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Analysis of Helical Transmission Lines by Means of the Complete Circuit Equations

© All Rights Reserved

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8 visualizzazioni12 pagineAnalysis of Helical Transmission Lines by Means of the Complete Circuit Equations

© All Rights Reserved

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contributions

of the Complete Circuit Equations*

1,ERNON J. FOWLERT

Summary--A set of integro-differentialequations,called the _\lost of the preliminary definitions and analysis lead-

Icomplete circuit equations, are derived from Maxwells equations ing to the complete circuit equations are given in the

and applied to the solution of the parallel-wire transmission line, the

literatureI.2 and will not be repeated here. For homo-

double-helix transmission line, and the singlehelix, or helical wave-

guide. These equations take into account the effects of inductance geneousisotropicmedia,themagnetic flux density B

and capacitance distribution, retardation, and outward radiation. A and the electric intensityE can be expressed in terms of

generalization of earlierconcepts of distributedinductanceand a vector magnetic potential A and a scalar electric po-

elastmce (or inverse capacitance) is manifest in the solution of the tential, as follows:

helical line, wherethese quantities become functions of the phase

efficient or wavelength of propagation and are Fourier transforms of R=VX=I

certainclosed-formdistributionfunctions. In general,phase ve-

locity is a complicated implicit function of frequency, but under a

hypothesis of mode segregation on the basis of wavelength the

phase velocityand frequency can be obtained parametrically in terms

of a third variable, called the phase parameter. Usingthis hypothesis, The divergence of A can be specified arbitrarily, thereby

plots of phase velocityand characteristic impedance versus frequency completing the definitionsof A a n d unique quanti-

were obtained for the double helix and the helical waveguide.

ties. By letting

DERIVATIOX

OF THE COMPLETE CIRCUIT EQUA-

TIONS FROM hl AXWELLS EQUATIOKS

(3)

these quantities have alternative expressions which are

almost as universally applicable as the electric and mag-

the two wave equations Ain alone andin alone are ob-

in terms of currents and voltages which are well tained,

density and the scalar electric potential T h e cir-

cuitalrelationshipsthataretobeconsideredinthis

paper find their most exact expression in terms of these These ran be integrated directIy by Kirchoffs methodB3

two quantities.

S. Ramo andJ. R. Whinnery, Fieldsand \tTaves in Modern Ra-

Revised manuscript received by the PG;\P, May 17, re- dio, John 1Viley and Sons, New York, Y . ;19.18.

ceived by the IRE, July 1953. Sponsored by -Air Force Cambridge J. -A. Stratton, Electromagnetic Theory, McGraw-Hill Book

Res. Center, Contract -4F 19(604)-524. Company, Inc., New York, K. y.;1941.

t Res. Asst., Electron Tube Lab., L-niv. of Illinois, I-rbana, Ill. 3 Stratton, op. cit., chap. 8, pp. 424431.

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1954 Fowler: ,4nalysis of Helical T.ransmission Lines by Means of the Complete Ciwu.it Equations 133

mission line equations, these equations are circzrital re-

lationships, in that they can be solved for the current

and potential at points in the conducting wire without

the need for first determining expressions for the fields

externaltothe wire. Eqs. (10) and (12) are complete

in the sense thattheytakeintoaccountbothwave

retardation (radiation) and inductance and capacitance

where distribution.Therefore, a particularsolution of these

equations which fits the given boundary conditions is

an accurate description of actual propagation along a

system of conductors, especially if those conductors are

and f2 denotes a closed domain, bounded b y a regular

extremelythin.For a systemconsistingentirely of

surface, containing all sources which contribute t o t h e

spaced thin wires, the correspondenceis extremely close

field.

at all wavelengths which are large compared with the

In the practical application of these potentials, the

largest wire diameter, regardlessof the physical proper-

condition of homogeneity is commonly violated by the

ties of the wire material. Thus, in most practical cases,

presence in the medium of conductors in and on which

where the wire diameteris much smaller than 3 mm, so-

flow the current However, since the actual current

lutions of and (12) are applicable up to a t least

distribution in the conductors is not sought for its own

100,000 megacycles.Sincethepermeabilityandper-

sake, i t suffices t o regard L as an equivalent current dis-

mittivity of actual nonferromagnetic metal wires closely

tribution in themediumdisplacedbytheconductors

approximate the free-space values, the validity of the

which matches the boundary conditions at the surfaces

complete circuit equations should extend even to much

of the conductors. The current-carrying conductors are

higher frequencies.

