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TAB Technician Manual

Module 1
HVAC Fundamentals

Disclaimer:
This document contains the expression of the professional opinion of Robert J Blanchard, P. Eng as to
the matters set out herein, using its professional judgment and reasonable care. The opinions and
recommendations outlined in this document are to be read and understood in its complete context.

Robert J Blanchard, P. Eng disclaims any liability to third parties in respect of the publication, reference,
quoting, or distribution of this report or any of its contents to and reliance thereon by any third party.
FORWARD
A significant percentage of the activities performed by a Sheet Metal Worker are the
manufacture of duct systems, the installation of duct systems, and the installation of
terminal devices. The installation of the components is just the preliminary step
towards the successful operation of a HVAC system as per the designers intent.
The verification of airflow rates or adjustment of airflow rates to the designers
values is the second step towards successful operation. The third, and final step, is
the controls contractor starting and stopping of equipment and their manipulation of
dampers installed by the Sheet Metal Workers. This program will focus on
enhancing the skill set of Sheet Metal Workers and Balancing Trainees to perform
the activities related to the verification and/or adjustment of Air flow rates. The trade
term is Air Balancing.
The level of HVAC knowledge required for this program is independent of that
required for system design, duct design, or equipment selection. Our focus is strictly
on the understanding of the Testing, Adjusting, or Balancing, TAB, of Air flow rates.
This Module is the first of 10 Modules designed to guide a Sheet Metal Worker or a
Balancing Trainee along his path of understanding the process of balancing of
HVAC systems to the level of TAB Technician, but not to the level of a Balancing
Contractor. The order of the Modules was arranged to present some fundamentals
then an application of those fundamentals. The fundamentals become progressively
more separated from the Sheet Metal Workers curriculum and the balancing
concepts become progressively more complicated. The purpose of this approach is
to start building to students confidence from the start; and then slowly increase the
level of complexity so any student can enhance his skill set up to his level of
comprehension.
Some statements presented early may be over simplified or generalized in order to
ease the students understanding of a concept. Some statements may appear to be
contradicted later in the text as a concept is more fully developed.

Module 1: HVAC Fundamentals


Module 2: Air Flow Measurement
Module 3: Fans and Fan Systems
Module 4: Balancing Constant Flow Rate Systems
Module 5: Electrical Fundamentals and Measurement
Module 6: Balancing Variable Air Systems
Module 7: Hydronic Fundamentals
Module 8: Hydronic Balancing
Module 9: Preparation for Balancing

Module 10: Expanding your Skill Set

TAB Technician Manual Module 1 Page 1


The primary reference manual for this set of Modules is

TESTING ADJUSTING BALANCING MANUAL FOR TECHNICIANS by NEBB

There are other excellent reference sources for the material and we strongly advise
reviewing other texts for slightly different explanations of material, especially if an
explanation in the NEBB manual is difficult to follow. One readily available example
is the TECHNICIAN Training Manual published by the AABC.

1 READING

Read this Module along with Chapter 1, HVAC Fundamentals in the text book.

The sequence of information in the Module does not necessarily parallel the
sequence of information presented in the text book. There is a reason for the
sequencing of the information in this Module

2 AIRFLOW TERMINOLOGY

The Sheet Metal Worker is quite familiar with measuring tangible, two dimensional,
items such as flat metal or architectural distances with a ruler or a tape measure.
He is familiar with the measurement of speed in k/hr. by reading the speedometer in
his vehicle.
The measurement of fluid flow rate, however, is a bit more complex because we are
measuring the movement of a volume of something we cannot see over a time
period of a minute or a second. This concept is rate of flow or flow rate.

The calculation will first be reviewed using Imperial units and Air as the fluid.
The flow rate of air using SI units will be reviewed in Module 2.
The flow rate of water will be reviewed in Module 7.

The first Equation of fluid flow rate is Q = VA

Where: V represents the Velocity of the fluid in fpm, ft. / min,


A represents the Area through which the fluid flows in ft
Q represents the Volume flow rate in Cubic Feet per Minute, ft/ min,

x ft =

A can be measured with a standard tape measure and converted to ft (Width x Height
corrected to square feet)

V is determined with the use of instruments. Some instruments display velocity.


Other instruments display air pressure. The Technician then converts the
measured pressure to a velocity (speed) of air.

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Simple Example #1: Air is measured flowing at 1200 fpm through a 42 x 24 duct.

A = w x h = (4212) x (2412) = 3.5 x 2 = 7 ft


Or: A = w x h = = .= 7 ft.

