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Surrogate-based Multi-objective Optimization of a Composite Laminate With Curvilinear Fibers

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Surrogate-based Multi-objective Optimization of a Composite Laminate With Curvilinear Fibers

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Composite Structures

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/compstruct

with curvilinear bers

Mahdi Arian Nik, Kazem Fayazbakhsh, Damiano Pasini , Larry Lessard

Department of Mechanical Engineering, McGill University, Macdonald Engineering Building, 817 Sherbrooke West, Montreal, QC, Canada H3A 2K6

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: A variable stiffness design can increase the structural performance of a composite plate and provides ex-

Available online 30 March 2012 ibility for trade-offs between structural properties. In this paper, we examine the simultaneous optimi-

zation of stiffness and buckling load of a composite laminate plate with curvilinear ber paths. The

Keywords: problem, which falls in the area of multi-objective optimization, is formulated and solved through a sur-

Variable stiffness rogate-based optimization algorithm capable of nding the set of optimum Pareto solutions. We inte-

Curvilinear ber grate surrogate modeling into an evolutionary algorithm to reduce the high computational cost

Laminate design

required to solve the optimization process. The results show that a curvilinear ber path can increase

Optimization

Metamodeling

both buckling load and stiffness simultaneously over the quasi-isotropic laminate. Furthermore, the opti-

mum direction for varying the ber angle is dependent on the loading direction and boundary conditions.

The results for a plate under uniform compression with free transverse edges shows that varying the ber

orientation perpendicular to the loading direction can increase the buckling load by 116% with respect to

that of a quasi-isotropic laminate.

2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

an additional rotational DOF provides a tool surface on which the

The design of a laminated composite structure requires the tows are placed [3].

selection of the constituent materials and their best arrangement The improvement in buckling and in-plane stiffness of variable

within the structure. To this end, traditional and non-conventional stiffness over constant stiffness design has been demonstrated by

design strategies have been developed. With the former, the ber several authors. Hyer and Lee [4] improved the buckling resistance

angle and the thickness within each layer are kept constant and of a plate with a circular hole using a curvilinear ber path. Lund

the design involves the search for the optimum stacking sequence et al. [5] examined two benchmark problems, i.e. a single-layer

that results in the best mechanical properties of the composite and a 16-layer simply supported plate, and concluded that the buck-

structure. With the latter, the bers are allowed to follow curvilin- ling load can be increased by up to 44% using a variable stiffness

ear paths within the plane of the laminates, thereby giving the compared to a constant stiffness design. Minimum compliance

freedom to tailor the properties in directions that are favorable design for a cantilever beam and a square plate was investigated

to carry the load within the laminate [1]. by Setoodeh et al. [6]. It was found that by allowing the in-plane

Variable stiffness laminates can be manufactured using an stiffness to vary spatially, the compliance can be improved up to

Automated Fiber Placement (AFP) technique [2]. AFP is capable of 36% and 45% for a cantilever beam and a square plate, respectively.

combining tape placement and lament winding techniques to In a follow up work [7], it was pointed out that variable stiffness de-

overcome the limitations and exploit the benets of the two man- sign can increase the buckling load of a single-layer and a balanced

ufacturing methods. Tape placement is generally more efcient for symmetric [h]s square plate up to 166% and 67%, respectively.

manufacturing large at plates and its use is limited to compo- IJsselmuiden et al. [8] studied different loading and boundary con-

nents with simple geometry. Filament winding has its limitations ditions on balanced symmetric [h]3s square plates. Results demon-

in terms of the structural geometries that can be produced, which strated improvements more than 100% in buckling loads of variable-

are basically restricted to convex nearly cylindrical shapes. An AFP stiffness compared to the optimum constant stiffness designs.

machine typically has a self-contained ber placement head with While the above studies are promising because they demonstrate

three rotational degrees-of-freedom (DOF), which is then mounted the potential of optimizing the curvilinear ber paths of composite

structures, their approaches did not consider the manufacturing

Corresponding author. Tel.: +1 514 398 6295; fax: +1 514 398 7365. constraints, e.g. the minimum turning radius and the minimum

