Sei sulla pagina 1di 179

POLITECNICO DI MILANO

Facolt di Ingegneria Edile Architettura


Corso di laurea magistrale in Ingegneria dei Sistemi Edilizi

Simplified design methods for post-tensioned


timber buildings

Relatori: Prof.sa Paola RONCA


Prof. Alessandro PALERMO
Prof. Stefano PAMPANIN

Tesi di Laurea di:


Francesco SARTI Matr. 734814

Anno Accademico 2010 - 2011


Vorrei ringraziare i miei relatori Prof.sa Paola Ronca,
Prof. Alessandro Palermo e Prof. Stefano Pampanin
per la loro guida durante lo sviluppo del lavoro di tesi.
Un particolare ringraziamento va al Prof. Alessandro
Palermo per avermi dato la grande opportunit di
vivere questa esperienza.
Vorrei inoltre ringraziare David M. Carradine per il
suo aiuto in laboratorio e per la sua grande
disponibilit.
Ringrazio inoltre la mia famiglia per il supporto
datomi durante questi mesi e durante tutto il mio
percorso di studi.
I

Table of contents
Abstract (italian version) ............................................................................................................................VIII
Abstract (english version) ............................................................................................................................. IX
1 State of art ................................................................................................................................................... 1
1.1 Building systems in timber construction ............................................................................... 1
1.1.1 Panel construction ................................................................................................................... 1
1.1.2 Solid timber construction..................................................................................................... 2
1.1.3 Frame construction ................................................................................................................. 2
1.1.4 Post-tension improvements................................................................................................ 4
1.2 Post-tension in concrete.................................................................................................................. 5
1.2.1 The Precast Seismic Structural Systems (PRESSS) ................................................. 6
1.2.2 Cable-stayed and suspended post-tensioned solutions .................................... 10
1.3 Post-tension in timber................................................................................................................... 11
1.3.1 Hybrid timber column-beam connections................................................................ 11
1.3.2 Post-tensioned walls ............................................................................................................ 12
1.3.3 Gravity beams .......................................................................................................................... 13
1.4 Objectives............................................................................................................................................. 14
2 Load span tables .................................................................................................................................... 15
2.1 Introduction........................................................................................................................................ 15
2.2 Preliminary considerations ........................................................................................................ 16
2.2.1 Design procedure and philosophy ................................................................................ 16
2.2.2 Tendon elongation ................................................................................................................ 17
2.2.3 Long term behaviour ........................................................................................................... 19
2.2.4 Strength, stress and deflection design ........................................................................ 20
2.2.5 Strength design ....................................................................................................................... 21
2.3 Load span tables ............................................................................................................................... 23
2.3.1 Material and section properties ..................................................................................... 23
2.3.2 Configurations ......................................................................................................................... 24
2.3.3 Table method ........................................................................................................................... 24
2.3.4 Design example ....................................................................................................................... 26
2.4 Considerations .................................................................................................................................. 29
2.4.1 Moment resisting connection.......................................................................................... 32
3 Connection experimental testing ................................................................................................. 35
3.1 Introduction........................................................................................................................................ 35
3.2 Beam design........................................................................................................................................ 36
3.3 Connection design ........................................................................................................................... 37
3.4 Connection reinforcement .......................................................................................................... 38
II

3.5 Materials and methods ................................................................................................................. 39


3.5.1 Material properties .............................................................................................................. 39
3.5.2 Loading protocol.................................................................................................................... 40
3.5.3 Test specimen ......................................................................................................................... 40
3.5.4 Testing schedule .................................................................................................................... 41
3.5.5 Evaluation of test data ........................................................................................................ 42
3.5.6 Test results ............................................................................................................................... 48
3.6 Comparison graphs ........................................................................................................................ 50
3.7 Design implications ....................................................................................................................... 51
3.8 Discussion and conclusion.......................................................................................................... 52
4 Post-tensioned walls design charts............................................................................................. 55
4.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................................................... 55
4.2 Stress-strain relationships.......................................................................................................... 56
4.2.1 Timber......................................................................................................................................... 56
4.3 Moment-rotation analysis procedure for timber ............................................................ 58
4.3.1 Fix the member rotation .................................................................................................... 58
4.3.2 Guess neutral axis position .............................................................................................. 59
4.3.3 Section compatibility........................................................................................................... 59
4.3.4 Check section translation equilibrium ....................................................................... 62
4.4 Moment-rotation analysis procedure with UFP devices............................................. 62
4.4.1 Behaviour of U-Shaped Flexural Plates ..................................................................... 62
4.4.2 Analysis procedure............................................................................................................... 63
4.5 Moment-linearization ................................................................................................................... 64
4.5.1 Single wall ................................................................................................................................. 64
4.5.2 Coupled walls .......................................................................................................................... 65
4.6 Flag-shape ........................................................................................................................................... 65
4.7 Strain penetration length ............................................................................................................ 67
4.7.1 Deformed bars ........................................................................................................................ 67
4.7.2 Threaded bars ......................................................................................................................... 69
4.8 Structural and sectional parameters ..................................................................................... 71
4.9 Design charts ..................................................................................................................................... 73
4.9.1 Single wall ................................................................................................................................. 73
4.9.2 Coupled walls .......................................................................................................................... 77
4.10 Design examples ......................................................................................................................... 79
4.10.1 Single wall ................................................................................................................................. 79
4.10.2 Coupled walls .......................................................................................................................... 81
5 Case study................................................................................................................................................. 83
5.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................................................... 83
III

5.2 Gravity frame ..................................................................................................................................... 85


5.2.1 Load calculations ................................................................................................................... 85
5.2.2 Load combinations................................................................................................................ 85
5.2.3 Frame configurations .......................................................................................................... 86
5.2.4 Beam sections .......................................................................................................................... 87
5.2.5 Simply supported beam straight tendon ............................................................... 87
5.2.6 Simply supported beam draped tendon ................................................................ 89
5.2.7 Continuous two-spans beam draped tendon ...................................................... 91
5.2.8 Continuous three-spans beam draped tendon ................................................... 93
5.2.9 Comparison............................................................................................................................... 94
5.3 Seismic walls ...................................................................................................................................... 95
5.3.1 DDBD procedure for timber ............................................................................................. 95
5.3.2 Wall design................................................................................................................................ 99
5.3.3 Single wall.................................................................................................................................. 99
5.3.4 Coupled walls........................................................................................................................ 102
5.4 System details ................................................................................................................................. 104
6 Conclusions ........................................................................................................................................... 107
6.1 Summary ........................................................................................................................................... 107
6.2 Final conclusions ........................................................................................................................... 108
7 Bibliography ......................................................................................................................................... 109
8 Appendix A: beam calculations................................................................................................... 113
8.1 Introduction..................................................................................................................................... 113
8.1.1 Simply supported beam .................................................................................................. 113
8.1.2 Continuous beam 2 spans ........................................................................................... 116
8.1.3 Continuous beam 3 spans ........................................................................................... 119
9 Appendix B: Load span tables ..................................................................................................... 123
9.1 Introduction..................................................................................................................................... 123
9.2 Tables .................................................................................................................................................. 124
9.2.1 Simply supported beam .................................................................................................. 124
9.2.2 Continuous beam 2 spans ........................................................................................... 142
9.2.3 Continuous beam 3 spans ........................................................................................... 153
IV

List of Figures
Figure 1.1: Timber structures in panel construction; housing estate in Karlsruhe,
Germany [21] ............................................................................................................................................................ 2
Figure 1.2: Load-bearing structure in solid timber construction; apartment block [21] . 2
Figure 1.3: traditional building frame [15] ............................................................................................... 3
Figure 1.4: post-and-beam [15]....................................................................................................................... 3
Figure 1.5: tie-beam frame [15] ...................................................................................................................... 3
Figure 1.6: -girder frame [15] .......................................................................................................................... 4
Figure 1.7: split-column frame [15] .............................................................................................................. 4
Figure 1.8: Diocesan school for girls aquatic centre, Auckland ...................................................... 5
Figure 1.9: NMIT Building, Nelson. ................................................................................................................ 5
Figure 1.10: prestressed beam, straight tendon [43] .......................................................................... 6
Figure 1.11: Test building Level 1 floor plan [23] ................................................................................ 7
Figure 1.12: Test building Level 4 floor plan [23] ................................................................................ 7
Figure 1.13: Hybrid frame interior joint [23]........................................................................................... 8
Figure 1.14: Pretensioned frame interior joint [23] .................................................................................. 8
Figure 1.15: TCY gap frame interior joint [23] ........................................................................................ 9
Figure 1.16: Elevation of shear wall system [23] ....................................................................................... 9
Figure 1.17: Brooklyn Systems - (a) cable-stayed and (b) suspended solutions ............... 10
Figure 1.18: Application of Hybrid Concept to LVL frame systems [36] ................................ 11
Figure 1.19: flag shape hysteresis [36] ..................................................................................................... 12
Figure 1.20: test-setup of coupled walls system [19] ....................................................................... 12
Figure 1.21: investigated beam configurations [37] ......................................................................... 13
Figure 1.22: wall-frame system .................................................................................................................... 14
Figure 2.1: Straight tendon profile configuration - Simply supported beam [37] ............ 15
Figure 2.2: Draped tendon profile configuration (a) Simply supported beam (b)
Statically indeterminate beam [37] ............................................................................................................ 15
Figure 2.3: post-tensioned beams design process.............................................................................. 16
Figure 2.4: non-linear unbonded post-tensioned tendons concept [37] ................................ 17
Figure 2.5: Iterative procedure at step n [37]....................................................................................... 18
Figure 2.6: beam configurations and tendon profiles ....................................................................... 24
Figure 2.7: comparison chart, straight and draped tendon, simply supported beam ..... 31
Figure 2.8: comparison chart, 300526, simply supported beam, draped tendon ........... 31
Figure 2.9: comparison chart, 300526 mm section, two-spans beam................................... 32
Figure 2.10: draped tendon passing through the column .............................................................. 32
Figure 2.11: bilinear spring behaviour ..................................................................................................... 32
Figure 2.12: Rotations due to uplift force, connection moment and distributed load [60]
....................................................................................................................................................................................... 33
Figure 3.1: connection test setup ................................................................................................................ 35
Figure 3.2: Napier Building plan view ...................................................................................................... 36
Figure 3.3: Schematics of gap opening and compression zone [60] ......................................... 37
Figure 3.4: moment-rotation and neutral axis- rotation trends of the connection ........... 38
Figure 3.5: timber corbel detail .................................................................................................................... 38
V

Figure 3.6: steel corbel detail ......................................................................................................................... 39


Figure 3.7: screw reinforcement detail .................................................................................................... 39
Figure 3.8: crossbanded LVL .......................................................................................................................... 39
Figure 3.9: loading protocol [60] ................................................................................................................. 40
Figure 3.10: side view of test setup [60] .................................................................................................. 41
Figure 3.11: ram force, test 1b [60] ............................................................................................................ 42
Figure 3.12: connection moment parameters ....................................................................................... 42
Figure 3.13: connection moment, test 1b [60] ...................................................................................... 43
Figure 3.14: post-tensioning forces, test 1a [60] ................................................................................. 43
Figure 3.15: post-tensioning forces, test 1b [60]................................................................................. 44
Figure 3.16: gap opening instrumentation ............................................................................................. 44
Figure 3.17: gap opening, test 1a [60] ....................................................................................................... 45
Figure 3.18: gap opening, test 1b [60] ...................................................................................................... 45
Figure 3.19: rotation instrumentation ...................................................................................................... 46
Figure 3.20: test specimen rotations, test 1a [60] .............................................................................. 46
Figure 3.21: test specimen rotations, test 1b [60] .............................................................................. 47
Figure 3.22: moment-rotation chart, test 1 [60] .................................................................................. 47
Figure 3.23: comparison chart, normal LVL at 440 kN [60] .......................................................... 50
Figure 3.24: comparison chart, rotated LVL sheet at 440 kN [60] ............................................. 50
Figure 3.25: comparison chart, crossbanded LVL at 440 kN [60] .............................................. 50
Figure 3.26: comparison chart, connection stiffness [60] .............................................................. 51
Figure 3.27: Graph of connection rotation versus connection moment [60] ....................... 51
Figure 3.28: Graph of connection moment for different connection models [60] ............. 52
Figure 4.1: single wall - (a) overview; (b) external dissipater detail (courtesy of
T.Smith) ..................................................................................................................................................................... 55
Figure 4.2: internal dissipater details (courtesy of M.P. Newcombe) ....................................... 56
Figure 4.3: coupled walls (a) overview [19]; (b) UFP detail (courtesy of A.Iqbal) ........ 56
Figure 4.4: stress-strain relationship for LVL ....................................................................................... 57
Figure 4.5: stress strain diagram for Macalloy 1030 bars .............................................................. 57
Figure 4.6: stress-strain relationship for mild steel........................................................................... 58
Figure 4.7: beam-column rotation .............................................................................................................. 58
Figure 4.8: Gap mechanism in an Internal Beam-Column Joint [38] ........................................ 59
Figure 4.9: Detail of unbonded post-tensioned steel [34] .............................................................. 60
Figure 4.10: Detail of partially unbonded mild steel [34] ............................................................... 61
Figure 4.11: Horizontal equilibrium forces [34] .................................................................................. 62
Figure 4.12: UFP geometry.............................................................................................................................. 63
Figure 4.13: moment-rotation linearization .......................................................................................... 65
Figure 4.14: moment-rotation chart varying ..................................................................................... 66
Figure 4.15: wall balance forces ................................................................................................................... 66
Figure 4.16: averaged normalized strain penetration length [Newcombe, 2007]............. 67
Figure 4.17: Assumed Strain distributions ............................................................................................. 68
Figure 4.18: strain gauges configuration ................................................................................................. 69
Figure 4.19: : strain distribution along the bar .................................................................................... 69
VI

Figure 4.20: normalized strain penetration vs. microstrain, parallel to the grain ............ 70
Figure 4.21: normalized strain penetration vs. microstrain, perpendicular to the grain
....................................................................................................................................................................................... 70
Figure 4.22: wall sections (a) single wall, (b) coupled wall ........................................................... 71
Figure 4.23: mild steel reinforcement edge distance influence................................................... 71
Figure 4.24: influence of wall aspect ratio .............................................................................................. 72
Figure 4.25: post-tensioning and axial moment serviceability design chart ........................ 73
Figure 4.26: mild steel moment serviceability design chart ......................................................... 74
Figure 4.27: post-tensioning and axial moment ultimate design chart ................................... 75
Figure 4.28: mild steel moment ultimate design chart .................................................................... 76
Figure 4.29: post-tensioning and axial moment design chart ...................................................... 77
Figure 4.30: dissipating shear design chart ........................................................................................... 78
Figure 4.31: dissipaters configuration ...................................................................................................... 80
Figure 5.1: Case study building front view ............................................................................................. 83
Figure 5.2: case study building plan view ............................................................................................... 84
Figure 5.3: beam configurations .................................................................................................................. 84
Figure 5.4: walls solutions .............................................................................................................................. 84
Figure 5.5: gravity frame configurations ................................................................................................. 86
Figure 5.6: ULS moment and shear distributions ............................................................................... 88
Figure 5.7: ULS moment and shear distributions ............................................................................... 90
Figure 5.8: ULS moment and shear distributions (symmetric structure) .............................. 91
Figure 5.9: moment and shear ULS distributions (symmetric structure) .............................. 93
Figure 5.10: Single-degree of freedom system [44] ........................................................................... 95
Figure 5.11: flag-shaped hysteresis [44] ................................................................................................. 96
Figure 5.12: moment-rotation analysis of designed single wall .............................................. 101
Figure 5.13: PT anchorage details ............................................................................................................ 104
Figure 5.14: beam-column joint ................................................................................................................ 104
Figure 5.15: single wall with internal (a) and external (b)dissipaters detail.................... 105
Figure 5.16: coupled walls with UFP devices detail [48] ............................................................ 105
Figure 5.17: beam-wall joint, NMIT building, Nelson .................................................................... 106
Figure 8.1: simply supported beam, distributed load.................................................................... 113
Figure 8.2: simply supported beam straight tendon .................................................................. 114
Figure 8.3: simply supported beam draped tendon.................................................................... 115
Figure 8.4: continuous beam, 2 spans, distributed load ............................................................... 116
Figure 8.5: continuous beam, 2 spans, draped tendon.................................................................. 117
Figure 8.6: continuous beam, 3 spans, distributed load ............................................................... 119
Figure 8.7: continuous beam, 3 spans, draped tendon.................................................................. 120
Figure 9.1: static configurations ............................................................................................................... 123
VII

List of Tables
Table 2.1: k1, k2, k3 coefficients [13] ........................................................................................................... 20
Table 2.2: duration of load factor, k1 for strength [54] .................................................................... 20
Table 2.3: duration of load factor, k2 for deflection [NZS 3603] .................................................. 21
Table 2.4: moisture content factor k14 [54]............................................................................................. 21
Table 2.5: size factor k24 for strength of LVL ......................................................................................... 21
Table 2.6: LVL characteristic properties .................................................................................................. 23
Table 2.7: standard sections ........................................................................................................................... 23
Table 2.8: post-tensioning steel properties............................................................................................ 23
Table 2.9: beam configurations .................................................................................................................... 24
Table 2.10: load span table, 300526 mm section, straight profile........................................... 25
Table 2.11: design example data .................................................................................................................. 26
Table 2.12: limit states loads.......................................................................................................................... 27
Table 2.13: governing checks, 300526 mm section, no tendons .............................................. 29
Table 2.14: governing checks, 300526 mm section, draped tendon ...................................... 29
Table 2.15: two-spans beam, 300526 mm section, no tendons ................................................ 30
Table 2.16: two-spans beam, 300526 mm section, draped tendon ........................................ 30
Table 3.1: Required beam height and governing design criteria for different beam
designs [60] ............................................................................................................................................................. 37
Table 3.2: characteristic values NelsonPine LVL ................................................................................. 39
Table 3.3: testing schedule .............................................................................................................................. 41
Table 3.4: rotation, test 1a ............................................................................................................................... 46
Table 3.5: rotations, test 1b ............................................................................................................................ 47
Table 3.6: stiffness results [60] ..................................................................................................................... 48
Table 3.7: decompression moment and rotations results [60] .................................................... 49
Table 4.1: LVL11 characteristic properties ............................................................................................ 56
Table 4.2: GRADE 300 bar properties ....................................................................................................... 57
Table 4.3: post-tensioning and axial moment serviceability table ............................................. 73
Table 4.4: steel moment serviceability design table .......................................................................... 74
Table 4.5: post-tensioning and axial moment ultimate design table ........................................ 75
Table 4.6: mild steel moment ultimate design table .......................................................................... 76
Table 4.7: post-tensioning and axial moment design table ............................................................ 77
Table 5.1: combination factors [51] ........................................................................................................... 85
Table 5.2: load span tables - simply supported, straight tendon, 300526 mm (t f=tw=63
mm) ............................................................................................................................................................................. 87
Table 5.3: sections pre-dimensioning ....................................................................................................... 87
Table 5.4: simply supported beam section properties ..................................................................... 87
Table 5.5: materials needed for each configuration .......................................................................... 94
Table 5.6: SDOF parameters ........................................................................................................................... 96
Table 5.7: reduced design displacement spectrum [53].................................................................. 98
VIII

Abstract (italian version)


Il presente documento ha lo scopo di investigare lapplicazione di tecniche di post-
tensione ad elementi strutturali lignei.
La prima sezione della tesi focalizzata sullo studio del comportamento di travi post-
tese a sezione cava soggette ai soli carichi gravitazionali. Studi precedenti hanno
evidenziato i vantaggi derivanti dellapplicazione di tecniche di post-tensione a questo
tipo di elementi strutturali e i risultati sono stati considerati come punto di partenza
per lanalisi svolta nel seguente documento.
Uno degli scopi dellanalisi la creazione di strumenti semplificati di progetto. Questi
sono stati sviluppati per differenti configurazioni statiche e profili di cavo sono stati
considerati: travi in semplice appoggio o travi continue (due o tre campate) con cavo
dritto o parabolico.
Una soluzione alternativa con cavo passante attraverso la colonna stato infine
considerato, analogamente a quanto gi fatto per travi prefabbricate in calcestruzzo
armato. Poich per questo tipo di configurazione non sono presenti in letteratura
sufficienti informazioni stato messo a punto un test sperimentale su una connessione
trave-colonna. Lo scopo del test quello di investigare il comportamento della
connessione in termini di momento-rotazione e di proporre diverse soluzioni di
rinforzo della colonna che rimane un punto critico del sistema.
Nel caso di costruzioni in zona sismica i vantaggi in termini di altezza della sezione
ottenute tramite la post-tensione di travi soggette ai soli carichi verticali possono
essere mantenute introducendo muri di taglio post-tesi che assorbano i carichi
orizzontali derivanti dallazione sismica. Anche per questi sistemi, analogamente a
quanto fatto per sezioni in calcestruzzo, possibile mettere a punto degli strumenti di
progetto che possano portare ad un semplice dimensionamento delle armature.
La parte conclusiva della tesi consiste nellapplicazione degli strumenti sviluppati ad
un edificio rappresentante il caso studio. Questultimo ha lo scopo di evidenziare i
diversi vantaggi derivanti dallutilizzo di diverse configurazioni di trave e profilo di
cavo, combinando queste soluzioni con un sistema muro-telaio allo scopo di mantenere
lottimizzazione del telaio gravitazionale pur garantendo resistenza allazione sismica.
IX

Abstract (english version)


The present document has the purpose to investigate the application of post-
tensioning techniques to timber structural elements.
The first part of the thesis is focused on the analysis of hollow core beam within
gravity frames. Previous studies highlighted the advantages deriving from post-tension
and the results were considered to develop the analysis.
The development of simplified design tools is one of the purposes of the analysis. The
load span tables were created for different configurations and tendon profiles: simply
supported or continuous beams with straight or draped profile.
An alternative solution with post-tensioning through the column had finally been
considered, similarly to what already done for concrete. As for this type of
configuration no much information is present, a test on a beam-column joint was
defined. The investigation of moment-rotation behaviour and of different column
reinforcements is the aim of the test.
For seismic areas the advantages deriving from post-tension in terms of height of the
section can be maintained by introducing post-tensioned shear wall to carry the
horizontal loads. For this system simplified design tool can be developed as well.
The final part of the document consists of the application of aforementioned design
tool to a case study building. Moreover this has the purpose to highlight the advantages
deriving by the utilization of different beam configuration, combining these solutions
with a frame-wall system.
X
1

1 State of art

1.1 Building systems in timber construction


Timber in construction has been the principal source of material for centuries all over
the world. Among the range of structural systems used over the centuries the basic are:
log construction;
timber-frame construction;
balloon-frame construction;
panel construction;
frame construction;
solid timber construction.
Log and timber-frame systems as well as balloon-frame construction have lost much
of their importance. They are now only found in isolated instances.
The building systems that currently dominate the construction field are:
panel construction;
solid timber construction;
frame construction.

1.1.1 Panel construction


The load-bearing structure in panel construction consists of load-bearing ribs of
squared sections and a sheathing that stabilizes the ribs. The individual straight vertical
members carry the vertical loads from roof and suspended floors, whereas sheathing
these members with wood-based board products resists the horizontal forces due to
wind and the effects of bracing.
The basic idea behind modern panel construction relates to prefabrication in the
factory, where various wall, floor and roof assemblies are planned and manufactured as
elements to suit different building uses.
2 State of art

Figure 1.1: Timber structures in panel construction; housing estate in Karlsruhe, Germany [21]

1.1.2 Solid timber construction


The possibility of producing large-format elements on an industrial scale has led to
the development and introduction of new systems in recent years. Planar elements,
serving both load-bearing and enclosing functions at the same time, have opened up
diverse applications for walls, suspended floors, and roofs. The components themselves
are usually made from solid timber (glued, dowelled, nailed) or - but less often - wood-
based products (particleboard, OSB, etc.).