Q = VA = 1200 ft. / min x 7 ft = 8,400 ft/ min


The measured flow rate is 8,400 cfm

The Second Equation of fluid flow rate is V = 4005 , Or VP = ( )

Where: is the square root of the measured velocity pressure in in. w.c.,
4005 is the conversion constant used for standard air,
V represents the Velocity of the fluid in fpm, or,

Example #2: Air is measured at 0.25 w.c. flowing through a 44 x 15 duct


A = w x h = (4412) x (1512) =3.67 x 1.25 = 4.59ft
V = 4005 =4005 = 4005 x 0.5 = 2003 ft. / min
Q = VA = 2003 ft. / min x 4.59 ft = 9,178 ft/ min
The measured flow rate is 9,178 cfm

There are three terms you should understand before reading further in this Module:

1. Velocity Pressure, VP, is the fan energy which pushes the air through the
duct system. VP increases as the square of velocity. Velocity is used when
referring to air speed, although true Velocity is a Vector quantity. VP acts in
the direction of air flow.

2. Static Pressure, SP, also referred to as Friction Loss is the fan energy
consumed to overcome the obstacles to air flowing straight through a duct at
a uniform speed (velocity) in a duct. i.e. elbows, tapers, filters, coils,
dampers, etc. SP acts in the direction of airflow and perpendicular to air
flow. SP establishes the shape of a balloon.
A Ductolator or Friction Loss Tables can be used to determine the Friction
Loss per every 100 ft. of duct, given the duct size and air flow rate.

3. Total Pressure, TP, is the sum of Velocity Pressure and Static Pressure.
Total pressure decreases in value (becomes less positive) from a fan
discharge to the furthest outlet in a duct system. Total pressure decreases in
value (becomes more negative) from the farthest inlet terminal to the fan
inlet. TP = VP + SP

Perspective: If a 200 ft. long straight duct had Friction Loss of 0.12/ 100 ft., a VP
of 0.16 and a SP of 1.35 at the start of the system.
The Total Pressure at the start of the system would be 1.35 + 0.16 = 1.51.
The TP at the end of the 200 ft. duct would be 1.35 - (2 x 0.12) + 0.16 = 1.27
The Velocity Pressure would still be 0.16, but the SP would drop to 1.11 w.g.

TAB Technician Manual Module 1 Page 3


A couple of poorly designed elbows with a pressure drop (resistance to flow) of
0.20 would decrease the Total Pressure at the end of the system to
1.35 - (2 x 0.12) - (2 x 0.20) + 0.16 = 0.87. The VP would still be 0.16

Below is a table which shows how the VP increases with Velocity

Low Velocity Medium Velocity High Velocity

Downstream of VAVs and Return or VAV Supply Exhaust Ducting and Dust
WR exhaust duct Ductwork Collector
Velocity VP Velocity VP Velocity VP
250 fpm 0.0039 1,500 0.14 2750 fpm 0.471
400 fpm 0.01 fpm
1,800 0.202 3,000 fpm 0.561
566 fpm 0.022 fpm
2,000 0.25 3,500 fpm 0.764
1,000 fpm 0.0623 fpm
2,250 0.316 4,000 fpm 0.998
1,200 fpm 0.0898 fpm
2,500 0.39 5,000 fpm 1.559
fpm
Note: Low velocity, Medium velocity, and High velocity are quite arbitrary terms and
are quite independent from Duct Construction standards. Duct Construction
standards refer to the design Static Pressure of a duct system.

A very efficient filter enclosure may be constructed to 10 w.c., but experience a


Velocity less than 400 ft. / min. (0.01 w.c.)

The inlet velocity of a dust collector hood may be greater than 5,000 ft./ min, but
there is no measurable Static Pressure

TAB Technician Manual Module 1 Page 4


3 AIRFLOW MEASUREMENT

There are two unique measurement procedures: Duct Traverse and terminal device.
This Airflow Measurement information will be presented in greater detail in Module 2
Air Flow Measurement

3.1 DUCT TRAVERSE

A Duct Traverse, when conducted with care, is considered about as accurate an


evaluation of air flow rate as can be achieved in the field. (5% at velocities > 650
ft./min) The principal of calculating the flow rate of air flowing in a duct is to measure
the size of the duct and to measure how fast the air is flowing. That is: measure the
cross sectional Area, A, and the Velocity, V.

Then Q = VA as we documented in Section 3

While this may appear quite straight forward but the procedure relies on determining
the average velocity of the air and measuring the net cross sectional area (inside
internal duct insulation) of the duct. Duct traverse are not performed in tapers. The
recommended location for a duct traverse is where there are about 10 diameters of
straight ductwork upstream and a minimum of two duct diameters downstream.

A series of Velocity Pressure samples are recorded, converted to Velocity, and


then averaged. Note: the velocities are averaged - not the Velocity Pressures.

A Probe to sense pressure inside the duct and an Instrument to display a pressure
are required to perform a duct traverse.

The probe is called a Pitot Tube.

The Pitot Tube is inserted through


a small hole in the duct wall with the
Total pressure port facing into the
flowing air stream.

One tube may be connected to the


Pitot Tube to read either Static
pressure or Total pressure.

