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Unit 34 Assignment 1 T3

T3 Techniques
Traditional 2D Animation:
Flick Book
A Flipbook, also known as a Flick book is a book which on eat page has a drawing or
printed image which slightly changes / moves on each page. Once all the drawings /
images are placed in the book, you are now ready to see the effect of the Flipbook. For
the Flipbook to work you, need to turn / Flick the pages are a rapid speed so the all
pictures together form an animation of some sort.
The reason a Flip Book would not be suitable for this Unit is that you would need
hundreds and hundreds of pictures for this to have a duration of 30 seconds; it really is
not suitable for this kind of animation needed. A Flip Book is a book with a series of very
similar pictures that vary from each page to the next so when the pages a turned fast
the pictures appear to create an animation. You mainly see Flip Book created for
children and cartoon like flip books for kids.
The first Flip Book became known about in September 1868 when someone named John
Barnes Linnet created it, he called his first Flip Book Kineograph that translates to Moving
picture.
Flip Books are now just largely advertised and considered a toy or a novelty now, like the
type of toy you would get in a kids cereal box or something you would find in a McDonalds
happy meal.

Cell Animation
Traditional animation or Hand-drawn / Cell animation is a type of animation production
where each frame of the animation is drawn by hand, this was one of the main sources of
creating animations until the complete introduction of computer animation.
Examples of hand drawn animation have been around for thousands of years even back in
ancient Egyptian 4000-5000 years ago there is traces of animation drawing!
The first film recorded on standard picture films that included hand drawn animation was in
1900, in Europe the first hand drawn animation was by a French artist named Emil kohl in
1908. The more detailed hand-drawn animation films required a whole team of artists and
animators to draw each frame manually with detailed backgrounds, character and made
sure they were the same and each frame transitioned to the next appropriately.

Rotoscope
Rotoscoping is an animation technique used by animators, which are tracing over motion
picture footage and they must do this for every single frame of the animation in which they
are tracing over. Rotoscopes quickly became less and less popular due to computer
animation being a lot faster, effective and are a lot higher quality. The Rotoscope technique
was invented by Max Fleischer in 1915, and used in his ground-breaking Out of the
Inkwell animated series (1918-1927) known simply as "Fleischer Process" on the early
screen credits, and was essentially exclusive to Fleischer for several years.

Drawn on Film
Drawn on film is an animation technique used by animators to create an animation film
quickly. The name drawn on film is very self-explanatory because this animation is literally
the animators drawing the animation straight on to the film stock. Drawn on film was a very
popular animation production technique from around 1912 and began to get less popular
and a lot less frequently used during the 1960s. Some of the most popular drawn on film
animations will be listed below.

Chromatic Music 1912


Emak Bakia 1926
Memories of war 1982
Blinkity Blank 1955

Digital Techniques for 2D animation:


2D bitmap graphics:
A Bitmap / Raster image is resolution dependant image which means it is made up of lots of
single square pixels, all of a different colour which are arranged correctly to create your
image, if you zoom in to a Raster image you will get pixilation this is where the pixels stretch
and the image loses a lot of quality.

.JPEG, (Joint Photographic Experts Group) is one of the most common types of image files
you will come across, they normally achieve a 10:1 compression which is low Loss
compression, meaning that when compressed the image will lose little quality. .JPEG image
files are the most common image file used for digital cameras and other devices, which can
also capture images also .JPEG images are normally the type of image file you will find on
websites and across the World Wide Web.
.GIF, (Graphics Interchange Format) is a short animation type of image files where you chain
a number of Bitmap/Raster images together to form a short animation. .GIF animation files
allows you to use a palette of up to 256 different colours from the 24-bit RBG (Red, Blue,
and Green) colour space, this is good for more simple images such as a company logo for
example. .GIF image files are compressed using Lossless compression (LZW), which reduces
the size of the .GIF file without losing any visual quality at all! This compression technique
was created in 1985, 2 years before the .GIF file was created in 1975.
.PSD, (Photoshop Document) is a type of image file, which uses layers to edit or add effects
to the image; a .PSD is the default method of Photoshop to save data. When you have
completed your image you can then flatten the entire layer in Photoshop and convert it in to
a .JPEG, .GIF or .TIFF image file, once you have converted and flattened all the layers into
one image you cannot reverse the action.