E-mail address: damiano.pasini@mcgill.ca (D. Pasini). cut length imposed by AFP. As a result, several solutions although

0263-8223/$ - see front matter 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compstruct.2012.03.021

M. Arian Nik et al. / Composite Structures 94 (2012) 23062313 2307

theoretically optimum might not satisfy the manufacturing con- the optimum result can be manufactured using existing ber

straints imposed by the AFP machine. To avoid this issue, other placement machines. In the following sections, the ber path for-

researchers redened the tow steered ply denitions to meet the mulation is rst presented before investigating two benchmark

AFP manufacturing constraints. A continuous function was pro- cases previously studied in [9,10,14]. Analytical expressions for

posed to describe the ber path, which can also reduce the number the in-plane and out-of-plane responses of the plate under uniform

of design variables without compromising structural continuity. compression are provided to more accurately calculate the buck-

Grdal and Olmedo [9] suggested to model the ber path with a lin- ling load compared to the aforementioned research. Next, a GA-

ear ber angle variation from one end of a plate to the other. In their based optimization technique is briey described. A discussion of

work, an analysis for calculating the in-plane stiffness of a plate with the results follows together with design recommendations and

the prescribed ber path was proposed. In another attempt, Olmedo directions for future research.

and Grdal [10] used the same ber path model and layup to inves-

tigate the buckling resistance of the plates under uniform compres- 2. Problem denition

sion. It was found that up to 80% increase in the buckling load can be

achieved compared to constant stiffness laminates. Tatting and This section explains the ber path used to design a variable

Grdal [11,12] designed and manufactured at plates with curvilin- stiffness plate. Then, two case studies of square plates, each under

ear ber path for maximum buckling load under shear loading. An two dissimilar boundary conditions, are described.

improvement up to 224% in the buckling load for variable stiffness

compared to a constant stiffness design was found. Alhajahmad 2.1. Fiber path denition

et al. [13] used the same ber path denition and found ber paths

that maximized the buckling load of a plate subjected to pressure For the design of a variable stiffness plate, it is necessary to de-

and in-plane loads. It was shown that the buckling load and the ne a reference path (Fig. 1a) along which the AFP machine places

in-plane stiffness are generally unrelated and present opposing de- the rst course (a course is dened as a number of tows placed side

sign trends. In previous research works [9,10,13,14], curvilinear - by side). The subsequent ber paths can be obtained by offsetting

ber paths were found to substantially improve one of the the machine along a given direction, e.g. x- or y-directions.

properties under investigation while the other property was kept As suggested by Grdal and Olmedo [9], a reference ber path

constant. Since the concurrent improvement of the buckling load that varies linearly along the x-axis of the plate can be formulated as

and in-plane stiffness was not examined, the benets of a variable

2T 1 T 0

stiffness design were not fully exploited. hx jxj T 0 1

Buckling load and in-plane stiffness are examples of two con- a

icting objectives that can be simultaneously maximized in the de- where h represents the ber orientation, a denotes the plate width,

sign of composite plates, a problem that falls within the area of T0 and T1 are the ber angles at the plate center (x = 0) and the plate

multi-objective optimization. Instead of a single optimum solution, edge (x = a/2), respectively. In this case, since the path varies along

this problem has a set of optimum solutions dening the Pareto the x-axis, the reference path should be shifted along the y-direc-

front, which represents the trade-offs among the objectives [15]. tion to manufacture the entire plate (Fig. 1b). A single layer with

Among several design optimization algorithms, evolutionary this ber path denition may be represented by hT0|T1i, where

strategies have been demonstrated to be capable of returning a pop- T0 = T1 represents a straight ber case. Similarly (Fig. 1c), the ber

ulation of solutions at each iteration of the optimization process. orientation can be formulated along the y-direction, in which y

Genetic Algorithm (GA), which belongs to this category, has been replaces x in Eq. (1); in this case, the AFP machine should be

widely used and recommended for optimizing composite structures offset along the x-direction.