Two tubes are connected between


the Pitot Tube connections and an
instrument to display the difference
between Total Pressure, TP, and
Static Pressure, SP: Velocity
Pressure, VP.

TAB Technician Manual Module 1 Page 5


TP = SP + VP

VP = TP SP

The diagram above depicts a Pitot Tube connected to a Manometer to display Static
Pressure, or Velocity Pressure, or Total Pressure. Manometers are Old School.

Today we use a Magnehelic gauge or a Micromanometer to display the pressure.


Micromanometers are the preferred instrument because they may display to a
greater accuracy, they may display imperial or SI units, they may convert VP
readings to Velocity, and they may display the Average Velocity for a number of VP
samples. Unfortunately, they require a battery where a MAGNEHELIC or a
Manometer require no external power,

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The air flow rate determined by Duct Traverse is the product of Average Velocity
and duct area. Q = V average x A

A can be measured with a standard tape measure and converted to ft (Width x Height
corrected to square feet)

V is the calculated average of all of the Velocities sampled.

The number of samples is dependent on the size of the duct. Imagine the
rectangular duct divided into small segments of equal area between 6 square and
8 square. Drill holes in the duct wall so the Pitot Tube will sample the Velocity
Pressure at the centre of each of those little segments. Usually the holes are drilled
along the longer side of the duct. Sometimes it is necessary to drill holes along one
short side, both short sides, or a combination of long side and short side depending
on the length of your Pitot Tube and obstructions such as pipes, lights, or other
ductwork.

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The same principle is applied to Round ductwork except the spacing of the samples
is to record the velocity at the centre of Equal Annular areas across perpendicular
diameters.

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The next step depends on the instrument used:

If the Micromanometer is able to display Average Velocity: then Q = V average x A

If the Micromanometer is only capable of displaying Velocity: then sum the


velocities and calculate the Average Velocity and Q = V average x A

If the instrument only displays Velocity Pressure: then convert each VP to a


Velocity, sum the velocities, and calculate the Average Velocity and Q = V average x A

Always record the Static Pressure at the Duct Traverse location for future
reference.

Case Study:

I completed a balancing project for a partial floor in an office building and submitted
my report. I was called to the site to verify my readings with the Project Engineer.
The measurements that day were quite a bit less than documented in my report. I
showed the Project Engineer that the measured SP in the duct feeding that area
had dropped from 0.36 w.c.to 0.24 w.c. Another TAB Technician had stolen my
air. The Project Engineer agreed to have the other TAB Technician return my air.

3.2 DIFFUSERS

In Section 4.1 we used the equation Q = V average x A to measure the flow rate of air
in a duct. A was easy to calculate from the duct dimensions. How would you
calculate A for a multi-ring diffuser?

The manufacturers of diffusers have published a set of values for each style and
each neck size of diffuser they market. These values are called Ak factors. The flow
rate of air from a diffuser is Q = V average x Ak.

The table to the left indicates


which ring their Ak factor is
applicable.

The airflow rate is the


product of their Ak factor and
the average of four velocity
readings recorded from the
appropriate ring.

Note: The Ak factors are


specific for a style, a neck
size, a ring, and an
instrument. Usually the
tables are for an Alnor
Velometer.

TAB Technician Manual Module 1 Page 9


This picture shows a student measuring the
velocity at the appropriate ring of a round
diffuser with an Alnor Velometer.

Note: the wand is oriented as per the


manufacturers diagram and the Velometer
body is held with the face vertical with the
base horizontal. Laying the face horizontal
or skewing the base left or right of
horizontal will yield an inaccurate velocity.

The more common method of measuring


air flow from a diffuser is the Flow Hood.

There are two benefits to using a Hood:

There is no need to consult the


book for the appropriate AK
factor.
There is no need to calculate the
Average velocity of four readings.

There are also some drawbacks:

Not well suited for no ceiling,


A Flow hood costs more than a
Velometer,
You require several different
sized hoods for other than
standard 24 x 24 diffusers,
The case for a hood is far larger
than the case for a Velometer,
You need to be relatively tall for
the scale to be at your eye level.
Most Hoods require batteries

TAB Technician Manual Module 1 Page 10


3.3 GRILLES

Grilles, Registers, and other non-standard terminals are measure using a similar
equation as a diffuser: Q = V average x Ak. The Ak factor for a diffuser was obtained
from a manufacturers catalogue. However, there are an infinite number of styles,
sizes, and damper arrangements for grilles so deriving a table of Ak factors is not
practical. Instead the manufacturers publish a K factor for each style of grille they
manufacture. Their K factor is multiplied by the Core Area to derive the equivalent
of an Ak factor. The airflow rate from a Grille is Q = V average x K x Core Area. The
instrument used to measure Velocity is usually a rotating vane Anemometer. The
tables will give K values for different blade angles, damper or no damper,
different instruments, etc.