thussupplantedbyphantomcurrents flowing in the

mediumitself.Withinactualconductorsthecurrent

densityisrelatedtotheelectricintensitybyOhms

Law, but for nonferromagnetic metals the permeability

and permittivity are approximately equal to those of

free space.* Therefore, in all practical cases i t is a n ex-

tremely good approximation to identify L with the ac-

tual current distribution in the conductors.

Assume then that the conductors are indistinguisha-

ble from the dielectric medium, except that within them

Ohms Law applies.

I u,E

where is the conductivity of the conductors. Then

from (2) and (6) the first relationship between and is

obtained.

The second relationship is obtained by eliminatingp be- Fig. I-Definitions of retardation distance and angle

tween the time derivativeof (7) and the equationof con-

tinuity of charge, If the wire diameter is small compared with the free-

space wavelength and if the distance between any two

turns of wire is large compared with the wire diameter,

then i t is also a very good approximation to represent

The result is the current flow by means of filamentary currents flow-

ing along the axes of the wires, and to assume that

planes normal to the axis of each wire c u t t h a t wire in

equipotential circles. The only component of V 4 which

survives is then the one parallel to the wire axis, namely

For points in the medium displaced by the conduc- andthedivergence of thecurrentissimply

tors, (10) and (12) comprise a determinant set of simul- Therefore, the volume integrals in the complete

taneous equations in and which will be called the circuit equations can both be replaced with scalar line

Stratton, op. cit., chap. 5 , p. 326. integralsalongthecurrentpath,asshown in Fig. 1.

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134 October

ence of the wire a t position P,a distance along thewire

from an arbitrary origin The current element at

Q, a distance along the wire from P , or from the

origin, is idx, andthe correspondingretardationdis-

tance is convenientlJ- taken to be

PQ2)1/P (13)

where a is the wire radius. Thischoice leads to the prop- where and x are measured along the axis of the line

er distance r a in the limit asx approaches zero. If the rather than along the axis of the wire itself, and K1 and

radius of the wire were ignored, the integrands would K 2 are the lengthsof wires 1 and 2 per unit axial length.

approachinfinity x approaches zero, and the inte- Similar equations can be written for2 line by interchang-

grals would diverge. ing the subscripts 1 and 2.

T o obtain the component of the vector integral in If line 1 consists of twoparallelwires of radius a

(10) in the direction of the gradient of the scalar po- spaced a distance d apart, the parameters are follows:

as

tential a t P,the integrand is multiplied by cos where

is the angle formed by intersecting lines and OB, K1 K? 1, $11 $12 $21 922 0 Dz

parallel to thewire axis a t P a n d a tQ , respectivell;. T h e

rll r22 (0 x)l?,

resulting scalar line integral is

r12 r21 (02 xejl12.

i t is a scalar quantity. Thus,(12) becomes

of wire, and L indicated integration along the combined Fig. 2-The double helix.

lengths of all wires in the structure.

For a double helix, such as shown in Fig. 2, the fol-

UNIFORMTRANSMISSION

LINES lowing parameters apply:

figurations which areperfectlyuniform (Le., have no

geometrical singular points) the infiniteparallel-wire

line, for which is everywhere zero, and the infinite 27r

helical line, for which is a linear function of distance. 911 922 x

These lines can consist of any number of elements, but P

for a multi-element helical line to be perfectll- uniform, 2nx 27rx

912 90, $21

the various helixes must be concentric, wound in the P P

same direction, and have the same pitch. This paper

will be concerned mainly with two-elementlossless lines,

although the results will also be used to calculate the

performance of single-wire lossless lines.