Figure 1.2: Load-bearing structure in solid timber construction; apartment block [21]

1.1.3 Frame construction


Frame construction is generally intended as a form of timber construction comprising
columns, beams and bracing elements placed on a regular grid to form a load-bearing
structure. The primary structure supports the suspended floors which are classed as
secondary structure.
We distinguish between various forms of frame construction in timer, which differ
depending on the column and beam configuration plus the types of connection.
State of art 3

Traditional building frames


In this type of buildings, the frame consists
of columns (pillars, posts, studs) and main
beams (girders, headers, sleepers, or sills).
Non-load-carrying partitions are anchored
into a header. Columns are tenoned into
mortises in sleepers or sills, but they may also
be attached by lap connections. The entire
building rests on a foundation sill; in multi-
storey buildings the sill is repeated on every
floor as a floor sill. The distance between
columns is kept as short as necessary to carry
Figure 1.3: traditional building frame the load and as required by appearance or
[15]
construction detailing.
Loads in timber frames are generally transferred from timber to timber. The
weakening of members caused by mortises or notches is compensated for by
correspondingly larger cross sections. In order to avoid an accumulation of such
weaknesses at one point, connections of load-carrying members are often placed
eccentrically.

Post-and-Beam construction
In this type of framing continuous girders rest on
columns; columns are therefore interrupted by
girders, but are set up again on the next floor.
Connections between girders and columns can be
made in various ways. Normally the load from the
upper column is not transferred to the lower one
through the girder, because transverse
compression in the girder would be exceeded. It is
necessary to use steel or timber gussets for this
purpose. Floor beams or planks span between
Figure 1.4: post-and-beam [15]
girders.

Tie-beam construction
The main girders are set as tie beams into
continuous columns with identical details in all four
directions. The beams in the adjacent floor panels
span in alternate directions. In this way, the tie
beams are loaded equally, but cantilevers are not
feasible. The relatively high cost of connections may
be offset by prefabrication only if there is large
number of them. In comparison with other types of
framing, this system has the advantage of a uniform
ceiling height.
Figure 1.5: tie-beam frame [15]
4 State of art

Twin-girder framing
Continuous twin girders span between
continuous columns and are attached to their
sides. Floor beams or planks, depending on the
span, are supported by the twin girders. The
advantage of this system is that both columns
and girders are continuous.
A hallmark of this type of framing is the
protruding end of twin girders, necessary
because of the required end length at dowel
connection between girder and column. It is very
necessary to secure these ends by preservatives,
Figure 1.6: -girder frame [15]
or by sealing them with sealers or metal covers.

Split-column framing
Continuous girders are placed between split
columns. Twin columns represent a reversal of twin-
girder framing. Quadruple columns allow a two-way
layout of girders. The application of the latter
arrangement is limited because securing the building
against fire requires either oversize columns to
prevent their buckling or the insertion of filler within
the split columns. For this reason split columns are
especially suitable for long spans; they have to be
large enough to provide sufficient load capacity.

Figure 1.7: split-column frame [15]

1.1.4 Post-tension improvements


By introducing post-tensioning in these systems, behaviour under gravity dominated
and seismic loading can be significantly improved, as pointed out later in this chapter
on the basis of previous works.
From an architectural point of view post-tension allows to have longer spans reducing
beam heights, resulting in more attractive and more desirable places to live and work.
Construction is another important aspect. By post-tensioning, a large number of
moment-resisting connections can be made in one stressing operation.
The light weight of the wood brings to reduce significantly transport and crane costs.
As a result, post-tensioned timber buildings are potentially faster and less expensive to
construct than traditional materials [4].
In following figures two examples of the application of this technique are shown.
State of art 5

(
b)

Figure 1.8: Diocesan school for girls aquatic centre, Auckland

Figure 1.9: NMIT Building, Nelson.

1.2 Post-tension in concrete


Modern development of prestressed concrete is attributed to Eugene Freyssinet who
started using high strength steel wires for post-tensioning concrete beams in 1928. By
1939, he had designed the Freyssinet system with conical wedges for anchoring wires
at the ends of prestressed members as well as special jacks for use in stressing and
anchoring the wires [57].
These technologies were widely used over these first 50 years, demonstrating the
advantages deriving by post-tension in concrete.
As the tensile strength of concrete is ignored in the design, the basic principle of
prestressing concrete is to induce permanent compressive stresses into the member
before is loaded. These compressive stresses are concentrated in regions where tensile
stresses are anticipated to occur after the member is loaded [43].
6 State of art

Figure 1.10: prestressed beam, straight tendon [43]

The use and development of precast concrete structures in seismic areas have been
limited, until the late 1990s, by the absence of rational and flexible seismic design code
provisions in major model building codes.
In the late 1990s a revolutionary alternative technological solution capable of
achieving high seismic performance at low-cost has been introduced as main outcome
of the U.S. PRESSS program [24].

1.2.1 The Precast Seismic Structural Systems (PRESSS)


The Precast Seismic Structural Systems (PRESSS) program has been in progress for
ten years, and was sponsored by the National Science Foundation (NSF),
Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute (PCI) and Precast/Prestressed Concrete
Manufacturers Association of California, Inc. (PCMAC), has coordinated the efforts of
over a dozen different research teams across the United States to improve the seismic
performance of precast/prestressed concrete buildings.
Since the very beginning of the PRESSS program, all of the research teams involved in
the program have focused their sights on two primary objectives:
to develop comprehensive and rational design recommendations needed for a
broader acceptance of precast concrete construction in different seismic zones;
to develop new materials, concepts, and technologies for precast concrete
construction in different seismic zones [23].
The third phase of this program consisted of the seismic design and analysis of a five-
story precast/prestressed concrete building using dry jointed construction.
State of art 7

Figure 1.11: Test building Level 1 floor plan [23] Figure 1.12: Test building Level 4 floor plan [23]

The PRESSS III test building consists of frames in one direction and a shear wall in the
other, as shown in Figure 1.11 and Figure 1.12. The floor system used in the first three
levels is pre-topped double tees, and the top two levels consist of topped hollow-core
slabs. Those choices were made in order to include the two major structural framing
systems commonly used in precast construction.
Four different types of ductile connection systems are used in the PRESSS III test
building frames. They are:
Tension-Compression Yielding;
TCY gap connection;
TCY connection;
hybrid connection;
pretensioned connection.
8 State of art

Hybrid frame
The hybrid frame interior joint is shown in Figure 1.13. The beams are connected to
multi-storey columns by unbonded post-tensioning strands that run through a duct in
the centre of the beam and through the columns. Mild steel reinforcement is placed in
ducts at the top and bottom of the beam and is grouted. It yields alternately in tension
and compression and provides energy dissipation.

Figure 1.13: Hybrid frame interior joint [23]

Pretensioned frame
The pretensioned frame is intended to be used for construction where the most
economical method consists of using one-story columns with multi- span beams. Long,
multi-span beams are cast in normal pretensioned casting beds, with specified lengths
of the pretensioning strand debonded. These beams are then set on one story columns
with the column reinforcing steel extending through sleeves in the beams. Reinforcing
bar splices ensure the continuity of the column above the beam. As the frame displaces
laterally, the debonded strand remains elastic.

Figure 1.14: Pretensioned frame interior joint [23]


State of art 9

TCY Gap Frame


The TCY gap frame addresses the problem of frame beam elongation in an innovative
way. The beams are erected between columns leaving a small gap between the end of
the beam and the face of the column. Only the bottom portion of this gap is grouted to
provide contact between the beam and column (Figure 1.15). Post-tensioning bars
clamp the frame together. At the top of the beam, mild steel reinforcement is grouted
into sleeves that extend the length of the beam and through the column. Since the gap
opens on one side of the column as it closes on the other side by an equal amount, the
length of the frame does not change, even as the connection yields.

Figure 1.15: TCY gap frame interior joint [23]

Wall system
For the past several years, the PCI Ad Hoc
Committee on Precast Walls has been
promoting precast shear walls as seismic
resisting systems for all seismic zones.
This work has focused on tuning jointed
walls to lengthen the structural period and
reduce the design base shear forces. Elastic
forces were distributed so that sufficient
resistance to overturning was provided by
the gravity loads on the system.
The PRESSS test building took this
concept one step further by considering
the behaviour of the jointed shear wall
system when the wall lifts off and rocks,
together with its effect on design forces.
U-shaped flexure plates (UFP) are used
Figure 1.16: Elevation of shear wall system [23] for vertical joint connection devices where
damping is achieved by means of flexural yielding of the plates. The unbonded post-
tensioning is designed to re-centre the wall system when the load is removed so there
will be no residual drift after a design-level earthquake. Re-centering is ensured by
relating the elastic capacity of the post-tensioning system to the yield strength of the
10 State of art

panel-to-panel connections. Figure 1.16 shows the shear wall elevation, with unbonded
post-tensioning located at the centre of each panel. The shear wall is expected to
displace laterally to approximately 2 percent story drift under a design-level
earthquake.

1.2.2 Cable-stayed and suspended post-tensioned solutions


Based on similar concepts developed in U.S. PRESSS program, a peculiar connection
solution and construction system (named Brooklyn) has been studied and developed
for gravity-load-dominated frame buildings.
Continuous post-tensioned tendons, anchored at the exterior columns of the frame,
supply, through an appropriate longitudinal profile, an adequate moment resistance at
the critical sections under combined gravity and low to moderate lateral loads. (i.e.
beam mid-span and beam-column interface). Alternatively, for short-medium span
length buildings, a cable-stayed solution (inclined anchored bars with or without initial
prestress) can be adopted.
Two systems were conceived:
cable-stayed Solution including prestressed or not prestressed inclined bars,
intended for small-medium span-length buildings;
suspended solution, including post-tensioned curved tendons, intended for
medium-large span length buildings.

(a) (b)
Figure 1.17: Brooklyn Systems - (a) cable-stayed and (b) suspended solutions

Despite the shear load could be transferred by means of friction due to post-
tensioning force, usually this is penalized by major design codes. Furthermore a
controversial argument has also been recently raised up on the possible losses of
prestressing due to bream-elongation effects on a multi/storey building ([41]) higher
mode effects.
In order to eliminate this shortcoming, the Brooklyn system was based on the
introduction of a steel corbel in the column, able to fully counteract the shear force
transmitted by the beam to the column. In this way the prestressing tendons have only
to balance flexural stresses [39].
State of art 11

1.3 Post-tension in timber


The more and more widespread utilization of timber in multi-storey buildings for
commercial or residential use led to the extension of post-tension to wood
constructions.
The seismic behaviour of post-tensioned timber structures became a primary
research topic to finally apply this techniques to all types of construction.

1.3.1 Hybrid timber column-beam connections


The development of hybrid connections for precast concrete (see 1.2.1) can be
extended to timber structures (frame and walls systems), with particular emphasis on
Laminated Veneer Lumber (LVL) solutions for multi-storey frame or shear wall
systems.

Figure 1.18: Application of Hybrid Concept to LVL frame systems [36]

A controlled rocking motion occurs in hybrid jointed ductile connections as shown


in Figure 1.18 for a typical hybrid frame beam-column subassembly. A similar
conceptual mechanism can be developed in hybrid timber walls. When compared to
traditional solutions, i.e. nailed or steel dowel connections where moderate to
extensive damage of the connection is expected to occur at code design ductility level,
the inelastic demand in a hybrid solution is accommodated at the column-to-beam
interface (wall-to-foundation for wall systems) through the opening and closing of an
existing gap and yielding of the mild steel or the dissipation devices (internal or
external). If correctly designed and detailed, negligible crushing of the LVL material in
the beam-column (or wall) elements is thus expected [36].
An extensive research program has been carried out in order to investigate the
seismic performance of innovative LVL connections relying on the extension of the
concepts from reinforced concrete precast hybrid systems.
The results shown the advantages of using timber in the realization of hybrid
connections: the lack of damage in the structural elements, combined with appropriate
energy dissipation capacity provided by the dissipaters, and self-centering properties
provided by the unbonded post-tensioned tendons can guarantee improved seismic
performance when compared to the traditional solutions for timber construction (e.g.
nailed or steel dowel connections).
12 State of art

Figure 1.19: flag shape hysteresis [36]

High levels of ductility can be achieved without degradation of stiffness or strength


and without residual deformations and structural damage, leading to a significant
reduction of the repair costs (including downtime) after a significant seismic event
[36].

1.3.2 Post-tensioned walls


Always starting from findings of PRESSS program, use of LVL was extended even to
shear post-tensioned wall.
Different kinds of post-tensioned wall can be considered: single wall with
internal/external dissipaters or, for high base shear forces, coupled shear walls with U-
shaped devices.
For both cases the post-tensioning reinforcement provides the self-centering effect
while dissipaters and UFP devices supply the dissipation.
Experimental tests were carried out at the university of Canterbury. The test setup is
shown below.

Figure 1.20: test-setup of coupled walls system [19]

Preliminary results of the experimental investigation confirmed the enhanced


performance of such a hybrid system. The configuration of the U-shaped plates allows
to exploit the rocking behaviour of wall systems and translate it into efficient energy
dissipation mechanism.
Significant energy dissipation as well as excellent re-centering is achieved. No damage
is observed in the structural members after many cycles of seismic loading, which
ensures low cost for post-earthquake repairs. The repair costs of the system, after a
State of art 13

major earthquake, consist of the replacement of the only sacrificial elements, i.e. the
UFPs, which is a low-cost operation [19].

1.3.3 Gravity beams


Given the advantages post-tension offers for seismic purposes, the next natural step
was to extend the investigation to beams only subjected to gravity loads.
Tests have been carried out at the University of Canterbury on vertically loaded LVL
beams with longitudinal unbonded post-tensioning tendons [8].

Figure 1.21: investigated beam configurations [37]

The outcomes of this experimental work confirmed the enhanced performance of


introducing longitudinal post-tension to beams only subjected to gravity loads.
Straight low and curved shaped internal tendon profiles for simply supported beams
gave very similar results. For continuous beams over several supports, the straight low
tendon profile is not structurally the most viable solution. A highly eccentric tendon
profile is better because it can drastically reduce the pre-stressing reinforcement, i.e.
the number of tendons and anchors [37].
14 State of art

1.4 Objectives
For beams subjected to gravity frames different aspects will be investigated. First of
all the advantages deriving by introducing post-tensioning tendons will be emphasized.
In particular the section height and the timber volume will be considered as
parameters for all comparisons.
The second objective will consist in realizing the influence of post-tension to sectional
behaviour. In fact deflection is generally governing the design of this beams for long
spans and the introduction of post-tension could bring some advantages.
Similarly to concrete (1.2.2), an alternative configuration with draped post-
tensioning will be experimentally investigated. The tests will focus on the moment-
rotation behaviour of the connection.
The main issue of this type of connection is the perpendicular to grain stress on the
column. The test will investigate different column reinforcements and their advantages
will be discussed.
Possible improvements deriving by post-tension in gravity dominated frames can be
maintained even for building is seismic areas by considering a wall-frame solution,
similarly on what is done for concrete structures. The wall will carry all the horizontal
loading while the frame will bring all the vertical loads.

Figure 1.22: wall-frame system

Simplified design tools for both beams within gravity frames and post-tensioned shear
walls will be developed. Particular attention will be paid on the parameters involved in
the design.
The utilisation of the aforementioned simplified design tools and of the system shown
in Figure 1.22 will be applied to a case study building in the last part of the document.
15

2 Load span tables

2.1 Introduction
Configurations and results investigated in previous works [8, 37] are herein taken into
account for the development of simplified design tools for post-tensioned LVL box
beams.

Figure 2.1: Straight tendon profile configuration - Simply supported beam [37]

Figure 2.2: Draped tendon profile configuration (a) Simply supported beam (b) Statically
indeterminate beam [37]

Simply supported and continuous beams and both post-tensioned and standard
elements are considered.
As pointed out in [37] straight tendon solution for continuous beam is not the most
viable solution. Therefore this tendon profile is not considered in the development of
the tables.
16 Load span tables

2.2 Preliminary considerations

2.2.1 Design procedure and philosophy


The design philosophy of post-tensioned beams under gravity loads consists in
absorbing part of dead and live loads by means of post-tensioning strands.
The design of long-span beams is usually deflection-governed. The introduction of a
straight or draped tendon allows to solve the problem of deflection so that the design is
strength-governed.
Generally the tendon brings all the dead loads plus a portion of live loads, which is
between 0% and 40% of live loads.

( 2.1 )

Where and are the portions of dead and live (0 to 0.4) loads respectively,
and are the dead and live loads.
The deflection under Pd,pt shall be then equivalent to the precamber due to post-
tensioning force.

( 2.2 )

Where FP is the post-tensioning force.


As the design procedure includes the equivalence of these deflections the section
dimensions shall be guessed as first step.
From the balance of these deflections the post-tensioning force can be evaluated and
then all the strength and deflection checks shall be performed.
If those are not satisfied the section dimension shall be changed resulting in an
iterative design procedure.

Design assumption Satisfactory Design


Pd,pt = kdeadG+kliveQ
YES
Section dimensions Verified?
NO

Checks
Moment and axial force
Shear
Deflection Balance Flanges stresses
w(Pd,pt) = w(FP) Deflections (long and
short term)

Post-tensioning Force
FP
Figure 2.3: post-tensioned beams design process
Load span tables 17

2.2.2 Tendon elongation


The analysis of post-tensioned timber beams can be complicated by geometric non-
linearities. If the deformed configuration of a beam subjected to vertical loads is not
negligible it can affect the internal tendon forces which are modified by the beam
configuration causing an additional elongation. This elongation depends on beam
deflection, and the stress variation in each tendon is member dependent since there is
no bond between steel and timber.
Moreover, since the elastic modulus of timber is smaller than that of concrete, this
contribution is amplified. This affects the final deformed configuration of the beam and
hence the final tension force in the tendons. In addition, the shear contribution in
timber is not negligible and this amplifies the above mentioned non-linear effects,
starting from the serviceability limit state. Typically these tendon elongation rates are
an additional positive contribution in terms of deformation but a clear check has to be
done in order to avoid possible premature yielding of tendons [37].
An iterative procedure can be applied to predict the increased post-tensioning force.

Figure 2.4: non-linear unbonded post-tensioned tendons concept [37]

At step (0) the initial load N0 is applied; after the application of the forces F, step (1),
the beam changes its configuration and the tendon length LP0 increases to reach a value
LP1; this tendon strain produces an increase of the post-tensioning load to N1.
The initial length of the single finite element of tendon profile can be evaluated as:

( 2.3 )

where xP0 and yP0 are the initial coordinates at the edges relative to the reference
system. In this way the initial length of the cable LP0 can be achieved as sum of the
length of the single elements:

( 2.4 )

After the application of the load:

( 2.5 )
18 Load span tables

( 2.6 )

The length variation of the tendon at step 1 is:


( 2.7 )

Starting from the tendon elongation the strain at step 1 1 can be achieved as:

( 2.8 )

Where 0 is the initial deformation.


Equation ( 2.9 ) shows the new force in the tendon:

( 2.9 )

Where AP is the post-tensioning area, EP the steel elastic modulus. The force variation
in the tendon at step 1:
( 2.10 )

The force in the tendon needs to be depurated of the instantaneous elastic losses
NN1(inst):

( 2.11 )

And finally the tendon force at step 1 is evaluated as:

( 2.12 )

Knowing N1 it is possible to determine a new slope and a new displacement profile of


the beam, and repeat the step-by-step procedure until convergence is reached, typically
after five or six iterations. The iterative procedure at step n is reported in the flow chart
below [37]:

Figure 2.5: Iterative procedure at step n [37]

This procedure is not implemented in the design tables. In fact, as aforementioned, the
contribution of the higher post-tensioned force is beneficial in term of section height.
On the other hand this contribution could become significant for the design of post-
tensioning strands. It is thus suggested to check with the increased post-tensioning
force that the strands are not yielding.
Load span tables 19

2.2.3 Long term behaviour


As reported in [13, 14] the elastic losses for both simply supported and statically
indeterminate beams can be evaluated by means of a single parameter defined below.
Defining n the ratio between the elastic modulus of steel and timber, k1 a coefficient
that takes into account the influence of the tendon profile on the slope of the section at
the edge, k2 a ratio between the eccentricity at the edge of the beam and half height
section, vLp the ratio between the length of the tendon and the length of the beam and
the ratio between the radius of inertia of the section and half height of the section,
the elastic losses for each tendon can be calculated for a general symmetric tendons
profile as follows.

Simply supported beam

( 2.13 )

A mechanic ratio P can be introduced:

( 2.14 )

Where rf is the ratio between the strength of steel and timber.


Therefore the variation of force in the tendon is:
( 2.15 )

Statically indeterminate beam

( 2.16 )

Where the k3 coefficient takes into account the redundant reaction.


The mechanic ratio in this case is:

( 2.17 )

Thus:

( 2.18 )
20 Load span tables

Coefficients
The coefficient k1, k2 and k3 are summarized in Table 2.1
Tendon profile k1 k2 k3
Straight 1

Draped

Parabolic
Table 2.1: k1, k2, k3 coefficients [13]

The coefficients reported in the Table 2.1 are valid if the eccentricity at the edge e1 is
greater than zero. If not the bending contribute disappears in the coefficient P for the
simply supported beam and P2 for the statically indeterminate beam. The mechanic
coefficient becomes:

( 2.19 )

2.2.4 Strength, stress and deflection design

Strength modification factors

Strength reduction factor


Due to the high reliability of Laminated Veneer Lumber and the low variability of
properties of this material the strength reduction factor shall be put equal to 90%:

Duration factors
The factors for duration of load should be the same as solid timber shown in NZS 3603
and shown below:
Duration of load Examples k1
Dead and live loads that are essentially permanent such as stores
Permanent (including water tanks and the like), library stacks, fixed plant, soil 0.60
pressures.
Snow loads, live loads, crowd loadings, concrete formwork, vehicle,
Medium 0.80
pedestrian and cattle loadings.
Wind, earthquake, impact, erection and maintenance loadings, pile
Brief 1.00
driving.
Table 2.2: duration of load factor, k1 for strength [54]
Load span tables 21

k2
Moisture
Duration of For bending,
content at time
load compression or For tension
of loading
shear
12 months or
25% or more 3.0 1.5
more
12 months or
18% or less 2.0 1.0
more
2 weeks or less Any 1.0 1.0
Table 2.3: duration of load factor, k2 for deflection [NZS 3603]

Load sharing factor


Because LVL is much less variable than sawn timber, the load sharing relationships
predicted by NZS 3603 do not hold.

Moisture content factor


For use of LVL in wet conditions a modification factor shall be taken into account as
written in NZS 3603:
Moisture content at time of loading (MC)
Property
< 16% 16% to 25% > 25%
Bending and compression 1.0 0.7
Tension and shear 1.0 0.8
Modulus of elasticity 1.0 0.8
Table 2.4: moisture content factor k14 [54]

Size effect
For beam greater than 300 mm the characteristics stresses in bending and tension
should be multiplied by the size factor:
Depth of LVL member [mm]
Property
240 300 360 400 450 600 900 1200
Bending and
1.0 1.0 0.97 0.95 0.93 0.89 0.83 0.79
compression
Tension
0.92 0.89 0.86 0.85 0.83 0.79 0.74 0.71
parallel
Table 2.5: size factor k24 for strength of LVL

2.2.5 Strength design

Bending and compression


The beam is subjected to both bending, due to acting loads, and compression due to
post-tensioning force. In accordance with NZS 3603 [54] the following equation should
be verified:

( 2.20 )

Where M* is the design moment, Nc* the design axial compression load, My the nominal
bending strength given in ( 2.21 ), Nnc the nominal compressive strength given in
equation ( 2.22 ).
22 Load span tables

( 2.21 )

Where fb is the characteristic bending stress, Z the section modulus of the beam.
( 2.22 )

Where fc is the characteristic compressive strength and A the cross-sectional area.