[16]. GA, however, being a population-based algorithm, requires a

large number of function evaluations to reach the optimum solu- 2.2. Case studies

tion. This requisite makes the process of nding an optimum solu-

tion computationally expensive. To overcome this issue, the A square plate 0.254 0.254 m made of 16-ply balanced sym-

coupling of a surrogate model with GA has been recognized as ben- metric [h]4s laminate subjected to a uniform end shortening along

ecial. For example, Lee and Lin [17,18] used a linear combination of the x-direction is considered as a case study. Concerning the bound-

trigonometric basis functions as a surrogate model to optimize the ary conditions, the transverse edges are considered free in case I-a,

stacking sequence of a composite laminate. It was claimed that the while the edges are xed against displacement in the y-direction

use of the surrogate model decreased the number of GA iterations in case I-b (Fig. 2). The plates are designed with material properties:

by one-third. In another study, Lanzi and Giavotto [19] compared Ex = 181 GPa, Ey = 10.27 GPa, Gxy = 7.17 GPa and txy = 0.28 and with

the performance of Radial Basis Function (RBF), Kriging, and Neural the curvilinear ber path given by Eq. (1) in two different scenarios:

Network surrogate modeling techniques to achieve a stiffened com- case-I, the ber orientation varies along x-direction (parallel to the

posite plate with the minimum weight and maximum buckling loading direction); case-II, the ber orientation varies along

load. They concluded that all surrogate models under investigation y-direction (perpendicular to the loading direction).

in their work return similar results for the specic case. In addition,

Irisarri et al. [20] used RBF to maximize the buckling and the failure

load of a stiffened composite plate. Vandervelde and Milani [21] 3. Analysis

used a second order polynomial regression as a surrogate model,

which was developed by Wang et al. [22], to design and optimize In this section, the analytical formulations for evaluating two

an airplane composite wing free vibration. Surrogate-based optimi- objectives, namely in-plane stiffness and critical buckling load,

zation has been successfully used also for constant stiffness com- for a composite plate with a curvilinear ber path are derived.

posite design [1721]. Surrogate modeling, however, has not been

used to optimize variable stiffness composite structures. 3.1. In-plane response of a variable stiffness plate

The focus of this paper is on maximizing simultaneously in-

plane stiffness and buckling resistance of a variable stiffness com- Closed-form expressions for the in-plane stiffness evaluation of

posite plate using a computationally efcient surrogate-based a variable stiffness plate can be obtained from the in-plane plate

optimization method. Curvilinear ber paths are selected such that equilibrium equations given by

2308 M. Arian Nik et al. / Composite Structures 94 (2012) 23062313

y

T1

T0

x

a

(a) (b) (c)

Fig. 1. A composite laminate with a curvilinear ber path; (a) denition of a reference ber path; (b) ber angle offset along y-direction (T0 = 60, T1 = 15); and (c) ber angle

offset along x-direction (T0 = 60, T1 = 15).

v=0

Free

u0 u0 u0 u0

Y =(x) =(x)

Y

X X

Free

v=0

Case I-a: Square plate under uniform Case I-b: Square plate under uniform

compression, Free transverse edges compression, Fixed transverse edges

Nx;x Nxy;y 0 2a is a result of varying the ber path in the xy plane. Since the above

two partial differential equations with variable coefcients are

Ny;y Nxy;x 0 2b coupled, a numeric solutions must be obtained. Here, MATLAB sub-

routines have been developed to solve the above equations and

where x and y are the plate coordinates, Nx, Ny and Nxy are the cor-

calculate the displacement distribution of the plate as well as the

responding stress resultants, and the comma denotes the partial

equivalent in-plane stiffness.

derivatives of the term with respect to the subscripts. Employing

the generalized stressstrain relations and assuming a linear rela-

3.2. Buckling response of a square plate

tion between displacement and strain, the above equations take

the form:

