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PIPE FRICTION CALCULATION

The average velocity v in a pipe is calculated based on the formula [1] and the appropriate units
are indicated in parentheses. (see the last page for a table of all the symbols)

The Reynolds Re number is calculated based on formula [2].

If the Reynolds number is below 2000 than the flow is said to be in a laminar regime. If the
Reynolds number is above 4000 the regime is turbulent. The velocity is usually high enough in
industrial processes to make the flow regime turbulent. The viscosity of many fluids can be
found in the Cameron Hydraulic data book. The viscosity of water at 60F is 1.13 cSt.
If the flow is laminar then the friction parameter f is calculated with the laminar flow equation [3].

If the flow is turbulent then the friction parameter f is calculated based on the Swamee-Jain
equation [4].

In the turbulent flow regime the friction factor f depends on the absolute roughness of the pipe
inner wall. Table 1 provide some values for various materials.


STEEL 0.0018
ST.ST. 0.0018
CAST IRON 0.0102
PVC 0.00006

The friction factor DHFP/L is calculated with the Darcy-Weisback equation [5]

g =32.17 ft/s

The pipe friction loss DHFP is calculated with equation [6]

ENG. FAISAL ALRAI


FEB.22.2008
Calculation
ESTIMATING PIPELINE HEAD LOSS AND PUMP SELECTION Project : TIARA UNITED TOWERS Date : 15/ 09 / 08
USING DARCY WEISBACH METHOD System : TEMP. FIRE FIGHTING RISER Prepared By : Eng. Faisal Alrai
INPUT Data
Liquid type : Water
q = flow rate Usgpm (GPM) m 113.55 500
D = pipe diameter in (inch) 6 6.165 UPVC CLASS E BS3505 500
L = pipe length ft (feet) m 110 360.89 1892.5
113.55
v velocity ft/s (feet/second)
The average velocity v in the pipe is:
V = 0.4085 Xq / D = 5.37 Ft / s

= viscosity CSt (centistokes) , WATER at 60 F 1.13


The Reynolds Re number is:
Re = 7745.8 x V *D / = 227099.84
Re^0.9 66159.945

= pipe roughness Ft (feet) 0.0018 steel STEEL 0.0018
f = friction parameter Non dimensional ST.ST. 0.0018
The friction parameter f is: CAST IRON 0.0102
f = 0.25 / {Log10 ( /3.7*D + 5.74 / Re^0.9)} 0.028046 PVC 0.00006
0.02805

HFP / L friction factor (feet of fluid/100 ft) of pipe


g = acceleration due to gravity (32.17 ft/s2) 32.17

The friction factor HFP / L is calculated with the Darcy-Weisback equation


HFP / L = 1200 f * V / D * 2g 2.45 Ft./100Ft of pipe

The pipe friction loss HFP is:


HFP = HFP / L * ( L/100) 8.84 Feet

ENG. FAISAL ALRAI


FEB.22.2008
Page 1 of 4
ESTIMATING PIPELINE HEAD LOSS AND PUMP SELECTION Project : TIARA UNITED TOWERS Date : 15/ 09 / 08
USING DARCY WEISBACH METHOD System : TEMP. FIRE FIGHTING RISER Prepared By ; Eng. Faisal Alrai

A- PIPE LOSS CALCULATION Table:1 CONVERSION FACTORS FOR HEAD LOSS FORMULA
hL = ( c1 X f X L X q ) / (d)^5 ( Ft. ) FLOW (q) c1 hL L d
hL = head loss Input data ft /min 6260 Ft of fluid Ft in
c1=conversion factor for head loss calculation (table1). 0.0311 gal /min 0.0311 Ft of fluid Ft in
f = darcy friction factor from moody curve 0.02804621 m /s 8.265x(10)10 Ft of fluid Ft mm
L = pipe length (feet) 110 m 360.89 q Lit. /min 22950 Ft of fluid Ft mm
q = flowrat gal/min 500.00 250000
d = pipe iside diameter ( inch) 150 mm upvc class E 6.165 .
Table:2 CONVERSION FACTORS FOR REYNOLDS NO. FORMULA
To find the friction factor ( f ) from curve , Re & Rr sould be calculated: FLOW (q) c2 F. density() absol.visc()
Reynolds no. Re = (c2 X q X ) / d X dX ft /sec 22700 lb/ft cp
Relative roughness of the pipe Rr = /d 6.782 gal /min 50.6 lb/ft cp
c2 = conversion factor for reynolds No. calculation 50.6 m /s 1273000 kg/m cp
= fluid weight density 62.34 Lit. /min 22950 kg/m cp
= fluid absolute viscosity 1.1
= Absolute reoughness values for clean pipe : 0.0018 Table:3 ()TYPICAL ABSOLUT ROUGHNESS VALUES FOR CLEAN PIPE
MATERIAL
Reynolds No. R. Roughness Inches Millimeters
Re Rr = /d STEEL 0.0018 0.046
232574.20924574 0.0000097 ST.ST. 0.0018 0.046
2.3257420925 CAST IRON 0.0102 0.259
Note: PVC 0.00006 0.0015
f =64/Re for laminar flow Re less than 2000