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3.4 RECAP:

Q = VA is the basic equation of flow rate

Q = V average x A for Duct Traverse

Q = V average x Ak for Diffusers

Q = V average x K x Core Area for Grilles and Registers

TAB Technician Manual Module 1 Page 12


4 HEAT TRANSFER

The primary reason for the duct work we install in buildings is to distribute outdoor
air at a sufficient flow rate to dissipate the body odours of the workers. This process
is called Ventilation. For many hours of operation the outdoor air must be heated to
prevent the occupied space from becoming too cold. The process is called Heating
and Ventilating. For some hours of operation the outdoor air must be cooled to
prevent the occupied space from becoming too warm. The process is called
Heating and Ventilating, and Air Conditioning, HVAC.

This module is not intended to be a short course in physics, but there are two
different considerations of heat transfer the TAB Technician must understand.

When you put your warm beer in the refrigerator to reduce the temperature from
room temperature to just above freezing, or when you add heat to a pot of water to
prepare coffee you are changing the temperature of a fixed volume of fluid.

When cool air passes over a coil with warm water flowing through the tubing you
are changing the temperature of both of the flowing fluids. This is the more complex
heat transfer concept which the TAB Technician must understand.

4.1 STATIC HEAT TRANSFER

Heat energy may be transferred from one body to another body of lesser heat
energy by one of the following methods:

Conduction: The two bodies must be in contact with each other. Heat one end of a
metal rod and hold the other end of the rod in your bare hand. You will quickly
understand the concept of heat transfer by Conduction.

Convection: Warmer air moves to a place of cooler air. The cooler air is displaced
toward a warm surface where the air becomes warmer and moves to a place of
cooler air. The term is convection current. Think of a radiator under a window. The
air in contact with the fins warms and rises away from the fins, cold air on the floor
flows to replace the air that was in contact with the fins. It warms and rises. An air
current is created without any mechanical assistance

Radiation: The two bodies will not be in contact with each other. An example is the
sun heating you through the wind shield of your vehicle travelling at 100km/hr in
January. There is a considerable difference in your comfort when the sun is blocked
by a cloud. Another example is a campfire at night: your body exposed to the fire
will be warm, but the rest of your body will be cold- even with a coat.

TAB Technician Manual Module 1 Page 13


4.2 FLUID FLOW HEAT TRANSFER

The majority of Air Balancing is performed with air temperatures between 55F and
75F (13C and 22C) and the temperature of the air is not relevant to the balancing
process.

There are, however, other tasks such as trouble-shooting or maintenance which


may require the Testing Technician to report on the Heat Transfer performance of
components.

Air Side Heat Transfer Equation: Btu/hr = 1.085 x cfm x Tair

The rate of heat energy gain by a stream of air is the product of: a constant: 1.085;
the flow rate of air: cfm; and the difference in temperature between the entering air
and the leaving air in F. The rate is given in British thermal units per hour, Btu/hr

Note: a temperature is measured in degrees F or C, but a difference in temperature, T, is


measured in F degrees, F or C degrees, C. Just one of those little things to remember.

A house furnace increases the temperature of a flow rate of 1200 cfm from 70 F to
135 F. What was the rate of heat energy transfer?

Btu/hr = 1.085 x cfm x Tair = 1.085 x 1200 x (135 F- 70 F) =

1302 x 65F = 84,630 Btu/hr

Heat energy is added at the rate of 84,630 Btu for each hour of operation.

TAB Technician Manual Module 1 Page 14


Note the furnace did not add 84,630 Btu to a volume of1200 cubic feet of air, but
added heat energy such that: if a flow rate of 1200 cubic feet of air per minute
flowed past the heat chamber for 60 minutes (72,000 ft) ; the amount of heat
energy transferred to that air would be 84,630 Btu.

The concept to understand is the rate of heat transfer. The air is flowing at a rate
per minute, but the heating device is rated at a heat transfer rate per hour.

We calculated the rate of heating energy output of the furnace. If the efficiency of
the furnace were rated at 92% then the rate of energy input to the furnace would be
84,630 Btu/hr 0.92 = 91,990 Btu/hr. Be aware of the whether rating of an energy
device is Btu/hr input or Btu/hr Output.

Water Side Heat Transfer Equation: Btu/hr = 500 x gpm x Twater

A boiler increases the temperature of a flow rate of 200 gpm from 160 F to 180 F.
What was the rate of heat energy transfer?

Btu/hr = 500 x gpm x Twater = 500 x 200 gpm x (180 F-160 F) =

100,000 x 20F = 2,000,000 Btu/hr

Heat energy is added to the water at the rate of 2,000,000 Btu for each hour of
operation of the boiler. This is also referred to as 2,000 Mbh (thousands of Btuh)

Note the furnace did not add 2,000,000 Btu to a volume of 200 gallons.