Shear
The flexural shear strength shall satisfy the following relationship:
( 2.23 )

Where:
( 2.24 )

With fs characteristic stress in shear and As shear area.

Deflection design

Short term

( 2.25 )

Where 0 is the deflection due to distributed load, 1 the pre-camber due to post-
tension, k2,short the duration factor given in Table 2.3 referring to a short term loading,
is the limit predicted by NZS 1170 [51].

Long term
For long term checks the post-tensioning losses are to be considered.

( 2.26 )

Where is the initial post-tensioning force and is given by:

( 2.27 )

Where P is a mechanical ratio depending on mechanical ratio of reinforcements,


static configuration and the tendon profile as pointed out in paragraph 2.2.3. [3]

( 2.28 )
Load span tables 23

2.3 Load span tables

2.3.1 Material and section properties

Timber
The box beams considered are made of Laminated Veneer Lumber (LVL),
characterized by the following properties:
Characteristic
Property Unit
value
Modulus of Elasticity E MPa 10,700
Bending fb MPa 48
Tension parallel to grain ft MPa 30
Compression perpendicular to
fp MPa 12
grain
Compression parallel to grain fc MPa 45
Shear in beam fs MPa 6
Table 2.6: LVL characteristic properties

Considering standard profiles the standard sections are shown in the following table:
tw b h
300 426
300 486
300 526
300 586
300 736
h

400 426
400 486
tf 400 526
400 586
b 400 736
Table 2.7: standard sections

Post-tensioning steel
Property Value
fy 1860 MPa
12.7 mm

A 100 mm2
Ny 186 kN
Nd 130 kN
Table 2.8: post-tensioning steel properties
24 Load span tables

2.3.2 Configurations
The following configuration are taken into account for the development of load span
tables.
Static configuration Spans Tendon profile
-
Simply supported 1 Straight
Draped
-
2
Draped
Continuous
-
3
Draped
Table 2.9: beam configurations

Figure 2.6: beam configurations and tendon profiles

2.3.3 Table method


the table are developed through an iterative design procedure. Different parameters
are taken into account in order to optimize the section behaviour and to reach longer
spans. The optimization procedure is explained in the following paragraphs while in
Table 2.10 an example is shown.
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Maximum Live Load - q [kN/m]
5 >50 48 43 38 32 30 25 22 19 17 14 13 11 8 5 - - - - - -
7 >50 46 42 37 33 28 24 21 17 14 14 9 6 - - - - - - - -
9 50 45 40 35 32 27 22 19 17 15 9 - - - - - - - - - -
11 48 43 39 34 30 25 20 19 16 10 - - - - - - - - - - -
13 47 41 37 33 28 23 21 17 11 5 - - - - - - - - - - -
15 45 40 35 32 27 22 20 15 6 - - - - - - - - - - - -
17 44 38 34 30 25 22 18 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
19 42 37 32 29 25 21 16 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
21 40 35 31 27 24 20 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
23 39 33 29 25 22 18 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 37 32 27 24 21 13 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 36 30 26 22 19 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 34 29 24 21 15 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 32 27 22 19 12 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 31 25 20 17 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 29 24 19 16 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 28 22 18 13 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 26 21 16 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 24 19 15 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 23 17 13 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 21 16 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 20 14 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 18 13 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 16 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]


g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Suggested Design Assumption: %dead; %live
5 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - -
7 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - -
9 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - - -
11 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - - - -
13 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - - - -
15 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - - - - -
17 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
19 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Load span tables 25

Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]


g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Suggested Design Assumption: %dead; %live
21 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
23 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Table 2.10: load span table, 300526 mm section, straight profile

Design load optimization


The first design assumption was the post-tensioning design load which is given by a
percentage of dead loads and a percentage of live loads:

( 2.29 )

The first step of optimization was the variation of this design assumption, considering
values of from 80% to 100% and from 0% to 40%. Lowering these
percentages brings, in some cases, to reach longer spans for given section, profile and
number of strands.
The load range is evaluated considering minimum and maximum values, based on
commonly used floor systems.
Dead loads:
o Light floor: ;
o Heavy floor: ;
o Service:
Live loads [52]:
o General areas (minimum): ;
o Factories, workshops and similar buildings: ;
Floor span range between 3.0 m and 10.0 m is taken into account:

The variation of these parameters led to the creation of a second table indicating the
design assumption suggested.

Strand profile
Usually for simply supported beams the deviator distance from the edge considered is
one third of the span. This is already optimized as the moment due to the distributed
design load pd,pt is completely absorbed by post-tensioning moment.
For continuous configurations this is not anymore true by considering the same
distance. The profile optimization is then performed assuming that the moment area
due to pd,pt should be the same of the one due to post-tensioning. By considering this
assumption for continuous beam the following optimized profiles are worked out.
26 Load span tables

Number of strands
As post-tensioning design load is not a fixed parameter, but it is varied depending on
the load acting on the beam, the post-tensioning force will be strictly dependent on this
load.
The tables are then divided with regard to the number of strands needed, limited to 2,
4 or 7 tendons due to the available anchorage systems.

2.3.4 Design example


The following parameters are considered:
Property Unit Characteristic value
Beam span Lbeam m 7.5
Floor span Lfloor m 5.0
Dead load G kN/m2 4.0
Live load Q kN/m2 3.0 (offices)
Eccentricity e m 0.180
Table 2.11: design example data

Form data in Table 2.11 the load acting on the beam can be evaluated as:
( 2.30 )

Once these loads are evaluated, depending on the type of configuration used it is
possible to choose the right table to do the pre-dimensioning of the section:
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Maximum Live Load - q [kN/m]
5 47 43 39 35 32 30 28 24 21 19 17 15 13 10 7 5 - - - - -
7 46 41 37 34 29 28 26 22 20 18 15 13 9 5 - - - - - - -
9 44 39 35 32 29 27 25 22 19 16 13 8 - - - - - - - - -
11 43 38 34 30 28 25 23 21 18 14 8 - - - - - - - - - -
13 41 36 32 29 26 23 21 19 14 9 - - - - - - - - - - -
15 39 35 31 27 24 22 20 15 9 - - - - - - - - - - - -
17 38 33 29 26 23 20 18 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
19 36 31 27 24 19 19 15 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
21 35 30 26 22 20 17 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
23 33 28 24 21 18 14 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 31 27 23 18 16 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 30 25 21 18 15 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 28 23 19 16 12 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 27 22 18 14 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 25 20 16 13 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 23 19 15 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 22 17 13 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 20 15 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 19 14 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 17 12 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 15 11 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 14 9 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 12 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]


g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Suggested Design Assumption: %dead; %live
5 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - -
7 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - -
9 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - -
11 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - - -
13 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - - - -
15 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - - - - -
17 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
19 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
21 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
23 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Load span tables 27

39 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -


41 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

The following section will be then considered:


tw
Parameter Unit Value
b mm 400
h mm 486
tf mm 63
tw mm 63
h

A mm2 95,760
As mm2 45,360
tf I mm4 2.76109
Z mm3 1.14107
b
Now the strength and deflection design can be done, starting from the suggested
design assumption:

( 2.31 )

For the straight profile the dimension equation (see Appendix A) leads to:

. ( 2.32 )

The ultimate limit state and serviceability limit state checks are now performed
considering the following loads.
Parameter Unit Value
qULS kN/m 47.1
qSLS,S kN/m 31.0
qSLS,L kN/m 26.5
Table 2.12: limit states loads

Bending and compression

( 2.33 )

Where:

Shear

( 2.34 )
28 Load span tables

Where:

Stress check

( 2.35 )

Where:

.
.
.

Deflections, short term

( 2.36 )

Where:

Deflection check, long term


Considering equations ( 2.26 ) and ( 2.27 ) the post-tensioning losses are:
( ) ( 2.37 )

( 2.38 )

Where:

.
Load span tables 29

2.4 Considerations
A case study section of 300526 mm is considered in the following comparisons.
As previously mentioned, the deflection could be a governing check for this type of
beams (if not post-tensioned), most of all for long spans. Instead, for shorter spans,
shear strength is the main governing check (see Table 2.13).
By introducing the post-tensioning profile the governing checks are changing. Below
load span tables reporting the governing checks for each combination of dead load and
span are shown for the case study section and simply supported configuration.
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Governing check
5 shear shear def. def. def. def. def. - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
7 shear shear def. def. def. def. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
9 shear def. def. def. def. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
11 shear def. def. def. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
13 shear def. def. def. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
15 shear def. def. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
17 shear def. def. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
19 def. def. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
21 def. def. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
23 def. def. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 def. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 def. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 def. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 def. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 def. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Table 2.13: governing checks, 300526 mm section, no tendons
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Governing check
5 shear shear top top top top top top top top top top def. top top top def. def. - - -
7 shear shear top top top top top top top top top top top top def. def. - - - - -
9 shear shear top top top top top top top top def. def. def. - - - - - - - -
11 shear shear top top top top top top top top def. def. - - - - - - - - -
13 shear shear top top top top top top top def. def. - - - - - - - - - -
15 shear top top top top top top top def. def. - - - - - - - - - - -
17 shear top top top top top top def. def. - - - - - - - - - - - -
19 shear top top top top top def. def. - - - - - - - - - - - - -
21 shear top top top top top def. - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
23 shear top top top top def. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 shear top top top top def. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 shear top top top def. def. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 shear top top top def. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 shear top top top def. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 shear top top def. def. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 shear top top def. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 shear top top def. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 shear top top - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 shear top def. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 top top def. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 top top def. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 top top def. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 top def. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 top def. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
= 2 strands, = 4 strands, = 7 strands
Table 2.14: governing checks, 300526 mm section, draped tendon

For short spans, the introduction of draped tendon for a simply supported beam is not
influencing significantly the section behaviour, shear strength remains the governing
check.
As the span is getting higher top flange stress becomes the main governing check and
only for a minimal portion long term deflections is still governing.
30 Load span tables

Analysing the continuous beam configuration, for the same section, the long term
deflection is not anymore influencing the design. Shear strength is definitely governing
the design, for the majority of span lengths and loads.
The introduction of a draped tendon can bring a significant shear contribution. From
Table 2.16 the predominance of top flange stress is manifest.
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Governing check
5 shear shear shear shear shear top top bend top top def. def. def. - - - - - - - -
7 shear shear shear shear shear top top bend top def. def. - - - - - - - - - -
9 shear shear shear shear shear top bend top def. def. - - - - - - - - - - -
11 shear shear shear shear shear top bend def. def. - - - - - - - - - - - -
13 shear shear shear shear shear top top def. - - - - - - - - - - - - -
15 shear shear shear shear shear top def. - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
17 shear shear shear shear shear top def. - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
19 shear shear shear shear shear def. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
21 shear shear shear shear shear def. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
23 shear shear shear shear shear - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 shear shear shear shear shear - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 shear shear shear shear def. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 shear shear shear shear - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 shear shear shear shear - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 shear shear shear shear - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 shear shear shear shear - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 shear shear shear - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 shear shear shear - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 shear shear shear - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 shear shear - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 shear shear - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 shear - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 shear - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 shear - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Table 2.15: two-spans beam, 300526 mm section, no tendons
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Governing check
5 shear shear shear shear shear top top top top top top top top top top top top top top top top
7 shear shear shear shear shear top top top top top top top top top top top top top def. top top
9 shear shear shear shear top top top top top top top top top top top top top top top top -
11 shear shear shear shear top top top top top top top top top top def. top top def. - - -
13 shear shear shear shear top top top top top top top top top top top top top - - - -
15 shear shear shear shear top top top top top top top top top top top - - - - - -
17 shear shear shear shear top top top top top top top top top top - - - - - - -
19 shear shear shear shear top top top top top top top top top - - - - - - - -
21 shear shear shear shear top top top top top top top top - - - - - - - - -
23 shear shear shear shear top top top top top top top def. - - - - - - - - -
25 shear shear shear shear top top top top top top top - - - - - - - - - -
27 shear shear shear shear top top top top top top def. - - - - - - - - - -
29 shear shear shear shear top top top top top top - - - - - - - - - - -
31 shear shear shear shear top top top top top - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 shear shear shear shear top top top top top - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 shear shear shear shear top top top top - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 shear shear shear shear top top top top - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 shear shear shear shear top top top def. - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 shear shear shear shear top top top - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 shear shear shear shear top top top - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 shear shear shear shear top top top - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 shear shear shear shear top top - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 shear shear shear shear top top - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 shear shear shear shear top top - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
= 4 strands, = 7 strands
Table 2.16: two-spans beam, 300526 mm section, draped tendon
Load span tables 31

Now to underline the differences in terms of increased span and loads some
comparison charts are shown and discussed.
In Figure 2.7 the difference between draped and straight tendon profile for a simply
supported beam is highlighted.
The advantages of draped, in comparison with straight tendons, is not negligible but is
not very prominent. The different charts are very near and the increase both in load
carrying capacity and beam span reachable is small, as pointed out in [8, 37].
45
Maximum Live Load [kN/m]

40
35
30
25
20
15
6.5 6.8
10
5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Beam Span [m]
Dead load Draped 5 9 13 17
g [kN/m] Straight 5 9 13 17
Figure 2.7: comparison chart, straight and draped tendon, simply supported beam

The comparison between standard (not post-tensioned) and post-tensioned beams is


shown in Figure 2.8 and Figure 2.9.
45
Maximum Live Load [kN/m]

40
37
35
30
25
20
15
10
5.6 7.8
5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Beam Span [m]
Dead load No tendons 5 9 13 17
G [kN/m] Straight tendon 5 9 13 17
Figure 2.8: comparison chart, 300526, simply supported beam, draped tendon
32 Load span tables

45
Maximum Live Load [kN/m] 40
36
35
30
25
20
15
10
6.7 8.4
5.0 7.0 9.0 11.0 13.0 15.0
Beam Span [m]
Dead load No tendons 5 9 13 17
g [kN/m] Straight tendon 5 9 13 17
Figure 2.9: comparison chart, 300526 mm section, two-spans beam

The increase in load carrying capacity is significant, such as the higher spans
achievable. The increase in span is more noticeable for simply supported beam.

2.4.1 Moment resisting connection


In the end, beyond the configurations taken into account so far, an alternative
configuration could be considered (see Figure 2.10).
FP,V FP,V
FP FP
FP,H FP,H
e

FP,V FP,V
Figure 2.10: draped tendon passing through the column

Similarly to what has been done for concrete (see Chapter 1, 1.2.2), the introduction
of a draped tendon passing through the column could be feasible.
A simple model can be used to evaluate the beam behaviour, consisting in a rotational
spring characterized by stiffness k.

k2
M

k1


Figure 2.11: bilinear spring behaviour

The connection rotation has three components (Figure 2.12); rotation due to uplift
force at the deviator, rotation due to connection moment and rotation due to load on
the beam. Analytical expressions for each component can be derived from structura l
mechanics.
Load span tables 33

Fv l 2 M con l q l3
1 2 3
9 EI 2 EI 24 EI
Figure 2.12: Rotations due to uplift force, connection moment and distributed load [60]

The total connection rotation will result from the sum of these three contributions.
( 2.39 )

This is related to connection moment as follows.

( 2.40 )

Combining expressions reported in Figure 2.12 with Equations ( 2.39 ) and ( 2.40 ) the
connection moment is evaluated.
Now considering the super-positioning method it is possible to calculate the
connection moment as:

( 2.41 )

As not much information about this particular configuration is present for timber, the
purpose of the next chapter will be that of investigate experimentally the behaviour of
this connection.
34 Load span tables
35

3 Connection experimental testing

3.1 Introduction
The configuration proposed in paragraph 2.4.1 was tested in order to investigate its
behaviour. The perpendicular to the grain compression on the side of the column is a
significant issue of this type of configuration, as identified in [36] and [18].
The present test explored the connection performance in terms of moment-rotation
behaviour. Particular attention was paid to the beam-column interface considering
different connection reinforcements.

Figure 3.1: connection test setup


36 Connection experimental testing

3.2 Beam design


A hotel building in Napier has been chosen as prototype building owing to its regular
layout (see Figure 3.2) for the design of the beam.
A B C D
1

4.8
2

7.4
6.1
3

4.8
4
7.6 7.6 7.6
Figure 3.2: Napier Building plan view

A TCC floor system was considered and below the loading calculation are shown:
Weight:
o Concrete:
o Plywood:
o LVL:
o Services: .
Total Dead Load:
Total Live Load: (offices)
Load combinations
o ULS:
o SLSshort
o SLSlong
Design beam loads (span 6.1 m)
o ULS:
o SLSshort
o SLSlong
The frame has been designed considering a simply supported configuration with
rotational linear spring to simulate the stiffness of the connection.
The post-tensioning effect is represented applying vertical forces next to the
deviators, while the eccentricity of the strands is ignored as it is more influencing the
column rather than the beam.
A comparison between different beam configurations is shown in Table 3.1. As
pointed out in Chaper 2, a significant reduction in terms of beam height can be achieved
by introducing post-tension.
Connection experimental testing 37

Beam Governing design


No. Connection PT Schematics
height criteria
800mm Long term mid-span
1 Pinned No
L h deflection.
460mm ULS bending moment
2 Fixed No
L h at connection.
500mm Compression of top
3 Pinned Yes
L h flange at mid-span.
Flexible 430mm Shear strength at the
4 Yes
k=30kNm/mrad L h connection.
Table 3.1: Required beam height and governing design criteria for different beam designs [60]

3.3 Connection design


The connection was designed in accordance with the iterative method proposed in
[28], where the neutral axis depth is calculated with the following formula, obtained on
experimental basis:

( 3.1 )

Where is a correction factor for the columns transverse elastic modulus, Eperp, and is
empirically expressed in MPa as:

( 3.2 )

While is a correction factor for the initial axial stress in beams, fi, and is given in MPa
as:

( 3.3 )

The connection moment is calculated as:

( 3.4 )

With reference to Figure 3.3.

Figure 3.3: Schematics of gap opening and compression zone [60]


38 Connection experimental testing

The design brings to the moment-rotation trend shown in Figure 3.4, where the
decompression moment of 130 kNm at 4.3 mrad of connection rotation is highlighted.
Previous calculations showed that this value it is not reached even in the ultimate limit
state, then it can be stated that the connection is overdesigned.
200 600
Connection Moment [kNm]

180
160 500
140 400
120
100 300
80
60 200
40 Moment
Decompression Moment 100
20 Neutral axis
0 0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Connection Rotation [mrad]

Figure 3.4: moment-rotation and neutral axis- rotation trends of the connection

The connection stiffness obtained is 30 MNm/rad. This value is considered for the
analysis of the frame for the design of the beam.

3.4 Connection reinforcement


Perpendicular to the grain compressive strength is critical for the connection
behaviour. Thus different connection reinforcements were taken into account to
increase the stiffness in this direction.
The first connection configuration is simple LVL column with timber corbel to transfer
shear forces. This is used as benchmark as the connection design has been performed
considering timber to timber contact.

Figure 3.5: timber corbel detail

A steel corbel (Figure 3.6) with and without screws reinforcement (Figure 3.7) of the
column is taken into account.
The screws reinforcement is evaluated according to Bejtka et al. [2].
Connection experimental testing 39

Figure 3.6: steel corbel detail Figure 3.7: screw reinforcement detail

Two different types of column were then considered. The first one is consisting of a
normal LVL column with outer sheets rotated. This allows to have a combination
between the parallel and perpendicular to the grain direction, resulting in a higher
connection stiffness.
The last configuration is consisting in crossbanded LVL. This is similar to normal LVL
but several of its layers are rotated (see Figure 3.8).

Figure 3.8: crossbanded LVL

3.5 Materials and methods

3.5.1 Material properties


Following table is showing the characteristic value of Radiata pine LVL provided by
manufacturers.
Property Unit LVL 11 Crossbanded LVL1
Modulus of Elasticity (MoE) GPa 11 9
Bending fb MPa 48 35
Tension parallel to grain ft MPa 30 22
Compression perpendicular to grain fp MPa 123 28 (24)2
Compression parallel to grain fc MPa 45 6 (10)2
Shear in beam fs MPa 6 n/a
1 Properties can vary for different types of crossbanded LVL.
2 for a 36mm sheet crossbanded LVL, consisting of 8 layers parallel and 2 perpendicular.
3 including a permanent indentation of 2.5mm, elastic strength is about 6MPa.

Table 3.2: characteristic values NelsonPine LVL


40 Connection experimental testing

3.5.2 Loading protocol


Several standard loading protocols were considered, but none was found suitable
for this type of test. Timber connection tests, like EN26891 [6], would not provided
adequate information, and cyclic testing, such as EN12512 [7], seemed more
appropriate but were thought to be too rigorous . Therefore the following loading
protocol was used (see Figure 4): 2 cycles from the lowest connection moment (post-
tensioning + 0.9 dead load, -35kNm) up to the serviceability limit state (SLS)
connection moment (26kNm) to determine the initial stiffness; 2 cycles from the
lowest connection moment up to the ultimate limit state (ULS) connection moment
(101kNm) to determine the decompression moment and the non-linear behaviour;
and a final 2 cycles similar to the first two to determine if the stiffness decreased
after ULS cycles and if permanent rotations due to timber crushing occurred [60].

Figure 3.9: loading protocol [60]

3.5.3 Test specimen


The test setup simulated a portion of the above mentioned prototype building. The
experimental test setup can be seen in Figure 3.10. Nine tests were performed with
different configurations as shown in Table 3.3.
In order to test a frame dominated by seismic loading, the length of the test beam is
determined by the distance to the point of zero moment (the point of contraflexure),
but in this gravity design there was no such easily-defined point, so the length of the
beam was chosen by practical reasons. The load in the ram did not correspond
directly to any loading scenario, but was calculated so that the experimental bending
moment in the connection was equal to the bending moment at the connection, as
used for design of the frame. The dimensions of the beam were based on fabrication
using standard available sizes of LVL.
Four post-tensioning tendons (=12.7mm) were used. Each tendon was firstly
stressed up to 55 kN and subsequently to 110 kN, which corresponds to 70% of the
tendon yield stress. The anchorage plates were designed using finite element
software and were 40mm thick. The tendons passed under a timber deviator block,
Connection experimental testing 41

having a radius of 2 m, which was glued inside the box beam. An extra sheet of LVL
was glued at the end of the beam to support the anchorage plate. The tendons passed
through the column through a gap 130 mm high and 90 mm wide.
The columns were made up of several layers of LVL, such that each column was
approximately 300 mm wide. The remaining column cross-section at the tendon
opening was designed to satisfy strength requirements for ULS compressive force
(670 kN) and bending moment (84 kNm) for the whole frame. A timber corbel was
placed at the top of the connection to prevent the beam from lifting up due to the
upwards force from the deviated tendon [60].