2D Vector Graphics:
A Vector animation is a term used to related animation with Vector images, so instead of
animating with pixel image you will be animated with Vector graphics. Victor graphics are a
lot better than Raster graphics because Raster graphics pixelate and lose a lot of quality
when you change the size and shape of the image. The good thing about Vector animation is
that it gives a very smoother animation since the images cannot be pixelated.

.EPS, (Encapsulated PostScript) is a graphics extension file format used for Vector images in
Adobe Illustrator. An. ESP file can also include text as well as images, also. ESP files have a
Bitmap version for simpler viewing of the image.
.FLA, (Macromedia Flash) is a file format used in Adobe Flash and a .FLA file is a raw
editable file in flash to store movies or animation. A .FLA file are mostly converted or saved
into a .SWF file to then be uploading on to the internet. Adobe bought Macromedia Flash in
2005 to then become Adobe Flash in 2005 to add to the Adobe Creative Cloud.
.AI, (Adobe Illustrator Artwork) is file format made by Adobe for representing single page
Vector drawings in an .EPS or .PDF file. An .AI file extension is use in Adobe Illustrator.
Programs that can view an .AI file are Programs such as Adobe Reader, Adobe Photoshop
and Preview as long as the .AI file has been saved as a .PDF compatibility option.
Application Software:
Adobe Flash:
Adobe Flash is an animation production software owned by Adobe where you can produce
many different types of animations with many different specifics; in this Unit, we will be
creating a stop-motion style animation which will run at 24 Frame Per Second (FPS) in the
Adobe Flash software.
Stop motion is a very popular animation technique where you physically manipulate the
objects, which you want, featured in your film. The object is moved very slightly between
photos of the scene and at 24 photos a second when you put them all in a sequence; it
creates the illusion of movement.
Not all stop motion animation just use it to move characters in a scene of the film, many
stop motion films involve human actor and slightly moving from different position between
each photo.
The term Stop Motion is related to the animation technique and is often spelled with a
hyphen Stop-Motion. Stop motion has more than one meaning, the second meaning of
Stop Motion is not related to animation at all! Stop Motion A device for automatically
stopping a machine or engine when something has gone wrong.

Adobe Photoshop:
Adobe Photoshop is a Raster and Vector image production and photo / image editor
software, which is owned by the media software production company Adobe. In college, we
use Photoshop to create graphics for future product such as gathering assets for any
graphics, animation or video production we are currently working on. Some tasks we may
just need to import an image in to Photoshop to crop or to edit slightly where you can then
re-export in the new updated version. Other assignments like our most 2 previous
assignment where we have to create a full background for a TV animation episode many
other tools within Photoshop such as the brush tool and shapes tools as an example.

The American brothers Thomas and John Knoll, who sold the distribution license to Adobe
Systems Incorporated in 1988, developed Photoshop in 1987. Thomas Knoll, a PhD student
at the University of Michigan, began writing a program on his Macintosh Plus to
display grayscale images on a monochrome display. This program, called Display, caught the
attention of his brother John Knoll, an Industrial Light & Magic employee, who
recommended that Thomas turn it into a full-fledged image-editing program.
T3 Development:
Pioneers:
Joseph Plateau (phenakitoscope):
Joseph Antoine Ferdinand Plateau (14 October 1801 15 September 1883) was a man born
In Belgium and worked as a Physicist most of his life, but he was famously known for being
the one of the first people ever to demonstrate the illusion of a moving image in 1832.
He named it the phenakitoscope which is a device that is made from a spinning cardboard
disc that is attached to a vertical handle, each disc would have an image showing the
difference phases of the animation and the user would spin the disc by the handle and from
the speed of the disc spinning it would blur the images while moving to then create the
animation / illusion effect.
People say that the phenakitoscope animation was much like how a GIF animation file works
today.