4.3 HEAT BALANCE EQUATION

Since:

Btu/hr = 1.085 x cfm x Tair and

Btu/hr = 500 x gpm x Twater

Our Equation for Heat Transfer is: 1.085 x cfm x Tair = 500 x gpm x Twater

You will learn later that this equation is only used for heating applications and not
for cooling applications where there is condensation occurring. You will also learn
far more accurate methods of measuring water flow rates, but you should
understand the principles presented in this section.

For many years water balancing was performed using the Heat Balance Equation.
Knowing the air flow rate, a TAB technician could measure the four temperatures
(Entering Air, Leaving Air, Entering Water, and Leaving Water) and throttle the
water valve until the design temperature differences were achieved for the air flow

TAB Technician Manual Module 1 Page 15


or for the water flow. They were seldom lucky enough to achieve both because of
the inherent inaccuracy of the process.

A heating coil with a flow rate of 1200 cfm increases the air temperature from 70F
to 95F while 1.2 gpm of water at 160F enters the coil. What will be the leaving
water temperature?

1.085 x cfm x Tair = 500 x gpm x Twater

1.085 x 1200 x (95F-70F) = 500 x 1.2 x Twater

1302 x 25F= 600 Twater

32550 = 600 F Twater

160 F-54.25F =105.75 F leaving water temperature

Verify the energy balance:

Btu/hr = 1.085 x cfm x Tair = 1.085 x 1200 x (95 F-70 F) =32,550 Btu/hr

Btu/hr = 500 x gpm x Twater = 500 x 1.2 x (160F-105.75F) = 32,550 Btu/hr

The air flow gained heat energy at the same rate the water flow lost energy.

Note the positive and negative sign convention. For the air side we use (LAT-EAT)
to yield a positive value, (heat gained).

For the water side we could use either (EAT-LAT) to yield a positive value, (heat
transferred) or (LAT-EAT) to yield a negative value, (heat lost):

500 x 1.2 x (105.75F-160F) = - 32,550 Btu/hr

Use the convention with which you are more comfortable or understand better.

The preceding is a branch of science called Thermodynamics. We called it Heat


Transfer in order to not scare the student.

Limitation: The accuracy of the Heat Balance Equation is quite dependent on the
accuracy of the temperature readings. A single thermometer of appropriate range
should be used to measure the EAT and LAT. A Different thermometer of
appropriate range should be used to measure the EWT and LWT. Remember it is
the temperature differences which are important, not necessarily any actual
temperature.

Consider measuring 70F using a thermometer with a range from 70F to 240 F.

TAB Technician Manual Module 1 Page 16


Consider measuring 70F using a thermometer with an inaccuracy of +2F and
measuring the 95 F using a thermometer with an inaccuracy of -2F. The
thermometers would read 72F and 93F for a difference of 21 F, only 84% of the
actual temperature difference.

The accuracy of the Heat Balance Equation is quite dependent on allowing


sufficient time after any adjustment before gathering a new set of LAT and LWT.
The EAT and the EWT will probably remain consistent but the LAT and LWT will
change after each adjustment of water low rate.

The rate of heat transfer is nonlinear so the Heat Transfer Equation may only be
used to verify the design performance of a coil if the design Air flow rate, the design
EAT, and the design EWT are held constant over the evaluation period. This
nonlinear performance will be reviewed in Module 6: Balancing VAV Systems.

4.4 MIXED AIR EQUATION

A TAB Technician should be comfortable with the Mixed Air Equation:

(Cfm Outdoor air x Temp Outdoor air) + (Cfm Return air x Temp Return air) = Cfm Mixed air x Temp Mixed air

(Cfm x F) Outdoor air + (Cfm x F) Return air = (Cfm x F) Mixed air

(% x F) Outdoor air + (% x F) Return air = F Mixed air

Example 1. A flow rate of 1,200 cfm of Outdoor air at 15F is mixed with a flow rate
of 2,000 of Return Air at 72F. What is the calculated Mixed air temperature?

(Cfm x F) Outdoor air + (Cfm x F) Return air = (Cfm x F) Mixed air

(1,200 x 15) + (2,000 x 72) = (1,200 + 2,000) x F mixed air

18,000 + 144,000 =3,200 F

= 50.6F is the Mixed Air Temperature, MAT

Example 2. A flow rate of 15% of Outdoor air at 15F is mixed with a flow rate of
return Air at 72F. What is the calculated Mixed air temperature?

(% x F) Outdoor air + (% x F) Return air = F Mixed air

(0.15 x 15) + (0.85 X 72) = F mixed air = 2.25 + 61.2 = 63.45 F is the mixed air temperature

Example3. A flow rate of 15% of Outdoor air at 0F is mixed with a flow rate of
return Air at 72F. What is the calculated Mixed air temperature?