The complete circuit equations for the first wireof a

uniform two-wire lossless line can be written as

w(t, S)

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Fowler: Analysis of Helical Transmission Lines by Means of the Complete Circuit Equations 136

OF THE WAVE PARAMETERS

tions of the complete circuit equations representing for-

L,, and S,, as the Fou-

I t mill be convenient to write

ward-wave propagation can be written in the form

rier transforms of

il Ilej(ut-8s: i2 I,ej(ut-Ds) (20)

+1 @lei(ot--8si +2 @zei(t-8s). 4rrmn

?Vhen these quantities are substituted back into the dif-

ferentialequations,theresultingexpressionsarefour

homogeneous linear equations in the four current and

potential coefficients 1 1 , 12, and a2. Thus, (26) and can be written as

/ w 1 WL1,Il wL12I2 (22)

0% WLZlIl WL22IZ (23)

W@l PSllIl PS1212 24)

w@2 0S21I1 Iss2212 (25)

where the Ls and Ss represent the following integrals: and i t is seen t h a t and are the analogs of t and re-

spectively, the variables commonly used in connection

with the Fourier integral to describe functions of time.

M, and T,, will be called the self- and mutual in-

ductance distribution functions and elastance distri-

bution functions, respectively; and their Fourier trans-

forms, L,, and S,,, will be called the self- and mutual

In order to obtain values of 11,1 2 , @ I , and t h a t wave inductances and wave elastances, respectively.

satisfy (22)-(25) and are notall zero, it is necessary that These wave parameters are generalizations of the dis-

tributed inductances and elastances (reciprocal capaci-

the determinant of these four equations be identically

tances) of conventional transmission line theory. How-

zero. This fourth-order determinant can be reduced to

ever, the wave parametersdifferfrompreviousdis-

the second order b y first eliminating @ 1 between (22)

tributed parameters in three respects: (1) they are func-

and (24) and between (23) and (25). The determinant

tions of the phase coefficient as well a s of frequency;

of the resulting two equations in 1 1 and 12 is then

( 2 ) the total numberof wave inductances and elastances

needed t o describe a n AT-wire lineis 2 N Z instead of

2 ( ~ V - l ) ~ ; a n d(3) the wave parameters are not neces-

sarily srmmetrical; i.e., L,, is not identically L,, and

The valuesof which satisfy this equation are the phaseS,, is not identically S,,,.

coefficients of the various modes of propagation of the However, examination of (18) and (19) reveals t h a t

two-wire line.

The phase coefficient for lossless parallel-wire lines is Mmn(x), M n m ( - ~ ) ; T m n ( x ) t Tnm(-x) (33)

readily obtained. By substituting for the Ks, and from which i t is readily shown that

rs in the right memberof (26) and (27) their values given

in i t is seen t h a t L,, Thus, the onlysolu- Lmn(P), L n m ( - - P ) Srnn(B), s n m ( - P ) -

tion of (28) forthin-wire lossless parallellines is

fwjc. Thus, i t can be seen t h a t if is a root of the charac-

Determining the phase coefficients for helical lines is teristic equation (28), then so is, -0,confirming the fact

considerably more complicated. In the first place, is t h a t uniform transmission lines, in common withall

not given explicitly; the expansion of (28) is a quad- other iterated passive networks, are bilateral.

ratic in p2, and the coefficients of this quadratic them- Forthewaveinductancesandelastancestohave

selves depend upon owing to the

term which meaning, it is necessary that the integrals they repre-

appears in (26) and (27). In general, there are as many sent converge. Since the integrands are bounded func-

major modes as there are helixes, and additional minor tions of x, their convergence depends entirely upon the

modes also can occur a s a consequence of the fact that behavior of the integrands for large x. Each of the Ts

L,, and S,, are functions of A second complication has an asymptote of the form

arises from the fact that these functions do not con-

e - j ( o / c ) dA~2+z2

verge for all values of the parameter This difficulty is T(x) (35)

treated in the following section. 47rq/A2 x?

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136 TRANSACTIOLS-AI\

I,R#E

TESjkAS A X D PROPAGATI0:Y October

function, first for real values of and then for complex unless the two integrands are identical. Therefore, the

values. infinite Fourier integrals involved in determining scalar

For real values of the Fourier transform of T ( N )is5 potential and differences in scalar potential all neces-

sarilydiverge,unless a=O. From this it is seen t h a t

lossy waves cannot exist on a transmission line which is

perfectly uniform in the sense that the line is without

geometric singularities.

which exists for all real except k wic, t h a t is, ex- This restricts the domain of variation of for which

cept for zero arguments of the modified Bessel function solutions can be obtained to points on the real-/3 axis.

