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English Literature

Adolfo Surez
Madrid
Barajas
Airport

Lecturer:
Dra. R. Aj. Atrinawati, M.Hum

By:
Anisa Kusuma (21020113130125)
Huda Muhammad (21020113130145)
Natalya Indah (21020113140155)
Annisa Octavyara (21020113130158)

Architectural Engineering
Diponegoro University 2013/2014
Preface

Thanks to God for giving the writers opportunity and ability to write this paper. Thanks
and Appreciation to our respect teacher: Mrs. R. Aj. Atrinawati for giving the writers this
opportunity to write this paper.
This paper is an assignment has been given to Architecture students of Diponegoro
University. The topic is about one of building in the world. The aim of this paper is to get
knowledge about Adolfo Suarez Madrid-Barajas Airport in Spain. The writers choose Adolfo
Suarez Madrid-Barajas Airport building because the writers thinks this building having its
own uniqueness on its design and construction .
Adolfo Surez Madrid Barajas
Airport

Adolfo Suarez
Madrid
Barajas Airport
is the main
serving airport
in Madrid,
Spain. The
First Spanish Prime Minister, Adolfo Suarez, after the restoration of democracy.
airport name
adapts the
district near
Barajas and the
former Spanish Prime Minister, Adolfo Suarez, who was the first prime minister after the
restoration of democracy and his key participation in the Spanish Transition to democracy
after Francos dictactorship. The airport was actuallyconstructed in 1927 above a large circle
bordered in white, unpaved, covered with natural grass in Madrid, near district Barajas. The
airport later was reconstructed by architecture team Richard Rogers Partnership and the
Spanish practise Estudio Lamela in 2000 and restarted its operation in air traffic in 2006.
The present Barajas Airport establish Madrid as a major European hub and consolidate its
position as the focal connection between Europe and Latin America. The airport also
incorporate automatic baggage handling systems, automatic people movers to connect the
terminal with the satellite, as well as a train and metro station. In 2011 and 2010, over 49
million passengers used Madrid Barajas Airport and making it as the countrys largest and
busiest airport. And in 2013 it was becoming
Europes sixth busiest airport.

Adolfo Surez Madrid Barajas


Project data Airport Facts
Location Madrid-Barajas, Spain
Type Transport

Dates

Tender 1997
Design 1998 - 1999
Interior of New Barajas Airport
Construction 2000 - 2005
Operation 2006
Full Operation 2010

Built Area

Terminal 470,000m
Satellite 315,000m
Car Park 309,000m
Access Roads 64,000m
Total 1,158,000m

Costs

Terminal 670,000,000 euros


Satellite 400,000,000 euros
Car Park 168,000,000 euros
Total 1,238,000,000 euros
Total includes construction costs for the buildings (structure,
finishes, services), the expenses for the infrastructures and access
roads outside of the buildings are not included

Total Plan Barajas 6,000,000,000 euros


Total includes all of the external roads and services that link the
new buildings to the main infrastructure networks
Client AENA