This section presents the calculation of the critical buckling load

A11 u;xx 2A16 u;xy A66 u;yy A16 v ;xx A12 A66 v ;xy A26 v ;yy of a variable stiffness plate subjected to an in-plane uniform com-

pression (constant displacement along x-direction, u0). The plate is

A11;x A16;y u;x A16;x A66;y u;y A16;x A26;y v ;x

assumed to be simply supported along all edges; these geometrical

A12;x A26;y v ;y 0 3a conditions at the boundaries imply zero out-of-plane deection

along the edges. The compression load at the plate edge (Nx0), cor-

A16 u;xx A12 A66 u;xy A26 u;yy A26 v ;yy A66 v ;xx 2A26 v ;xy responding to the displacement u0, is obtained using the equations

A22 v ;yy A16;x A12;y u;x A66;y A26;y u;y of the in-plane response mentioned in Section 3.1. To calculate the

A66;x A26;y v ;x A26;x A22;y v ;y 0 3b buckling load, Nx0 is increased proportionally (kN x0 ) where k is

the load multiplier. kcr is dened as the minimum load multiplier

where Aij are the elements of the in-plane stiffness matrix of the for a buckled plate and can be obtained using an energy method

composite plate, u and v are mid-plane displacements in the x- [23]. The Ritz method is used to obtain the critical buckling load

and y-direction, respectively. For more details on deriving these and the out-of-plane deection (w) of the plate. Since all edges

equations, the interested reader may refer to [14]. are simply supported, w should be zero along these edges. The fol-

Unlike a constant stiffness design, the derivatives of the A ma- lowing series approximation that satises the boundary conditions

trix with respect to x and y elements are not zero. This difference is assumed for w

M. Arian Nik et al. / Composite Structures 94 (2012) 23062313 2309

XI X J

ipx jp y imization problem is to use the inverse of the objective functions.

w C ij sin sin 4 Then, the optimization problem can be written as follows

i1 j1

a a

minf1=Eeq x; 1=N cr xg; x T 0 ; T 1 T

where I and J are arbitrary numbers used in the summations, and a x 10

is the plate width. Cij are constants which can be calculated using s:t: fT 0 ; T 1 2 0 ; 90 g

the principle of stationary potential energy dened as

where x is the vector of design variables, i.e., T0 and T1 that are the

@ P @U X ber angle at the plate center and plate edge, respectively; Eeq and

0 5

@C ij @C ij Ncr are respectively the equivalent in-plane stiffness and the critical

where P represents total potential energy, U is the strain energy buckling load of the plate. It is worth to mention that the design

due to the out of plane deection of the plate and X denotes the po- variables should be integers to respect the manufacturing con-

tential energy due to the external forces. The strain energy due to straints. To reduce the computational cost involved in the optimiza-

the out-of-plane deection of the plate can be calculated as tion process, we now resort to a surrogate modeling approach

2 which will be coupled with the optimization algorithm.

Z Z !2 !2 !2

a 2 a 2 2

1 4D11 @ w D22 @ w D66 2@ w

U 4.1. NSGA-II and motivation for surrogate modeling

2 0 0 @x2 @y2 @x2

!#

@4w @4w @4w Non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II) is a mul-

