Sei sulla pagina 1di 7

PHONIC RULES/PATTERNS, WHICH MAY BE USEFUL AT EACH PHASE OF LETTERS

AND SOUNDS

NB: These rules are equally relevant to other synthetic phonics programmes

In English there are 26 letters which represent 44 phonemes. These phonemes are
represented by approximately 140 different letter combinations.

Phase 2:
After a short vowel, words end in ss instead of s, ff instead of f, ll instead of l, ck
instead of k (eg hiss, whiff, hill, lick).
NB. These (and zz instroduced in Phase 3) are the only consonants which double in this
position.

Phase 3:
After a short vowel, words end in zz instead of z (eg fizz)
After a digraph, words end in f instead of ff, k instead of ck, l instead of ll (eg reef,
park, heel)
Although not technically at this phase, the following information may be useful:
o At the end of a word /v/ is usually spelled ve (eg have, live).

Phase 4:
CCVC words:
After a short vowel, words end in ss instead of s, ff instead of f, ck instead of k, ll
instead of l, zz instead of z (eg. dress, sniff, block, frill, frizz). This is the same as CVC
words in Phases 2 & 3.
After a digraph, words end in f instead of ff, k instead of ck, l instead of ll (eg scarf,
shark, growl). This is the same as CVC words in Phases 2 & 3.
CVCC words:
After a consonant, words end in f instead of ff, k instead of ck (eg shelf, sink). /l/
doesnt appear in final position. /s/ and /z/ only occur as plurals represented by s.

Phase 5:
CVC and CCVC words: after a digraph, words end in ce or se instead of s (eg horse)
Regional pronunciation: (this is relevant in areas where path is pronounced parth)
/ar/ followed by /s/ (eg grass), /th/ (eg bath) or a consonant cluster (eg plant, ask, clasp) is
written a. Where it is followed by /s/, this is written ss (eg glass).
After /w/ (represented by w, wh or qu), /o/ is often represented by a (eg was, what,
quad)

Copyright Lesley Clarke 2006 (revised 20.8.07) lesleyclarkesyntheticphonics.co.uk


Which representation of each vowel phoneme is most likely in different positions:

A) Which representation is most likely in initial/medial/final position in a


monosyllabic word.

See chart below. Letters in brackets show less likely representations.

Initial and Medial position Final position

ai a-e ay

ea ee ee e ea (words with 1 syllable)


y (words with 2 or more syllables)

i-e (igh i ie) y (ie igh)

oa o-e (o ow) ow (o oe)

oo u-e ew (oo ue)

ar (a*) ar

oi oy

ou ow ow

ir ur er (ear or) ir ur er

or (aw a ough) ore aw (oor)

oo u (oul) -

- are (air ear)

- ear eer

* areas of the country in which bath is


pronounced b-ar-th

Copyright Lesley Clarke 2006 (revised 20.8.07) lesleyclarkesyntheticphonics.co.uk


Alternative representations of /s/:
In initial position:
o s is most likely.
o c is sometimes used before /i/ or /e/.
In final position (not including plurals):
o ss is most likely after a short vowel.
o ce is most likely after /ie/ /ai/, /oi/.
o se is most likely after /oo/, /oa/, /ow/, /ur/.
o se and ce are equally likely after n, /ee/, /au/

Alternative representations of /j/:


In initial position:
o j is most likely.
o g is sometimes used when followed by i or e (eg gel).
In final position:
o dge is most likely after a short vowel.
o ge is most likely after a digraph or consonant.

Alternative representations of /ch/:


In final position:
o tch is most likely after a short vowel

B) Which representation of a vowel phoneme in initial/medial position is most likely to occur


before particular final consonants.

The initial/medial position is the most problematic in a monosyllabic word, as a vowel phoneme
can usually be represented in more than one way (eg ai and a-e are equally likely in this
position).

In the mini charts below, the grapheme in the column heading is the most likely representation
before the final phonemes shown in that column. Where 2 or more graphemes are in the
column heading (eg ai a-e), both representations are equally likely.