KO.Using the small-argument asymptote of this func- However, the presence of the retardationfactor

tion6 e-jurmn!c in ( 2 9 ) and (30) makes i t possible for the wave

inductances and elastances corresponding to real values

of to be complex. I t will beshown in the following

section that if is real and satisfies

where C is Eulers constant 0.5772157 Thus. i t is

seen that the wave elastances of all perfectlJ- uniform

lines (parallel-wire and helical) have logarithmic singu-

larities a t 0 forallintegers K , includingzero, then all thewave

Likewise, for parallel-wire lines the wave inductances parameters are real, except the mutual inductances and

have logarithmic singularities a t However,

elastances of unsymmetrical double helixes (viz., Fig. 2

for helical lines each of the Ms contains an additional for $0 not zero). Furthermore, it is found that to each

periodic factor, cos ,,,,)I of periodicit). 2 n i p , where p is

value of satisfl-ing (38) there correspond one or more

the helix pitch; consequently, the singularities frequencies for which that value is a root of the charac-

of the

waveinductances of helicallines are displacedfrom teristicdeterminant, ( 2 8 ) . Theunsymmetricaldouble

those of the wave elastances by the amounts 2 n yp.

helix is no exception to this, becauseL,, and S,, happen

These singular points are to be conjugates of L,,,and S,,,,, respectively, and as a

result the imaginary part of the characteristic determi-

2ii 2ii

PI=-+--: nant is identically zerofor all real valuesof that satisfy

P C P C (38).

2n 2ii For real values of that do not satisfy (38),all the

wave parameters are complex and not conjugate. I t is

P C

extremelyunlikely thatthese complexvalues would

As a consequence of these singularities of the wave lead to real-/3 roots of the characteristic determinant,

inductances and elastances, the scalar potential diverges except perhaps in isolated instances; that is, one would

for the singular values of This in itself does not pre- expect complex values of L,, and S,, to be associated

vent the propagation of waves having these phase co- with complex-/3 roots of the characteristic determinant,

efficients, because such waves are invariably excited b)- but L,, and for complex values of do not exist,

means of driving voltages which are diferetzces of po- because theintegrals which theyrepresentdiverge.

tential. These differences of potential can be determined Consequently, exponential propagation occurs only for

by taking the Fourier integralof the difference between real values of within the intervals defined b>- (38),

two distribution functions, and such Fourier integrals except perhaps for isolated points outside those inter-

converge for the singular valuesof owing to a mutual vals,where (28) mightbe satisfied coincidentallyby

cancellation of the logarithmic singularities. Therefore, real values of and complex values of the wave param-

the potential differences which occur in the neighbor- eters.

hood of a uniform line are convergent for all real values -An explanation of the physicalsignificance of the

of prohibited ranges of will not be attempted here. How-

For complex values of such as the Fourier ever, some pertinent facts upon which an explanation in

integrandcontainstheexponentialfactor This terms of outwardradiationor excessive velocity of

factor prevents the integrand from approaching zero as energypropagationmightbebasedarecontained in

x approaches Likewise, it prevents the difference (38). For K 0 the prohibited range is

tical Applications, D. \:an KostrandCompany,Inc.,KewYork,

Y.,pair no. p.

A . Schelkunoff, Electromagnetic Waves,D. \an Kostrand

Company, Inc.,New York, Y . ,chap. 3, p. T h a t is, for propagation to occur, the axial phase ve-

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locity must be less than the velocity of light. For the where is for LIZ and S I 2 , +#o for L21 and and

other ranges let the wavelengthof propagation be X and zero for LI1, and L22,Sll,and S22; i t is zero for all the

the wavelength of a plane wave in the medium be waveparameters of asymmetricaldoublehelix,for

Then which 0. The product K,K, will be simply K 2 .T h e

2r 2a distribution functions of the double helix are then

(40)

6

ing, i t is found that the following prohibited ranges of e-j(u!c)r

T(x) (45)

propagationwavelengthcorrespond to theprohibited -IT

ranges of 0:

Since M ( x ) and T ( x ) are even periodic functionsof

regarded as an independent variable, they can be ex-

panded as Fourier cosine series.