Figure 3.10: side view of test setup [60]

3.5.4 Testing schedule


No. Column Part Connection PT Force [kN]
1a 1* Bottom side 1 Timber to timber 220
1b 1 Bottom side 1 Timber to timber 440
2a 1 Bottom side 2 Steel corbel + screw reinforcement 220
2b 1 Bottom side 2 Steel corbel + screw reinforcement 440
2c 1 Bottom side 2 Steel corbel 220
2d 1 Bottom side 2 Steel corbel 440
3a 1 Top side 1 Timber to timber 220
3b 1 Top side 1 Timber to timber 440
4a 1 Top side 2 Steel corbel + screw reinforcement 220
4b 1 Top side 2 Steel corbel + screw reinforcement 440
4c 1 Top side 2 Steel corbel 220
4d 1 Top side 2 Steel corbel 440
5a 2** Bottom side 1 Timber to timber 220
5b 2 Bottom side 1 Timber to timber 440
6a 2 Bottom side 2 Steel corbel + screw reinforcement 220
6b 2 Bottom side 2 Steel corbel + screw reinforcement 440
6c 2 Bottom side 2 Steel corbel 220
6d 2 Bottom side 2 Steel corbel 440
7a 2 Top side 1 Timber reinforcement*** 220
7b 2 Top side 1 Timber reinforcement 440
8a 2 Top side 2 Timber to timber (re-test) 220
8b 2 Top side 2 Timber to timber (re-test) 440
*column 1 = normal LVL 11, **column 2 = crossbanded LVL, ***extra LVL sheet
Table 3.3: testing schedule
42 Connection experimental testing

The test of the specimen tries to imitate the design moment at the connection. This
can be achieved by a certain force in the ram, which means that the test is load-
controlled.
This was not possible with the controller available, therefore a displacement protocol
has been made, which was varied to achieve the required loads in the ram.

3.5.5 Evaluation of test data


Test 1 will be used as an example of how the test data is evaluated. The forces
measured are the force in the ram and the horizontal force in the holding bracket at the
top of the column, shown in Figure 3.11.

Connection moment
The force in the ram was monitored (Figure 3.11) to evaluate the connection moment
with Equation ( 3.5 )).
0
0 100 200 300
-10
Ram Force [kN]

-20

-30

-40

-50

-60
Steps

Figure 3.11: ram force, test 1b [60]

( 3.5 )

Where Fpt is the total post-tensioning force in the four tendons, Fpt,v is the vertical
uplift force at the deviator, Fram is the force in the ram, e the eccentricity of the
anchorage (150 mm), a the distance between the deviator and the connection (2.26 m)
and b the distance between the ram and the connection (3.05 m) as shown in Figure
3.12.
FP

a
b FPV Fram

Figure 3.12: connection moment parameters


Connection experimental testing 43

100

80

Connection Moment [kNm]


60

40

20

-20 0 100 200 300

-40

-60
Steps

Figure 3.13: connection moment, test 1b [60]

Tendon elongation
It can be seen that there is some tendon elongation during the 440kN test, right graph,
but that it is much more noticeable during the 220kN test. Because of the lower PT
force, there is more gap opening and so more tendon elongation.
500
Post-tensionin Force [kN]

450

400

350

300

250

200
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
Steps
Figure 3.14: post-tensioning forces, test 1a [60]
44 Connection experimental testing

500

Post-tensionin Force [kN]


450

400

350

300

250

200
0 100 200 300
Steps
Figure 3.15: post-tensioning forces, test 1b [60]

Gap opening

Figure 3.16: gap opening instrumentation

The gap opening is measured by three pots at the beam-column interface (see Figure
3.16). The results are plotted in the two graphs below. At the 220 kN test it can be seen
that there is a lot of gap opening at the top, about 9 mm and even 3 mm at the centre of
the beam. At the bottom there is an indentation of 3 mm. There is a 6mm difference
between each of the pots, showing a linear displacement along the connection.
Connection experimental testing 45

12

10 Bottom
Middle
8 Top
Displacement [mm]
6

0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
-2

-4 Steps
Figure 3.17: gap opening, test 1a [60]

0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
-0.5
Displacement [mm]

-1

-1.5
Bottom
-2 Middle
Top

-2.5 Steps
Figure 3.18: gap opening, test 1b [60]

Connection rotation
The rotations were monitored as shown in Figure 3.19. A positive rotation and
moment is counter clockwise.
The rotation within the beam (between the connection and halfway between the
measurement points) was calculated as follows:

( 3.6 )

Where is the average moment in the section of the beam.


46 Connection experimental testing

Figure 3.19: rotation instrumentation

38 Beam Total
33 Column
Joint panel
28 Connection
Rotation [mrad]

23 Beam

18
13
8
3
-2
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
Steps

Figure 3.20: test specimen rotations, test 1a [60]

At the ULS (high peak), the following rotations are reached:


Element Rotation [mrad]
Column 7.8
Joint panel 2.9
Connection 23.5
Beam (bending) 1.5
Total 35.7
Table 3.4: rotation, test 1a
Connection experimental testing 47

For test 1b the rotations chart is shown below.


16 Beam Total
14 Column
Joint panel
12 Connection
Rotation [mrad] Beam
10
8
6
4
2
0
-2 0 100 200 300
Steps

Figure 3.21: test specimen rotations, test 1b [60]

And again the ULS peak values:


Element Rotation [mrad]
Column 9.9
Joint panel 4.2
Connection 8.4
Beam (bending) 1.9
Total 24.4
Table 3.5: rotations, test 1b

The connection moment and the connection rotation can be combined, achieving the
following moment-rotation charts.

Moment-rotation
From moment and rotation evaluated in previous paragraphs, the following chart can
be worked out.

Figure 3.22: moment-rotation chart, test 1 [60]


48 Connection experimental testing

The first two cycles in the SLS are shown on the left side in the graph, going through
the origin. The two cycles in the ULS show that the connection rotation is moving to the
right, which means that there is a permanent rotation after having reached the ULS,
indicating non-linear material behaviour (crushing of the timber perpendicular to the
grain in the column). This permanent rotation could be described as damage to the
system, though 1.5 mrad of permanent rotation is quite minimal.

3.5.6 Test results


Table 3.6 shows the test results for all the test reported in Table 3.3.

STIFFNESS [kN/mrad]
Steel Change
No. Fpt Timber Screws SLS ULS SLS
corbel SLS
1a No No 25.6 (100%) 1.5 (100%) 22.5( 100%) -12%
2a 220 Normal Yes Yes 42.0 (164%) 1.7 (117%) 39.7 (177%) -5%
2c No Yes 41.0 (160%) 1.7 (114%) 26.1 (116%) -35%
3a Outer No No 34.8 (100%) 2.4 (100%) 28.7 (100%) -18%
4a 220 sheet Yes Yes 29.2 (84%) 2.1 (121%) 26.9 (94%) -6%
4c rotated No Yes 19.6 (56%) 2.8 (117%) 18.6 (65%) -5%
5a No No 34.3 (100%) 2.1 (100%) 32.8 (100%) -5%
6a 220 Crosslam Yes Yes 25.3 (74%) 2.8 (134%) 27.5 (84%) 9%
6c No Yes 19.3 (56%) 2.3 (112%) 20.1 (61%) 4%
7a Timber reinf. 26.6 1.9 23.1 -13%
220 Crosslam
8a No No 28.4 2.5 28.6 1%
STIFFNESS
Steel Change
Fpt Timber Screws SLS ULS SLS
corbel SLS
1b No No 32.1 (100%) 4.4 (100%) 29.9 (100%) -7%
2b 440 Normal Yes Yes 51.6 (161%) 8.3 (190%) 58.6 (196)% 14%
2d No Yes 35.8 (111%) 3.9 (89%) 32.4 (108%) (-9%)
3b Outer No No 47.3 (100%) 14.2 (100%) 46.6 (100%) -2%
4b 440 sheet Yes Yes 39.5 (84%) 7.6 (54%) 36.9 (79%) -7%
4d rotated No Yes 37.7 (80%) 6.6 (46%) 33.1 (71%) -12%
5b No No 54.5 (100%) 5.7 (100%) 82.0 (100%) 50%
6b 440 Crosslam Yes Yes 41.4 (76%) 6.9 (121%) 39.4 (48%) -5%
6d No Yes 42.6 (78%) 5.9 (104%) 40.3 (49%) -6%
7b Timber reinf. 48.2 6.0 47.2 -2%
440 Crosslam
8b No No 52.6 5.4 49.6 -17%
Table 3.6: stiffness results [60]

Because of the increase in stiffness of test 5b, it was decided to repeat the test. For this
the results are more realistic.
Rotation at zero moment [mrad]
Mdec
No. SLS 1 SLS 2 SLS 3 SLS 4 Permanet
(average) [kNm]
1a 50 1.6 2.0 3.2 3.2 1.4
1b 74 -.3 -.2 1.3 1.2 1.5
2a 51 -2.4 -2.2 -1.7 -1.8 0.6
2b 87 -3.1 -3.0 -2.8 -2.9 0.2
2c 47 -3.5 -3.4 -2.5 -2.5 1.0
2d 78 -3.2 -3.1 -1.6 -1.6 1.6
3a 48 -1.4 -1.4 -1.2 -1.3 0.2
3b 83 -1.2 -1.2 -1.0 -1.0 0.2
4a 44 1.7 1.8 2.1 2.1 0.4
4b 78 2.2 2.1 2.3 2.3 0.1
4c 44 0.9 0.9 1.1 1.1 0.2
Connection experimental testing 49

Rotation at zero moment [mrad]


Mdec
No. SLS 1 SLS 2 SLS 3 SLS 4 Permanet
(average) [kNm]
4d 73 1.5 1.3 1.5 1.5 0.1
5a 46 -1.3 -1.2 -1.0 -1.0 0.3
5b 75 -1.4 -1.4 -0.9 -1.0 0.5
6a 41 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.1
6b 72 -0.1 -0.2 0.0 0.0 0.2
6c 42 2.9 3.3 3.6 3.6 0.5
6d 72 3.1 3.1 3.2 3.2 0.1
7a 46 0.2 0.2 0.5 0.5 0.3
7b 76 0.5 0.4 0.6 0.6 0.2
8a 45 -2.0 -2.0 -1.8 -1.7 0.3
8b 78 -2.3 -2.3 -2.0 -2.0 0.3
Table 3.7: decompression moment and rotations results [60]

The LVL11 timber-to-timber test, Test 1, had a stiffness of k1 = 32 kNm/mrad,


which corresponds well with the predicted 30 kNm/mrad from the design method
proposed by Newcombe et al. [29], although further investigation is required to
verify if it is applicable to a wider range of connection designs. It can be seen that the
rotated outer layer (Test 3) and the crossbanded LVL (Test 5) increased the stiffness
by approximately 1.5 times. The same holds for the stiffness during the last two SLS
cycles, k3. The ULS stiffness k2 also increased but by a factor 3.25 and 1.24
respectively.
Only a minor degradation in stiffness between k 1 and k3 is seen for all the tests. The
stiffness past the changing point, k 2, is on average 15% of the initial stiffness k 1. This
seems to be independent of the type of connection. This also holds for the change in
stiffness point, M k, which is on average 77 kNm. The permanent rotation, indicating
plastic deformation of the timber was significant for Test 1 and Test 2b, whereas for
the other tests it was close to zero.
Adding steel reinforcement to the connection proved very effective for improving
the behaviour observed in Test 1. The stiffness increased 1.6 times and the
permanent rotation almost went down to zero when screws and the steel corbel
(Test 2a) were added. Only adding the corbel, without the screws (Test 2b), gave
similar results to the timber-to-timber connection (Test 1), showing the
effectiveness of the screws, but not of the corbel itself without the screws. For tests
with the outer LVL layers rotated (Test 3) and the crossbanded LVL (Test 5), the
steel reinforcement did not show any benefit.
50 Connection experimental testing

3.6 Comparison graphs


The following graphs show the ULS cycles of different connections.
120
ULS
100

80

60
Moment [kNm]

40
SLS
20

0
-4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10
-20
90% Dead
-40
1b - Timber to timber
-60 2b - Steel corbel + screws
2d - Steel corbel
-80
Rotation [mrad]

Figure 3.23: comparison chart, normal LVL at 440 kN [60]


120
ULS
100

80

60
Moment [kNm]

40
SLS
20

0
-4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10
-20
90% Dead
-40
3b - Timber to timber
-60 4b - Steel corbel + screws
4d - Steel corbel
-80
Rotation [mrad]

Figure 3.24: comparison chart, rotated LVL sheet at 440 kN [60]


120
ULS
100

80

60
Moment [kNm]

40
SLS
20

0
-4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10
-20
90% Dead
-40
5b - Timber to timber
-60 6b - Steel corbel + screws
6d - Steel corbel
-80
Rotation [mrad]

Figure 3.25: comparison chart, crossbanded LVL at 440 kN [60]


Connection experimental testing 51

170

120

Moment [kNm] 70

20

-4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10
-30
1b - Timber to timber
3b - Rotated outer sheet
5b - Crosslam
-80
Rotation [mrad]

Figure 3.26: comparison chart, connection stiffness [60]

3.7 Design implications

Figure 3.27: Graph of connection rotation versus connection moment [60]

The testing showed that depending on the connection details, the initial stiffness is
between 30 and 59 kNm/mrad. The lower bound of 30 kNm/mrad is chosen here,
although different values will be evaluated later. The experimental testing showed that
the connection stiffness can be approximated using a bi-linear curve as shown in Figure
3.27. The post-tensioning force of 440 kN gives an initial stiffness of 30 kNm, a
decompression moment of 77 kNm and stiffness after decompression of 15% of the
initial stiffness, which is 4.5 kNm/mrad.
This bi-linear approximation, with q = 50 kN/m and Fv = 57 kN, gives the ULS
connection moment of 95 kNm for the initial connection stiffness of 30 kNm/mrad. A
simplification would be that of ignoring the bi-linear part and use only the initial
stiffness. The ULS connection moment will increase to 114 kNm which is a
conservative design. The mid-span beam moment should be evaluated carefully since
this value will decrease and thus be un-conservative. A greater simplification would
52 Connection experimental testing

be to ignore the connection stiffness completely and assume the connection to be


fixed, resulting in a connection moment of 141 kNm. This is an even more
conservative assumption, as shown by the black dashed line in Figure 3.28. The
Figure also shows that the variation in connection stiffness which was found in the
experimental testing does not have a large influence on the connection moment.

Figure 3.28: Graph of connection moment for different connection models [60]

3.8 Discussion and conclusion


The following observations have been made after the analysis of the test data,
considering only 440 kN tests:
1. There are only small differences in the decompression moment for the different
connections.
1. The normal timber-to-timber connection (test 1b) has a stiffness of
approximately 32 kNm/mrad, which corresponds well with design procedure
in [29] (30 kNm/mrad). The decompression moment of 74kNm is much lower
than the predicted 130 kNm, where it must be noted that there is a difference in
the definition of the decompression moment, which even further increases this
difference.
2. The normal timber-to-timber connection (test 1b) can be reinforced with a
steel corbel and steel screws, increasing the stiffness in the between 1.6 and 2
times.
3. The normal timber-to-timber connection shows a large amount of permanent
rotation, 1.5 mrad (test 1b). This can be effectively reduced by adding a steel
corbel and steel screws behind it (test 2b). Only adding the steel corbel (test 2d)
is not effective.
4. Rotating the outer LVL layer by 90 degrees increases the stiffness by a factor of
1.5 in the SLS and 3 in the ULS, and it has almost no permanent rotation, making
it a very good connection (test 3b).
5. Adding a steel corbel and screws (test 4b) or just a steel corbel (test 4d) is not
effective when the outer LVL layer is rotated.
Connection experimental testing 53

6. Crossbanded LVL (test 5b) also increases the stiffness of the connection and
partly solves the problem with the permanent rotation.
7. Extra timber in the bottom of the beam (test 7b) does not improve the
performance of the connection with a crossbanded column. This could be
different for the normal LVL column, but could not be tested.
In conclusion the experimental testing has shown the problem with the compression
perpendicular to the grain in post-tensioned timber-to-timber connections. Permanent
rotations occur, indicating plastic deformation of the timber. This problem can be
solved effectively by screws and a steel corbel or by having part of the timber in
compression parallel to the grain. The stiffness values can be used in a non-linear
framework program to calculate the moment distribution in post-tensioned timber
frames under gravity loading [60].
54 Connection experimental testing
55

4 Post-tensioned walls design charts

4.1 Introduction
Post-tensioned shear walls can be introduced in the gravity frame to carry all the
horizontal loads deriving from earthquake.
In the following chapter a simplified design method is proposed on the basis of
previous studies performed for concrete and then extended to timber members.
The moment-rotation analysis proposed in [34, 38] and extended to timber [27, 28] is
herein used in the development of simplified tools for both single walls with
internal/external dissipaters and coupled walls.
Some examples of post-tensioned walls tested at University of Canterbury are shown
below. For each configuration the dissipation device is highlighted.
PT Strands

(b)

External
dissipaters

(a)
Figure 4.1: single wall - (a) overview; (b) external dissipater detail (courtesy of T.Smith)
56 Post-tensioned walls design charts

The same configurations shown in Figure 4.1 is commonly used gluing the dissipaters
inside the wall. In Figure 4.2 an example of internal dissipater is shown.

Figure 4.2: internal dissipater details (courtesy of M.P. Newcombe)

PT Strands

UFP devices

(a) (b)
Figure 4.3: coupled walls (a) overview [19]; (b) UFP detail (courtesy of A.Iqbal)

4.2 Stress-strain relationships

4.2.1 Timber
A bilinear stress-strain relationship for timber is chosen.
Property Unit Characteristic value
Modulus of Elasticity (MoE) GPa 11.0
Bending fb MPa 48.0
Tension parallel to grain ft MPa 30.0
Compression perpendicular to grain fp MPa 12.0
Compression parallel to grain fc MPa 45.0
Shear in beam fs MPa 6.0
Table 4.1: LVL11 characteristic properties

As in [27] the modulus of elasticity to be adopted is the following:


Post-tensioned walls design charts 57

( 4.1 )

50
45
40
35

Stress [MPa]
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025
Strain [-]

Figure 4.4: stress-strain relationship for LVL

Post-tensioning steel
For post-tensioning steel Macalloy bars are used, the characteristics properties are
below reported.
Property Unit Characteristic value
Modulus of Elasticity (MoE) GPa 205
Ultimate tensile strength fpu MPa 1,030
Yield strength fpy MPa 30
Compression perpendicular to grain fp MPa 12

Figure 4.5: stress strain diagram for Macalloy 1030 bars

Mild steel
For the dissipaters two types of devices were used, GRADE 300 bars and GRADE 430
UFP devices.
Property Unit Characteristic value
Modulus of Elasticity (MoE) GPa 181
Yield strength fsy MPa 300
Ultimate strain su - 0.06
Table 4.2: GRADE 300 bar properties
58 Post-tensioned walls design charts

350

300

250

Stress [MPa]
200

150

100

50

0
0 0.02 0.04 0.06
Strain [-]

Figure 4.6: stress-strain relationship for mild steel

4.3 Moment-rotation analysis procedure for timber


The moment-rotation analysis procedure for hybrid sections based on the simplified
version of Monolithic Beam Analogy proposed in [34] and [35] is herein reported.

4.3.1 Fix the member rotation


A design rotation to the member has to be imposed. For a beam-column joint:

( 4.2 )

With reference to Figure 4.7.

Figure 4.7: beam-column rotation


Post-tensioned walls design charts 59

4.3.2 Guess neutral axis position

4.3.3 Section compatibility

Figure 4.8: Gap mechanism in an Internal Beam-Column Joint [38]

Post-tensioning steel

( 4.3 )

Where mp is the number of post-tensioned tendons, ni is the number of total openings


along the element, Lpubi the unbonded length.
The displacement pi can be calculated as follows:

( 4.4 )

Substituting in equation ( 4.3 ):

( 4.5 )

Where dpi is the distance of the unbonded post-tensioned tendon to the top of the
section.
Stresses can be obtained as

( 4.6 )

Where f(pi + p0i) is a function depending on the stress-strain relationship adopted.


60 Post-tensioned walls design charts

Figure 4.9: Detail of unbonded post-tensioned steel [34]

Mild steel
For mild steel the displacement at the level of the bar due to the gap opening is given
by the following equation:
( 4.7 )

Where ms is the number of mild steel levels, dsi is the distance of the partially
unbonded mild steel bar to the top of the section.
The strain can be evaluated depending on the type of dissipation [34]:
a) Internal epoxied bars

( 4.8 )

Where Lubsi is the unbonded length of the bar, 2lsp is the strain penetration
length (see 0).
b) Fuse and bonded bars

( 4.9 )

Where Afuse and Abond are the areas of the fused portion and bonded part
respectively.
c) External dissipation

( 4.10 )

Once the strain is evaluated the stress can be calculated as:


( 4.11 )

Where f(si) is the function depending on stress-strain relationship adopted.


Post-tensioned walls design charts 61

Figure 4.10: Detail of partially unbonded mild steel [34]

Timber
In the case of timber the concept of an equivalent monolithic member must be
considered. For the equivalent monolithic concrete section the tension capacity of the
concrete is assumed to be negligible. For timber, if the connection is strictly monolithic
then there will be a significant contribution due to the tensile strain of the timber at the
critical section. However, this is highly inconsistent from the hybrid member that has no
tensile contribution from the timber.
Therefore, the equivalent monolithic timber member will be assumed to have no
tensile capacity. Thus the only variation in the MBA for timber, from precast concrete
(or steel), is required in the plastic domain of displacements, where an equivalent
plastic hinge is specified.
Furthermore, it is evident that due to the low stiffness of the timber connections a
large proportion of the displacement is within the elastic range. This indicates that the
modified version of the MBA would be most appropriate [34] which accounts for the
decompression curvature of the equivalent strain compatible member [27]

( 4.12 )

Where Lcant is the contraflexure length and dec the decompression curvature.
The stress in compressed timber is given as follows:

( 4.13 )

Where f(c,max) is function of the stress-strain relationship chosen.


62 Post-tensioned walls design charts

4.3.4 Check section translation equilibrium


Once all the stresses are evaluated the section equilibrium has to be imposed:

Figure 4.11: Horizontal equilibrium forces [34]

( 4.14 )

If the equilibrium of equation ( 4.14 ) is not satisfied an iterative procedure starting


from point 4.3.2 has to be used until convergence, otherwise the moment capacity of
the section can be evaluated by means of rotational equilibrium.

( 4.15 )

Where Ms, MP and MN are respectively the moment contribution provided by mild
steel, the post-tensioned tendons and the axial load, while Mtot is the total moment
capacity. , , are the distances from the centroid of total compressive force of
mild steel, post-tensioned steel and axial load.

4.4 Moment-rotation analysis procedure with UFP devices


The moment rotation analysis procedure with UFP devices is slightly different from
the previous. First of all the analysis of both coupled walls has to be carried out, where
the difference between them is the axial force applied due to the UFP devices.

4.4.1 Behaviour of U-Shaped Flexural Plates


In the early 1970s, Kelly et al. [20] proposed rolling of mild steel strips in the form of
U-shaped Flexural Plates (UFPs) for energy dissipation in structural walls.
The metallic strip is initially in a semi-circular shape with two equal straight sections
on both sides. The two sides are attached to two structurally-separated walls.
When the structure moves laterally, the walls rock at the bottom resulting in relative
vertical displacements between the two adjacent walls.
When one side of the UFP is moving relatively to the other, the semi-circular portion
rolls along the strip and work is done at the two points where the radius of curvature is
changed from straight to the radius of the semi-circle and then from this radius to
straight. Thus at any instant the energy dissipation is concentrated on two transverse
surfaces and these two surfaces move along the strip [19].
Post-tensioned walls design charts 63

Figure 4.12: UFP geometry

Kelly et al. [20] provided the design equations for UFP devices. The yield force of the
UFP device is:

( 4.16 )

Where M0 is the yield load moment and D the diameter of the strip. For rectangular
cross sections:

( 4.17 )

Where b is the width, t the thickness of the plate and fy is the yield stress in tension.
The strain developed is only due to the thickness and the diameter of the device as
follows:

( 4.18 )

Substituting in the previous equations:

( 4.19 )

4.4.2 Analysis procedure


The procedure explained in paragraph 4.3 has to be performed considering that no
mild steel bars are present. The contribution of equation ( 4.14 ) are then the following:
( 4.20 )

Where is the axial force for the i-th wall:


( 4.21 )

( 4.22 )
64 Post-tensioned walls design charts

Where N is the axial force acting on each wall and , the number of
UFP devices.
Once the sectional equilibrium is reached for each wall the moment capacity can be
evaluated for post-tensioning and axial contributions as in equations ( 4.23 ) and
( 4.24 ).