The Architect Richard Rogers Partnership

Team
(RRP / Studio Lamela) Jos Aguilar, Emilia Alonso, David Ardill,
Adolfo Arellano, Andrs Arellano, Enrique Azpilicueta, Kenta J.
Bacas, Mercedes Barbero, Neus Barbosa, Louise Barnett, Stephen
Barrett, Michael Barth, Susana Blanes, Stuart Blower, Mercedes Boln,
David Bottos, Ed Burgess, Torsten Burkhardt, Almudena Bustos,
Javier Calvo, Ana Carbonero, Juanjo Carrancedo, Snia Castell, Paco
Chocano, Eva Clark, Andrew Clarkson, Pablo Codesido, Sebastin
Collado, Ivn Cordero, Miguel ngel Cordero, Phaedra Corrigan,
Alicia Cortell, Dan Crane, Marta Cumellas, Cathie Curran, John
Denehy, Hilde Depuyt, Jos Carlos Dez, Concha Estaban, Javier
Esteban, Elantha Evans, Mike Fairbrass, Andrs Fernndez, Leo
Fernndez, Sara Fernndez, Ricardo Fuentes, Harvinder Gabhari, Ivn
Garca, Jason Garca, Ral Garca, Rosa Garca, Victor Garca, Marta
Garca-Haro, Courtney Goldsmith, Juan Manuel Gmez, Ignacio
Gonzlez, Jorge Gonzlez, Pedro Gonzlez, Lucy Gould, Sera Grubb,
Lennart Grut, Carmen Gundn, Ivan Harbour, Javier Hernndez, Jess
Hernndez, Sergio Hernndez, Jos Julin Horcajo, Amo Kalsi, Jorge
Keipo, Kazu Kofuku, Tom Lacey, Juan Laguna, Carlos Lainer,
Matthew Lake, Antonio Lamela, Carlos Lamela, Ronald Lammers van
Bueren, Stig Larsen, James Leathem, Marcus Lee, Toms Llamas,
Csar Lpez, Francisco Lpez de Blas, Javier Lpez, Isabel Lorenzo,
Avtar Lotay, John Lowe, Erick Maas, Rachel McGovern, Annette
Main, lida Margitic, Carmen Mrquez, Francisco Martin, Steve
Martin, Andrs Martnez, Tim Mason, Natalie Mayes, David Morales,
Pedro Morales, Julio Moreno, Paz Moya, Jess Municio, Javier Muiz,
Paul Nelson, Beatriz Olivares, Caireen O'Hagan, Tamiko Onozawa,
Raquel Ortega, Ivn Pajares, Louise Palomba, Jorge Palomero,
Richard Paul, Inma Pedregosa, Adolfo Preus, Pablo Querol, Olga
Ramrez, Matt Rees, Claudia Rieradevalle, Richard Rogers, Francisco
Rojo, Andrei Saltikov, Ins Salvatierra, Cristina Snchez, Francisco
Sanjun, Laureano Sanz, Birgit Schlsser, Patricia Sendin, Ana
Serrano, Simon Smithson, Hugo Soriano, Neil Southard, Kirsti Stock,
Carlos Temprano, Jochen Tombers, Andrew Tyley, Yoshi Uchiyama,
Eva Utrera, Joselina Vago, Vernica van Kesteren, Joaqun Vaquero,
Patricia Vzquez, Laura Vega, Susana Vega, Isabel Vergara, Luis
Vidal, Laura Villa, Dan Wright, John Young, Ignacio Zamorano, Nick
Zervoglos

Co-Architect Estudio Lamela

Acoustic
Sandy Brown Associates
Consultant

Airport Consultant Initec / TPS

Facade Engineer Arup

Fire Engineer Warrington Fire Research Consultants

Landscape
dosAdos
Architect

Lighting
Arup / Speirs and Majors Associate
Consultant

Main Contractor Terminal UTE; Satellite UTE; car park


DRAGADOS; baggage handling Siemens Dematic

Quantity Surveyor Hanscomb Ltd / Gabinete

Services Engineer TPS / INITEC


Structural
Anthony Hunt Associates / TPS with OTEP / HCA
Engineer

THE ARCHITECTS

Richard Rogers and Antonio Lamela designed the T4 of the Madrid-Barajas Airport in Spain,
completed in 2004. It won the 2006 Sterling Prize.

Rogers placed a flowing canopy atop parallel circulation systems, supported by twin
diverging columns. Light and transparency punch through the hill-like roof structure.

Transitions between spaces are considered as if a person changes time zones gingerly on a
travel, with repeated structure and spaces as the visitor goes through the building from flight
to flight. The subtle change in colors punctuate this change.

Change in the vertical sense is also very apparent, as brutal concrete gives way to lifting and
floating glass. Ever the utilitarian, Rogers carefully places the mechancial and structure away
from the people but always in view, flexible and always changing.