(46)

the helix pitch p is a n integral number of wavelengths.

-Although certain ranges of are prohibited, this does

not necessarilymean that there are also gaps in the

range of frequencies over which propagation can occur.

In fact the plots of phasevelocitygivenlaterreveal

that propagation in one mode or another occurs a t all

frequencies. There are certain modes for which the plot

of phase velocity versus frequency terminatesin a point;

but it alsohappens t h a t some of theseplotsdouble

back on themselves, giving rise to extrema of frequency

and multivaluedness within a single major mode. Es-

pressed differently, the variationof the L ' s and S's with

generateadditionalminormodes;thedomains of

variation of frequency for all of the major and minor

modes form a set of overlapping line segments which

covers the entire frequency spectrum.

However, this is not to say that an actual helix, hav-

ing large but finite maximum-Q values, will propagate

effectively a t all frequencies. The modelbeingcon-

sideredhereis a n infinite-Qstructure.Foranactual

helix to be accurately represented by such a model, the

wave inductance must be very large compared with the

wire resistance per unit length. For certain ranges of the

phase coefficient 0the wave inductance is very low, and

consequently the propagation will be very lossy in the

mode segments associated with those ranges of

HELIXW A V E IYDUCTANCES AND ELASTANCES

To obtainexpressionsfor L,, and S,, suitablefor

numerical calculations, a more compact notationwill be where

used; the subscriptswill be dropped, and the retardation

distance Y,,,, will be represented b17

Lk(p) nz~(.x)e-jflzda

(42) (53)

r \:A2 B? x2 T.

for etc. [cf. and

m k ( x ) ,t B ( x ) ,Zk(P), and will becalledthepartial

2ax (43j inductance distribution function, partial elastance dis-

P. tribution function, partial wave inductance, and partial

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wave elastance, respectively, all of order k . Upon sub-

stituting from (45), (48), and (49), it is seen that

e-i(wlc)r

Zk(B) cos cos k$ej$ld$dx ( 5 5 ) and the total wave inductance and elastance become

1 e- j ( w l c )r

%a% 7-

The order of integration of these double integrals can

be reversed, providedthat for either orderof integration

thefirstintegral is uniformlyconvergentthroughout where

therange of the secondintegration.'Sincetheinte-

grands are continuous, the finite integrals are uni-

formlyconvergentwithrespectto x. T h e infinite x

integrals(Fouriertransforms)arethesamefunctions The modifiedBesselfunction KO, appearing in (61)

used earlier in this paper [cf. (35) and (36)]. and (62) is real for positive real arguments and complex

forimaginaryarguments.Therefore,it follows from

e - j ( w / c ) 4A'-.4icoa $+I*

e-isrdx (51), ( 5 2 ) , (58), and (59) that all of the and in-

d A 2 B2 COS X

' volved in the expressions for L(P) and S(8j will be real,

provided that

2ak WI

.B

They are uniformly convergent with respect to pro-

p

vided Thus, it is permissible to reverse the for all integers K (positive, negative, and zero). I t also

order of integration in (55) and ( 5 6 ) and the resulting follows from and ( 5 2 ) that since $1 is zero for Lll,

integrals are Lz2,Sll?and S??,thesewaveparametersare real for

'Thus, the wave inductances and elastances are ob- values of satisfying (66) and since is $0 for L1? and

tained as functions of bg; first determining the quan- Slzand for L-21and the mutual wave parameters

titieslo(P), L ( P ) , &(@I, and are conjugate for values of satisfying (66).

which turn out tobe Fourier seriescoefficients of quanti- Somecalculatedvalues of thepartial w a ~ einduc-

ties involving in the radical [P2 l:?. The argu- tances, elastances, and capacitances (inverse elastances)

ments of l k and sk arethenshiftedbytheamounts of single and double helixes are presented in graphical

27rk/p, and the corresponding valuesof the quantities form in Figs. 3-5. For clarity the notation L,,(k =O),

and are entered into thesums in and ( 5 2 ) . L,,(k l), S,.(k=O), S m , ( K = l ) , isused t o

Since appears only in the radical, i t is convenient to represent

the

partial

waveparameters lo. k ,

give t h a t radical a special name and symbol. I t will be SI, correspondingto L,, and S,,, of thedouble

called the phase parameter given by helix. A similar notation L ( k 0), L ( k l ) , etc., is used

(W/C)?]*/? (60) for the single helix.