(% x F) Outdoor air + (% x F) Return air = F Mixed air

(0.15 x 0) + (0.85 X 72) = F mixed air = 0 + 61.2 = 61.2 F is the mixed air temperature

TAB Technician Manual Module 1 Page 17


5 PSYCHROMETRICS

Psychometrics is the study of the properties of the mixture of Air and Water over a
range of temperatures. The topic is covered extensively during Advanced Level
training for apprentices. This section will discuss four terms the TAB Technician
must understand. The other three terms are more related to design of cooling
systems.

A Psychometric Chart is a graphical presentation of seven properties. Knowing any


two of those properties it is easy to read the other five properties directly from a
Psychometric Chart

Those seven properties are:


Dry Bulb Temperature
Relative Humidity
Specific Volume
Wet Bulb Temperature
Enthalpy
Dew Point
Grains of Moisture

TAB Technician Manual Module 1 Page 18


5.1 DRY BULB TEMPERATURE

The Dry Bulb Temperature, sometimes called Sensible Temperature, is what you
read with any standard thermometer. This is the value everyone refers to unless
they specify Wet Bulb Temperature or Dew Point Temperature. Throughout this
set of modules Temperature will refer to Dry Bulb Temperature.
It is good practice to record the Temperature of the air whenever you perform a duct
traverse in case you are required to repeat the traverse at a later date.
Dry Bulb temperature is used for the Heat transfer equations:

Btu/hr = 1.085 x cfm x Tair or Btu/hr = 500 x gpm x Twater

All of our equations so far have been presented in Dry Bulb Temperatures with
reference to the Fahrenheit scale. The more common temperature scale in our area
is the Celsius scale.
Freezing point of water is 32F or 0C; Boiling point of water is 212F or 100C
The TAB Technician must be able to convert quickly between the two scales.
F = (C x 1.8) + 32 or C = (F - 32) 1.8

(16C x 1.8) + 32 = 28.8 + 32 = 60.8 F One point of quick reference: 16C61 F


(82 F- 32) 1.8 = 50 1.8 = 27.78 C Another point of quick reference: 28C82 F
For T: you do not need to convert before subtracting
(F - F) 1.8 = C and (C - C) x1.8 =F

TAB Technician Manual Module 1 Page 19


5.2 WET BULB TEMPERATURE

Wet Bulb Temperatures are read from a standard thermometer with a wet sock
on the sensing bulb. See the picture just above the Psychometric Chart above.

The TAB Technician is normally only concerned with measuring Wet Bulb
Temperatures when there is a cooling process involved during his balancing.

Historically the simple instrument used to measure Wet Bulb Temperatures was
the Sling Psychrometer. The same device hanging on a wall is called a hydrometer.
Today we use electronic equipment to measure Wet Bulb Temperatures rather
than twirling a thermometer with a wet sock attached.

The Wet Bulb Temperature will always be less than the Dry bulb Temperature
because of a cooling effect produced by the evaporation of moisture from the sock
which reduces the temperature of the bulb and thus the temperature reading.

The lower the moisture content of the air, Relative Humidity, the quicker the rate of
evaporization from the wet sock and thus the greater the difference between the dry
Bulb Temperature and the Wet Bulb temperature reading. The difference between
the Bulb Temperature reading and the Wet Bulb temperature reading is called Wet
Bulb Depression.

A table which comes with a Sling Psychrometer will give the Relative Humidity for
any Dry Bulb temperature and the Wet Bulb Depression

TAB Technician Manual Module 1 Page 20


5.3 RELATIVE HUMIDITY

The value of Relative Humidity is not used in any of our calculations, but it is a value
most people readily relate to their comfort. The weather forecasters relate rising
Relative Humidity values as increased discomfort. We know that rain is probable as
the RH approaches 100%. It is of interest that they talk about Temperature and RH
in our area, but in the south they talk about Temperature and Dew Point during their
weather forecast.

The TAB Technician uses the value of Relative Humidity along with temperature to
find other properties of air. The least expensive upgrade for an electronic
Thermometer is Relative Humidity. More expensive electronic equipment may
display all seven properties.

TAB Technician Manual Module 1 Page 21


5.4 SPECIFIC VOLUME=

Fans are machines that perform the work of moving air. As silly as it sounds, the
weight of the air influences the energy required to move air. The equation
V = 4005 is based on air that is about 70F and about 0% RH where the
Specific Volume is about 13.33 ft per pound at sea level. Each pound of air
occupies 13.33 ft.
This is the same Specific Volume as air at 67F & 50%RH or 65F &100%RH.
If the air at 69F and 50% RH where in Denver CO at 5,000ft; SV =16.04

A flow rate of 1,200 = 1,200 13.33 = 90 lb. of air per minute.

The Reciprocal of SV is Specific Density which is sometimes more useful data.