2 D12 2 2 D16 3 2D26 dydx 6 ti-objective Evolutionary Algorithm (EA) that uses elite-preserva-

@x @y @x @y @x@y3

tion strategy and explicit diversity-preserving mechanism to nd

a set of evenly distributed solutions to a multi-objective optimiza-

where U represents the strain energy, Dij denotes the elements of

tion problem [25]. NSGA-II was developed to reduce the computa-

the bending stiffness matrix and w is the out-of-plane deection

tional complexity, to improve the diversity among non-dominated

of the plate. These equations take into account the bending/twisting

solutions and to add elitism to non-dominated sorting genetic

coupling terms, i.e. D16 and D26 of the bending stiffness matrix. We

algorithm (NSGA) [26]. Simplicity, effectiveness, and independency

note that these terms were neglected by previous researchers to

on user-dened parameters, make NSGA-II a exible and robust EA

simplify the calculations [10,14]. However, neglecting even small

procedure for solving various multi-objective optimization prob-

D16 and D26 terms may result in a signicant error in the buckling

lems using a common framework [27]. As mentioned in the intro-

load estimation [24]. The potential energy due to the external force

duction, NSGA-II needs a large number of function evaluations to

can be obtained by

" # nd the Pareto optimal set. However, for the case of this study

Z Z 2 2

1 b a

@w @w @2w since the objective functions are evaluated through expensive sim-

X Nx Ny 2Nxy dydx 7 ulations, the high computational cost of the multi-objective opti-

2 0 0 @x @y @x@y

mization becomes a major challenge.

Since the material properties, i.e. stiffness and Poissons ratio, For this reason, we resort here to a surrogate model that

change within the plane due to varying ber angles, the compres- approximates the computationally expensive simulations through

sion load at the plate edge may not be constant. Thus, N axv e , the a multi-dimensional parametric surface [28,29]. The surrogate

average compression load (per unit length) along the plate edge, model, which is signicantly cheaper to evaluate than the high

can be dened as delity simulation, replaces the expensive simulations during the

R 2a optimization process; as a result, the computational cost of the

2a Nx 2a ; ydy optimization process can be signicantly reduced.

Naxv e 8

a

Substituting Eq. (4) into Eqs. (6) and (7) and then replacing into 4.2. Surrogate modeling

Eq. (5) yields an eigenvalue problem as follows

There are a variety of techniques to construct surrogate models.

P

I P

J i; m 1; 2; 3; . . . ; I Since their performance is problem-dependent, the best surrogate

Gmnij kbmnij wij 0 9

i1j1 j; n 1; 2; 3; . . . ; J model is not known at the outset. We thus emphasize that a com-

parative study of the performance of various surrogate models

where the elements of [G] are the summation of the integral terms in

should be performed before selecting the best surrogate model

Eqs. (6) and (7) containing the Dijs and the elements of [b] are the

for a specic design problem. This task, however, is beyond the

sums of the integral terms containing Nx, Ny and Nxy The lowest eigen-

scope of this work. In this section, the method of polynomial regres-

value (load multiplier) corresponds to the lowest buckling load [23].

sion (PR), which is the simplest non-linear model for constructing a

surrogate model, is selected and its formulation is briey described.

4.2.1. Polynomial regression (PR)

A second-order polynomial can be expressed as

Variable stiffness design provides exibility for trade-offs be-

tween different structural properties. The involvement of two or X

n X

n X

n X

n

~f x b bi xi bii x2i bij xi xj 11

more conicting objectives results in a multi-objective optimization 0

i1 i1 i1 ji1

problem. The solution of this problem is not unique; instead of a sin-

gle optimum solution, there is a set of optimum solutions represent- where b0, bi, bii and bij(i, j = 1, . . . , n) are the regression coefcients,

ing the trade-off between the objectives. In this work, buckling xi(i = 1, . . . , n) are the design variables, and ~f denotes the approxi-

resistance and in-plane stiffness of a plate, which are generally con- mate value for the objective function. The coefcients of the surro-

icting to each other, are considered as objective functions. The goal gate model are evaluated through tting the model to the initial

here is to nd the ber path parameters (design variables) that data samples using the least square method [28]. For a number of

simultaneously maximize the in-plane stiffness and buckling data samples (Ns) and two design variables (x1 and x2), the set of

resistance. One way to convert a maximization problem into a min- equations specied in Eq. (13) can be written in matrix form as

2310 M. Arian Nik et al. / Composite Structures 94 (2012) 23062313

f Ub 12 edges (case II-a). Fig. 4 shows the result of the each algorithm,

which are averaged over ve trials. The result clearly shows supe-

where f is a Ns 1 matrix of function values at data samples, and U

riority of the surrogate-based optimization approach in reducing

is a Ns 6 matrix, also known as Gramian matrix, of the design

the computational cost of the optimization compared to the GA.

variable values as the data samples dened by

2 3 In a similar approach, the performance of GA and surrogate-

1 x11 x21 x11 x21 x211 x221 based GA in maximizing the buckling load is compared in Fig. 5,

6 7 where the results are averaged over ve trials. Also this graph indi-

6 1 x12 x22 x12 x22 x212 x222 7

6 7 cates superiority of the surrogate based optimization in reducing

6. .. .. .. .. .. 7

6 .. . . . . . 7 the computational cost over the GA.