( 4.23 )

( 4.24 )

Where Mwall,i is the axial and post-tensioning contribution, Tpi is the total post-
tensioning force of each wall, ci is the neutral axis dept of the i-th wall.
The energy dissipating moment is then:

( 4.25 )

4.5 Moment-linearization

4.5.1 Single wall


The moment-rotation chart of a particular section can be linearized, similarly to what
done for concrete sections [34], as follows:
1. The decompression point, corresponding to the gap opening;
2. the yielding point corresponding to the yield of the mild steel bars
(s=sy);
3. the serviceability point corresponding to the achievement of 1% strain
of the mild steel bars;
4. ultimate corresponding to the reaching of 6% strain in the mild steel
bars.
As it is possible to note all the points are determined as function of steel strains. This
is due to the fact timber is remaining elastic and all the plastic resources are within the
mild steel components.
Post-tensioned walls design charts 65

8000

7000

6000
Total Moment [kNm]

5000

4000

3000

2000

1000

0
0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01
Rotation [-]
Figure 4.13: moment-rotation linearization

4.5.2 Coupled walls


For coupled walls a different procedure is used. As the purpose is to have a simplified
design tool to evaluate this sections it is useful to know the values of all moments at a
fixed rotation.
Usually, while designing for seismic resistant walls, the drift of 2% is commonly used,
resulting in about 1% imposed connection rotation. The charts will be then developed
at this value of rotation.

4.6 Flag-shape
The seismic response of rocking members is usually characterized by recentering
ratio , defined as:

( 4.26 )

Where , and are respectively the contribution of post-tensioning steel, axial


force and mild steel.
66 Post-tensioned walls design charts

3000

=3.0
2000

=1.0
1000
=0.5
Total Moment [kNm]

0
-0.010 -0.005 0.000 0.005 0.010
-1000

-2000

-3000
Rotation [-]
Figure 4.14: moment-rotation chart varying

As the analyses performed in [34] highlighted, lowering the recentering ratio will
bring to a higher dissipation. So it is important to choose the right value for this
parameter during the design process in order to achieve the right dissipation of the
member.
Usually even for timber member the NZS 3101:2006 [55] is taken as reference.
( 4.27 )

ZS,c ZS,t
CS N TPT TS

c
1000
Figure 4.15: wall balance forces

For the wall shown in Figure 4.15 the recentering ratio is given by:

( 4.28 )

Where , are respectively the centroids of tensioned and compressed mild steel
bars.
Post-tensioned walls design charts 67

4.7 Strain penetration length

4.7.1 Deformed bars


The investigation of strain penetration length was previously investigated in [27] for a
beam-column joint.

Figure 4.16: averaged normalized strain penetration length [Newcombe, 2007]

Considering a constant strain along the bar and integrating the strain penetration, a
normalized strain penetration length is calculated. As shown in Figure 4.16 the average
asymptotic value is approximately 0.032.

( 4.29 )

Where fy is the yielding stress of the bar, db the bar diameter.


For a fully bonded energy dissipation system the maximum strain at the connection
interface can be approximated as:

( 4.30 )

Now the same approximate concept can be extended to energy dissipation with an
unbonded length. If the strain distribution is assumed that is uniform along the
unbonded length and the bonded region then the following expressions can be derived:

( 4.31 )

Therefore, the maximum strain, at the connection interface is:

( 4.32 )
68 Post-tensioned walls design charts

Figure 4.17: Assumed Strain distributions

The strain penetration lengths computed above are only applicable for beam-column
connections in which there are parallel to grain versus perpendicular to grain timber at
the interface. A simple approximation can be made for the component of strain
penetration for both the timber aligned parallel and perpendicular to grain. It was
indicated in previous tests that the strain within the beam, which is aligned parallel to
grain, is roughly 60% of that in the column, which is aligned perpendicular to grain.
Therefore, the strain penetration length for parallel and perpendicular to grain can be
calculated respectively:
For energy dissipation epoxied parallel to the grain:

( 4.33 )

For energy dissipation epoxied parallel to the grain:

( 4.34 )
Post-tensioned walls design charts 69

4.7.2 Threaded bars


Fully threaded bars can be utilized as dissipaters in moment-resisting connections or
shear walls. While for deformed bars previous works evaluated the value range for
strain penetration length both in parallel and perpendicular to the grain direction, no
information is present for threaded bars. The experimental results of strain penetration
length is herein reported.
Differently from the previous case, for fully threaded bars the strain penetration
length was directly measured by means of multiple strain gauges put along the
embedment length of the bar.
25 25

SG1 SG2 SG3


Figure 4.18: strain gauges configuration

Assuming a linear trend (see Figure 4.19) of strain along the glued portion of the bar
the strain penetration length can be simply evaluated from strain gauge 2 and 3.
2000

1800
400 MPa
1600
300 MPa
350 Mpa
1400
100 MPa
1200
mStrain [-]

1000

800

600

400

200

0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180
Length [mm]

Unbonded length Strain penetration length

Figure 4.19: : strain distribution along the bar


70 Post-tensioned walls design charts

The normalised strain penetration length is plotted versus the strain in the unbonded
length (measured by strain gauge 1).
0.020
Spec.1
Spec.2
0.015 Spec.3
lsp/fydb

0.010

0.006
0.005

0.000
2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000
Strain along the unbonded length [microstrain]
Figure 4.20: normalized strain penetration vs. microstrain, parallel to the grain

0.02
Spec.1
Spec.2
0.015 Spec.3
lsp/fydb

0.01

0.006
0.005

0
2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000
Strain along the unbonded length [microstrain]
Figure 4.21: normalized strain penetration vs. microstrain, perpendicular to the grain

From Figure 4.20 and Figure 4.21 the strain penetration length can be assumed as the
asymptotic value reached.
While for deformed bars this value is changing significantly for either the parallel or
perpendicular to the grain direction, in the case of threaded rods the value is the same.

( 4.35 )
Post-tensioned walls design charts 71

4.8 Structural and sectional parameters


reinf d
The section dimensions and
Mild steel the post-tensioning
reinforcement and mild steelMild
PT Reinforcement reinforcements are
steel reinforcement
taken into account as parameters.
b

dreinf h
Mild steel reinforcement PT Reinforcement Mild steel reinforcement
(a)
b

h
PT Reinforcement PT Reinforcement
b

(b)
h h
PT Reinforcement PT Reinforcement
Figure 4.22: wall sections (a) single wall, (b) coupled wall
b

From these, the dimensionless characteristics of the section can be evaluated.


h h
The non-dimensional axial force

( 4.36 )

was varied between 0.0 and 0.2. This low variability was chosen as, generally, these
walls do not carry much load to avoid crushing of timber.
Mechanical reinforcement ratios are varied between 0.0 and 0.2.

( 4.37 )

Where fs and fP are the characteristic yielding strengths of mild steel and post-
tensioning steel respectively, As and AP the mild and post-tensioning steel areas, ft the
characteristic compressive strength of timber and At the area of wood.
For mild steel reinforcement the edge distance of layers is taken into account as
parameter. This is significantly influencing the moment capacity of the section, as
shown in Figure 4.23.
0.12
Dimensionless mild steel moment

0.1

0.08 ws
0.05
(ms)

0.06
0.10

0.04 0.15
0.20
0.02

0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3
Edge distance (ds)
Figure 4.23: mild steel reinforcement edge distance influence
72 Post-tensioned walls design charts

A significant parameter for mild steel bars is the length of dissipater, for external bars,
and unbonded length for internal dissipaters. These are governing the strain in the bar,
then the moment-rotation behaviour of the section. Calculation can show that this
parameter is less and less influencing the moment capacity as the section height is
getting higher. These lengths will be thus influencing the maximum rotation achievable
by the connection.
Therefore for the development of the charts these lengths are not taken into account
anymore. They will be considered in a second step during the design process to ensure
the imposed design rotation of the connection is achievable.
The aspect ratio of the wall is not considered as parameter in the analyses. The
moment capacity of the wall, beyond certain values (higher than three times the depth
of the section) is not varying significantly (see Figure 4.24).

0.12
Non-Dimensional Moment (m)

0.10

0.08
H

0.06

0.04
Aspect Ratio = 2, 3, 4, 5

0.02

0.00
lw 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20
Non-dimensional Axial force (n)
Aspect ratio = lw/H
Figure 4.24: influence of wall aspect ratio

Moments are given as non-dimensional as well:

( 4.38 )

Where , and are respectively the mild steel, post-tensioning and axial
contribution to the total moment.
Post-tensioned walls design charts 73

4.9 Design charts

4.9.1 Single wall


0.14
Dimnesniless axial+pt moment

wP
0.12 0.20
0.15
0.10 0.10
0.05
(mAX+PT,serv)

0.08

0.06

0.04

0.02

0.00
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2
Dimensionless axial force (n)
Figure 4.25: post-tensioning and axial moment serviceability design chart

wP
n 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2
mAX+PT,serv
0.00 0.011 0.020 0.029 0.037
0.01 0.015 0.024 0.033 0.041
0.02 0.019 0.028 0.037 0.045
0.03 0.023 0.032 0.041 0.049
0.04 0.028 0.036 0.045 0.053
0.05 0.032 0.041 0.049 0.057
0.06 0.036 0.045 0.053 0.061
0.07 0.040 0.049 0.057 0.065
0.08 0.044 0.053 0.061 0.069
0.09 0.048 0.057 0.065 0.073
0.10 0.053 0.061 0.069 0.077
0.11 0.057 0.065 0.073 0.081
0.12 0.061 0.069 0.077 0.085
0.13 0.065 0.073 0.081 0.089
0.14 0.069 0.077 0.086 0.093
0.15 0.073 0.082 0.090 0.097
0.16 0.078 0.086 0.094 0.101
0.17 0.082 0.090 0.098 0.105
0.18 0.086 0.094 0.102 0.110
0.19 0.090 0.098 0.106 0.114
0.20 0.094 0.102 0.110 0.118
Table 4.3: post-tensioning and axial moment serviceability table
74 Post-tensioned walls design charts

0.08 ds

Dimensionless mild steel moment


h/8
0.07
0.06 h/5
0.05 h/4
(ms,serv)

0.04
0.03 h/3
0.02
0.01
0
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2
Mechanical mild steel reinforcemnt ratio (ws)
Figure 4.26: mild steel moment serviceability design chart

ds
ws h/3 h/4 h/5 h/8
ms+PT,serv
0.00 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
0.01 0.002 0.002 0.003 0.004
0.02 0.003 0.005 0.006 0.008
0.03 0.005 0.007 0.009 0.011
0.04 0.007 0.010 0.012 0.015
0.05 0.008 0.012 0.015 0.019
0.06 0.010 0.015 0.018 0.023
0.07 0.012 0.017 0.021 0.026
0.08 0.013 0.020 0.024 0.030
0.09 0.015 0.022 0.027 0.034
0.10 0.016 0.025 0.030 0.038
0.11 0.018 0.027 0.033 0.041
0.12 0.020 0.030 0.036 0.045
0.13 0.021 0.032 0.039 0.049
0.14 0.023 0.035 0.042 0.053
0.15 0.025 0.037 0.045 0.057
0.16 0.026 0.040 0.048 0.060
0.17 0.028 0.042 0.051 0.064
0.18 0.030 0.045 0.054 0.068
0.19 0.031 0.047 0.057 0.072
0.20 0.033 0.050 0.060 0.075
Table 4.4: steel moment serviceability design table
Post-tensioned walls design charts 75

0.14
wP

Dimensionless axial+PT moment


0.12 0.20
0.15
0.10
0.10 0.05
(mAX+PT,serv) 0.08

0.06

0.04

0.02

0.00
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2
Dimennsionless axial force (n)
Figure 4.27: post-tensioning and axial moment ultimate design chart

wP
n 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2
max+PT,ult
0.00 0.013 0.024 0.035 0.046
0.01 0.017 0.029 0.039 0.050
0.02 0.022 0.033 0.044 0.054
0.03 0.026 0.037 0.048 0.058
0.04 0.031 0.042 0.052 0.063
0.05 0.035 0.046 0.057 0.067
0.06 0.040 0.050 0.061 0.071
0.07 0.044 0.055 0.065 0.075
0.08 0.048 0.059 0.070 0.079
0.09 0.053 0.064 0.074 0.083
0.1 0.057 0.068 0.078 0.087
0.11 0.062 0.072 0.082 0.091
0.12 0.066 0.077 0.086 0.095
0.13 0.070 0.081 0.090 0.098
0.14 0.075 0.085 0.094 0.101
0.15 0.079 0.089 0.098 0.105
0.16 0.083 0.093 0.101 0.108
0.17 0.088 0.097 0.105 0.111
0.18 0.092 0.101 0.108 0.114
0.19 0.096 0.105 0.112 0.118
0.2 0.100 0.108 0.115 0.121
Table 4.5: post-tensioning and axial moment ultimate design table
76 Post-tensioned walls design charts

0.09 ds

Dimensionless mild steel moment


0.08 h/8

0.07
0.06 h/5
0.05
(ms,ult)

h/4
0.04
0.03 h/3
0.02
0.01
0
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2
Mechanical mild steel reinforcement ratio (ws)
Figure 4.28: mild steel moment ultimate design chart

ds
ws h/3 h/4 h/5 h/8
ms+PT,ult
0.00 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
0.01 0.002 0.002 0.003 0.004
0.02 0.003 0.005 0.006 0.008
0.03 0.005 0.007 0.009 0.012
0.04 0.007 0.010 0.012 0.016
0.05 0.008 0.012 0.015 0.021
0.06 0.010 0.015 0.018 0.025
0.07 0.012 0.017 0.021 0.029
0.08 0.013 0.020 0.024 0.033
0.09 0.015 0.022 0.027 0.037
0.1 0.016 0.025 0.030 0.041
0.11 0.018 0.027 0.033 0.045
0.12 0.020 0.030 0.036 0.049
0.13 0.021 0.032 0.039 0.054
0.14 0.023 0.035 0.042 0.058
0.15 0.025 0.037 0.045 0.062
0.16 0.026 0.040 0.048 0.066
0.17 0.028 0.042 0.051 0.070
0.18 0.030 0.045 0.055 0.074
0.19 0.031 0.047 0.058 0.078
0.2 0.033 0.050 0.061 0.082
Table 4.6: mild steel moment ultimate design table
Post-tensioned walls design charts 77

4.9.2 Coupled walls


0.25
wP

Dimensionless axial+PT moment


0.20
0.20 0.15
0.10
(mAX+PT,serv) 0.05
0.15

0.10

0.05

0.00
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2
Dimensionless axial force (n)
Figure 4.29: post-tensioning and axial moment design chart

wP
n 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2
mAX+PT
0 0.020 0.041 0.058 0.074
0.01 0.028 0.048 0.066 0.081
0.02 0.036 0.056 0.073 0.088
0.03 0.044 0.064 0.081 0.096
0.04 0.052 0.072 0.088 0.103
0.05 0.060 0.079 0.096 0.110
0.06 0.068 0.087 0.103 0.118
0.07 0.077 0.095 0.111 0.125
0.08 0.085 0.102 0.118 0.133
0.09 0.093 0.110 0.126 0.140
0.1 0.101 0.118 0.133 0.147
0.11 0.109 0.126 0.141 0.155
0.12 0.117 0.133 0.148 0.162
0.13 0.125 0.141 0.156 0.170
0.14 0.133 0.149 0.163 0.177
0.15 0.141 0.157 0.171 0.184
0.16 0.149 0.164 0.178 0.192
0.17 0.157 0.172 0.186 0.199
0.18 0.165 0.180 0.194 0.207
0.19 0.173 0.187 0.201 0.214
0.2 0.181 0.195 0.209 0.221
Table 4.7: post-tensioning and axial moment design table
78 Post-tensioned walls design charts

0.1
ms
0.09 0.000 0.000
Dimension less mild steel moment (ms)

0.005 0.005
0.08 0.010 0.010
0.015 0.015
0.07 0.020 0.020
0.025 0.025
0.06 0.030 0.030
0.035 0.034
0.05 0.040 0.039
0.04 0.045 0.044
0.050 0.049
0.03 0.055 0.054
0.060 0.058
0.02 0.065 0.063
0.070 0.067
0.01 0.075 0.072
0.080 0.077
0 0.085 0.081
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.090 0.086
0.095 0.090
Dimensionless UFP shear force ()
0.100 0.095

Figure 4.30: dissipating shear design chart


Post-tensioned walls design charts 79

4.10 Design examples


Assuming the following design assumptions:

Imposing a recentering ratio the following moment contributions can be


calculated:

4.10.1 Single wall


Fixing the wall geometry at 1893,600 mm, the non-dimensional parameters can be
calculated.

From Figure 4.25 and Table 4.3 a post-tensioning mechanical ratio is


needed.
0.14
Dimensionless axial+PT moment

wP
0.12 0.20
0.15
0.10 0.10
0.05
(mAX+PT,serv)

0.08

0.06

0.04

0.02
0.02
0.00
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2
Dimensionless axial force (n)
Now considering Macalloy post-tensioning bars ( ):

Assuming 40 mm diameter bars:


80 Post-tensioned walls design charts

0.08 ds

Dimensionless mild steel moment


h/8
0.07

0.06 h/5
0.05 h/4
(ms,serv)

0.04
0.03 h/3
0.02
0.013
0.01
0.063
0
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2
Mechanichal mild reinforcement ratio (ws)

Using 26 mm mild steel bars:

For mild steel dissipaters different configuration are possible:


100100
300
300 100
100 100
100 100
100

450
450
450
450

(a) (b)
Figure 4.31: dissipaters configuration

The length of dissipaters can be evaluated by means of a sectional equilibrium.

( 4.39 )

Where , , bringing to the following neutral axis formula:

( 4.40 )

For the neutral axis evaluated in Equation ( 4.40 ) and the design imposed rotation,
dissipater can be dimensioned depending on its type:
Internal bars

( 4.41 )
Post-tensioned walls design charts 81

Considering then the different strain penetration lengths the following unbonded
lengths have to be provided to avoid failure of dissipater at 1% imposed
connection rotation:
o Deformed: ;
o Threaded:
External bars

( 4.42 )

For external bars no strain penetration contribution shall be considered then the
length of dissipater shall be 500 mm.

4.10.2 Coupled walls


Assuming that the same amount of vertical load is carried by each wall and fixing the
wall geometry at 1892,100 mm, the non-dimensional parameters can be calculated
with reference to the dimensions of one wall.

The same design loads are assumed to design a coupled wall solution. A mechanical
ratio of is worked out, consisting in:

0.25
wP
Dimensionless axial+PT moment

0.20
0.20 0.15
0.10
0.05
(mAX+PT,serv)

0.15

0.10

0.058
0.05

0.00
0.017
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2
Dimensionless axial force (n)
For 40 mm diameter bars:

So a total of 2 layers of post-tensioning bars for each wall is necessary.


82 Post-tensioned walls design charts

0.1

Dimensionless mild steel moment


0.09
0.08
0.07
0.06
0.05
(ms)

0.04 0.038
0.03
0.02
0.01
0.039
0
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1
Dimensionless UFP shear force ()

The non-dimensional shear force needed is then:

Now knowing the force and fixing the dimensions of the devices (see equation
( 4.19 )):

And then the total number of devices:


83

5 Case study

5.1 Introduction
The Quest Hotel in Napier was selected as a suitable case study building due to the its
regularity. The building has been designed and constructed using a combination of
steel and concrete structural systems. For the purpose of the present document the
structure will be re-designed using post-tensioned timber frame [1].

Figure 5.1: Case study building front view


84 Case study

Figure 5.2: case study building plan view

The following schemes will be considered for beams within gravity frame:
Simply supported beam (no post-tension or draped/straight profile);
Continuous beam (either 2 or 3 spans, no post-tension or draped profile);

Figure 5.3: beam configurations

While for carrying the horizontal loads two main types of walls will be considered:
single wall with internal or external dissipaters;
coupled walls with UFP devices.
Single wall

Internal dissipaters

PT bars

Coupled walls

PT bars UFP device

Figure 5.4: walls solutions


Case study 85

5.2 Gravity frame

5.2.1 Load calculations


A timber-concrete composite floor is considered.
Concrete topping

Component Density [kN/m3]


Plywood
Concrete topping 24
Plywood (21 mm) 6.2
LVL Joists 6.2
LVL Joist

Weights
Concrete
Plywood
Joists
Services
Total
Considering this dead load and the office use, as prescribed by NZS 3603 [54]:
Dead load: ;
Live load:

5.2.2 Load combinations


Short-term Long-term Combination
Character for imposed
factor factor factor
action
( ) ( ) ( )
Floors
Residential and domestic 0.7 0.4 0.4
Offices 0.7 0.4 0.4
Parking 0.7 0.4 0.4
Retail 0.7 0.4 0.4
Storage 1.0 0.6 0.6
Other 1.0 0.6 0.6
Roofs
Roofs used for
0.7 0.4 0.4
floor type activities
All other roofs 0.7 0 0
Table 5.1: combination factors [51]

Ultimate limit state (ULS)


( 5.1 )

Which leads to

Serviceability Limit State, Short-term (SLS,S)

( 5.2 )
86 Case study

Where is the short-term factor given in Table 5.1. Equation ( 5.2 ) brings to
.

Serviceability Limit State, Short-term (SLS,L)

( 5.3 )

Then with a value of the long-term factor equal to 0.4 as in Table


5.1.

Beam loads
As shown in the plan view of Figure 5.1the longest floor span in the building is 6.1 m,
thus the beam loads are the following:
;
;
.

5.2.3 Frame configurations


Different configurations of the frame are now considered:
a) frame with simply supported not post-tensioned beams;
b) frame with simply supported post-tensioned beams (straight/ draped profiles);
c) frame with continuous (either 3 or 2 spans) not post-tensioned beams;
d) frame with continuous (either 3 or 2 spans) post-tensioned beams (draped
profile).

7100 7100 7100 7100 7100 7100


500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500

23300 23300

Figure 5.5: gravity frame configurations


Case study 87

5.2.4 Beam sections


Under loads given in paragraph 5.2.2 the section can be evaluated from the tables
discussed in Chapter 4 and reported in Appendix A. Below an example of utilization of
the table it is shown.
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Maximum Live Load - q [kN/m]
5 >50 48 43 38 32 30 25 22 19 17 14 13 11 8 5 - - - - - -
7 >50 46 42 37 33 28 24 21 17 14 14 9 6 - - - - - - - -

17 44 38 34 30 25 22 18 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
19 42 37 32 29 25 21 16 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - -

49 18 13 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 16 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]


g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 8.0 7.5
8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Suggested Design Assumption: %dead; %live
5 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.00.8;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.21.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - -
7 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.00.8;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.31.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - -

17 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.00.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.41.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - - - - - -


19 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.00.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.41.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - - - - - -

49 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Table 5.2: load span tables - simply supported, straight tendon, 300526 mm (t f=tw=63 mm)

In the following table the pre-dimensioned sections are shown.