13.33 = 0.075 : A flow rate of 1200 x 0.075 =90 lb. of air per minute

The real equation for air velocity is V = 1096.7 or V = 1096.7

If SV = 13.33 ; V = 1096.7 =1096.7 =1096.7 x 3.65 = 4005

TAB Technician Manual Module 1 Page 22


Psychometric Example

A flow rate of 2,000 cfm of air at 102 F and 20% RH goes through a humidification
process which results in the air being at 95 F and 60% RH.

102F & 60%RH 95.0F & 20% RH


Dry Bulb Temp 102 95
Relative Humidity 60 20
Wet Bulb Temp 82.707 70.362
Grains of moisture 150.8 60.9
Enthalpy 46.564 btu/ lb 34.106 btu/lb
Specific Volume 14.464 lb/ ft 14.340 lb/ ft

1. Calculate the change in Sensible Heat. (Right to Left is a loss of Sensible Energy)

Btu/hr = 1.085 x cfm x Tair =1.085 x 2,000 x (95 102) = -15,190 Btu/hr

2. Calculate the change in Latent Heat (Up the Chart is a gain in Energy

Btu/hr = 0.69 x cfm x grains =0.69 x 2,000 x (150.8 - 60.9) =124,062 Btu/hr

3. Calculate the change in Total Heat

Total Heat = Sensible + Latent =-15,190 Btu/hr +124,062 Btu/hr=108,872 Btuh

Btu/hr = 4. 45 x cfm x Enthalpy =4.45 x 2,000 x (46.564 34.106) =110,876 Btuh

The 1.8% difference can be attributed to the change in Density and to rounding off.

TAB Technician Manual Module 1 Page 23


6 FANS

Fans are the heart of a ventilation system. They are used to increase the
energy of a flowing mass of air. A TAB Technician must understand the
different types of fans and the mathematics of changing a fans
performance. Fans are discussed in detail in Module 3.

Simple fan systems such as a desk fan, may have no ductwork, they just
be used to move air at a greater velocity than would naturally occur.

Other fan systems, such as a washroom exhaust fan, will have duct work
on the inlet and/or outlet to extract air from a place where it may have
odours to a place where the odours are irrelevant.

More complex fan systems, such as Heating, Ventilation and Air


Conditioning Units, HVAC, W ill have Ductwork on the inlet and on the
outlet to extract air from an occupied zone, blend Outdoor Air, filter,
heat, humidify, and cool the air before delivering it bac k to the occupied
space. These units may be smaller than a car to larger than a transport
trailer.

All fans have one property in common: they move air from an area of lower
pressure to an area of higher pressure.

Lower Pressure Higher Pressure (Velocity) Higher pressure at outlet

TAB Technician Manual Module 1 Page 24


6.1 FAN LAWS

Fan Law #1: cfm ~ rpm:

Fan Law #2: SP ~ rpm2: ( ) OR ( ) or

cfm x = cfm

Fan Law #3: Hp ~ rpm3: ( ) OR ( )

6.2 FAN TYPES


.
In HVAC we use many fans that come in many shapes, sizes, and uses. The fans
that a TAB Technician may encounter will have been selected for a particular set of
operating parameters. His task is to measure the air flow rate of each fan and to
document the performance of each fan in a format acceptable to the industry.

There are three basic types of fans: Propeller, Axial, and Centrifugal, each with an
endless number of sizes, shapes, and applications.

The all have one property in common: they move air from an area of lower pressure
to an area of higher pressure.

6.2.1 PROPELLER FAN

They may have a frame as pictured to the


left or just blades like the one over a
kitchen table.

Propeller fans are used to deliver large air


flow rates with very little resistance to flow.

There is no practical method of determining


the air flow rate of a propeller fan.

The TAB Technician should verify the


proper rotation: Clockwise or Counter-
clockwise and measure the electrical
current draw.

TAB Technician Manual Module 1 Page 25


6.2.2 AXIAL FAN

Air flows through the blades: no change in direction.

Axial Fans have their blades mounted in a tube.


The motor may be inside the tube or external.

They may be used to deliver any flow rate of air and


overcome high resistance to flow.

There is usually ductwork at the inlet and/or the


outlet of the fan. Airflow rate is measured via an air
traverse in the ductwork.

There are a lot details for a TAB Technician to


document.

6.2.3 Centrifugal Fan

Air changes direction as it passes through the Fan.

The fan blades are mounted on a cylinder. The motor


may be inside the cylinder or external to the housing.

The air may enter one side of the cylinder or both sides.

They may be used to deliver any flow rate of air and


overcome high resistance to flow.

There is usually ductwork at the inlet and/or the outlet of


the fan. Airflow rate is measured via an air traverse in the
ductwork.

There are a lot details for a TAB Technician to document.

