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Common applications
Advantages and disadvantages

The word "cement" traces to the Romans, who used

the term opus caementicium to
describe masonry resembling modern concrete that
was made from crushed rock with burnt lime as
binder. The volcanic ash and
pulverized brick additives that were added to the
burnt lime to obtain a hydraulic binder were later
referred to as cementum, cimentum, cment,
and cement.

The name Portland Cement comes from the fact

that the colour and quality of the resulting concrete
are similar to Portland stone, a kind of limestone
found in England.
Cements are materials that
exhibit characteristic properties of setting
and hardening when mixed to a paste with
water. This makes them join rigid masses
into coherent structures. It is powdery
bonding material having adhesive and
cohesive properties.

Chemically it is a finely ground

mixture of calcium silicates and aluminates
which set to a hard mass when treated
with water. These are called as Hydraulic
Cements (Portland Cement) and those
setting in air are Non-Hydraulic Cements
(Ordinary Lime).

Hydraulic cement have the ability to set and harden under

water. eg: Portland cements.

It sets with hydration reaction.

It reacts with water to form stable calcium silicate hydrates.

Hydraulic cements can harden instantly too.


Non-hydraulic cement cannot be hardened when exposed to


Non-hydraulic cement should be kept dry to attain strength,

and be able to maintain its structure.

It takes a substantially longer time to dry off and gain

strength after being set. eg: lime

Here hardening takes place by carbonation - reaction of

hydrated lime with carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

Examples are gypsum and magnesium cement.


 It is uncertain where it was first discovered that a

combination of hydrated non-hydraulic lime and
a pozzolan produces a hydraulic mixture, but
concrete made from such mixtures was first used by
the Ancient Macedonians and three centuries later
on a large scale by Roman engineers. They used
both natural pozzolans (trass or pumice) and
artificial pozzolans (ground brick or pottery) in these
concretes. Many excellent examples of structures
made from these concretes are still standing,
notably the huge dome of
the Pantheon in Rome and the massive Baths of
Caracalla. The vast system of Roman aqueducts also
made extensive use of hydraulic cement.
 The technical knowledge of making hydraulic
cement was later formalized by French and British
engineers in the 18th century.
Modern hydraulic cements began to be developed from
the start of the Industrial Revolution (around 1800).
 Cement was first made by Joseph Aspdin in 1824 in England.

Natural Cement: Obtained by calcinating

and pulverizing natural cement rock of
argillaceous and clay with limestone. It does
not have sufficient strength and is cheap and
quick setting & have hydraulic properties.

Pozzolana Cement: Volcanic ash containing

silicates of calcium, iron and aluminum when
mixed with lime and heated produces this

Slag Cement: Mixture of blast furnace slag

(Ca and Al Silicates) and hydrated lime.
Sometimes accelerators like clay, salt, caustic
soda are added to hasten hardening process.

Portland Cement: It consists of compounds

of lime, silica, alumina and iron. When mixed
with water it forms a paste which binds the
rock, sand and gravel to form concrete.
Grades of portland cement

 33 grade General Construction like plastering,

finishing works etc, where strenth is not required.

 43 grade Useful for structural works,

precast items etc, Strength development is faster
than 33 grade.

 53 gradeUsed for multi-storey buildings, precast

pre-stressed items, bridges, tall structures,etc.
Develops very fast strength and speeds up

Mixing (Wet Process)
Mixing (Dry Process)
Grinding (Ball Mill and Tube Mill)
Storage of Ground Materials
Drying Zone
Calcination Zone
Clinkering Zone
Dispersing Agent
Water Proofing


This is the first step in the manufacture of

Portland Cement.

Jaw crushers of various sizes are employed

for the crushing purpose.

Raw materials are crushed by crushers till

the size of the raw material reduces to of
an inch.

It is than send for either Wet process or

Dry process. Wet process is universally
Types of Cement

Dry process
 In this process calcareous material such as lime stone (calciumcarbonate)
and argillaceous material such as clay are groundseparately to fine powder
in the absence of water and thenare mixed together in the desired

 Water is then added to it for getting thick paste and then its cakes are
formed, dried and burnt in kilns. This process is usually used when raw
materials are very strong and hard.

 In this process, the raw materials are changed to powdered form in the
absence of water.