6 7

U6 2 7

13

6 1 x1i x2i x1i x2i x21i x2i 7

6 7

6. .. .. .. .. .. 7 5.2. Multi-objective optimization results

6 .. . . . . . 7

4 5

1 x1Ns x2Ns x1i x2Ns x21Ns x22Ns The surrogate-based NSGA-II (NSGA-II + PR) is used to solve the

The vector b of the coefcients of Eq. (13) can then be obtained multi-objective optimization problems (Eq. (10)). In each case, the

by stopping criterion is set to be the maximum number of function

evaluations, i.e. 500. The in-plane stiffness and the buckling load

b UT U1 UT f 14 of the variable stiffness plate are normalized using the correspond-

ing values for a constant stiffness quasi-isotropic laminate with

[45/0/45/90]2s layup.

4.3. Multi-objective optimization framework

The optimization results for a plate with free transverse edges

(cases I-a and II-a) and xed transverse edges (cases I-b and II-b)

In the conventional NSGA-II, all individuals in the population

are illustrated in Figs. 6 and 7, respectively. A wide extent of the

are evaluated by the true function, whereas in the surrogate-based

Pareto front was captured for each case. A designer can select

NSGA-II only some of the individuals are evaluated by the true

any solution placed on the Pareto front considering the desirable

functions [30]. The main steps implemented here for a surrogate-

trade-off between in-plane stiffness and buckling.

based NSGA-II are (Fig. 3):

Step 1: The initial sample points are generated by the Latin 6. Discussion

Hypercube (LH) method [28]. The LH method is used to gener-

ate an initial population that is predominantly random, but is Figs. 4 and 5 show that PR surrogate-based optimization algo-

uniform in each dimension. rithms perform better than the GA. In stiffness optimization prob-

Step 2: Two different surrogate models are constructed based on lem, GA reaches the optimum solution after performing 200

the initial sample points: the rst one predicts the equivalent function evaluations, whereas surrogate-based GA requires 116

plate stiffness, and the second one predicts the corresponding function evaluations only. Buckling load optimization also con-

buckling load. rms the dominance of the surrogate-based GA over GA. The

Step 3: The intermediate population (offspring) is generated by [h90|15i]4s solution achieved by the surrogate-based GA after 72

the standard genetic operators. function evaluations is achieved by GA after 225 function evalua-

Step 4: The individuals in the offspring are divided into two tions. Therefore, it can be concluded that in this design problem

groups (based on their Euclidean distance to the parent individ- PR surrogate model signicantly increases the efciency of the

uals): those which lie in the local vicinity of the individuals of optimization process.

the parent population are evaluated by the surrogate model; Fig. 6 shows the Pareto fronts obtained with surrogate-based

the remaining individuals (second group) are assessed through NSGA-II for a at plate maximizing both in-plane stiffness and

true function evaluation. buckling load and subjected to free transverse edges. According

Step 5: The non-dominate sorting algorithm is applied to create to classical lamination theory, the obvious solution for maximum

a new population. stiffness is [0]16T laminate with all bers aligned along the loading

Step 6: If any individual in the new population has been evalu- direction (x). By comparing cases I-a and II-a it can be observed

ated by the surrogate model, then it must be re-evaluated by that the direction of the ber orientation angle variation does not

the true functions before proceeding to the next step. play a major role in the maximum achievement in stiffness, i.e.