6.2.4 Fan Systems

Most of the Fan Systems we encounter will have a Supply Air Fan and a Return Air
fan, along with Dampers, Filters, Heating Coils, Cooling Coils, Humidifiers, Control
Valves, Pumps, Boilers, Chillers, and Cooling Towers.
Our focus as TAB Technicians, for the first five modules, is strictly on documenting
the performance of the fans, the supply air diffusers, and the return air diffusers.
In Module 7 and Module 8 we will learn to measure the performance of pumps and
we will learn how to measure and /or balance the water flow rates through boilers,
heat exchangers, chillers, and cooling towers.

TAB Technician Manual Module 1 Page 26


At the completion of Module 9, a student should have the knowledge to measure
and/or to adjust the performance of all of the components in the diagram below.

TAB Technician Manual Module 1 Page 27


7 TAB EQUATIONS

Each Module will have a section with a list of the equations presented in that module

7.1 FLOW RATE

Our first Equation of fluid flow rate is Q = VA

V represents the Velocity of the fluid in fpm,


Q = VA
A represents the Area through which the fluid flows in ft
V= Q represents the Volume flow rate in CFM,
A= x ft =

Our Second Equation of fluid flow rate is V = 4005 ,

V = 4005 is the square root of the velocity pressure in inch w.c.

VP = ( ) 4005 is the conversion constant used for standard air

V represents the Velocity of the fluid in fpm, ,


V = 1096.7
SD Is the Specific Density of the air (The Reciprocal of SV)
V = 1096.7
SV Is the Specific Volume of the air (From Psychometric Chart)

7.2 HEAT TRANSFER

F = (C x 1.8) + 32 or

C = (F - 32) 1.8 SI Equations will be High-lighted in Turquoise

Btu/hr = 1.085 x cfm x Tair For Sensible Heat energy of air

Btu/hr = 0.69 x cfm x grains For latent Heat energy of air

Btu/hr = 4. 45 x cfm x Enthalpy For Total heat energy of air

Btu/hr = 500 x gpm x Twater For Sensible Heat energy of

1.085 x cfm x Tair = 500 x gpm x Twater is the energy balance equation

TAB Technician Manual Module 1 Page 28


7.3 MIXED AIR

(Cfm x F) Outdoor air + (Cfm x F) Return air = (Cfm x F) Mixed air

(% x F) Outdoor air + (% x F) Return air = F Mixed air

or (%OA x OAT) + (%RA x RAT) = MAT


Remember: a temperature is measured in degrees F or C, but a difference in temperature
is measured in F degrees, F or C degrees, C.

7.4 FAN LAWS

Subscript 1 is always your measured data; subscript 2 is always the target data
regardless of whether you are increasing performance or reducing performance.

Fan Law #1: cfm ~ rpm

Fan Law #2: SP ~ rpm2

( ) cfm = cfm

( ) rpm = rpm

Fan Law #3: Hp ~ rpm3

( ) cfm = cfm

( ) rpm = rpm

TAB Technician Manual Module 1 Page 29


8 EQUIVALENTS

Base Units Imperial Units SI Units


Air Density @ 70F / 21C 0.07488 lb./ft 1.2041 kg/m3.
Water Density @ 68F/ 20C 62.316 lb./ft. 998.21kg/m (1kg/ )

0 psig 14.7 psia 101.33 kPa

1 psi 2.31 ft. water 6.8948 kPa


27.72 in water (12 x 2.31) 0.068046 Bar
2.04 in Hg (Mercury)

1 ft. of water 12 inch water 2.9861 kPa


0.8843 In Hg 0.3048 m

1 inch water 248.84 Pa

1 Hg 0.5 psi 3.3769 kPa

1 gal water (US) 8.3304 lb 3.7786 kg


0.8330 gal (Imp) 3.7854

1 gal water (imp) 10.0004 lb 4.5379 kg


1.2009 gal US 4.5461

1 gpm (US) 0.8330 gpm (Imp) 0.06309 /s

1 gpm (Imp) 1.2009 gpm US 0.07577 l/s


7.4806 gal of water (US)
1 cu ft., 1ft 6.2290 gal of water (Imp)

Specific Heat of Water 1Btu/ lb/ F 4.1868 kJ/kg/C

1 Btu/Hr 0.29307 W

1 MBh 1,000 Btu/Hr 0.29307 kW

1 hp (Electric) 746 W

1 hp (Boiler) 809.6 W

1 Ton of Refrigeration 12,000 Btuh 3516.8w, 3.5163 kw

1 watt 3.41212 Btu/h

1 kWh 3412.12 Btu/h 3,600 kJ

TAB Technician Manual Module 1 Page 30


9 GLOSSARY

There are some terms the TAB Technician should understand in the context of their
use in the HVAC industry.

Air: is a fluid which behaves like


water; warm air flows up and cool air
flows down.
Air, Outdoor: Air introduced from
outdoors, and therefore not previously
circulated through a ventilation
system.

TAB Technician Manual Module 1 Page 31