 Dehydration zone requires a somewhat shorter distance than wet process.

 74% of cement produced.

 kilns less fuel requirements

Types of Cement

Wet process

 In this process, the raw materials are changed to

powdered form in the presence of water.

 In this process, raw materials are pulverized by using a

Ball mill, which is a rotary steel cylinder with hardened steel
balls. When the mill rotates, steel balls pulverize the raw
materials which form slurry (liquid mixture). The slurry is
then passed into storage tanks, where correct proportioning
is done. Proper composition of raw materials can be ensured
by using wet process than dry process. Corrected slurry is
then fed into rotary kiln for burning.

 This process is generally used when raw materials are soft

because complete mixing is not possible unless water is
Dry Process

Actually the purpose of both processes is to change the

raw materials to fine powder.

dehydration zone would require up to half the length of the


easiest to control chemistry & better for moist raw


high fuel requirements - fuel needed to evaporate 30+%

slurry water
The kiln is a continuous stream process vessel in which
feed and fuel are held in dynamic balance
CALCAREOUS - composed of, containing, or characteristic of calcium
carbonate, calcium, or limestone; chalky.

ARGILLACEOUS - containing, made of, or resembling clay; clayey.

SLURRY - A thin mixture of a liquid, especially water, and any of several

finely divided substances, such as cement, plaster of Paris, or clay particles.

The ground materials containing 30 40% of water is stored

in separate tanks equipped with agitators.

This step is followed by process of burning.


Slurry is burnt in rotary klin where actual chemical changes takes place.
Klin is long steel cylinder 30-40 meter in length, 2-4 meter in diameter,
lined by refractory bricks. It is inclined at gradient of 0.5-0.75 inch and can
be rotated at the desired speed.
The material is introduced in the klin from the upper end as the klin rotates
material passes slowly towards the lower end.
Klin is heated by burning pulverized coal or oil and temperature is
maintained at about 1400-1500 C. At clinkering temperature actual
chemical reactions takes place.

Grinding can be done in two stages

Ball Mill

Consists of cast iron drum containing iron and

steel balls of different sizes. The principle used in
ball mill s impact and shear produced by large no.
of tumbling and rolling balls.

Tube Mill

Ball mill grinding is followed by tube mill

grinding. Tube mill is conical at the discharge
end with separate inlet and outlet.
Slower is the feeding speed finer is the product
coming out of the tube mill.
A 10 MW cement mill, producing cement at 270 tonnes per hour

Clinkers are finally grinded in ball mill and tube mill

to a fine powder. Additives added are as follows.

Gypsum or Plaster of Paris acts as retarder to
prevent quick setting. After initial setting gypsum retards
the dissolution of tricalcium aluminate by forming
tricalcium sulphoaluminate.

Dispersing Agent:
Sodium salts and polymers of condensed napthlene
or sulphonic acid are added to prevent the formation of
lumps and cakes in the cement.
Water proofing agents are also added.

The ground powder is

packed by automatic
machines in a bag.

This is then dispatched to

the markets where it is sold.

Bags of cement weighing

10kg, 20kg and 25kg and
40kg are available.
Characteristics of

 When water is added to initiate dry mixtures of

cement and sand, hydration of cement starts and it
will binds sand particles as well as the surrounding
surfaces of masonry and concrete.
 The proportion of cement and sand will decide the
strength of mortar.
 A richer mix than 1:3 proportion is prone to shrinkage.
 Solid surface are provided by well proportioned
 A leaner mix is not able of closing the voids in sand.
Common Applications
of Cement

 Building (floors, beams, columns, roofing, piles,

bricks, mortar, panels, plaster).
 Transport (roads, pathways, crossings, bridges,
sleepers, viaducts, tunnels, stabilization, runways,
 Water (pipes, culverts, kerbing, drains, canals,
weirs, dams, tanks, pools).
 Civil (piers, docks, retaining walls, silos,
warehousing, poles, pylons, fencing).
 Agriculture (buildings, processing, housing,
feedlots, irrigation).
Advantages and


Cement is very strong.

It can create large structures quickly.
It conforms to different shapes (arcs and circles, etc).
It has high thermal mass (moderates temperature).