William Horner (zoetrope):


William George Horner (9 June 1786 22 September 1837) was a British Mathematician and
also school keeper and headmaster and his school, he has been famously remembered for
his Theory of approximation the Horners method.
Zoetrope
A zoetrope is one of several devices that create an illusion of motion by displaying a
sequence of drawings or photographs showing phases of that motion.
The zoetrope components are a cylinder with slits cut along the sides and the inner section
of the cylinder is covered with images to set the sequence of pictures. As the Zoetrope spins,
the user looks through the slits in the side at the pictures across the scanning of the slits
keeps the pictures blurring together, and the user sees a rapid sequence of images,
producing the illusion of motion.
Emile Reynaud (Praxinoscope):
Charles-Emil Reynaud (8 December 1844 9 January 1918) was a French inventor who lived
in Paris for the majority of his life and he was an inventor, his most famous invention by far
was his creation of the Praxinoscope.
This invention made Emile Reynaud the first person to ever produce a projected animated
cartoon back in 1877; it was until October 28th where he finally projected his first animation
film to the public!
The first two films, which Emile Reynaud projected for the public to watch, was the Muse
Grvin and The Pauvre Pierrot films at the Theatre Optique in Paris.
Emile Reynauds famous days suddenly came to an end and was almost fully forgotten for
his great films and inventions from the 1910s due to the creation of Cinematograph, the
first ever motion picture film camera and also a film projector.

Edward Muybridge:
Edward Muybridge (9th April 1830 8th May 1904) was an English photographer and is
famously known for being one of the great pioneers in the first work into developing motion
picture projections and films. Muybridge was not always a photographer, he immigrated to
America at the age of 20 where he became a bookseller in New York and later moved to San
Francisco doing the same.
He later returned to England in 1861 where he took on professional photography and once
qualified he returned to San Francisco in 1867 to follow his photography career which later
payed off because he became world famous in 1868 for his large photographs of The
Yosemite Valley.
From Today, Muybridge is mostly known for being a true pioneer within animation motion
picture industry from 1877 and 1878, where he used multiple cameras to track
motion in stop-motion / frame-motion photographs and he is popularly known for
his zoopraxiscope, which is a device that projects motion pictures.

Edison (Kinetoscope):
Thomas Alva Edison (February 11, 1847 October 18, 1931) was an American inventor and
is probably the most well know inventor all over the world. He said also seen as one of the
greatest inventor of all time because some of his most popular inventions have a huge
impact on how every across the world lives now.
Some of Thomas Edisons most popular invention are things like the electric light bulb, the
phonograph and the motion picture camera.
One of Edisons inventions was also the Kinetoscope. The Kinetoscope was one of the first
motion picture devices and which was designed for films to be viewed by the one individual
viewer at a time through a small window hole at the top of the item.
The Kinetoscope was not a movie projector like other early motion picture items however,
the Kinetoscope introduced a basic approach to the early motion picture industry that soon
would become a standard for all picture and film projection before the advent of video, by
creating the illusion of pictures moving from a conveying a strip of perforated film bearing
sequential pictures on top of some kind of light and a high speed shutter.
Lumire brothers:
The Lumire brothers, August Marie Louis Nicolas (19 October 1862 10 April 1954)
and Louis Jean (5 October 1864 6 June 1948) were two very close French Brother but
were also the first Film makers ever in history. They invented the cinematograph which
came from the idea of Thomas Edisons Kinetoscope where multiple viewers can view a
motion picture at the same time.
It was in 1892 when the Luminre brothers started to produce moving pictures, They
invented a many of the key processes leading up to their first film camera, there most
popular being the film perforations, originally invented by Emile Reynaud. Lon Guillaume
Bouly had invented the original cinematographer on the 12th February 1892.
The Luminre brothers invented their own type of motion picture / film projector on the
13th February 1895. The first film that was recorded using it on the 19 th March 1895. This
first film shows workers leaving the Lumire brothers Factory.
The Lumire brothers hosted their first private film screening in 1895, The American
inventor Woodville Latham had been presentencing potion picture and films from 7 months
before this time but the first public motion picture screening of films was hosted on the 28 th
December 1895. This first public screening was held at the Salon Indien du Grand Caf in
Paris.