Step 7: Proceed to step 2 unless the stopping criteria (which 160% higher compared to the quasi-isotropic laminate. However,

requires reach the maximum number of true function evalua- the direction is important for buckling load maximization. It

tion) is satised. should be recalled that for case I-a the ber orientation changes

along the loading direction (h = h(x)), whereas for case II-a the ber

5. Results orientation varies perpendicular to the loading direction (h = h(y)).

In case II-a, an improvement of 116% in the buckling load can be

In this section, rst the viability of PR surrogate model in obtained for laminate at the cost of 46% reduction in the stiffness

increasing the performance of the design optimization of variable over the quasi-isotropic laminate. On the other hand, case I-a can

stiffness composite structures is veried. In particular, single only achieve 20% improvement in the buckling load for [45]4s

objective optimization problems, which have known solutions, laminate along with 62% reduction in stiffness. For cases I-a and

are examined. Then, the surrogate model is integrated into II-a, there is a set of optimum solutions in which both stiffness

NSGA-II to solve multi-objective optimization problems. and buckling load are higher compared to the quasi-isotropic lam-

inate (Fig. 6). Case II-a generally provides a better set of non-

5.1. PR surrogate model performance in single objective optimization dominated solutions compared to case I-a. Thus, plates with

problems varying ber orientation perpendicular to the loading direction

(h = h(y)) can provide a better performance for stiffness and buck-

The PR surrogate model is integrated into a conventional GA to ling load compared to the case where the ber orientation changes

maximize the in-plane stiffness of a at plate with free transverse along the loading direction.

M. Arian Nik et al. / Composite Structures 94 (2012) 23062313 2311

185 19.0

180 18.5

Critical buckling load (kN)

18.0

175

Eeq (GPa)

17.5

170

17.0

165

GA+PR GA+PR

GA

16.5

GA

160

16.0

155 15.5

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400

Number of function evaluations Number of function evaluations

Fig. 4. Performance comparison of surrogated based optimization. The results are Fig. 5. Performance evaluation of surrogated based optimization. The results are

averaged over ve trials. averaged over ve trials.

Fig. 7 shows the Pareto fronts for a at plate with xed trans- changes along the loading direction (h = h(x)), whereas for case II-

verse edges. Similar to the previous cases, [0]16T gives the maxi- b the ber orientation varies perpendicular to the loading direction

mum improvement in stiffness. For case I-b, the ber orientation (h = h(y)). In case II-b, at the extreme value of the buckling load, an

2312 M. Arian Nik et al. / Composite Structures 94 (2012) 23062313

2.4 For a at plate with free transverse edges, varying ber orienta-

Case I-a tion perpendicular to the loading direction can improve the buck-

2.2

Case II-a ling load by 116% over the quasi-isotropic laminate. On the other

2.0 hand, for a at plate with xed transverse edges, the maximum

achievable improvement in the buckling load is only 37%. For all

Ncr/Nquasi-isotropic

1.8

cases, the use of curvilinear ber paths results in a set of optimum

1.6 solutions in which both stiffness and buckling load are higher than

1.4 a quasi-isotropic laminate. For example, [h0|49i]4s laminate can

increase both buckling load and stiffness over quasi-isotropic lam-

1.2 inate by 32% and 51%, respectively. Hence, the optimum direction

1.0 of varying the ber angle is dependent on the loading and bound-

ary conditions. For free edges, the optimum direction is perpendic-

0.8 ular to the loading direction, while for xed transverse edges it is

0.6 along the loading direction.

0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 Alternative ber paths, e.g. constant curvature ber path, might

Eeq/quasi-isotropic bring additional improvement in the simultaneous optimization of

stiffness and buckling load. Further work, however, is required to

Fig. 6. Pareto set obtained by maximizing the buckling load and the overall plate investigate this matter. In addition, a future work will compare

stiffness.

the performance of alternative surrogate models to identify the

one that can most efciently reduce the computational cost re-

quired to solve the multi-objective optimization of composite lam-

1.4

inate structures with curvilinear bers.

Case I-b

Case II-b

1.3 Acknowledgment

Ncr/Nquasi-isotropic

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