Cement is subjected to cracking.
It is very difficult to provide idoneous curing conditions.
It is not ideal for situation when settlement is expected.
According to the ASTM standard, there are five
basic types of Portland Cement:

Regular cement, general use, called Ordinary

Portland cement (OPC) Type I

Moderate sulphate resistance, moderate heat of

hydration, Modified cement - Type II

Rapid-hardening Portland cement , High early

strength Type III

Low heat Portland cement Type IV

High Sulfate-resisting Portland cement Type V


 The differences between these cement types are

rather subtle. All five types contain about 75 wt%
calcium silicate minerals, and the properties of
mature concretes made with all five are quite similar.
Thus these five types are often described by the
term Ordinary Portland Cement, or OPC.

 Types II and V OPC are designed to be resistant to

sulfate attack. Sulfate attack is an important
phenomenon that can cause severe damage to
concrete structures.

 Sulfate attack is an important phenomenon that

can cause severe damage to concrete structures. but
it should be noted here that the most effective way
to prevent sulfate attack is to keep the sulfate ions
from entering the concrete in the first place.

This can be done by using mix designs that give a

low permeability (mainly by keeping the w/c ratio
low) and, if practical, by putting physical barriers
such as sheets of plastic between the concrete and
the soil.

There is actually little difference between a Type I

and Type II cement, and it is common to see
cements meeting both designations labeled as Type
It is possible to add some additive to Portland
cement to produce the following types:

Portland blastfurnace cement Type IS

Pozzolanic cement - Type IP

Air-entrained cement - Type IA

White Portland Cement (WPC)

Colored Portland Cement

Types OF Portland

Ordinary Portland Cement (Type I)

Modified Portland Cement (Type II)
Rapid Hardening or High Early Strength Portland Cement
(Type III)
Quick Setting Cement
Low Heat Portland Cement (Type IV)
Sulphate Resistant Portland Cement (Type V)
Water Repellent Portland Cement
Water Proof Portland Cement
High Alumina Cement
Portland Slag Cement
Air Entraining Portland Cement (Type I-A, II-A, III-A)
Pozzolana Portland Cement
Supersulphated Cement
Masonry Cement
Expansive Cement
1. Ordinary Portland Cement - It is used in
general construction works. All other varieties of
Cement are derived from this Cement.

White Cement - OPC with pure white color

produced with white chalk or clay free from
iron oxide.
Instead of coal, oil fuel is used for burning.
Much more costlier than OPC.

Colored Cement - suitable pigments used to impart

desired color. Pigments used should be chemically
inert and durable under light, sun or weather.
2. Modified Portland Cement - This cement on
setting develops less heat of generation than OPC.

It is best suited in hot climate for civil works

3. Rapid Hardening or High Early Strength
Cement (Type III) - Gains strength faster than OPC. In
3 days develops 7 days strength of OPC with same water
cement ratio.

After 24 hours not less than 160 kg/cm2

After 72 hours not less than 275 kg/cm2
Initial and final setting times are same as OPC.

Contains more tri-calcium silicate (C3S) and

finely ground.

Emits more heat during setting, therefore unsuitable

for mass concreting.

Lighter and costlier than OPC.

Short curing period makes it economical.

Used for structures where immediate loading is

required e.g. repair works.
4. Quick Setting Cement

Sets faster than OPC.

Initial setting time is 5 minutes.

Final setting time is 30 minutes.

Used for concreting underwater and in running


Mixing and placing has to be faster to avoid

initial setting prior to laying.
5. Low Heat Cement

Low percentage (5%) of tri-calcium aluminates (C3A) and

silicate (C3S) and high (46%) of di-calcium silicate (C2S) to
keep heat generation low.

It has low lime content and less compressive strength.

Initial and final setting times nearly same as OPC.

Very slow rate of developing strength.

Not suitable for ordinary structures.

Shuttering required for long duration so cost will increase.

Prolonged curing is required.

Structure utilization will be delayed.

6. Sulphate Resistant Portland Cement -

Percentage of tri-calcium Aluminate (C3A) is kept below 5%

resulting in increase in resisting power against sulphates.

Heat developed is almost same as Low Heat Cement.

Theoretically ideal cement.

