have been verified by analysing recorded operation data.
avoided. The Q plan is the tool to stipulate the quality
The objective of the tool QA Wood Combustion for the specific plant. In this form of 4 pages it i s
is to ensure, that plants are built with described for each area mentioned in chapter 2.1,
High technical and operational performance, whether the quality requirements defined in the Q
High utilisation ratio, guideline have to be fulfilled. Agreed deviations are
Low emissions and stipulated.
Low investment and operation costs. In a cut-out of a Q plan Figure 1 shows, how o n
With applying QA Wood Combustion it should the basis of the 45 requirements defined in the Q
be achieved, that only biomass plants with good qual- guideline the quality of a specific biomass district
ity are subsidised. heating plant is stipulated.

1
D.4. Q-Requirements for the heat production
The planning and implementation of the heat production sector fulfils the following quality standard:
 According to chapter D.4 of the Q guideline
 According to the Q guideline with exception of . D.4.2 and D.4.3....Reasons are given in the attachment ..F2....

Figure 1: Cut-out of a Q plan

2.3 Q manager demands of a project.


The Q manger is responsible, that the quality i s
defined according to the requirements of the awarding 4 ASSURANCE OF THE ECONOMICAL QUALITY
authority and the situation of the specific plant and
that this quality is agreed in the Q plan. During the High technical quality alone is not sufficient for
planning and construction, he supervises the project financially sound biomass district heating plants.
engineer and he ensures that the agreed requirements Professional management in organisation and finance
are fulfilled. During the process of planning he makes as well as an efficient marketing organisation are
sure, that deviations of the stipulated quality are re- essential for the enterprise District heating Plant.
cognised and corrected. Wood energy Switzerland has developed the software
tool Business Plan Wood Combustion. It enables i n
3 TOOLS FOR THE PROJECT ENGINEER a standardised format to document the organisation
and structure of the enterprise and the financial and
Several tools make it easier for the design engineer marketing activities. The business plan also calculates
to achieve a high quality level. The main tools are and shows the development of the financial and the
described below. income statement during 20 years. These calculations
can easily be performed for different assumption for
3.1 Planning and construction of automatic wood investment cost, fuel price, selling price of the heat
combustion plants with varying assumptions about the number and
This manual [7] describes the technical solutions, status of potential customers.
which can be applied to meet the quality requirements As an attachment to the business plan, the Q plan
of QA Wood Combustion described in the Q guide- of the plant documents the technical quality of the
line. It also describes in details the steps in the plant.
sequence of planning and implementation. The Business Plan Wood Combustion i s
available as an electronic tool through wood energy
3.2 Standard solutions SWITZERLAND.
Actually most of the wood heating plants are
unique. Although the conceptual formulation is the
same in many cases, the project engineer designs for 5 QA WOOD COMBUSTION IN THE SEQUENCE
each new project his own and new system. OF PLANNING AND CONSTRUCTION
As part of QA Wood Combustion a set of stan-
dard solutions was developed for the heat production Figure 2 shows the integration of QA Wood
and also for heat supply solutions [8]. The main ele- Combustion in the sequence of planning and con-
ments of each standard solution for heat production struction of the district heating plant.
are: QA Wood Combustion is established at the
Description and diagram of the hydraulic solution beginning of the planning. The awarding authority
Description and diagram of the applied control nominates the Q manager. Based on the requirements
system of the Q guideline a team consisting of awarding
List of the necessary data points and description of authority, Q manager and project engineer decides
data recording system necessary for optimisation about the quality to be achieved and stipulates it i n
of the operation. the Q plan of the plant. With input and assistance of
The tool Standard solutions is available as word the project engineer the awarding authority creates the
file and can be adjusted to the specific demands of a business plan which is given to the financing
project. The intention is, that in a further development enterprises and the subsidising authority.
step the suppliers of the measuring and control tech- At defined milestones of the project, the quality of
nology offer for each standard solution the appropri- the planning and constructing process is assessed b y
ate control system as a complete and tested package the Q manager and approved by the awarding author-
unit. ity. After two years of verifying and optimising the
plant shows the final assessment, whether the actual
3.3 Standard tender for wood boilers plant meets the targets which were stipulated in the Q
One of the identified measures for decreasing costs plan at the beginning of the planning.
is the use of standardised tender documents [3].
Therefore wood energy Switzerland developed
together with the wood boiler manufacturers a
standard tender for wood boilers [9]. With this tool,
the quality of the contract between awarding authority
and boiler supplier is much better and it can be
achieved with much less effort for the project engineer
and the boiler manufacturer. This tool is also available
as word file and can be adjusted to the specific