f - for turbulant flow Re greater than 2000 Table:4 DENSITIES AND VISCOOSITIES OF TYPICAL FLUIDS AT 60 F
FLUID Density Viscosity
f = 0.25 / {Log10 ( /3.7*D + 5.74 / Re^0.9)} f = 0.0280462 lb/ft
Table:5 CONVERSION FACTORS FOR VALVES AND FITTINGS FORMULA WATER 62.34 1.1
FLOW (q) C3 DIAMETER ETHAN 23 0.05
ft /sec 522 in PROPANE 31.2 0.12
gal /min 0.00259 in BUTANE 44.3 0.19
m /s 8265X(10)7 mm ETHYL ALCOHOL 49.9 1.3
Lit. /min 22.96 mm

ENG. FAISAL RAI


Feb.15.2008
Page 2 of 4
For flowrate (q) { gal/min} &water at 60F . Data and Factors will be: v = 0.4085*q/d

section flowrate factor factor density viscosity pip diam. friction pipe rough. pipe L hL V ( Ft/s )
q c1 c2 d f L(Ft) Ft
L1 500 0.0311 50.6 62.34 1.1 6.165 0.02805 0.0018 360.892388 8.84 5.37
L2 0 0.0311 50.6 62.34 1.1 1 0 0.0018 0 0 0.00
L3 0 0.0311 50.6 62.34 1.1 1 0 0.0018 0 0 0.00
L4 0 0.0311 50.6 62.34 1.1 1 0 0.0018 0 0 0.00
L5 0 0.0311 50.6 62.34 1.1 1 0 0.0018 0 0 0.00
L6 0 0.0311 50.6 62.34 1.1 1 0 0.0018 0 0 0.00
L7 0 0.0311 50.6 62.34 1.1 1 0 0.0018 0 0 0.00
Pipe Head Loss h L ( Ft ) 360.892388 8.84

B- VALVES AND FITTINGS HEAD LOSS


hLvf = c3 X K Xq/d^4 ( Ft. ) K FOR FITTINGS AND VALVES TYPE :
c3 = conversion factor for valve head loos calculation TYPE K
K = valve resistance coefficient Pipe entrance,inward proj. 0.78
K = f T X (L/d) Pipe entrance, Flush 0.5
f T = turbulant friction factors for a partucular pipe diam. Pipe Exit , all 1 OR
Ka 1.5 1.78
L/d for valves and fittings type : PIPE DIA.= 6 Ref. A&B
Type L/d from fT fitting Qty K1n K1n =[ f T X (L/d )] x No. of valve or fitting type
Gate valve 8 0.015 4 0.48 Table : 6 f T = turbulant friction factors for a partucular pipe diam.
Ball valve 6 0.015 0 0 Reference: A Reference: B
Butterfly valve 35 0.015 0 0 Fitting L/D pipe size fT
globe valve 340 0.015 0 0 Globe Valve 340 1 0.023
Check valve , lift 600 0.015 0 0 Gate Valve 8 1 1/4 0.022
Check valve , swing 50 0.015 2 1.5 Lift Check Valve 600 1 1/5 0.021
Check valve , tilting disc 20 0.015 0 0 Swing Check Valve 50 2 0.019
Ccheck valve , stop check 400 0.015 1 6 Ball Valve 6 2 1/2 - 3 0.018
Elbow -90 30 0.015 3 1.35 Butterfly Valve 35 4 0.017
Elbow-45 16 0.015 0 0 Pipe Entrance 0.5 6 0.015
Tee, flow through run 20 0.015 2 0.6 Pipe Exit 1 8 to 10 0.014
Tee, flow through branch 60 0.015 0 0 Tee Through 20 12 t0 16 0.013
Bend r/D=3 12 0.015 0 0 Tee- Branch flow 60 18 to 24 0.012
Bend r/D=6 17 0.015 0 0 Elbow-90 30
Bend r/D=12 34 0.015 0 0 Elbow -45 16
Bend r/D=20 50 0.015 0 0 Bend r/D=3 12
K b fittings 9.93 Bend r/D=6 17
Bend r/D=12 34
Bend r/D=20 50
ENG. FAISAL RAI
Feb.15.2008
kc for Equipment Page 3 of 4
Equipment kc
Equip. Qty. kc kc
CHIL. COIL 0 11 0
AHU COIL 0 0 Pipe Head Loss
H.Exch. 0 0 h L ( Ft. )
0 8.84
0
0 TOTAL VALVES & FITTINGS HEAD LOOS
Equip.kc = 0 c3 K q2 (d)^4
0.00259 11.43 250000 1444.54915
K = Ka+(K1 + K2 + K3 +Kn )+kc for valves + fittings & Equipment valves & fittings Head Loss
h L ( Ft. )
K = Ka + Kb + Kc 5.12 SEE NOTE
11.43