OF PROPAGATION

written as functions of 6, become BASISOF WAVELESGTH

Inhelixeswithsufficientlylargeratios of circum-

Zk(6) K o ( 6 d A 2 - B 2 cos cos cos k#d$ (61)

ference to pitch the calculated values of total wave in-

ductance L(P) and total wave elastance S(8) display a

peculiar "wavelength resonance" phenomenon. For ex-

G. A. Gibson, "Advanced Calculus," Macmillan and Company,

Ltd., London, Eng., chap. XIV, theorem I, p. 446; 1931. ample. when is very small compared with 25rjp, 60 is

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Fig. 3-Si~~gle-helix partial wa\-e inductances, wave elastances, and Fig. 4-Double-helix partial ware inductances of orders 0. 1 ,

na\-e capacitances (inverse wave elastances) of nrders 0. and 2 and 2 vs phase parameter ( b l / b l = 0 . 4 ) .

\-a phase parameter.

values. On the other hand, for the same values of the

other 6's are large, and the 8ther and are much

smaller than their maximum values, so t h a t for Kl and

K 2 both sufficiently large the calculated values of L(fl)

and are closely approximated by the first terms of

(63) a n d (64').

HELIX

wavecapacitances

(inverse

wave

elastances) of orders 0, 1 and 2 vs phase parameter (b,/b, =0.4).

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Utilizingtheseapproximationsgreatlyreducesthe

L@) lk(6k)eJk@1

number of terms required in subsequent calculations,

and more important, it enables the calculationof phase S(b) s~~(6~~)ejk+l.

velocity parametrically in terms of one of the phase-

parameter values the choice depending Thus, for near 2 n k / p the quantities Fo, F1, and FZ are

upon the range of wavelengths involved. For example, all explicit functions of and v 2 can be determined in

thephasevelocityandfrequencyarebothmultiple- closed form a s a function of 6r; by solving the quadratic

valued functions of a t wavelengths which are small equation, (73).

compared with 2 n / p (referred t o a svideo wavelengths

in the illustrations); at wavelengthsnear 2a/p (first-

resonancewavelengths) thephasevelocityandfre-

quencyarefunctions of 61, andnear 4 ~ l p(second-

resonance wavelengths) they are functions of Likewise, f= w / 2 a can be determined in closed form

In performing the calculations for the partial u-ave b>- substituting 2 7 ~ f for

j ~ in (63) and solving the re-

inductances and elastances, given in the previous sec- sulting quadratic equation in f . The result is

tion, it is found t h a t each of these quantities is practi- Plots of phase velocity versus frequency are madeby

cally independent of the wireradius a . On the other choosing a sequence of values for the parameter 6 k and

hand, i t can be shown that the error incurred b>- using determining the corresponding values off and v, which

(67)-(72) has an upper bound which is IargelJ- affected are then plotted against each other. For each value of

by the choice of a , and most likely that error itself in- there are two valuesof owing to the f sign in

volves the wire radius as a principal variable. Certainl!. which senyes to identify the two major modes; the plus

this is true in the limit as a approaches zero, for then sign corresponds to the major mode associated with the

the total wave inductance and total wave elastance di- smaller helix. and the minus sign corresponds to the

verge [cf. (13) 1. Thus, the partial wave inductances and major mode asscciated &h the larger helix. -Also, for

elastances individually display the attributes of exter- each value of there correspond two values of f,owing

nal impedance and collectively display the attributes to the f sign in (80), causing each of the major modes

of internal impedance.S The data of this paper n-ill t o be divided into two separate curves. The square root

take cognizance of externalimpedanceonly.andfor of z l ? hastwovalues: correspondingtoforward-

t h a t reason the wire radius has been set equal tozero i n travelingwaves,and -21, corresponding to backward-

thecalculatedpartialwaveparametersgivenabove. traveling waves. Thus, to each value of 6 e there corre-