Sections dimension PT Force Design ass.
Static conf. Profile
[mm] [kN] [%dead, %live]
Simply supported - 300736 - -
Simply supported Straight 300526 753 1.0; 0.4
Simply supported Draped 300526 589 1.0; 0.2
Continuous 2 spans - 300586 - -
Continuous 2 spans Draped 300486 653 1.0; 0.4
Continuous 3 spans - 300586 - -
Continuous 3 spans Draped 300426 627 1.0; 0.3
Table 5.3: sections pre-dimensioning

5.2.5 Simply supported beam straight tendon


tw
Parameter Unit Value
b mm 300
h mm 526
tf mm 63
tw mm 63
h

A mm2 88,200
As mm2 50,400
tf I mm4 2.71109
Z mm3 1.03107
b
Table 5.4: simply supported beam section properties
88 Case study

Post-tensioning design
With the suggested design assumption in Table 5.3 the post-tensioning design load is:

And then the post-tensioning force:

Therefore the number of strands needed for the section, considering only 70% of
yielding force is reached, is:

Ultimate limit state


200 250
200
100
150
100
0
50
0 1.9 3.8 5.7 7.6
-100 0
-50 0 1.9 3.8 5.7 7.6
-200
-100
-150
-300 PT
-200
Total
-400 Dist. -250

Figure 5.6: ULS moment and shear distributions

Bending and compression

Shear

Stress check
Case study 89

Serviceability limit state

Deflection short term

.
, .
, .

Deflection long term


Considering the procedure proposed in [13] and reported in Chapter 2, the post-
tensioning long term losses are:
( ) . ,
Using this new force:

.
, .
, .

5.2.6 Simply supported beam draped tendon

Post-tensioning design

In the case of draped tendon the contribution of tendon elongation to post-tensioning


force could be significant.
Considering the iterative method proposed in [37] this contribution is calculated at
ultimate limit state to dimension the number of strands needed:

The number of strands needed is then:


90 Case study

Ultimate limit state


200 250
200
100
150
100
0
50
0 1.9 3.8 5.7 7.6
-100 0
-50 0 1.9 3.8 5.7 7.6
-200
-100
-150 PT
-300 PT Total
-200
Total Dist.
-400 Dist. -250

Figure 5.7: ULS moment and shear distributions

Bending and compression

Shear

Stress check

Serviceability limit state

Deflection short term


Case study 91

.
, .
, .

Deflection long term


( ) . , , ,

.
, .
, .

5.2.7 Continuous two-spans beam draped tendon


tw
Parameter Unit Value
b mm 300
h mm 486
tf mm 63
tw mm 63
h

A mm2 83,160
As mm2 45,360
tf I mm4 2.19109
Z mm3 9.03106
b

Post-tensioning design

The tendon elongation effect at ultimate limit state brings to:

The number of strands needed:

Ultimate limit state


200
400
Dist. 150
300 PT
100
Total
200 50
0
100
-50 0 1.9 3.8 5.7 7.6
0
-100
-100 0 1.9 3.8 5.7 7.6
-150
-200 Dist.
-200
PT
-250
-300 Total
-300
Figure 5.8: ULS moment and shear distributions (symmetric structure)
92 Case study

Bending and compression

Shear

Stress check

Serviceability limit state

Deflection short term

.
, . .
, .

Deflection long term


( ) . , , ,

.
, . .
, .
Case study 93

5.2.8 Continuous three-spans beam draped tendon


tw
Parameter Unit Value
b mm 300
h mm 426
tf mm 63
tw m 63
h A mm2 75,600
As mm2 37,800
tf I mm4 1.54109
Z mm3 7.24106
b

Post-tensioning design

The tendon elongation effect:

The number of strands needed:

Ultimate limit state


1000 800
Dist. Dist.
800 PT PT
600
600 Total Total
400
400
200 200
0 0
-200 0.0 3.8 7.6 11.4
-200 0.0 3.8 7.6 11.4
-400
-600 -400

-800 -600

Figure 5.9: moment and shear ULS distributions (symmetric structure)

Bending and compression

Shear
94 Case study

Stress check

Serviceability limit state

Deflection short term

.
, . .
, .

Deflection long term


( ) . , , ,

.
, . .
, .

5.2.9 Comparison
In the following table the computation of material needed for each configuration is
reported.
Lbeam Beam vol. Columns vol. Timber volume Lstrands
Frame (a)
[m] [m3] [m3] [m3] [m]
(a) 213 24.42 25.2 49.62 0.0% 0
(b) 213 18.79 25.2 43.99 11.4% 449
(c) 234 22.41 21.6 44.01 11.3% 0
(d) 234 19.45 21.6 41.05 17.3% 495
Table 5.5: materials needed for each configuration

The material saving in terms of volume is not much significant, but more beneficial is
the reduction in section depth (see Table 5.3). This has a significant influence on the
architectural aspect of the design. In fact this allows to have long-span beams without
having huge sections.
Case study 95

5.3 Seismic walls

5.3.1 DDBD procedure for timber


For the seismic design of the case study building we assume that all the horizontal
loadings are absorbed by two rocking walls.
Applying Direct Displacement Base Design [44] the structure is modelled as a single
degree of freedom (SDOF) system.

Figure 5.10: Single-degree of freedom system [44]

Design displacement
First step of the design process is to calculate the design displacement, the effective
mass, and the effective height.

( 5.4 )

Where:

( 5.5 )

Taking into account a linear displacement profile through the height of the wall:

( 5.6 )

The effective mass:

( 5.7 )

The effective height:

( 5.8 )

The following parameters are then calculated:


96 Case study

level hi [mm] i [mm] mi [t] mi i [mmt] mi i2 [mm ] mi ihi [mm t]


3 2

3 10,500 131 120 15,750 2,067,188 165,375,000


2 7,000 87.5 120 10,500 918,750 73,500,000
1 3,500 43.8 120 5,250 229,688 18,375,000
TOT 360 31,500 3,215,625 257,250,000
Table 5.6: SDOF parameters

From values evaluated in Table 5.6 the following parameters can be found:

Hysteretic viscous damping


Now the equivalent viscous damping shall be calculated as:

( 5.9 )

The elastic damping can be assumed to be 2% [11]. According to Priestley et al [44]


this value should be corrected, by , to give an equivalent secant stiffness elastic
damping. This correction is based on ductility. However, it could be argued that 2%
elastic damping is already a conservative elastic damping value considering Filiatrault
et al. [11] obtained at least 3% elastic damping for light timber frame houses [26].
The rocking wall system is characterized by a flag-shaped hysteresis (see Figure 5.11).

Figure 5.11: flag-shaped hysteresis [44]

Designing the wall so that it fully re-centers after the seismic event, the recentering
ratio, as defined for precast concrete in Appendix B of NZS 3101 [55], shall be:

( 5.10 )

Where is the moment due to post-tensioning force, is the moment


contribution of axial force acting on the wall and is the moment provided by
dissipating reinforcement.
A value of 1.5 for the self-centering ratio is chosen as suitable. This is related to the
viscous damping as follows:
Case study 97

( 5.11 )

Where:

( 5.12 )

And the displacement ductility:

( 5.13 )

For timber walls, unlike reinforced concrete, it is not reasonable to assume that the
yield displacement is independent of strength (as assumed by Priestley et al. [44]).
Bernoulli hypothesis is not appropriate at the base of the walls. In addition, the
majority of elastic deformation is from the deformation of the structural elements
which is directly dependent on strength. This implies that the displacement-based
design procedure for timber walls must be iterative, to ensure the correct yield
displacement and ductility has been assumed. However, the following expression can
be used as an initial guess [26]:

( 5.14 )

Where is the length of the wall.


For present design example it is:
.

The area-based damping can now be calculated:

This viscous damping should be corrected by the correction factor given in Priestley et
al. [44] and modified by Newcombe et al. [32] on the base of research performed by
Grant et al. [16].

( 5.15 )

Where:

( 5.16 )

Therefore:

Now the elastic damping correction factor shall be calculated as follows:


( 5.17 )
98 Case study

Where is the power coefficient, which it is reasonable to assume the factor of 0.43
for thin flag shape hysteresis [44].

And finally the equivalent viscous damping:

Effective period
Knowing the equivalent viscous damping the last step before determining the secant
stiffness of the SDOF structure is to derive the effective period from the reduced design
displacement spectrum.
The scale factor:

( 5.18 )

0.4
0.35
0.3
0.25
Sd [m]

0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05
0
0 1 1.18 2 3 4
Period [s]

Table 5.7: reduced design displacement spectrum [53]

Base moment and shear


Once the effective period of the structure is known the equivalent lateral stiffness can
be obtained as:

( 5.19 )

And then the base shear:


( 5.20 )

The base moment:


( 5.21 )

These last parameters will be used for the design of post-tensioned with design tool
proposed in Chapter 6. After having chosen the wall geometry the yield displacement
will have to be checked and, in case, the DDBD procedure shall be iterated.
Case study 99

5.3.2 Wall design


Now the useful parameters for the design of the wall system are evaluated.
Considering the recentering ratio used for Direct Displacement Based Design in the
previous paragraph, the moment for each contribution shall be:

( 5.22 )

( 5.23 )

Then for the case study considered:


( 5.24 )

With reference to the plan view of Figure 5.2 the wall brings:
( 5.25 )

5.3.3 Single wall


The axial force and moment of equations ( 5.24 ) and ( 5.25 ) are assumed and the
post-tensioned walls reinforcements can be evaluated.
The wall geometry of 1893,600 mm is chosen, then:

0.14
Dimensionless axial + PT moment

wP
0.12 0.20
0.15
0.10 0.10
0.05
(mAX+PT,serv)

0.08

0.06

0.04
0.038
0.02
0.02
0.00
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2
Dimensionless axial force (n)
A post-tensioning reinforcement ratio is needed.
100 Case study

For mild steel reinforcement the edge distance is set to h/8, then:
Dimensionless mild steel moment
0.08 ds
h/8
0.07
0.06 h/5
0.05
h/4
(ms,serv)

0.04
0.03 h/3
0.026
0.02
0.01
0.063
0
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2
Mechanichal mild reinforcement ratio (ws)

Dissipater design
While the moment capacity of the wall is defined with the mild steel and post-
tensioning reinforcements, the design connection rotation shall be controlled. This is
done evaluating the length of dissipaters, similarly to design example of Chapter 4.

The connection design rotation , ultimate strain of mild steel of 6% and


external dissipation devices are considered:
.
, , .
.
Then a length of 400 mm is enough to let the connection reach the design rotation
without the failure of dissipaters.
Case study 101

Yield displacement
8000

7000
Connection Moment [kNm]

6000

5000

PT+Axial
4000
Mild Steel
3000 Total

2000

1000

0
0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 0.012
Rotation [-]
Figure 5.12: moment-rotation analysis of designed single wall

As aforementioned the yield displacement guessed during DDBD design process is to


be checked.
For a single wall with dissipaters the yielding displacement will be consisting of an
elastic displacement of the wall and the displacement due to the opening of the gap:

( 5.26 )

The elastic displacement is corresponding to the deformation of the wall before the
opening of the gap:

( 5.27 )

Where is the decompression moment, the height of the wall.


As it can be noted from the moment-rotation analysis of the designed wall shown in
Figure 5.12, the yield rotation of the connection is about 0.1%.
, . . .
Then the total yield displacement for the wall:
.
For this calculation a linear distribution of moment was assumed. Then for the
equivalent SDOF structure:

, . .
The design is then conservative.
102 Case study

5.3.4 Coupled walls


The dimensions 1892,400 mm for each wall are fixed. The dimensionless parameter
are evaluated with reference of the single wall, thus:

0.25
wP
Dimensionless axial + PT moment

0.20
0.20 0.15
0.10
0.05
(mAX+PT,serv)

0.15

0.10
0.086

0.05

0.00
0.014
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2
Dimensionless axial force (n)
A mechanical reinforcement ratio is needed.

That means 440 mm Macalloy bars.

0.1
Dimensionless mild steel moment

0.09
0.08
0.07
0.06 0.058
(ms)

0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01
0.059
0
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1
Dimensionless UFP shear force ()
The mild steel moment capacity is achieved for a dimensionless shear force
.
Case study 103

According to Kelly et al. [20] the maximum strain only depends on the thickness of the
bent plate and its radius:

( 5.28 )

Assuming a strain limitation of 10% and a thickness of 20 mm:

And then the shear capacity of a single UFP device:

The total number of devices needed is given by the following:

Therefore a total of 15 single UFPs or 8 double UFPs is required.

Yield displacement
As done for the single wall, even for this solution the yield displacement assumed for
DDBD design shall be checked.
Similarly to coupled precast concrete walls, the elastic rotation can be calculated as in
[24]. The rotation is computed from a linear curvature distribution:

( 5.29 )

The curvature demand acting on the wall is approximated from the average over
turning moment acting on each post-tensioned wall as follows:

( 5.30 )

Hence the elastic rotation:

( 5.31 )

For the case study designed wall:

, .
According to [20] the yielding of UFP devices occurs for very small displacements. It is
then suitable considering this elastic rotation as the yielding rotation, obtaining then
the yielding displacement.
.
Assuming a linear distribution the yield displacement of the SDOF structure is given
by:

, . .
104 Case study

The design is then conservative for design coupled wall too. Thus iterating DDBD
design is not necessary.

5.4 System details


In the present paragraph some details of the designed solutions are shown. For beams
under gravity loads both simply supported and continuous configurations are viable
solutions.
For this configuration a critical part is the anchorage since the system needs some
extra space. Similarly to concrete the anchorage can be created inside the hollow core
section of the beam.
Extra LVL sheet

PT Strands

PT Anchorage

Figure 5.13: PT anchorage details

With this solution the beam can be easily put in place on the column with the corbel,
which provides share strength.
Column

Timber corbel Steel corbel

Figure 5.14: beam-column joint

The design of post-tensioned wall considered different configurations and dissipation


devices. Usually external dissipaters shall be preferred since they can be easily replaced
after the seismic damage. Despite internal dissipaters are commonly used.
Usually dealing with single walls external devices consist of fused bars protected
against buckling by a pipe filled with epoxy. This bars are then fixed to the wall with
bolted steel plates.
Case study 105

Instead if dissipater is internal, it is usually glued inside the section of the wall with
epoxy and grouted in the basement.
epoxied connection

epoxied length

mild steel
reinforcement

(a) (b)
PT reinforcement
Figure 5.15: single wall with internal (a) and external (b)dissipaters detail

Coupled walls configuration is often utilized with UFP devices.

UFP Devices
R

PT reinforcement
Figure 5.16: coupled walls with UFP devices detail [48]
106 Case study

Realizing finally a frame-wall solution, both gravity dominated and seismic members
can be coupled with a hinged system, similarly to solution adopted in NMIT building as
highlighted in Figure 5.17.

Figure 5.17: beam-wall joint, NMIT building, Nelson


107

6 Conclusions

6.1 Summary
The study carried out in this document was focused on the analysis of post-tensioned
timber frames. The first main part of the thesis concentrated on the behaviour of beams
within gravity dominated frames. The analyses conducted had the objective of
standardization and optimization of the section, with the purpose of developing
simplified design tools for post-tensioned beams. These tools proved very useful, as
shown in the case study, for a first evaluation of the dimensions of the section, as the
design process could be iterative.
A different beam configuration was then proposed and experimentally investigated.
For this configuration the main issues were highlighted and different solutions were
proposed.
A wall-frame solution was proposed in order to maintain the improvements of post-
tension in gravity frames and to provide a seismic resistant component as well.
Post-tensioning rocking shear walls were used and for these members simplified
design tools were developed as well.
The final part, consisting of the case study building, was used to highlight the different
advantages deriving by post-tensioned gravity dominated frames and to show the
utilization of the aforementioned design tools for both beams and walls.
108 Conclusions

6.2 Final conclusions


The introduction of post-tensioning strands in beams within gravity dominated
frames brings the design from a deflection-governed design to a strength-governed
one. This leads the beam to reach longer spans and to carry a significantly high load.
While the case study highlighted not a significant amount of timber volume
(maximum 17%) can be saved by post-tensioning, a very important reduction of
section height can be achieved.
For the alternative configuration with draped post-tensioning strands through the
column the perpendicular to the grain issue was solved by reinforcing the simple LVL
column or by the utilization of crossbanded LVL. Both of these solutions were proven
effective to solve the perpendicular to the grain damage to the column at ultimate limit
state.
The development of simplified design tools and design guidelines for this type of
configuration is possible. In the document a model is proposed but further numerical
investigations based on experimental results are necessary in order to assess precisely
the connection behaviour.
The combination of gravity dominated frames and seismic resistant shear walls is a
viable solution. The utilization of this frame-wall system allows to have an optimized
gravity dominated frame and a horizontal load carrying capacity.
As the design process of post-tensioned shear walls is iterative, simplified design tools
are useful for a simplified design, similarly to concrete ductile connections [24].
Different wall solutions can be adopted and for each design charts were developed.
The case study highlighted all the advantages deriving by these techniques and
showed the utilization of the developed design tools, which brings to a simple and
quick design process.
109

7 Bibliography

[1-6, 8-47, 49-62]


[1] J. M. M. Amigo, "Feasibility of Multi-storey Pres-Lam Timber Buildings: Design,
Construction and Cost," MSc Thesis, Napier University, Edinburgh, 2010.
[2] I. Bejtka and H. J. Blass, "Self-tapping screws as reinforcement in beam
supports," presented at the CIB-W18, Florence, Italy, 2006.
[3] A. H. Buchanan and New Zealand Timber Industry Federation., Timber design
guide, 3rd ed. [Wellington, N.Z.]: New Zealand Timber Industry Federation,
2007.
[4] A. H. Buchanan, S. Pampanin, A. Palermo and M. P. Newcombe, "Non-
conventional multi-storey timber building using posttensioning," presented at
the 11th international conference on non-conventional materials and
technologies, Bath, UK, 2009.
[5] G. M. Calvi and M. J. N. Priestley, Seismic design and retrofitting of reinforced
concrete bridges : proceedings of the International Workshop held in Bormio
(Italy) on April 2-5, 1991. Pavia, [Italy]: LitoLine Arti Grafiche, 1991.
[6] Timber structures - Joints made with mechanical fasteners, EN 26891, 1991.
[7] Timber structures - Test methods - Cyclic testing of joints made with mechanical
fasteners, EN 12512, 2001.
[8] B. Dal Lago and C. Dibenedetto, "Use of longitudinal unbonded post-tensioning
in multi-storey timber buildings," MSc Thesis, Technical University of Milan,
Milan, 2009.
[9] X. Deng, "Strength of the epoxy bonded steel connection " PhD Thesis,
University of Canterbury, Christuchurch, 1997.
[10] S. European Committee for, Eurocode 5: design of timber structures: Central
Secretariat, CEN, 1994.
[11] A. Filiatrault, M.ASCE and B. Folz, "Performance-Based Design of Wood Framed
Buildings," Journal of Structural Engineering, vol. 128, 2002.
[12] M. Fragiacomo, M. Batchelar, C. Wallington and A. H. Buchanan, "Moment joints
in timber frames using glued-in steel rods: experimental investigation of
longterm performance," presented at the WCTE, 2010.
110 Bibliography

[13] S. Giorgini, "Service load analysis and design of long span unbonded post-
tensioned timber beams," MSc Thesis, Technical University of Milan, Milan,
2009.
[14] S. Giorgini, A. Neale, A. Palermo, D. Carradine, S. Pampanin and A. H. Buchanan,
"Predicting Time Dependent Effects in Unbonded Post-tensioned Timber Beams
and Frames," presented at the CIB W18, Nelson, New Zealand, 2010.
[15] K. H. Gtz, Timber design and construction sourcebook: a comprehensive guide to
methods and practice: McGraw-Hill, 1989.
[16] D. N. Grant, C. A. Blandon and M. J. N. priestley, "Modelling inelastic response in
Direct Displacement-Based Design," Pavia Report 2005/03, 2005.
[17] T. Herzog, Timber construction manual: Birkhuser, 2004.
[18] A. Iqbal, S. Pampanin and A. H. Buchanan, "Seismic Performance of Prestressed
Timber Beam-Column Sub-Assemblies," presented at the New Zealand Society
for Earthquake Engineering Conference, Wellington, New Zealand, 2010.
[19] A. Iqbal, S. Pampanin, A. H. Buchanan and A. Palermo, "Improved Seismic
Performance of LVL Post-tensioned Walls Coupled with UFP devices,"
presented at the 8th Pacific Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Singapore,
2007.
[20] J. M. Kelly, R. I. Skinner and A. J. Heine, "Mechanism of Energy Absorption in
Special Devices for Use in Earthquake Resistant Structures," Bulletin New
Zealand Society of Earthquake Engineering, vol. 5, 1974.
[21] J. Kolb, Lignum and H. Deutsche Gesellschaft fr, Systems in timber engineering :
loadbearing structures and component layers. Basel; Boston: Birkhuser, 2008.
[22] M. J. Kowalsky, M. J. N. Priestley, G. A. MacRae, Structural Systems Research
Project. and California. Dept. of Transportation, Displacement-based design : a
methodology for seismic design applied to single degree of freedom reinforced
concrete structures. La Jolla, Calif.: Structural Systems Research University of
California San Diego, 1994.
[23] S. D. Nakaki, J. F. Stanton and S. Sritharan, "An overview of the PRESSS five-story
precast test building," PCI journal, vol. 44, pp. 26-26, 1999.
[24] New Zealand Concrete Society, PRESSS Design Handbook, 2010.
[25] New Zealand National Society for Earthquake Engineering. and M. J. N. Priestley,
Seismic design of storage tanks : recommendations of a study group of the New
Zealand National Society for Earthquake Engineering. [Wellington, N.Z.]: The
Society, 1986.
[26] M. P. Newcombe, "Title," unpublished|.
[27] M. P. Newcombe, "Seismic Design of Multistorey Post-Tensioned Timber
Buildings," Universit degli Studi di Pavia, Pavia, 2007.
[28] M. P. Newcombe, M. Cusiel, S. Pampanin, A. Palermo and A. H. Buchanan,
"Simplified Design of Post-tensioned Timber Buildings," in CIB W18, Nelson,
New Zealand, 2010.
[29] M. P. Newcombe, M. Cusiel, S. Pampanin, A. Palermo and A. H. Buchanan,
"Simplified Design of Post-tensioned Timber Buildings," presented at the CIB
W18, 2010.
[30] M. P. Newcombe, S. Pampanin and A. H. Buchanan, "Design, fabrication and
assembly of a two-storey post-tensioned timber building," presented at the
WCTE 2010, 2010.
[31] M. P. Newcombe, S. Pampanin and A. H. Buchanan, "Global Response of a Two
Storey Pres-Lam Timber Building," presented at the NZSEE Conference, 2010.
[32] M. P. Newcombe, S. Pampanin, A. H. Buchanan and A. Palermo, "Section Analysis
and Cyclic Behavior of Post-Tensioned Jointed Ductile Connections for Multi-
Story Timber Buildings," Journal of Earthquake Engineering, 2008.
Bibliography 111