Developers:
Walt Disney:
Walter Elias "Walt" Disney, born December 5, 1901 December 15, 1966 was an American
entrepreneur, animator, voice actor and film producer. A pioneer of the American
animation industry, he introduced several developments in the production of cartoons. As a
film producer, Disney holds the record for most Academy Awards earned by an individual,
having won 22 Oscars from 59 nominations. He was presented with two Golden
Globe Special Achievement Awards and an Emma Award, among other honours. Several of
his films are included in the National Film Registry by the Library of Congress.
Born in Chicago in 1901, Disney developed an early interest in drawing. He took art classes
as a boy and got a job as a commercial illustrator at the age of 18. He moved to California in
the early 1920s and set up the Disney Brothers Studio with his brother Roy. With Ub Iwerks,
Walt developed the character Mickey Mouse in 1928, his first highly popular success; he
also provided the voice for his creation in the early years. As the studio grew, Disney
became more adventurous, introducing synchronized sound, full-colour three-
strip Technicolor, feature-length cartoons and technical developments in cameras. The
results, seen in features such as Snow White and the Seven
Dwarfs (1937), Fantasia, Pinocchio (both 1940), Dumbo (1941) and Bambi (1942), furthered
the development of animated film. New animated and live-action films followed World War
II, including the critically successful Cinderella (1950) and Mary Poppins (1964), the latter of
which received five Academy Awards.

Hannah Barbara:
Hannah Barbara was an American animation studio that dominated American television
animation for three decades in the mid-to-late 20th century, founded in 1957 by
former Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer animation directors William Hanna and Joseph
Barbara (creators of Tom and Jerry) and live-action director George Sidney in partnership
with Screen Gems, television arm of Columbia Pictures Sold to Taft Broadcasting in late
1966, it spent the next two decades as its subsidiary. It is considered the very first animation
studio to successfully produce cartoons made exclusively for television.
Hanna-Barbera is known for creating a wide variety of popular animated characters and for
over 30 years, the studio produced smash hit cartoon shows, including Yogi Bear, The
Flintstones, The Jetsons, Wacky Races, Scooby-Doo and The Smurfs. For their achievements,
Hanna and Barbara together won seven Academy Awards, 8 Emma Awards, a Golden Globe
Award and a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame the pair was inducted into the Television
Academy Hall of Fame in 1993.
Warner Brothers:
The warner brothers or Warner Bros are an American entertainment company, which
produces much high-level television entertainment worldwide and is based in Burbank,
California.
The company's name originated from the four founding Warner brothers
(born Wonskolaser or Wonsan before Anglicization) Harry, Albert, Sam, and Jack Warner.
They immigrated as small children with their parents to Canada from Krasnosielc, which was
located in the part of Congress Poland that had been subjugated to the Russian
Empire following the eighteenth-century Partitions of Poland near present-day Ostroka.
Warner Bros. rebounded in the late 1950s, specializing in adaptations of popular plays
like The Bad Seed (1956), No Time for Sergeants (1958), and Gypsy (1962).
While he slowly recovered from a car crash that occurred while vacationing in France in
1958, Jack returned to the studio and made sure his name was featured in studio press
releases. From 1961-63, the studio's annual net profit was a little over $7 million Warner
paid an unprecedented $5.5 million for the film rights to the Broadway musical My Fair
Lady in February 1962. The previous owner, CBS director William S. Paley, set terms
including half the distributor's gross profits "plus ownership of the negative at the end of
the contract. In 1963, the studio's net profit dropped to $3.7 million by the mid-1960s,
motion picture production was in decline, as the industry was in the midst of a painful
transition from the Golden Age of Hollywood to the era now known as New Hollywood.
Norman McLaren:
Normal McLaren 11th April 1914 27th January 1987 was a Scottish / Canadian produce and
more notably animator for the National Film Board of Canada, (NFB). Norman was also a
great pioneer of many animation techniques such as; drawn on film, Hand drawn but also
other kind of animation such as visual music, Graphical sounds and Abstract films.
Normal McLaren was awarded an Oscar for his bestselling and most successful
documentary, Neighbours in 1952. He was also awarded a Silver Bear award for best short
documentary in the Berlin International Film Festival in 1956.