Likewise, it does not enter into calculations given Inter spondeightdistinctpoints in the positive-frequency

in which the total wave parameters are each approxi- half of thef-21 plane, except that fork 0 there are only

mated by a single term from their expansions i n terms four distinct points, owing to the fact that each of the

of partial wave inductances and elastances. eight roots coincides with one other root, thereby re-

By substituting w l v for the characteristic determi- ducing the number of distinct roots to four.

nant (28) when expanded becomes a quadratic equation In the case of the single helix, is given by as

in 9 , before, but the phase velocitl- squaredis

Fc F 2 ~ 4

212 Sk(6k)/lk(6k) (slj

where the quantity w has been eliminated by factoring.

and the coefficients are the following functions of L,,, which does not contain a f sign. Thus, the number of

and Smn: majormodes is one, but this major mode subdivides

into two curves, owing to the sign in (80).

Fo S11S2, SI&rl

Illustrative plots of phase velocity, impedance, and

F1 L11S2? L2dll LI.?S?l LplS1. (75) coupling coefficients are given in Figs. 6-13. Figs. 6-10

F2 LllL22 L12L21. (76) apply to single helixes having various ratios of circum-

ference to pitch. Phase velocity is plotted Ko/c, the

At wavelengths near. 27rkip substitutions of the fol- ratio of thephasevelocity,measuredalongthewire

lowing typecan bemadeforeach of thequantities instead of axially, to the velocity of light. This ratio

L,, and Smn: tendstounity forlargephaseparametersor at fre-

Ran0 and Whinnery, o p . chap. 6 , pp. quencies far removed from the critical frequencies.

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Fotder: Analysis of Helical

Transmission Lines by N e a n s of the

Complete

Circuit

Equations 141

Fig. 6-Phase velocities of single helix vs frequency. video wax-elengths.

3.90 ,.PO

Frq- Critical

Fig. 10-Characteristic impedances of single helix vs frequency for video, first-resonance, and second-resonance wavelengths.

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This indicates a tendency for the propagated wave to

follow the contour of the wire. The characteristic im-

pednnce of the single helix, shown in Fig. 10, is simply

some of them have been extended far beyond the last

calculated points (2b8 24) by means of straight dotted

lines. Thecurvesrelatedtosecond-resonancewave-

lengths terminate a t points corresponding to 2bas=0.

This is indicatedbpverticalstraightlinesemanating

from the terminal points.

Curves applying to double helixes having bl;br=0.4

aregiven in Figs. 11-13. The electricandmagnetic

coupling coefficients, h and k, respectively, are plotted

in Fig. 11 functions of the phase parameter. These

coefficients bothapproachzero as 6 approachesin-

finit,-. Consequently, a t frequencies far removed from

all the critical frequencies of the individual helixes the

double helix behavesliketwoseparatesinglehelixes,

Fig. 11-Coupling coefficients of double helix vs phaseparameter eachpropagating a wavewhich follows its respective

for video,first-resonance. and second-resonancewavelengths

(bl/bz-0.4). contour.This is evidencedalso bl; theplot of phase

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Fotder: Analysis of H e l i d Tranmzission Lines by Means of the Complete Circuit Equations 143

I

I

0

Fig. 13-Characteristic network component impedances of double helix vs frequency (video wavelengths)

quency, given in Fig. 12. For large values of the phase when it is propagating a single fonvard-traveling wave.

parameters 61, and that ratio approaches unityfor

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

the outer helix and for the inner helix. T h e im-

pedance of a double helix a t video wavelengths is repre- The author wishes to thank Dr. H. M. Von Foerster

sented in Fig. 13 by three impedances, and for his many helpful suggestions and criticisms through-

which, when connected as a T-section between the inner out the course of this investigation, as well as Dr. E, C.

and outer helixes and a point of zero scalar potential, Jordan for reviewing the manuscript.

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