[33] D. Otero, J. Estvez, E. Martn and J. Vzquez, "Failure modes in double-sided


pull-out test of threaded steel rdos glued in hardwood," in WCTE, 2010.
[34] A. Palermo, "The use of controlled rocking in the seismic design of bridges " PhD
Thesis, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, 2004.
[35] A. Palermo and S. Pampanin, "Analysis and simplified design of precast jointed
ductile connections," presented at the WCEE, Beijing, China, 2008.
[36] A. Palermo, S. Pampanin, A. H. Buchanan and M. P. Newcombe, "Seismic design
of multi-storey buildings using laminated veneer lumber (LVL)," in Annual
National Conference, Wairakei, New Zealand, 2005.
[37] A. Palermo, S. Pampanin, D. Carradine, A. H. Buchanan, B. Dal Lago, C.
Dibenedetto, S. Giorgini and P. Ronca, "Enhanced performance of longitudinally
post-tensioned long-span LVL beams," in WCTE, Riva del Garda, Italy, 2010.
[38] S. Pampanin, "Alternative design philosophies and seismic response of precast
concrete buildings," PhD Thesis, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, 2000.
[39] S. Pampanin, C. Pagani and S. Zambelli, "Cable-stayed and suspended post-
tensioned solutions for precast concrete frames: the Brooklyn system," in New
Zealand Concrete Society Conference, Queenstown: New Zealand, 2004.
[40] S. Pampanin, A. Palermo, A. H. Buchanan, M. Fragiacomo and B. Deam, "Code
provisions for seismic design of multi-storey post-tensioned timber buildings,"
in Meeting of the Working Commission W18-Timber Structures, Florence, Italy,
2006.
[41] S. Pampanin, M. J. N. Priestley and S. Sritharan, "Analytical modelling of the
seicmic behaviour of precast concrete frames designed with ductile
connections," Journal of Earthquake Engineering, vol. 5, pp. 329-367, 2001.
[42] T. Paulay and M. J. N. Priestley, Seismic design of reinforced concrete and
masonry buildings. New York: Wiley, 1992.
[43] I. Prestressed Concrete, Fundamentals of prestressed concrete design:
Prestressed Concrete Institute., 1968.
[44] M. J. N. Priestley, G. M. Calvi and M. J. Kowalsky, Displacement-based seismic
design of structures: IUSS Press, 2007.
[45] M. J. N. Priestley and M. J. Kowalsky, "Aspects of drift and ductility capacity of
rectangular cantilever structural walls," Bulletin New Zealand Society of
Earthquake Engineering, 1998.
[46] M. J. N. Priestley, S. Sritharan, J. R. Conley and S. Pampanin, "Preliminary
Results and Conclusions from the PRESSS Five-Story Precast Concrete Test
Building," PCI Journal, vol. 44, 1999.
[47] F. Sarti, "Simplified design methods for post-tensioned timber buildings," MSc
Thesis, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, 2011.
[48] F. Sarti, A. Palermo, W. Van Beerschoten and S. Pampanin, "Simplified design
tools for post-tensioned timber beams and walls," presented at the SEWC,
Como, Italy, 2011.
[49] T. Smith, "Feasibility of Multi Storey Post Tensioned Timber Buildings:
Detailing, Cost and Construction," MSc Thesis, University of Canterbury,
Christchurch, 2008.
[50] T. Smith, S. Pampanin, A. H. Buchanan and M. Fragiacomo, "Feasibility and
Detailing of Post-tensioned Timber Buildings for Seismic Areas," in New Zealand
Society of Earthquake Engineering (NZSEE) Conference, Wairakei, New Zealand,
2008.
[51] Standards New Zealand, AS/NZS 1170.0: Structural Design Action - Part 0:
General principles, 2002.
[52] Standards New Zealand, AS/NZS 1170.1: Structural Design Actions - Part 1:
Permanent, Imposed and other actions, 2002.
112 Bibliography

[53] Standards New Zealand, AS/NZS 1170.5: Structural Design Actions - Part 5:
Earthquake actions, 2004.
[54] Standards New Zealand, AS/NZS 3603, 1993.
[55] Standards New Zealand, NZS 3101: Concrete Structures Standard, 2006.
[56] Standards New Zealand, NZS 3404: Steel Structures Standard, 2009.
[57] L. Taerwe and Workshop, Durability of post-tensioning tendons : proceedings of a
workshop held at Ghent University on 15 - 16 November 2001 ; technical report.
Lausanne: fib, 2001.
[58] S. Thelandersson and H. J. Larsen, Timber engineering. Chichester: Wiley, 2003.
[59] W. Van Beerschoten and M. P. Newcombe, The effect of floor flexibility on the
seismic behaviour of post-tensioned timber buildings. Christchurch, N.Z.: Dept. of
Civil & Natural Resources Engineering, University of Canterbury, 2010.
[60] W. Van Beerschoten, A. Palermo, D. Carradine, F. Sarti and A. H. Buchanan,
"Experimental Investigation on the Stiffness of Beam-Column Connections in
Post-Tensioned Timber Frames," presented at the SEWC, 2010.
[61] A. Van Houtte, "Innovative connections in laminated veneer lumber using
epoxied steel rods," MSc Thesis, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, 2003.
[62] J. Vessby and A. Olsson, "Stability strategies for multi-story timber frame
structures," presented at the World Conference on Timber Engineering,
Portland, USA, 2006.
113

8 Appendix A: beam calculations

8.1 Introduction
In the following appendix all calculation performed for beam equations are reported.
For each beam configuration shear, moment, curvature and deflection equation are
shown and on the basis of design philosophy explained in Chapter 2 and the
aforementioned equations the post-tensioning design force is worked out.

8.1.1 Simply supported beam

Distributed load
Taking into account the beam and the load distribution shown in Figure 8.1:
pd,pt

Figure 8.1: simply supported beam, distributed load

The beam equations are below reported.


l
x

Shear

( 8.1 )
114 Appendix A: beam calculations

Moment

( 8.2 )

Curvature

( 8.3 )

Deflection

( 8.4 )

The maximum deflection is achieved in :

( 8.5 )

Straight tendon
e

FP FP

Figure 8.2: simply supported beam straight tendon

l
x

Shear
( 8.6 )

Moment
( 8.7 )

Curvature

( 8.8 )

Deflection

( ) ( ) ( 8.9 )
Appendix A: beam calculations 115

The pre-camber due to post-tensioning moment at mid-span (maximum deflection of


distributed load configuration, see ( 8.5 )) is given by:

( 8.10 )

Equalizing the total deflection due to distributed loads and tendons to zero:

It is possible to calculate the post-tensioning force as:

( 8.11 )

Draped tendon
FP,V FP,V
FP FP
FP,H e FP,H

FP,V FP,V
Figure 8.3: simply supported beam draped tendon

l/2
x

Shear

( 8.12 )

Moment

( 8.13 )

Curvature

( 8.14 )
116 Appendix A: beam calculations

Deflection

( 8.15 )

The pre-camber at mid-span:

( 8.16 )

In the present case the post-tensioning force is given by equation ( 8.17 ):

( 8.17 )

Where , as in Figure 8.3, represents the horizontal component of post-tensioning


force. Then, considering the angle , the post-tensioning force can
be calculated as:

( 8.18 )

And the vertical component:

( 8.19 )

8.1.2 Continuous beam 2 spans

Distributed load
pd,pt

Figure 8.4: continuous beam, 2 spans, distributed load

Referring to Figure 8.4, the symmetry of the beam will be taken into account and all
calculations for this type of beam will be performed using the below configuration:
l
x

Shear

( 8.20 )
Appendix A: beam calculations 117

Moment

( 8.21 )

Curvature

( 8.22 )

Deflection

( 8.23 )

The x coordinate of maximum is given by the following equation:

( 8.24 )

Which brings to:

( 8.25 )

Then the maximum deflection of the continuous beam, subjected to the distributed
load, is:

( 8.26 )

Draped tendon
FP FP,V FP,V FP

FP,H FP,H
a FP,V 2FP,V 2FP,V FP,V
Figure 8.5: continuous beam, 2 spans, draped tendon

For this case the optimization of tendon profile can be achieved. The distance a from
support is considered as key parameter. The optimization is assumed reached as far as
the moment area due to pd,pt is equal to the one due to post-tensioning force.
The optimal value is:
( 8.27 )

Thus the beam equation considering this value are reported below.
118 Appendix A: beam calculations

Shear

( 8.28 )

Moment

( 8.29 )

Curvature

( 8.30 )

Deflection

( 8.31 )

The pre-camber corresponding to is:

( 8.32 )

Then vertical component of post-tensioning force is given by:

( 8.33 )
Appendix A: beam calculations 119

8.1.3 Continuous beam 3 spans

Distributed load
pd,pt

Figure 8.6: continuous beam, 3 spans, distributed load

The following symmetric static scheme will be considered:


l l/2
x1 x2

Shear

( 8.34 )

Moment

( 8.35 )

Curvature

( 8.36 )

Deflection

( 8.37 )

The maximum deflection in the present case is equal to:

( 8.38 )

At the x coordinate:
120 Appendix A: beam calculations

( 8.39 )

Draped tendon
e1 e2

FP FP,V FP,V FP

FP,H FP,H
FP,V 2FP,V 1.5FP,V 1.5F 2FP,V FP,V
a b P,V

Figure 8.7: continuous beam, 3 spans, draped tendon

The optimization of this configuration is similar to the previous. The tendon


eccentricity of the middle span is taken into account as second key parameter.
In fact, owing to the moment distribution of three-spans beam, the moment in this
span is lower.
( 8.40 )

With this assumption the same method as paragraph 8.1.2 has been adopted to find
the optimal distances of the sloped portion of the cable.

( 8.41 )

l l/2
x1 x2

Shear

( 8.42 )
Appendix A: beam calculations 121

Moment

( 8.43 )

Curvature

( 8.44 )

Deflection

( 8.45 )

The deflection at xMAX is then:

( 8.46 )

The following post-tensioning design equation is obtained.

( 8.47 )

Applying equation ( 8.18 ) the post-tensioning force is evaluated.


122 Appendix A: beam calculations
123

9 Appendix B: Load span tables

9.1 Introduction
In the present appendix all the load-span tables developed for case k2=2.0 are
reported. Below the section scheme and beam configurations are reported.
tw b h
300 426
300 486
300 526
300 586
300 736
h

400 426
400 486
tf 400 526
400 586
b 400 736
= 2 strands, = 4 strands, = 7 strands
The configurations considered are the following:

Figure 9.1: static configurations


124 Appendix B: Load span tables

9.2 Tables
9.2.1 Simply supported beam
9.2.1.1 No tendons

300426
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Maximum Live Load - q [kN/m]
5 37 24 15 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
7 32 19 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
9 27 14 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
11 22 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
13 17 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
15 12 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
17 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
19 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
21 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
23 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

300486
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Maximum Live Load - q [kN/m]
5 47 40 28 19 12 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
7 46 35 23 14 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
9 44 30 18 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
11 43 25 13 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
13 38 20 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
15 33 15 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
17 28 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
19 23 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
21 18 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
23 13 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Appendix B: Load span tables 125

300526
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Maximum Live Load - q [kN/m]
5 >50 48 37 26 18 12 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
7 >50 46 32 21 13 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
9 50 43 27 16 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
11 48 38 22 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
13 47 33 17 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
15 45 28 12 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
17 44 23 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
19 40 18 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
21 35 13 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
23 30 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 25 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 20 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 15 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

300586
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Maximum Live Load - q [kN/m]
5 >50 >50 >50 40 29 21 15 10 6 - - - - - - - - - - - -
7 >50 >50 49 35 24 16 10 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
9 >50 >50 44 30 19 11 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
11 >50 >50 39 25 14 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
13 >50 49 34 20 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
15 >50 48 29 15 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
17 >50 45 24 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
19 >50 40 19 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
21 49 35 14 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
23 47 30 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 46 25 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 44 20 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 43 15 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 40 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 35 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 30 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 25 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 20 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 15 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

300736
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Maximum Live Load - q [kN/m]
5 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 46 39 30 23 17 13 9 6 - - - - - - - -
7 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 45 34 25 18 12 8 - - - - - - - - - -
9 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 40 29 20 13 7 - - - - - - - - - - -
11 >50 >50 >50 >50 49 35 24 15 8 - - - - - - - - - - - -
13 >50 >50 >50 >50 45 30 19 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
15 >50 >50 >50 >50 40 25 14 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
17 >50 >50 >50 >50 35 20 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
19 >50 >50 >50 50 30 15 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
21 >50 >50 >50 45 25 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
23 >50 >50 >50 40 20 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 >50 >50 >50 35 15 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 >50 >50 >50 30 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 >50 >50 50 25 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 >50 >50 47 20 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 >50 >50 42 15 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 >50 >50 37 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 >50 50 32 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 >50 48 27 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 >50 47 22 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 >50 45 17 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 >50 43 12 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 50 42 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 48 40 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 47 35 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
126 Appendix B: Load span tables

400426
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Maximum Live Load - q [kN/m]
5 39 34 23 15 9 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
7 37 29 18 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
9 35 24 13 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
11 34 19 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
13 30 14 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
15 25 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
17 20 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
19 15 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
21 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
23 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

400486
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Maximum Live Load - q [kN/m]
5 47 43 38 27 19 13 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
7 46 41 33 22 14 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
9 44 39 28 17 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
11 43 38 23 12 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
13 41 34 18 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
15 39 29 13 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
17 38 24 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
19 36 19 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
21 35 14 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
23 31 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 26 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 21 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 16 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

400526
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Maximum Live Load - q [kN/m]
5 >50 48 43 36 26 19 13 8 5 - - - - - - - - - - - -
7 >50 46 42 31 21 14 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
9 50 45 40 26 16 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
11 48 43 35 21 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
13 47 41 30 16 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
15 45 40 25 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
17 44 38 20 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
19 42 34 15 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
21 40 29 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
23 39 24 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 37 19 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 36 14 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 34 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 32 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 27 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 22 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 17 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 12 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Appendix B: Load span tables 127

400586
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Maximum Live Load - q [kN/m]
5 >50 >50 >50 46 39 29 21 15 11 7 - - - - - - - - - - -
7 >50 >50 49 45 34 24 16 10 6 - - - - - - - - - - - -
9 >50 >50 47 43 29 19 11 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
11 >50 >50 46 38 24 14 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
13 >50 49 44 33 19 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
15 >50 48 43 28 14 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
17 >50 46 41 23 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
19 >50 45 36 18 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
21 49 43 31 13 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
23 47 41 26 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 46 40 21 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 44 38 16 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 43 36 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 41 31 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 39 26 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 38 21 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 36 16 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 35 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 33 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 31 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 30 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 28 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 23 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 18 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

400736
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Maximum Live Load - q [kN/m]
5 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 50 39 31 24 18 14 10 7 - - - - - - -
7 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 45 34 26 19 13 9 5 - - - - - - - -
9 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 40 29 21 14 8 - - - - - - - - - -
11 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 49 35 24 16 9 - - - - - - - - - - -
13 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 44 30 19 11 - - - - - - - - - - - -
15 >50 >50 >50 >50 50 39 25 14 6 - - - - - - - - - - - -
17 >50 >50 >50 >50 49 34 20 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
19 >50 >50 >50 >50 47 29 15 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
21 >50 >50 >50 50 42 24 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
23 >50 >50 >50 49 37 19 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 >50 >50 >50 47 32 14 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 >50 >50 >50 45 27 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 >50 >50 50 44 22 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 >50 >50 48 41 17 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 >50 >50 46 36 12 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 >50 >50 45 31 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 >50 50 43 26 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 >50 48 42 21 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 >50 47 40 16 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 >50 45 38 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 >50 43 37 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 50 42 34 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 48 40 29 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 47 39 24 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
128 Appendix B: Load span tables

9.2.1.2 Straight tendon


300426
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Maximum Live Load - q [kN/m]
5 39 35 31 28 24 20 17 14 12 9 6 - - - - - - - - - -
7 37 33 29 26 22 18 14 9 6 - - - - - - - - - - - -
9 36 32 28 25 20 18 11 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
11 34 30 27 23 18 13 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
13 32 27 25 21 18 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
15 31 27 23 21 13 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
17 29 25 22 19 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
19 28 24 20 16 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
21 26 22 19 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
23 24 20 17 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 23 18 15 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 21 16 13 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 20 16 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 18 14 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 16 12 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 15 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 13 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 12 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]


g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Suggested Design Assumption: %dead; %live
5 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 - - - - - - - - - -
7 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 - - - - - - - - - - - -
9 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
11 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
13 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
15 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
17 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
19 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
21 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
23 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.3 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.3 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Appendix B: Load span tables 129

300486
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Maximum Live Load - q [kN/m]
5 47 43 39 33 28 26 22 19 16 14 11 8 6 - - - - - - - -
7 46 41 37 31 28 24 20 17 15 11 7 - - - - - - - - - -
9 44 39 35 32 27 22 19 17 12 6 - - - - - - - - - - -
11 43 38 34 31 25 21 18 14 7 - - - - - - - - - - - -
13 41 36 31 29 24 21 17 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
15 39 35 31 27 24 20 12 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
17 38 33 29 26 23 18 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
19 36 31 27 24 21 13 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
21 35 30 26 23 20 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
23 33 28 24 21 17 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 31 27 22 19 12 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 30 25 20 18 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 28 23 19 16 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 27 22 18 14 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 25 20 16 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 23 19 15 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 22 17 13 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 20 15 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 19 14 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 17 12 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 15 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 14 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 12 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 11 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]


g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Suggested Design Assumption: %dead; %live
5 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 - - - - - - - -
7 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - - -
9 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - - - -
11 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - - - - -
13 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
15 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
17 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
19 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
21 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
23 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

300526
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Maximum Live Load - q [kN/m]
5 >50 48 43 38 32 30 25 22 19 17 14 13 11 8 5 - - - - - -
7 >50 46 42 37 33 28 24 21 17 14 14 9 6 - - - - - - - -
9 50 45 40 35 32 27 22 19 17 15 9 - - - - - - - - - -
11 48 43 39 34 30 25 20 19 16 10 - - - - - - - - - - -
13 47 41 37 33 28 23 21 17 11 5 - - - - - - - - - - -
15 45 40 35 32 27 22 20 15 6 - - - - - - - - - - - -
17 44 38 34 30 25 22 18 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
19 42 37 32 29 25 21 16 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
21 40 35 31 27 24 20 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
23 39 33 29 25 22 18 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 37 32 27 24 21 13 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 36 30 26 22 19 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 34 29 24 21 15 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 32 27 22 19 12 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 31 25 20 17 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 29 24 19 16 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 28 22 18 13 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 26 21 16 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 24 19 15 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 23 17 13 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 21 16 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 20 14 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 18 13 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 16 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
130 Appendix B: Load span tables

Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]


g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Suggested Design Assumption: %dead; %live
5 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - -
7 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - -
9 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - - -
11 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - - - -
13 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - - - -
15 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - - - - -
17 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
19 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
21 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
23 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

300586
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Maximum Live Load - q [kN/m]
5 >50 >50 >50 46 42 36 30 27 23 21 18 16 13 11 12 9 7 - - - -
7 >50 >50 49 45 40 34 29 25 22 19 16 14 13 11 7 - - - - - -
9 >50 >50 48 42 39 33 27 24 20 19 16 14 10 6 - - - - - - -
11 >50 >50 46 41 37 31 26 22 17 17 15 10 5 - - - - - - - -
13 >50 49 44 40 35 30 24 21 19 16 12 5 - - - - - - - - -
15 >50 48 43 38 34 28 23 21 18 14 7 - - - - - - - - - -
17 >50 46 41 37 32 27 24 20 17 9 - - - - - - - - - - -
19 >50 45 40 35 31 28 23 19 13 - - - - - - - - - - - -
21 49 43 38 34 29 26 21 15 8 - - - - - - - - - - - -
23 47 41 36 32 26 25 20 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 46 40 35 30 27 24 17 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 44 38 33 29 25 22 12 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 43 37 32 27 24 20 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 41 35 30 25 22 14 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 39 33 28 23 20 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 38 32 27 22 19 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 36 30 25 21 17 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 35 29 24 19 13 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 33 27 22 18 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 31 25 20 16 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 30 24 19 14 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 28 22 17 13 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 27 21 16 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 25 19 14 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]


g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Suggested Design Assumption: %dead; %live
5 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - -
7 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - -
9 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - -
11 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - -
13 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - -
15 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - - -
17 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - - - -
19 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - - - - -
21 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - - - - -
23 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Appendix B: Load span tables 131

300736
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Maximum Live Load - q [kN/m]
5 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 45 40 35 31 28 25 22 19 17 16 14 13 13 11 10
7 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 44 38 34 30 26 23 20 18 15 16 14 13 11 10 8
9 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 50 43 37 32 28 25 21 19 16 16 14 13 11 9 6 -
11 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 49 41 35 31 26 23 20 19 17 15 13 10 7 - - -
13 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 46 42 36 31 27 24 21 18 16 12 8 5 - - - -
15 >50 >50 >50 >50 50 45 41 35 30 26 22 19 16 13 9 - - - - - -
17 >50 >50 >50 >50 49 44 39 34 29 25 21 18 14 8 - - - - - - -
19 >50 >50 >50 >50 47 41 38 32 28 24 19 15 9 - - - - - - - -
21 >50 >50 >50 50 45 40 37 31 26 22 17 11 - - - - - - - - -
23 >50 >50 >50 49 44 38 36 30 25 20 14 6 - - - - - - - - -
25 >50 >50 >50 47 42 37 34 28 23 19 9 - - - - - - - - - -
27 >50 >50 >50 45 41 35 33 27 22 14 - - - - - - - - - - -
29 >50 >50 50 44 39 34 31 25 19 5 - - - - - - - - - - -
31 >50 >50 48 42 37 32 30 24 14 - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 >50 >50 46 41 36 31 28 22 6 - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 >50 >50 45 39 34 30 26 18 5 - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 >50 50 43 37 33 28 25 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 >50 48 42 36 31 27 23 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 >50 47 40 34 29 25 15 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 >50 45 38 33 28 24 13 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 >50 43 37 31 26 22 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 50 42 35 29 25 20 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 48 40 34 28 23 19 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 47 39 32 26 21 17 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]


g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Suggested Design Assumption: %dead; %live
5 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4
7 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4
9 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 -
11 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - -
13 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 - - - -
15 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 - - - - - -
17 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 - - - - - - -
19 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 - - - - - - - -
21 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 - - - - - - - - -
23 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - -
25 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 - - - - - - - - - -
27 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 - - - - - - - - - - -
29 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - -
31 1.0;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 1.0;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

400426
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Maximum Live Load - q [kN/m]
5 39 35 31 29 26 24 21 17 17 15 11 8 5 - - - - - - - -
7 37 33 30 25 25 23 19 18 16 11 6 - - - - - - - - - -
9 35 31 28 25 23 19 19 17 11 6 - - - - - - - - - - -
11 34 30 27 24 21 19 18 13 6 - - - - - - - - - - - -
13 32 28 25 22 20 18 16 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
15 31 27 23 21 18 16 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
17 29 25 22 19 17 14 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
19 27 23 20 15 15 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
21 26 22 19 16 13 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
23 24 20 16 14 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 23 19 14 13 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 21 17 14 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 19 15 12 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 18 14 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 16 12 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 15 11 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 13 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 11 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 10 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
132 Appendix B: Load span tables

Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]


g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Suggested Design Assumption: %dead; %live
5 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - -
7 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - - -
9 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - - - -
11 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - - - - -
13 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
15 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
17 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
19 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
21 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
23 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

400486
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Maximum Live Load - q [kN/m]
5 47 43 39 35 32 30 28 24 21 19 17 15 13 10 7 5 - - - - -
7 46 41 37 34 29 28 26 22 20 18 15 13 9 5 - - - - - - -
9 44 39 35 32 29 27 25 22 19 16 13 8 - - - - - - - - -
11 43 38 34 30 28 25 23 21 18 14 8 - - - - - - - - - -
13 41 36 32 29 26 23 21 19 14 9 - - - - - - - - - - -
15 39 35 31 27 24 22 20 15 9 - - - - - - - - - - - -
17 38 33 29 26 23 20 18 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
19 36 31 27 24 19 19 15 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
21 35 30 26 22 20 17 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
23 33 28 24 21 18 14 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 31 27 23 18 16 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 30 25 21 18 15 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 28 23 19 16 12 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 27 22 18 14 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 25 20 16 13 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 23 19 15 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 22 17 13 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 20 15 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 19 14 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 17 12 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 15 11 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 14 9 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 12 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 11 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]


g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Suggested Design Assumption: %dead; %live
5 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - -
7 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - -
9 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - -
11 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - - -
13 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - - - -
15 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - - - - -
17 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
19 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
21 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
23 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Appendix B: Load span tables 133