Costly manufacturing because of stringent composition


Used for structures likely to be damaged by severe alkaline

conditions like bridges, culverts, canal lining, siphons, etc.
7. Water Repellent Portland Cement

It contains a small percentage of water-proofing material

with the cement and is manufactured under the name Aqua-

The cement is prepared with ordinary or rapid hardening

cement and white cement.

It is used in to check moisture penetration in basements etc.

8. Water Proof Portland cement

It is prepared by mixing ordinary or rapid hardening cement

and some percentage of some metal stearate ( Ca, Al etc).

It is resistant to water and oil penetration.

It is also resistant to acids, alkaline and salt discharged by

industrial water.

It is used for water retaining structure like tanks, reservoir,

retaining walls, pool, dam etc
10. Portland Slag Cement

Produced by mixing Portland cement clinker, gypsum and

granulated blast furnace slag.

Cheaper than OPC, blackish grey in color.

Lesser heat of hydration. Initial setting in 1 hr and final

setting 10 hrs.

Better resistance to soil agents, sulphates of alkali metals,

alumina, iron and acidic waters.

Suitable for marine works, mass concreting.

Due to low early strength, not suitable for RCC.

9. High Alumina Cement

Black chocolate color cement produced by fusing bauxite and

limestone in correct proportion, at high temperature.

Resists attack of chemicals, sulphates, seawater, frost action

and also fire. Useful in chemical plants and furnaces.

Ultimate strength is much higher than OPC.

Initial setting time is 2 hours, followed soon by final setting.

Most of the heat is emitted in first 10 hrs. Good for freezing

temperatures in cold regions (below 18C).

Develops strength rapidly, useful during wartime emergency.

Unsuitable for mass concrete as it emits large heat on

11. Air Entraining Cement

OPC with small quantity of air entraining materials (resins,

oils, fats, fatty acids) ground together.

Air is entrained in the form of tiny air bubbles during

chemical reaction.

Concrete is more plastic, more workable, more resistant to


Strength of concrete reduces to some degree.

Quantity of air entrained should not be more than 5% to

prevent excess strength loss.
12. Portland Pozzolana Cement

OPC clinker and Pozzolana (Calcined Clay, Surkhi and Fly ash)
ground together.

Properties same as OPC.

Produces less heat of hydration and offers great resistance to

attacks of Sulphates and acidic waters.

Used in marine works and mass concreting.

Ultimate strength is more than OPC but setting timings are

same as OPC.
13. Supersulphated Cement
Initially, not less than 70 per cent finely ground blast furnace
slag, Calcium Sulphate and a small quantity of ordinary
Portland cement or Portland cement clinker.

It is finer than ordinary Portland cement.

Its physical and other properties are almost same as are of

ordinary Portland cement except the heat of hydration which
is considerably lower.

It is a slag cement and is resistant to majority of chemicals

found in construction industry. It is also resistant to Sulphate
Under tropical conditions, its use is recommended only below
Can be used as a general purpose cement with adequate
It should never be used for casting steam cured concrete
It is used in:
Marine Structures.
Mass concrete works subjected to aggressive
Reinforced concrete pipes in ground water.
Concrete construction in Sulphate bearing soils.
In factories where concrete is exposed to highly
concentrated Sulphates.
Construction of concrete sewers carrying industrial
Underside of railway bridges.
14. Masonry Cement

Unlike ordinary cement, it is more plastic.

Made by mixing hydrated lime, crushed stone, granulated

slag or highly colloidal clays are mixed with it.

Addition of above mentioned materials reduces the strength

of cement.
15. Expansive or Expanding Cement

The main difference in this cement is the increase in volume

that occurs when it settles.

Used to neutralize shrinkage of concrete made from ordinary

cement so as to eliminate cracks. A small percentage of this
cement with concrete will not let it crack. It is specially
desirable for hydraulic structures.

In repair work, it is essential that the new concrete should be

tight fitting in the old concrete. This can be done by using this
Green Cement

 Green cement is a cementitious material that meets or exceeds

the functional performance capabilities of ordinary Portland
cement by incorporating and optimizing recycled materials,
thereby reducing consumption of natural raw materials, water, and
energy, resulting in a more sustainable construction material.

 The manufacturing process for green cement succeeds in reducing,

and even eliminating, the production and release of damaging
pollutants and greenhouse gasses, particularly CO2.