ARCHITECTURE
Madrid Barajas airport opened its doors in 1933 and has since been expanded several times.
The last and most significant was in 1997, Barajas Airports reconstruction at 2000, when the
Aena Company convened competition to expand its airport. The competition was held
because the old Barajas Airport subsequently extended several times after the first opening in
1933 and became over-stretched. Finally after some observations the need for a new site with
a terminal, satellite, ancillary buildings and two new run ways was identified. Based on those
criterias, the client, Spanish National Airports Authority (AENA), commissioned the
architects to design a new facility as part of major
expansion plans for the existing Madrid Barajas
Airport.

The proposal by the British architect Richard


Rogers in collaboration with the Madrid Study
Lamela, was the winner.

Barajas Airport is the most important in Spain. It


has four terminals known as T1, T2, T3 and T4, Exterior Facade of New Barajas Airport
as well as a satellite building of Terminal 4,
which is known as T4-S. The whole of T4 became operational in early 2006, making the
Madrid Barajas Airport the world's largest in area of terminals, with one million square
meters distributed among T1, T2, T3, T4, T4-S, four gateways of direct shipment. The
construction cost about $7.2 million dollars.

Awards

The Barajas T4 was honored with the Stirling Prize of the Royal Institute of British
Architects, the most prestigious of Great Britain in architecture as well as the International
RIBA European Awards 2006, Best Engineering Project 2005 by the Institute of Engineering
Spain, the Design Award T + L 2006 in the category of 'Best Public Space'.

CONCEPTS

The building
of Barajas
Airport is
covered by a
wave roof
supported on
central
trees; and is
punctuated
by rooflights
that provide
natural light
Freehand sketch of the wave roof concept with central trees support
throughout
the upper level of the terminal, and oversailing the edge of the building to shade the facades.
The strategy is to bring natural light down into the lower lewel by making a series of light-
filled canyons that separate the parallel slices of space denote the stages of transit, from the
arrival point, to check in, security and passport control, to departure lounges and finally to the
aircraft.
Sketch of the exterior facade design of Barajas Airport which contain low energy system in the building with
The design team of this building were commited to the use of passive environmental systems
while maximising transparency and view towards the aircraft and mountains beyond. The
building benefits the north-south orientation with the primary facades facing east and west for
protecting the building against solar gain and the extreme heat of summer in Madrid. The
facades are protected by combination of deep roof overhangs and external shading. This
building adapts the low energy ventilation system and more conventional high velocity
system.

Sketch of the model of legibility and straightforward linear diagram and clear progression of spaces for depa
Barajas is a model of legibility with a straightforward linear diagram and a clear progression
of spaces for departing and arriving passengers. The ideas emerged during Richard Rogers
work in Heathrows Terminal 5 in London. The accomodation is distributed over six floors.
Three above the ground for check-in, security, boarding and baggage reclaim, and three
underground levels for maintenance, baggage processing and transferring passengers between
buildings. The lower levels of building are constructed in concrete, contrast strikingly with
the light-weight transparency of the passanger areas.
DESIGN

The exterior looks of the Barajas Airport is architecturally simple but facilitating ultra-rapid construction prog
The materials in this building is detailing reinforces the direct simplicity of the architectural concepts
and facilitating the ultra-rapid construction programme and maximising the potential for flexibility.
The building is a series of extrusion and infinitely extendable rather than a free-standing bespoke
composition. The sheer size of the building is the key to the assembly-focused approach.

The building used 9 metre structural grid with flexible, loose-fit system employing large-
scale modular repetition as the solution to accomodate the multitude of uses in the terminal.
The building also using colorful pylons as the structures of wave roof above the building.
The smoothness of color changing pylons differ the spaces in the building. Mechanical and
structural system are placed far from the passengers reach but still can be seen, exposed,

Colorful pylons, which is actually the structure of the building, are exposed for the passanger view and defin
flexibel and fascinating.

