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Chemistry of Life

BIOCHEMISTRY
Substances present in living
organisms
Different chemical reactions
MATTER
Anything that occupies space and
has mass
Elements, Compounds, Mixtures
Atoms
Electron (-)
Proton (+)
Neutron
Organic
Inorganic
MATTER
Properties of Matter

Extrinsic Property (mass, volume,


weight, force)

Intrinsic Property (density, specific heat,


specific gravity)
Simplified view of the atom
PHASES OF MATTER
MASS VERSUS WEIGHT
Properties of Matter:
Extrinsic and Intrinsic
Properties of Matter:
Physical and Chemical Properties
Classification of Matter
WATER
Universal solvent
Transport materials
Regulate body temperature
High surface tension
Great fluidity
Absorbs heat from the environment
GASES
Oxygen
Taken in by animals
FUEL

Carbon Dioxide
Absorbed by plants
photosynthesis
SALTS
NaCl, CaCO3, Ca3(PO4)
Important in the maintenance of life
CARBOHYDRATES
Carbon, Hydrogen,
Oxygen
Main source of
energy
Monosaccharides
Disaccharides
Polysaccharides
MONOSACCHARIDES
Simple sugars
Glucose
Galactose
Fructose
DISACCHARIDES
Sucrose
Table sugar
Glucose + fructose
Lactose
Milk sugar
Glucose and galactose
Maltose
Malt sugar
Glucose + glucose
POLYSACCHARIDES
Starch
Glycogen
Cellulose
Chitin
PROTEINS
C, H, O, N
Amino acids (20)
Enzyme catalysts
Defense (antibodies)
Transport(hemoglobin)
Support (collagen)
Motion
Energy source
AMINO ACIDS
Essential
HISTIDINE, ISOLEUCINE, LEUCINE, LYSINE,
METHIONINE, PHENYLALANINE, THREONINE,
TRYPTOPHAN and VALINE

Non-essential
CYSTEINE (cystine) and TYROSINE, ALANINE,
ARGININE, ASPARAGINE, ASPARTIC ACID,
GLUTAMIC ACID, GLUTAMINE, GLYCINE, PROLINE,
SERINE and TAURINE.
ENZYMES
Protein in nature
Catalyzes chemical reactions
Lock and Key Theory
LIPIDS
C,H,O
Energy source
Body temperature
Cell membranes
Vitamin carriers
Protecting internal organs
Fats, Oils, Steroids
Fatty Acids
Saturated
Animal sources

Unsatured
Plant sources, some
animals like fish
NUCLEIC ACIDS
Information devices
Produce proteins
Passed between generations of
organisms
DNA, RNA
Nucleotides
Sugar+ Nitrogenous Bases+
Phosphate Group
DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid
Molecule that codes for the
genetic material
Francis Crick and
James Watson
Deoxyribose
Purine Bases (Adenine,
Guanine)
Pyrimidine (Cytosine,
Thymine )
Phosphate Group
DNA Base Pairing
RNA
Ribonucleic Acid
Single stranded
Transcribed from DNA
Ribose
Purine Bases (Adenine,
Guanine)
Pyrimidine (Cytosine,
Uracil )
Phosphate Group
Types of RNA
Messenger RNA (mRNA)
Carries information from DNA to the
ribosome
Transfer RNA (tRNA)
-- transfers a specific active amino acid to
a growing polypeptide chain

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)


Protein synthesis
Central Dogma of Cell and
Molecular Biology:
Replication/Duplication
Transcription
Translation
HORMONES
Produced by endocrine glands
Transported in the blood
Affect the activities of other cells
Adrenaline, Insulin, Growth
hormone, Thyroid stimulating
hormone
VITAMINS
Organic components
For growth and for maintaining good
health
Essential but in small amounts
Do not provide energy
Cannot be manufactured in the body
Fat- Soluble Vitamins
Water-Soluble Vitamins
Water-Soluble and
Fat-Soluble Vitamins
Properties of Water-Soluble
and Fat-Soluble Vitamins
Fat-Soluble Vitamins
Vitamin A
Vitamin D
Vitamin E
Vitamin K
Vitamin A
RETINOL
Carotene/Carotenoids
Importance: Vision
Maintenance of Tissues
Antioxidant
Deficiency:
XEROPHTHALMIA
VITAMIN D: CALCIFEROL
Promotion of Ca and P absorption
Deficiency: Rickets
Osteomalacia
Softening of bones
VITAMIN E: Tocopherol
Antioxidant
Deficiency:
hemolytic anemia-
Abnormal breakdown of
RBC
VITAMIN K
Phylloquinone
For blood clotting
Deficiency: blood coagulation
problems
WATER SOLUBLE
VITAMINS: B AND C
B1- Thiamine
Function: CHO- metabolism
Sources: enriched cereals
Deficiency: Beriberi-impairment
of the nerves and heart.
B2- Riboflavin
CHO, fat and CHON metabolism
Sources: milk, meats, poultry,
enriched breads
Deficiency:
Cheilosis-painful inflammation
and cracking of the corners
of the mouth-
Vitamin B3- Niacin
Co-enzyme in energy metabolism
Sources: meats, poultry and fish
Deficiency: Pellagra
diarrhea,
dermatitis
dementia
death
B5-Pantothenic Acid
metabolism and synthesis of
carbohydrates, proteins, and fats
outer layers of whole grains
broccoli and avocados
Pantothenic acid deficiency is
exceptionally rare
B6- Pyridoxine
CHO and CHON metabolisms and
absorption
Deficiency: irritability, depression
B7- Biotin/ Vitamin H
Coenzyme for fatty and amino acids
Deficiency: nausea, anemia
B10- Folate
DNA synthesis, CHON metabolism,
hemoglobin formation
Deficiency: Spina bifida-neural tube defect
Anencephaly
Vitamin B12- Cobalamin
Folate metabolism, myelin sheath
maintenance, RBC
Anemia, nervous system damage
VITAMIN C: ASCORBIC ACID
Antioxidant
Natural antihistamine
Prevents blood poisoning by
Carbon monoxide
Deficiency: scurvy
Poor wound healing
Reminders:
Quiz Next Meeting

God Bless and Stay Happy


ZFM