Norman McLaren is also remembered for his experiments with image and sound as he
developed a number of ground-breaking techniques for combining and synchronizing
animation with music.
The National Film Board honoured McLaren by naming its Montreal head office building the
Norman McLaren Building. The Montreal borough of Saint-Laurent, which is home to the
NFB, has also honoured McLaren by naming a borough district after him.

Len Lye:
Leonard Charles (Len Lye), 5th July 1901 15th May 1980 is an animator and artist from New
Zealand, mostly famously known for his kinetic sculptures. As a student, Lye became
convinced that motion could be part of the language of art, leading him to early (and now
lost) experiments with kinetic sculpture, as well as a desire to make film. Lye was also one of
the first artists to appreciate the art of Mori, Australian Aboriginal, Pacific Island and
African cultures, and this had great influence on his work. In the early 1920s, Lye travelled
widely in the South Pacific. He spent extended periods in Australia and Samoa, where he
was expelled by the New Zealand colonial administration for living within an indigenous
community
After Len Lye died in 1980 many private production of his were released and this has
become known as the Len Lye collection A list of these Filmographies which are a part of
the Len Lye collection will be listed below.
Tus lava 10 min (1929)
The Peanut Vendor 3 min (1933)
A Colour Box 4 min (1935) in Dufaycolor
Kaleidoscope (1935) 4 min in Dufaycolor
The Birth of The Robot 7 min (1936) in Gasparcolor
Rainbow Dance 5 min (1936) in Gasparcolor
Trade Tattoo (1937) 5 min in Technicolor
North or Northwest? (N or NW?) 7 min (1938)
Colour Flight 4 min (1937) in Gasparcolor
Swinging the Lambeth Walk 4 min (1939) in Dufaycolor
Musical Poster #1 3 min (1940) in Technicolor
When the Pie Was Opened 8 min (1941)
Newspaper Train 5 min (1942)
Work Party 7 min (1942)
Kill or Be Killed 18 min (1942)
Collapsible Metal Tubes 90 sec (1942)
Cameramen at War 17 min (1943)
Colour Cry 3 min (1952)
Full Fathom Five 1 min (1953)
Life's Musical Minute 1 min (1953)
All Soul's Carnival 16 min (1957)
Rhythm 1 min (1957)
Free Radicals 5 min (1958, revised 1979)
Prime Time 1 min (1958)
Fountain of Hope 1 min (1959)
Particles in Space 4 min (1966)
Tal Farlow 1min 30sec (completed posthumously, 1980) and more
Contempory Work:

Monty Python:
Monty Python, also known as, The Pythons were a surreal comedy group in Britain and all
members of the group were of British origin. The Pythons created there first Sketch comedy
which had its debut broadcast / aired for the first time on the British Broadcasting
Corporation (BBC) in 1969. This sketch comedy show was named Monty Pythons Flying
Circus, the show had forty-five episodes in total which were spread over four series.
Once The Pythons had gained much popularity from their first show, the Monty Pythons
Flying Circus then group then went on to more and bigger things such as; Stage musical
performances, Films, touring, stage shows and many more like releasing several books and
albums.
Monty Python (The Pythons) were often complimented that the influence they spread
across the comedy industry in the 1970s was much like and very similar to how The Beatles
had made a huge influence on the Music industry.

Yellow Submarine:
The Yellow Submarine animation / film is a British produced animated musical fantasy
comedy film, directed by British animation producer, George Dunning and produced by King
Features Syndicate and the United Artists and was released in 1968.
The film is greatly inspired by the music of the band, The Beatles, Rumours and some press
reports strongly suggested that the Beatles themselves would be providing the voice-overs
of themselves in the film but that was rumour soon fell short. Since the music of the Beatles
band and there song performances were already going in the film they decided to include
the actual Beatles members in the film at the very end / the ending scene of the film. The
voiceovers of the Beatles cartoon characters in the Yellow Submarine film were voice by
other actors.
After the films release, The Yellow Submarine film passed the audience and the great film
critics with great feedback, spread much positivity, and receive lots of credit! The film also
receive a lot of credit and great compliments saying that the Yellow Submarine film brought
more interest in animation and made a lot of the audience realise that animation is an
actual form of art.
American New magazine giant, Time stated they Turned it into a smash hit which broad
great foreign and across sea audience and popularity to the Yellow Submarine film!