C TOTAL PRESSURE LOSS Bernoulli theorem


H = Z+[144 X P / ] + [ V / (2 X g)]
( pressure head and velocity head )
H = total head
Z = elevation above a reference level
p = pressure
v = mean velocity of the fluid in the pipeline
g = gravitional constat ( 32.2 ft/sec) US units.

Total head loss in the pipe line (h L)


PIPE LINE ,VALVES & FITTINGS
13.96 Ft.

Differintial pressure calculation


(p) = p1-p2 = /144 { Z2 - Z1 + (v2 - v1 ) / 2g + h L}
IF NO CHANGE IN PIPE SIZE , ,THE VELOSITY DROPS = 0

Pipe inlet Elivation (Z1) Pipe disch. Elev.(Z2)


0 360.89 Ft. 4.82 m 110 360.8

/144 hL Z2 - Z1 (v2 - v1 ) / 2g (p) PSI p Ft Mtr Bar


0.4329166667 13.96 360.89 0 162.2788 374.86 112.46 11.19

h Ft fluid = 2.31 p (psi) / SG

ENG. FAISAL RAI


Feb.15.2008
D PUMP SELECTION AND SIZING

HEAD ( TDH ) = Static head (Hs) + friction head (Hf) + pressure hesd ( Hp) + velocity head(Hv) Page 4 of 4

Static head ( Hs) = is measured from the surface of the liquid in the section vessel to the surface
of the liquid in the vessel where the liquid is being delivered. In closed-loop system , the total static head = 0 .

Fittings & valves Friction head Hf = K X V / 2g 5.12


Pipe Friction head ( From friction loss chart ) Hf = f X L /100 8.84
Velocity head Hv = V / 2g 0
f = friction ft/ 100 ft 0.02804621 Static Head 360.89
K = resistance coefficient 11.43 TOTAL DH ( Ft ) 374.85
V = Fluid velocity ft/sec. 5.37
g = acceleration due gravity = 32.2 ft./sec 32.2 Mtr 112.45
Result PSI 162.27
BAR 11.19
Design velocity = ( 4 - 6 ) ft / sec for section
= ( 6 - 8 ) ft / sec for discharge 500 GPM FIRE PUMP @ 15 BAR

1 PUMP Horsepower and efficiency:


water horsepower ( WHP ) = Outpot of the pump handlind a liquid
WHP = (Q X H X sg) / 3960
2 Brake horsepower ( BHP ) = Actual supplied power from motor
BHP = ( Q X H X sg ) / 3960 X = WHP /
= pump efficiency
3 Electric current for sizing starters and wire ( I ) [ Amp.]
I = 746 X BHP / 1.73 X E X PF X Eff for 3 ph
I = 746 X BHP / E X PF X Eff for 1 ph

E = Voltage ( volts) 380


PF = Power Factor 0.85
EFF. = Motor efficiency 0.75
1.73 242.25
419.09

Q ( GPM) H (Ft.) SG WHP BHP I ( AMP.)