2
6 RESULTS REFERENCES

Since autumn 2000, all projects, subsidised by the [1] Hausherr, O. , Kessler, F.: Wirtschaftlichkeit der
Swiss government, must apply this new tool-set for Holzenergienutzung in der Gemeinde, BFE, Bern
the planning and construction of biomass district 1994
heating plants. In 2001, more than 80% of the tenders [2] Bhler, R., Gabathuler, H.R., Jenni, A. Leiser, O.,
for wood boilers used the standard tender for wood Schaffner, H.P.: Projektbezogene Qualittssiche-
boiler. rung bei Holzheizungsanlagen, BFE, Bern 1998
Main findings with the application of QA Wood [3] ENERGIEVERWERTUNGSAGENTUR : Auswir-
Combustion are: kungen von nationalen Biomasse-Rahmen-
Precise definition of the interfaces and the respon- bedingungen auf Investitionskosten von Bio-
sibilities reduces friction losses masseheiwerken, Thermie B-Projekt BIO-COST,
Project engineers with little experience i n Wien, April 2000
planning wood fired district heating systems are [4] Krapf, G.: Evaluierung Biomasse-Heizwerke i n
forced to acquire the knowledge of the state of the Deutschland, Straubing, C.A.R.M.E.N.e.V.
art Straubing, Oktober 2000
Systematic data recording often shows that the [5] Good, J., Nussbaumer, T., Jenni, A., Bhler, R.:
guaranteed heat output of the wood boiler is not Systemoptimierung, BFE, Bern 2002
reached in the first optimisation step and that the [6] Bhler, R., Gabathuler, H.R., Jenni, A.: Qualitts-
heat production oscillates more than 40%. sicherung bei Holzheizungsanlagen: Q-Leitfa-
Below a selection of realised improvements with den, BFE, Bern 2000
considerable cost reductions are listed, which could be [7] Nussbaumer, T., Good, J., Jenni, A., Bhler, R.
achieved by applying QA Wood Combustion: Gabathuler, H.R.: Automatische Holzheizungen,
Smaller Silo: - 15'000 (- 0.2 ct./kWh) Planung und Ausfhrung, BFE, Bern, Januar
Lower-cost fuel is made possible: - 7'000 /a (- 2001
0.15 ct./kWh) [8] Gabathuler, H.R., Mayer, H.: Qualittssicherung
Reduction of planning cost by using the Q tools bei Holzheizungsanlagen: Standardlsungen,
Standard Solutions and Standard Tender for Wood BFE, Bern, 2002
Boilers: More than 7'000 [9] Jenni, A., Schaffner, H.P.: Standardausschrei-
Attaching to an existing wood district heating bung Holzkessel, BFE, Bern, 2002
plant instead of a separate district heating: -
300'000 (- 5 ct./kWh)
Improved management of the storage tank: - 800 The documents/tools of QA Wood Combustion (paper
/a (- 1 ct./kWh). or electronic versions) can be ordered at
www.woodenergy.ch

7 CONCLUSIONS AND OUTLOOK

The experience with the application of QA Wood


Combustion has shown that
the technical quality of planning and construction
was improved considerably resulting in lower
costs
for qualified project engineers it can easily be
integrated in their work
less qualified project engineers (who do low-cost
design) have some difficulties with the Q
requirements and therefore with the whole tool
the Q tools reduce the labour costs for project
engineers and boiler manufacturers.
The main weak points found in this two year period
were, that
some administrative procedures are too complica-
ted and must be simplified
there is still a high potential for cost reduction b y
simplifying the application of standard solutions.

There is great interest to introduce this tool also i n


Austria and Germany. Wood Energy SWITZERLAND
intends to improve QA Wood Combustion in col-
laboration with Austrian and German organisations.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The development of QA Wood Combustion was


funded by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (BFE),
the cantonal offices of energy and the industry, which
is gratefully acknowledged.

3
Figure 2: QA Wood Combustion integrated in the sequence of planning and construction of biomass district
heating plants