A Scanner Darkly:
A Scanner Darkly is an American directed and produced animated science-fiction thriller
film, which was directed, and release in 2006. The film is based on the novel of the same
name of the film, A Scanner Darkly by Philip K. Dick.
The film tells the story of identity and deception in a near-future dystopia constantly under
intrusive high-tech police surveillance in the midst of a drug addiction epidemic. The film
was shot digitally and then animated using the Rotoscoping animation technique,
Rotoscoping is an animation technique used by animators, which are tracing over motion
picture footage and they must do this for every single frame of the animation in which they
are tracing over. Rotoscopes quickly became less and less popular due to computer
animation being a lot faster, effective and are a lot higher quality. The Rotoscope technique
was invented by Max Fleischer in 1915, and used in his ground-breaking Out of the
Inkwell animated series (1918-1927) known simply as "Fleischer Process" on the early
screen credits, and was essentially exclusive to Fleischer for several years.
The film stars of the A Scanner Darkly film were; Keanu Reeves, Robert Downey, Jr., Woody
Harrelson, and Winona Ryder. Steven Soderbergh and George Clooney are among the
executive producers. A Scanner Darkly had a limited release in July 2006, and then a wider
release later that month. The film was screened at the 2006 Cannes Film Festival and the
2006 Seattle International Film Festival, and nominated for the Hugo Award for Best
Dramatic Presentation and Long Form in 2007.

Persepolis:
Persepolis is an animated biographical film based on the autobiographical graphical novel of
Marjane Satrapi who is of French origin. The film version of Marjane Satrapis autobiography
was written and directed by Vincent Paronnaud.
The storyline of the film version of the autobiography of Marjane Satrapi is a story about a
young girl as she comes against the struggle and force of the Iranian Revolution. The title of
the film is a reference of the great ruins of the historic city of Persepolis.
The film was co-winner of the Jury Prize at the 2007 Cannes Film Festival and was released
in France and Belgium on 27 June. In her acceptance speech, Satrapi said although this film
is universal, I wish to dedicate the prize to all Iranians. The film was also nominated for
the Academy Award for Best Animated Feature, but lost to Ratatouille.
Even though the film was produce in American and by an American director it was
important that the film had great distribution in France because the film has great relevance
to France and the French people since the person which the whole film revolves around is
French. Diaphana Distribution was the distribution company responsible for the films
release and distribution to cinema and the public in France. As for the USA, the company
responsible for the distribution for film was Sony Pictures.
The Persepolis running time of the film was 96 minutes and the film had a production
budget of $7,300,000 and made a total of $22,800,000, which means they made
$15,500,000 profit on the film!
Genres and Forms:

Cinema:
In Cinema, we see animated films on the upcoming release list all the time; we also see
many blockbuster animation films such as Chicken Run, Flushed Away and Finding Dory.
Animated films can take a long time and they are done in many different ways; British
animation studios, Aardman, produced the first two films I just mentioned, Flushed Away
and Chicken Run. Aardman animate using plasticise and real life sets and would take an very
long time to complete a production depending on how much staff a production has.
Finding Dory could be complete in a much faster production rate, however Disney Pixar
concentrate more on preliminary sketches and animating these on a computer as well as
development of a story so the production time can really vary depending on how much a
producer wants to put in to a single production; another thing with Disney Pixar is they add
many special effects to their productions as well as creating these in 'Disney 3D' and IMAX
formats, as well as the standard 2D format.
Advertising:
I think animation needs to be very simple when advertising something whether its a TV
advert or a web ad because it there is too much going on and you use lots of fast animations
for example it will just irritate peoples eyes and they will close it, plus nothing interesting
will stand out to them when they see it.
Simple animations and animation effects are very important to keep transitions from scenes
smooth and professional to help keep the story line if there is one in that particular advert.
The advertising campaign is produced by the VCPP Agency. The BGL group owns compare
the Market and compare the market has been ranked the fourth most visited insurance
website in the UK. The advertisement more than doubled sales through Compare the
Market year on year. This is because is the selected style of animation, storyline and
unconventional events which occur within these adverts.