500 374.85 1 47.33 63.11 112.33

PUMP BRAKE HORSPOWER BHP WILL BE +10% = 69.42 HP

75

ENG. FAISAL RAI


Feb.15.2008
OTHER METHOD
TOTAL PUMPING HEAD

Q (m3/s) H(m)
0.0315 114.28

ID = inch m
6.165 0.156591

f L(m) V ( m /s ) D(m) g
0.0280462089 110.03 1.638408 0.156591 9.81

hf = 4f X L x V / 2Dg = 4.26

hz hf hp H(m)
110.03 4.26 0.00 114.28
156.28
Q ( m /s ) 0.0315
W ( Kg/m3) 1000
H(m) 114.28
Eff. 0.75
WHP = Q X W X H / 75 = 48.06
HP / 0.75 = 64.08

HP kw
64.08 47.81
70.49

ENG. FAISAL RAI


Feb.15.2008
f = .005 ( 1 + 1 / 40 D ) ; D = Mtr.

ENG. FAISAL RAI


Feb.15.2008
Relative roughness for some common materials can be found in the table below :

Roughness - k
Surface x 10 m
-3
feet
Copper, Lead, Brass, Aluminum (new) 0.001 - 0.002 3.33 - 6.7 10-6
PVC and Plastic Pipes 0.0015 - 0.007 0.5 - 2.33 10-5
Epoxy, Vinyl Ester and Isophthalic pipe 0.005 1.7 10-5
Stainless steel 0.015 5 10-5
Steel commercial pipe 0.045 - 0.09 1.5 - 3 10-4
Stretched steel 0.015 5 10-5
Weld steel 0.045 1.5 10-4
Galvanized steel 0.15 5 10-4
Rusted steel (corrosion) 0.15 - 4 5 - 133 10-4
New cast iron 0.25 - 0.8 8 - 27 10-4
Worn cast iron 0.8 - 1.5 2.7 - 5 10-3
Rusty cast iron 1.5 - 2.5 5 - 8.3 10-3
Sheet or asphalted cast iron 0.01 - 0.015 3.33 - 5 10-5
Smoothed cement 0.3 1 10-3
Ordinary concrete 0.3 - 1 1 - 3.33 10-3
Coarse concrete 0.3 - 5 1 - 16.7 10-3
Well planed wood 0.18 - 0.9 6 - 30 10-4
Ordinary wood 5 16.7 10-3

ENG. FAISAL RAI


Feb.15.2008
0

ENG. FAISAL RAI


Feb.15.2008
HEAD LOOS & PUMP SELECTION AND SIZING

HEAD ( H ) = Static head (Hs) + friction head (Hf) + pressure head ( Hp) + velocity head(Hv)
Static head ( Hs) = is measured from the surface of the liquid in the section
vessel to the surface of the liquid in the vessel where the liquid is being delivered.
In closed-loop system , the total static head = 0 .other equesions :

Fittings & valves Friction head Hf = K X V / 2g


Pipe Friction head ( From friction loss chart ) Hf = f X L /100
Velocity head Hv = V / 2g
f = friction ft/ 100 ft
K = resistance coefficient
V = Fluid velocity ft/sec.= V= 0.4085 * q / d 5.37
g = acceleration due gravity = 32.2 ft./sec

Design velocity = ( 4 - 6 ) ft / sec for section


= ( 6 - 8 ) ft / sec for discharge

SUMMERY HEAD LOOS


PRESSURE HEAD LOOS DUE TO PIPE FRICTION
SECTION FLOW DIAM. VELOSITY f ( Hfp/L ) L Hfp
GPM in ft/s ft/100 ft pipe ft ft fluid
L1 500 6.165 5.37 2.45 360.8924 8.843
0 #DIV/0! 0 0 0.000
#DIV/0! 0 0 0.000
#DIV/0! 0.000
#DIV/0! 0.000
#DIV/0! 0.000
#DIV/0! 0.000
#DIV/0! 0.000
#DIV/0! 0.000
#DIV/0! 0.000
#DIV/0! 0.000
#DIV/0! 0.000 m
Hfp=L x f /100 SUBTOTAL 360.8924 8.843 2.70