Copyright Lesley Clarke 2006 (revised 20.8.07) lesleyclarkesyntheticphonics.co.uk


ai a-e:

ai a-e ai a-e
/n/ /b/ /d/
nt /f/ /l/
/j/
/k/
/m/
/p/
/s/
/t/
/v/
/z/ (except present tense verbs, which take ays eg plays)

ee ea (e-e):

ee ea ee ea ee ea ie
/d/ /m/ /k/ /f/
/p/ /v/ /l/ /s/
/ch/ /n/
st /t/

i-e (igh i ie):

i-e i i-e igh ie i-e


/f/ nd /t/ /d/ (only past tense verbs take ie)
/k/ nt
/l/ ld
/m/
/n/
/p/
/s/
/v/
/z/

Copyright Lesley Clarke 2006 (revised 20.8.07) lesleyclarkesyntheticphonics.co.uk


oa o-e (o ow):

o-e oa o o-e oa oa o
/b/ /f/ ld /d/ st
/k/ /t/ /m/
/p/
/v/
/z/

o-e o oa o-e oa ow o-e o


/l/ /n/ /s/

oo u-e:

u-e oo u-e oo
/b/ /f/ /d/
/j/ /l/ /n/
/m/
/p/
/t/

ou ow:

ou ow
/d/ /l/
/s/ /n/
/t/
/ch/
/th/
nd
nt

ir ur er (ear or):
o ir, ur, er are equally likely in initial/medial position.
o or is most likely after w eg worm, work.

aw or a (augh ough):

or a or aw or ough
/k/ /l/ /n/ /t/ (most words taking ough are past tense
/th/ verbs)
/ch/
/m/ (except where it follows w, in which case ar is used eg warm, swarm)

Copyright Lesley Clarke 2006 (revised 20.8.07) lesleyclarkesyntheticphonics.co.uk


oo u (oul):

oo u oo u oo oul
/k/ /l/ /t/ /d/
/sh/

e ea:

e ea e ea
/b/ /f/ /d/
/g/ /th/
/j/ lth'
/k/
/l/
/m/
/n/
/p/
/s/
/t/
nt

C) Which representation of a vowel phoneme is most likely to occur in final position.

ee e ea
o e is mostly found in pronouns eg he, she

are (air ear)


o are is more likely in verbs
o air and ear are equally likely in other words.

Phase 6

Adding suffixes:
Consonant suffixes (eg ly, ful, less, ness, ment)
Where the root word has a final y representing /ee/ or /igh/: change the y to i and add
the suffix (eg noisy noisily, merry merriment).
Other types of root words: just add the suffix (eg end endless)
Vowel suffixes (eg. er, est, ing, ed, y, en)
Where the root word has a short vowel and single final consonant: double the final consonant
before adding the suffix (eg big bigger).
Where the root word has a split digraph: remove the final e before adding the suffix (eg
bone bony, wise wisest).
Where the root word has a final y representing /ee/ or /igh/: change the y to i and add
the suffix (eg lucky luckily). The exception is ing, which keeps the y (eg copying, drying).
Other types of root words: just add the suffix (eg cook cooking).

Copyright Lesley Clarke 2006 (revised 20.8.07) lesleyclarkesyntheticphonics.co.uk


Plurals:
Words ending in s or ss, ch, sh, z or zz: add es to make the plural (eg church churches).
Words ending in y: change the y to i before adding es to make the plural (eg baby babies).
Other words: just add s to make the plural (eg book books).

/l/ (as in little):


Occurs at the end of polysyllabic words.
le is more common than el, al, il.
Words containing a short vowel double the last consonant before adding le.
Words containing digraphs or consonant clusters before /l/ just add le.

Polysyllabic words:
Each syllable in a word contains a vowel phoneme.
The stressed syllable is often the first one in a word.
Words in which the stressed syllable contains a short vowel:
Many words contain 2 consonants between the short vowel in the first syllable and the vowel
in the second syllable. Where there is only one consonant phoneme a double letter is
required. Eg funny, carrot, dentist.
Words in which the stressed syllable contains a long vowel:
Many words use a single letter to represent the long vowel phoneme in the stressed syllable
eg even, basin, lazy, silent.
Words containing a double r after a vowel:
rr represents /r/ and does not form a digraph with the vowel to make ar, er, ir, or, ur.
Eg marry, parrot, arrow, squirrel

Copyright Lesley Clarke 2006 (revised 20.8.07) lesleyclarkesyntheticphonics.co.uk