The roof emerges as


the defining
architectural
element. Convince
its loose-fit system,
the roof floats over
the building,
propped rather than
supported at the
perimeter. It The roof is made of Chinese bamboo for a smooth, seamsless appearance.
minimises. The
heavialy insulated roof is a clad in laminated strips of Chinese bamboo, giving it a smooth,
seamless appearance. The facade is supported by a series of tensioned trusses which held in
place by the roof and floor structures. Horizontal aluminium fins span between the trusses on
which the high-performance glass is fixed. Heavy vertical supports are avoided and the result
is a seamless horizontal aesthetic underlining the main axis of the building. The flooring use
natural stone for seamless integrity of the space.

CONSTRUCTION
The construction of the Barajas Airport terminal has been undertaken in three constructional
layers the basement which drops to as much as 20 metres (66 feet) below ground in some
places, the three storey concrete frame above ground, and the steel-framed roof. The concrete
work is in-situ, although special attention has been focused on areas where the concrete will
be visible, such as the edge strips to the canyons in which steel shuttering has been used. In a
bid to limit the height of the building, post-tensioned concrete beams restrict the depth of the
beams to only 90 centimetres (three feet). The beams were cast in lengths of 72 metres (236
feet), with concrete planks used to span between them to create the 18 by 9 metre (60 by 30
foot) grid.

Above, the concrete tree


trunks on the top floor
provide fixed base points
for setting out the roof
steelwork. The structural
system for the roof
works outwards from the
tree trunks where four
inclined branches prop a
pair of double-S
modules. In this way,
each pair of tubes plus
the roof steel stabilise
the roof structure in both
directions.

The roof then passes


over the cladding line at the edges of the building, emphasising the roof rather than the
facade. To further reduce the visual impact of the facade, shading is not introduced at the
cladding line but is hung from the roof overhang which is propped with elegant Y-shaped
props at the ends of each module.

The facade structure is in the form of cable kipper trusses at nine metre (30 feet) centres. A
pair of cables begin at a common point at ground level, one arcing in and one out, held apart
by compression struts that also support the horizontal glazing mullions. As the cables
approach the roof they come back together, held by a V-bracket, making a fish outline, hence
the name kipper truss.
A jacking system was
used between the roof
and terminal floor during
erection which when
released ensures that
adequate permanent
tension was introduced
in the cable trusses.

CONCLUSION

The Barajas project is the largest so far undertaken by the practice - more than one million
square metres of buildings with a budget of around one billion Euros. The new terminal and
satellite are designed to handle up to 35 million passengers annually, establishing Madrid as a
major European hub, and are located some distance to the north-west of the existing terminal
complex.

The new terminal features a clear progression of spaces


for departing and arriving travellers. The building's
legible, modular design creates a repeating sequence of
waves formed by vast wings of prefabricated
steel. Supported on central 'trees', the great roof is
punctuated by roof lights providing carefully controlled
natural light throughout the upper level of the terminal.

Light-filled 'canyons' divide the parallel floors that


accommodate the various stages of passenger processing
- from point of arrival, through check-in and passport and
security controls to departure lounges and, finally, to the
aircraft.

A simple palette of materials and straightforward detailing


reinforce the direct character of the
architecture. Internally, the roof is clad in bamboo strips,
giving it a smooth and seamless appearance. In contrast,
the structural 'trees' are painted to create a kilometre-long
vista of graduated colour. The lower levels of the building
house baggage handling, storage and plant areas, and
offer a striking contrast with the lightweight transparency
of the passenger areas above

GALLERY
Interior
Exterior
Bibliography

http://en.wikiarquitectura.com/index.php/Barajas_T4
http://www.apieceofmonologue.com/2009/08/airport-architecture.html
http://www.rsh-p.com/work/buildings/madrid_barajas_airport/concept
http://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adolfo_Su%C3%A1rez,_Madrid
%E2%80%93Barajas_Airport
http://www.rsh-p.com/work/buildings/madrid_barajas_airport/design
http://www.rsh-p.com/render.aspx?siteID=1&navIDs=1,4,23,648
http://www.rsh-p.com/work/buildings/madrid_barajas_airport/completed
https://farm2.staticflickr.com/1417/1186450872_175e43268f_z.jpg
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Airport.jpg