TV
Animation in TV and Cinema productions are very similar because all films with animation
will be aired on TV and many TV programs eventually do make their own films, which are
then premiered in cinemas.
Animation can be used in a number of different ways, for example, the most common use
of animation in TV and Cinema will be Kids cartoon, new school and old school animation,
like Wallace and Gromit, old school stop motion animation films and TV cartoons programs
to new school animation techniques used in cartoons such as SpongeBob and Adventure
Time.
You can also have different Layers of animation when producing a TV program / Film to be
premiered on modern screen. For example, some movies, which use special effect SFX, will
have several Layers of animation. The bottom layer being any characters that are being
animated in or object in the scene setting, also things like green screen count to this
bottom layer of animation.
Once all the core filming and animation is complete this is when the SFX animation layer is
put on to the video whether it is fire, smoke, lasers it can be almost anything and the film
editors of the scene will sync the position of the SFX with the setting off the scene so it looks
realistic.

Music Videos:
When it comes to animation and music videos there is such as wide scale of the use of
animation because just to start off with its all down to the artists song so they can easily put
as much creativity into their music video and they did for their actual song to fits the lyrics /
beat as best as possible. Some music videos can be very simple where it just a camera
filming the artist singing with a few simple transition animations between shots, similar to
adverts or some can use a lot of animation like how I talked about the Layers of animation
in TV and cinema animation productions, A good music example video of this is Kanye West
- Good Life ft. T-Pain.
A completely different type of animation to make scene look extremely realistic which many
people would believe to be real is where wild or unconventional animals and untameable
beasts are included within many scenes and doing many actions within the shots of the
whole video. This technique is performed by having a prop in a similar build to then animate
the animal over afterwards or using people to perform the actions in a green screen room
so they can easily put a skin or another model over so it not a human moving like that in a
animation suit but a monkey, shown below in the jungle book film. A good example of this
animation technique being used in a music video is within the music video for Wiz Khalifas
King of Everything song. There are scenes, which appears as if Wiz is in an empty room with
a Lion but really it is added in using animation and a green screen to add himself and the
lion into the same scene. An image screenshot will be below.
Computer Games:

Animation is everything when it comes to Computer games, because computer games and
pure animation, animation which is controlled by a script / coding which give the animations
instructions and you press a certain button on your key board for example.
For 3D animations, objects (models) are built on the computer monitor and 3D figures are
connected with a virtual skeleton.
For 2D figure animations, separate objects (illustrations) and single transparent layers are
used with or without that virtual skeleton, usually with out.
Then the limbs, eyes, mouth of the figure are moved by the animator on key frames. The
differences in appearance between key frames are automatically calculated by the
computer and then is finally rendered.
For a game to run smoothly without jitters or Frame lag there needs to be around 60 frames
per second this is why tweening every animation effects to every key frame is very
important because even just one slight slip up could cause a bug in the game which buyers
of your game will notice very easily because of the amount of hours and amount of time
they will see that certain animation not going fully to effect.

Mobile Phones:
When it comes to animations for Mobile phones, they are very simple and are all for effects
and most phones actually have an option to turn of animations, which usually increases the
loading speed of your mobile by a good amount! The reason for this is because near to all
animations used on a mobile phone are for cosmetic use and make it look smooth and are
all for transition, whether thats a transition effect from App to App or back to your Home
screen.
The main use of animation for Mobile devices is the applications, which you can download
on to your Mobile devices, which will of, have different styles of animations when opening
certain pages of the application and doing certain actions within applications. The biggest
amount of animations, which will, occurs on most mobile devices these days will be the
mobile device video game applications.
Standard mobile phone interface animations are very simple so the true test and limit of
mobile phones animations is within the applications which can be downloaded especially
the games, below will be screenshots of some of the high level animated games for mobile
phones.

Websites:
Animation effects for websites are very similar in a way that near to all animations used on
websites are all cosmetic to make your website look and feel smoother but with website,
you do not have the option to hide or disable these transitions for faster page loading etc.
The animation used for websites are now very similar to how animations are on your mobile
phone because now that most websites are produced and scripted through bootleg, where
the website animations and size can scale to any mobile device regarding the screen
resolution or size the animations are put so the website is professional and smooth on all
aspect of media and all devices.