Z1 = 0 Z2 = 360.89

Static head ELIV. Z2 - Z1 360.89


PRESSURE HEAD LOOS DUE TO FITTINGS

TYPE SECTION FLOW QTY DIA. VEL. v /2g k HfF


GPM in ft/s ft fluid ft fluid
ENTRANCE 500 1 16 5.37 0.45 1 0.45
BUTTERFLY 0 0 16 8.52 1.13 1 1.13
ELBOW 500 6 16 8.52 1.13 0.28 0.32
TEE 90 0 1 16 0.00 0.00 0.7 0.00
GATE VALVE 500 2 16 8.52 1.13 8 9.03
BALL VALVE 0 0 16 8.52 1.13 0.00
GLOB VALVE 0 0 16 0.00 0.00 0.00
1 5 8.52 1.13 1 1.13
1 5 0.00 0.00
1 5 0.00 0.00
1 5 0.00 0.00
HfF ( ft fluid )= k x V(ft/s) / 2 x 32.2 (ft/s) SUB TOTAL 12.05

PRESSURE LOOS DUE TO EQUIPMENT

SECTION FLOW TYPE QTY P SG P h equip


GPM in PSI Ft fluid ft fluid
250 filter 0 0.00 0.98 0.00 0.00
250 H. EXCH 0 0.00 0.98 0.00 0.00
250 Cont.valve 0 0.00 0.98 0.00 0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

SUB TOTAL 0.00


h Ft fluid = 2.31 p (psi) / SG
SUMMERY
PIPE Hf = f X L /100 8.84
FITTINGS Hf = K X V / 2g 12.05
EQUIP.. h equip 0.00
VEL.HEAD Hv = V / 2g 1.47
Static Head Hs 360.89 m
TOTAL HEAD LOOS 383.25 116.845072
PSI 165.90989
HEAD LOOS & PUMP SELECTION AND SIZING

1 Horsepower and efficiency:


water horsepower ( WHP ) = Outpot of the pump handlind a liquid
WHP = (Q X H X sg) / 3960

2 Brake horsepower ( BHP ) = Actual supplied power from motor


BHP = ( Q X H X sg ) / 3960 X = WHP /
= pump efficiency

3 Electric current for sizing starters and wire ( I ) [ Amp.]


I = 746 X BHP / 1.73 X E X PF X Eff for 3 ph
I = 746 X BHP / E X PF X Eff for 1 ph

E = Voltage ( volts) 380


PF = Power Factor 0.85
EFF. = Motor efficienc 0.75
1.73 242.25
419.0925

Q ( GPM) H (Ft.) SG WHP BHP I ( AMP.)


500 383.25 1 48.390383 64.52051 114.8489
71
The Friction Coefficient - The flow is
The Friction Coefficient for Laminar Flow laminar when Re < 2300
= 64 / Re (7) transient when 2300 < Re < 4000
The Friction Coefficient for Turbulent Flow turbulent when Re > 4000
= f( Re, k / dh )
k = relative roughness of tube or duct wall (m, ft)
k / dh = the roughness ratio
Relative roughness for materials are determined by experiments.
Relative roughness for some common materials can be found in the table below :
Roughness - k
Surface x 10-3 m feet
Copper, Lead, Brass, Aluminum (new) 0.001 - 0.002 3.33 - 6.7 10-6
PVC and Plastic Pipes 0.0015 - 0.007 0.5 - 2.33 10-5
Epoxy, Vinyl Ester and Isophthalic pipe 0.005 1.7 10-5
Stainless steel 0.015 5 10-5
Steel commercial pipe 0.045 - 0.09 1.5 - 3 10-4
Stretched steel 0.015 5 10-5
Weld steel 0.045 1.5 10-4
Galvanized steel 0.15 5 10-4
Rusted steel (corrosion) 0.15 - 4 5 - 133 10-4
New cast iron 0.25 - 0.8 8 - 27 10-4
Worn cast iron 0.8 - 1.5 2.7 - 5 10-3
Rusty cast iron 1.5 - 2.5 5 - 8.3 10-3
Sheet or asphalted cast iron 0.01 - 0.015 3.33 - 5 10-5
Smoothed cement 0.3 1 10-3
Ordinary concrete 0.3 - 1 1 - 3.33 10-3
Coarse concrete 0.3 - 5 1 - 16.7 10-3
Well planed wood 0.18 - 0.9 6 - 30 10-4
Ordinary wood 5 16.7 10-3

The friction coefficient - - can be calculated by the Colebrooke Equation:

1 / 1/2 = -2,0 log10 [ (2,51 / (Re 1/2)) + (k / dh) / 3,72 ] (9)


Roughness Ratio - k / dh.