400526
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Maximum Live Load - q [kN/m]
5 >50 48 43 40 37 33 31 27 24 21 18 15 13 14 12 10 7 5 - - -
7 >50 46 42 38 35 32 30 26 23 21 18 16 14 11 8 5 - - - - -
9 50 45 40 37 33 31 28 26 22 19 17 15 11 6 - - - - - - -
11 48 43 39 35 30 29 27 24 21 18 14 10 6 - - - - - - - -
13 47 41 37 33 30 27 25 23 19 14 9 5 - - - - - - - - -
15 45 40 35 32 29 25 23 21 15 9 5 - - - - - - - - - -
17 44 38 34 30 27 24 22 20 12 5 - - - - - - - - - - -
19 42 37 32 29 25 23 20 15 7 - - - - - - - - - - - -
21 40 35 31 27 24 21 19 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
23 39 33 29 25 20 19 14 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 37 32 27 24 21 18 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 36 30 26 22 19 16 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 34 29 24 21 17 13 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 32 27 23 19 16 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 31 25 21 17 14 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 29 24 19 16 13 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 28 22 18 14 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 26 21 16 13 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 24 19 15 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 23 17 13 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 21 16 11 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 20 14 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 18 13 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 16 11 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]


g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Suggested Design Assumption: %dead; %live
5 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - -
7 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - -
9 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - -
11 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - -
13 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - -
15 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 - - - - - - - - - -
17 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 - - - - - - - - - - -
19 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 - - - - - - - - - - - -
21 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
23 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

400586
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Maximum Live Load - q [kN/m]
5 >50 >50 >50 46 43 40 37 33 29 25 22 20 18 15 15 14 12 11 9 7 -
7 >50 >50 49 45 41 38 35 31 27 24 22 20 17 15 14 12 10 7 - - -
9 >50 >50 47 43 39 36 34 30 26 24 21 18 16 13 10 8 5 - - - -
11 >50 >50 46 42 38 35 32 28 24 23 20 16 12 8 5 - - - - - -
13 >50 49 44 40 36 33 30 28 25 21 18 13 8 5 - - - - - - -
15 >50 48 43 38 35 32 28 26 23 20 14 8 - - - - - - - - -
17 >50 46 41 37 33 30 27 25 22 15 8 - - - - - - - - - -
19 >50 45 39 35 31 28 26 23 17 11 - - - - - - - - - - -
21 49 43 38 34 30 27 24 21 15 6 - - - - - - - - - - -
23 47 41 36 32 28 23 22 20 10 - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 46 40 35 30 27 24 21 14 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 44 38 33 29 25 22 19 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 43 37 31 27 23 20 17 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 41 35 30 26 22 19 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 39 33 28 24 20 17 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 38 32 27 22 19 16 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 36 30 25 21 17 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 35 29 23 19 15 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 33 27 22 18 14 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 31 25 20 16 12 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 30 24 19 14 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 28 22 17 13 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 27 21 15 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 25 19 14 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
134 Appendix B: Load span tables

Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]


g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Suggested Design Assumption: %dead; %live
5 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 -
7 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - -
9 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - -
11 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 - - - - - -
13 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 - - - - - - -
15 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 - - - - - - - - -
17 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 - - - - - - - - - -
19 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 - - - - - - - - - - -
21 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 - - - - - - - - - - -
23 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

400736
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Maximum Live Load - q [kN/m]
5 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 50 46 40 35 33 30 27 24 22 20 19 17 16 14 13
7 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 49 44 38 34 32 28 25 22 20 20 18 16 14 12 10
9 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 47 43 37 35 30 26 24 23 20 18 16 14 12 9 7
11 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 49 45 41 37 33 29 27 24 21 19 17 13 9 6 - -
13 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 48 44 41 36 34 30 26 22 20 16 12 9 5 - - -
15 >50 >50 >50 >50 50 46 42 39 34 33 28 24 21 18 13 8 - - - - -
17 >50 >50 >50 >50 49 44 41 37 33 31 27 22 19 12 7 - - - - - -
19 >50 >50 >50 >50 47 43 39 36 31 29 25 21 14 8 - - - - - - -
21 >50 >50 >50 50 45 41 37 34 31 28 24 17 10 - - - - - - - -
23 >50 >50 >50 49 44 40 36 33 30 26 21 13 5 - - - - - - - -
25 >50 >50 >50 47 42 38 34 31 28 25 16 7 - - - - - - - - -
27 >50 >50 >50 45 41 36 33 29 27 20 9 - - - - - - - - - -
29 >50 >50 50 44 39 35 31 28 25 13 - - - - - - - - - - -
31 >50 >50 48 42 37 33 29 26 23 12 - - - - - - - - - - -
33 >50 >50 46 41 36 32 28 25 17 - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 >50 >50 45 39 34 30 26 23 15 - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 >50 50 43 37 33 28 25 21 7 - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 >50 48 42 36 31 27 23 20 5 - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 >50 47 40 34 29 25 21 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 >50 45 38 33 28 24 20 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 >50 43 37 31 26 22 18 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 50 42 35 29 25 20 16 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 48 40 34 28 23 19 14 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 47 39 32 26 21 17 12 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]


g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Suggested Design Assumption: %dead; %live
5 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3
7 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3
9 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3
11 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 - -
13 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 - - -
15 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 - - - - -
17 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 - - - - - -
19 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - -
21 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - -
23 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - -
25 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - -
27 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - -
29 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - -
31 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - -
33 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Appendix B: Load span tables 135

9.2.1.3 Draped tendon


300426
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Maximum Live Load - q [kN/m]
5 49 41 34 28 24 20 17 13 11 11 10 7 - - - - - - - - -
7 48 40 32 26 22 18 16 14 12 9 5 - - - - - - - - - -
9 47 38 30 25 22 18 15 13 9 - - - - - - - - - - - -
11 46 36 29 23 21 17 14 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
13 46 37 30 24 19 15 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
15 45 36 28 23 18 11 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
17 44 34 27 21 16 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
19 43 33 26 20 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
21 41 32 24 16 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
23 40 31 23 12 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 39 29 20 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 38 27 17 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 36 26 12 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 34 24 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 33 20 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 31 15 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 30 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 28 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 27 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 22 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 12 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]


g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Suggested Design Assumption: %dead; %live
5 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - -
7 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - - -
9 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - - - - -
11 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
13 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
15 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
17 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
19 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
21 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
23 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 1.0;0.2 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 1.0;0.1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
136 Appendix B: Load span tables

300486
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Maximum Live Load - q [kN/m]
5 >50 >50 42 36 30 26 22 19 16 14 13 12 10 9 7 5 - - - - -
7 >50 50 41 34 28 24 20 19 16 14 12 10 8 5 - - - - - - -
9 >50 49 39 32 27 22 20 17 15 13 9 6 - - - - - - - - -
11 >50 49 40 33 27 23 19 16 12 8 - - - - - - - - - - -
13 >50 48 39 32 26 22 18 15 9 - - - - - - - - - - - -
15 >50 47 38 31 25 20 16 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
17 >50 45 36 29 24 19 11 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
19 >50 44 35 28 22 15 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
21 47 43 34 26 20 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
23 47 42 33 25 18 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 46 41 31 23 13 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 43 39 29 20 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 50 37 28 18 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 49 36 26 13 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 48 35 25 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 45 33 20 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 44 31 12 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 43 30 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 40 28 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 39 27 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 38 18 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 36 16 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 35 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 33 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]


g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Suggested Design Assumption: %dead; %live
5 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - -
7 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - -
9 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - -
11 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 - - - - - - - - - - -
13 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 - - - - - - - - - - - -
15 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
17 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
19 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
21 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
23 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 1.0;0.2 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 1.0;0.1 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

300526
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Maximum Live Load - q [kN/m]
5 >50 >50 49 41 35 30 25 22 19 17 14 14 12 11 10 9 8 5 - - -
7 >50 >50 47 40 33 28 24 21 19 17 14 13 11 9 7 5 - - - - -
9 >50 >50 46 40 33 28 24 21 18 15 13 9 6 - - - - - - - -
11 >50 >50 47 39 32 27 23 20 17 14 10 6 - - - - - - - - -
13 >50 >50 45 37 31 26 22 18 15 9 5 - - - - - - - - - -
15 >50 >50 44 36 30 25 20 16 10 5 - - - - - - - - - - -
17 >50 50 43 35 29 23 18 13 6 - - - - - - - - - - - -
19 >50 48 42 34 27 22 17 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
21 >50 47 41 33 26 20 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
23 >50 50 39 30 24 15 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 >50 48 38 29 23 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 >50 47 36 27 20 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 48 46 35 26 15 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 48 44 33 24 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 47 42 32 21 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 45 41 30 13 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 42 39 28 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 41 38 27 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 41 37 19 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 50 35 18 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 47 33 16 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 46 32 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 45 29 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 43 27 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Appendix B: Load span tables 137

Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]


g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Suggested Design Assumption: %dead; %live
5 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - -
7 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - -
9 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 - - - - - - - -
11 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 - - - - - - - - -
13 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 - - - - - - - - - -
15 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 - - - - - - - - - - -
17 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 - - - - - - - - - - - -
19 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
21 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
23 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.2 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 1.0;0.2 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

300586
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Maximum Live Load - q [kN/m]
5 >50 >50 >50 49 42 36 31 26 23 20 18 16 15 14 12 11 10 9 7 6 5
7 >50 >50 >50 48 41 34 29 25 22 21 18 16 14 13 11 8 6 - - - -
9 >50 >50 >50 48 41 35 30 26 22 19 17 14 13 11 7 - - - - - -
11 >50 >50 >50 47 40 34 29 25 21 18 15 13 8 5 - - - - - - -
13 >50 >50 >50 46 39 32 28 23 19 17 12 9 - - - - - - - - -
15 >50 >50 >50 45 37 31 26 22 18 14 8 - - - - - - - - - -
17 >50 >50 48 44 36 30 24 20 17 9 - - - - - - - - - - -
19 >50 >50 47 43 35 28 23 19 12 - - - - - - - - - - - -
21 >50 >50 46 41 33 27 21 15 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
23 >50 >50 50 40 32 25 20 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 >50 >50 49 38 30 23 15 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 >50 >50 47 37 29 22 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 >50 >50 45 35 27 19 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 >50 50 44 33 26 12 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 >50 48 42 32 24 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 >50 47 40 30 17 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 >50 45 39 28 15 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 >50 44 38 27 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 >50 48 36 23 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 49 47 35 22 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 48 46 33 12 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 47 44 30 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 >50 43 29 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 >50 41 28 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]


g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Suggested Design Assumption: %dead; %live
5 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4
7 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 - - - -
9 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 - - - - - -
11 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 - - - - - - -
13 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 - - - - - - - - -
15 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 - - - - - - - - - -
17 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 - - - - - - - - - - -
19 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 - - - - - - - - - - - -
21 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
23 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
138 Appendix B: Load span tables

300736
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Maximum Live Load - q [kN/m]
5 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 46 40 35 31 27 24 22 20 17 15 16 14 13 12 11
7 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 50 47 41 36 32 28 25 23 20 18 16 14 13 12 10 8
9 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 49 46 40 35 31 27 24 21 18 16 15 13 11 9 5 -
11 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 48 45 39 34 30 26 22 20 17 15 13 8 7 - - -
13 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 46 43 38 33 28 24 21 18 16 11 8 - - - - -
15 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 49 42 36 30 26 23 19 16 13 8 - - - - - -
17 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 48 41 34 29 24 21 18 12 6 - - - - - - -
19 >50 >50 >50 >50 50 47 39 33 27 23 19 14 7 - - - - - - - -
21 >50 >50 >50 >50 48 46 38 31 26 22 17 9 - - - - - - - - -
23 >50 >50 >50 >50 47 43 37 30 24 20 11 - - - - - - - - - -
25 >50 >50 >50 >50 46 42 34 28 23 15 5 - - - - - - - - - -
27 >50 >50 >50 >50 50 41 33 27 22 13 - - - - - - - - - - -
29 >50 >50 >50 >50 49 39 31 25 17 6 - - - - - - - - - - -
31 >50 >50 >50 >50 47 38 30 23 10 - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 >50 >50 >50 50 45 36 28 22 8 - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 >50 >50 >50 48 44 35 26 13 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 >50 >50 >50 47 41 32 25 12 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 >50 >50 >50 >50 40 32 19 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 >50 >50 >50 >50 39 29 17 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 >50 >50 >50 48 37 28 15 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 >50 >50 >50 47 36 25 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 >50 >50 >50 46 34 23 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 >50 >50 >50 44 33 22 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 >50 >50 >50 43 30 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]


g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Suggested Design Assumption: %dead; %live
5 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3
7 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3
9 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 -
11 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 - - -
13 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 - - - - -
15 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 - - - - - -
17 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - -
19 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - -
21 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - -
23 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - -
25 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - -
27 1.0;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - -
29 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - -
31 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

400426
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Maximum Live Load - q [kN/m]
5 >50 47 42 37 31 27 23 20 17 15 13 11 9 7 5 - - - - - -
7 >50 46 42 36 30 25 22 19 15 12 9 6 - - - - - - - - -
9 50 45 41 34 29 24 20 17 13 9 5 - - - - - - - - - -
11 49 44 40 33 27 22 19 13 7 - - - - - - - - - - - -
13 48 43 39 32 25 21 13 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
15 48 43 37 30 24 16 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
17 47 42 35 28 21 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
19 46 41 34 27 16 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
21 45 38 32 24 12 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
23 45 37 31 19 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 44 37 28 14 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 42 34 26 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 40 33 20 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 39 31 13 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 36 30 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 36 28 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 34 19 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 32 18 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 30 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 30 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 27 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 26 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 17 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 15 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Appendix B: Load span tables 139

Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]


g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Suggested Design Assumption: %dead; %live
5 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - -
7 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 - - - - - - - - -
9 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 - - - - - - - - - -
11 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 - - - - - - - - - - - -
13 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
15 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
17 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
19 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
21 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
23 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 1.0;0.2 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 1.0;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 1.0;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

400486
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Maximum Live Load - q [kN/m]
5 >50 >50 >50 46 39 34 29 25 22 19 17 15 13 11 9 7 5 - - - -
7 >50 >50 >50 45 38 32 28 24 21 18 15 13 10 8 5 - - - - - -
9 >50 >50 50 44 37 31 27 22 19 16 12 8 5 - - - - - - - -
11 >50 >50 49 42 35 30 25 21 16 11 8 - - - - - - - - - -
13 >50 >50 48 41 34 28 23 18 13 7 - - - - - - - - - - -
15 >50 >50 48 40 32 27 22 14 8 - - - - - - - - - - - -
17 >50 >50 47 38 31 25 16 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
19 >50 >50 43 36 29 21 13 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
21 >50 50 43 34 28 19 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
23 >50 49 42 33 25 14 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 >50 46 39 31 19 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 >50 45 38 30 12 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 >50 44 37 25 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 >50 41 35 24 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 49 41 34 16 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 48 40 32 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 47 37 25 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 45 37 23 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 43 34 14 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 42 33 12 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 40 31 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 39 30 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 37 22 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 36 20 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]


g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Suggested Design Assumption: %dead; %live
5 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 - - - -
7 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 - - - - - -
9 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 - - - - - - - -
11 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 - - - - - - - - - -
13 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 - - - - - - - - - - -
15 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 - - - - - - - - - - - -
17 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
19 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
21 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
23 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 1.0;0.1 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 1.0;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
140 Appendix B: Load span tables

400526
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Maximum Live Load - q [kN/m]
5 >50 >50 >50 >50 45 38 33 29 25 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 5 - -
7 >50 >50 >50 >50 43 37 32 28 24 21 18 16 14 12 9 6 - - - - -
9 >50 >50 >50 50 42 36 31 27 22 19 17 13 9 6 - - - - - - -
11 >50 >50 >50 49 41 35 29 25 21 17 13 9 5 - - - - - - - -
13 >50 >50 >50 48 40 33 28 23 19 14 8 - - - - - - - - - -
15 >50 >50 >50 46 37 31 26 22 13 8 - - - - - - - - - - -
17 >50 >50 >50 44 36 29 25 16 10 - - - - - - - - - - - -
19 >50 >50 >50 43 35 28 21 12 5 - - - - - - - - - - - -
21 >50 >50 48 41 33 26 16 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
23 >50 >50 48 39 32 25 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 >50 >50 47 38 30 19 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 >50 >50 45 37 26 13 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 >50 >50 43 35 25 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 >50 50 42 34 18 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 >50 49 39 32 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 >50 46 39 25 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 >50 45 36 23 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 >50 44 36 14 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 >50 41 33 13 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 >50 41 32 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 48 38 32 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 47 37 21 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 47 34 19 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 44 34 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]


g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Suggested Design Assumption: %dead; %live
5 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 - -
7 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 - - - - -
9 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 - - - - - - -
11 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 - - - - - - - -
13 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 - - - - - - - - - -
15 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - -
17 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - -
19 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - -
21 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
23 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 1.0;0.2 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

400586
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Maximum Live Load - q [kN/m]
5 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 46 40 35 31 27 24 22 19 17 15 14 12 11 10 8 6
7 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 45 39 34 29 26 23 20 18 16 14 11 8 6 5 - -
9 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 43 37 32 28 24 21 19 15 12 10 6 - - - - -
11 >50 >50 >50 >50 50 42 36 30 26 23 19 17 12 8 5 - - - - - -
13 >50 >50 >50 >50 48 41 34 29 24 21 17 11 7 - - - - - - - -
15 >50 >50 >50 >50 47 39 33 27 23 17 13 5 - - - - - - - - -
17 >50 >50 >50 >50 45 38 31 26 20 12 6 - - - - - - - - - -
19 >50 >50 >50 >50 44 35 30 24 15 8 - - - - - - - - - - -
21 >50 >50 >50 >50 42 34 28 19 10 - - - - - - - - - - - -
23 >50 >50 >50 50 40 33 27 13 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 >50 >50 >50 48 39 31 23 12 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 >50 >50 >50 46 37 29 17 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 >50 >50 >50 45 36 28 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 >50 >50 >50 43 34 22 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 >50 >50 50 42 33 14 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 >50 >50 49 41 29 12 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 >50 >50 48 39 27 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 >50 >50 45 37 18 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 >50 >50 44 35 16 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 >50 >50 42 34 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 >50 >50 41 26 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 >50 48 38 25 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 >50 47 37 23 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 >50 45 37 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Appendix B: Load span tables 141

Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]


g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Suggested Design Assumption: %dead; %live
5 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3
7 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 - -
9 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 - - - - -
11 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 - - - - - -
13 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - -
15 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - -
17 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - -
19 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - -
21 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - -
23 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

400736
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Maximum Live Load - q [kN/m]
5 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 45 40 36 32 29 26 24 21 19 17 16 14 13
7 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 50 44 39 34 31 27 24 22 20 18 16 14 13 11
9 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 48 43 38 32 29 26 23 20 18 16 13 10 8 5
11 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 47 40 35 31 28 24 21 19 15 12 8 - - -
13 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 45 39 34 29 26 23 19 16 11 6 5 - - -
15 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 50 44 38 32 28 24 21 15 9 7 - - - - -
17 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 49 42 36 31 26 23 17 10 - - - - - - -
19 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 48 40 35 29 25 20 12 5 - - - - - - -
21 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 46 39 32 28 23 15 7 - - - - - - - -
23 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 44 37 31 26 18 9 - - - - - - - - -
25 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 43 36 29 22 12 - - - - - - - - - -
27 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 50 41 35 28 21 10 - - - - - - - - - -
29 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 49 40 33 27 14 - - - - - - - - - - -
31 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 47 38 31 19 - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 46 37 30 17 - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 43 35 24 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 42 34 22 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 41 31 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 >50 >50 >50 >50 49 39 30 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 >50 >50 >50 >50 48 38 28 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 >50 >50 >50 >50 47 36 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 >50 >50 >50 >50 45 34 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 >50 >50 >50 >50 44 33 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 >50 >50 >50 >50 41 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]


g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Suggested Design Assumption: %dead; %live
5 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3
7 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2
9 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0
11 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 - - -
13 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - -
15 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - -
17 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - -
19 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - -
21 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - -
23 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - -
25 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - -
27 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - -
29 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - -
31 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
142 Appendix B: Load span tables

9.2.2 Continuous beam 2 spans


9.2.2.1 No tendons
300426
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Maximum Live Load - q [kN/m]
5 30 27 24 22 20 17 15 11 7 - - - - - - - - - - - -
7 28 25 23 20 18 16 11 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
9 27 24 21 19 17 12 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
11 25 22 19 17 15 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
13 24 20 18 16 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
15 22 19 16 14 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
17 20 17 15 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
19 19 16 13 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
21 17 14 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
23 16 12 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 14 11 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 12 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 11 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 9 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

300486
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Maximum Live Load - q [kN/m]
5 37 33 30 27 25 22 19 16 14 11 7 5 - - - - - - - - -
7 35 32 28 26 23 21 17 15 11 6 - - - - - - - - - - -
9 34 30 27 24 22 19 16 11 6 - - - - - - - - - - - -
11 32 28 25 22 20 18 13 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
13 31 27 24 21 19 16 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
15 29 25 22 19 17 12 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
17 27 24 20 18 15 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
19 26 22 19 16 14 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
21 24 20 17 14 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
23 23 19 16 13 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 21 17 14 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 19 16 12 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 18 14 11 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 16 12 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 15 11 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 13 9 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 11 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 10 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Appendix B: Load span tables 143

300526
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Maximum Live Load - q [kN/m]
5 42 37 34 31 28 26 22 19 16 14 12 9 6 - - - - - - - -
7 40 36 32 29 27 24 20 17 15 12 8 - - - - - - - - - -
9 38 34 31 28 25 23 19 16 12 7 - - - - - - - - - - -
11 37 33 29 26 23 21 17 14 7 - - - - - - - - - - - -
13 35 31 27 24 22 19 16 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
15 34 29 26 23 20 18 13 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
17 32 28 24 21 19 16 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
19 30 26 23 20 17 14 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
21 29 25 21 18 15 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
23 27 23 19 16 14 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 26 21 18 15 12 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 24 20 16 13 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 22 18 15 12 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 21 17 13 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 19 15 11 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 18 13 10 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 16 12 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 14 10 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 13 9 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 11 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 10 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

300586
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Maximum Live Load - q [kN/m]
5 48 44 40 36 33 31 27 23 20 18 15 14 12 9 6 - - - - - -
7 47 42 38 35 32 29 25 22 19 16 14 12 7 - - - - - - - -
9 45 40 36 33 30 27 24 20 17 14 11 7 - - - - - - - - -
11 44 39 35 31 28 26 22 18 15 12 6 - - - - - - - - - -
13 42 37 33 30 27 24 20 17 14 7 - - - - - - - - - - -
15 40 36 32 28 25 23 19 15 10 - - - - - - - - - - - -
17 39 34 30 27 24 21 17 14 5 - - - - - - - - - - - -
19 37 32 28 25 22 19 16 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
21 36 31 27 23 20 18 14 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
23 34 29 25 22 19 16 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 32 28 24 20 17 15 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 31 26 22 19 16 13 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 29 24 20 17 14 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 28 23 19 15 12 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 26 21 17 14 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 24 20 16 12 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 23 18 14 11 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 21 16 12 9 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 20 15 11 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 18 13 9 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 16 12 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 15 10 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 13 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 12 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

300736
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Maximum Live Load - q [kN/m]
5 >50 >50 >50 49 46 42 39 35 31 27 24 21 19 17 15 13 12 11 9 7 5
7 >50 >50 >50 48 44 41 38 33 29 25 22 20 17 15 13 12 10 7 - - -
9 >50 >50 >50 46 42 39 36 32 27 24 21 18 16 14 12 9 5 - - - -
11 >50 >50 49 45 41 37 34 30 26 22 19 16 14 12 9 - - - - - -
13 >50 >50 48 43 39 36 33 29 24 21 17 15 12 9 - - - - - - -
15 >50 >50 46 41 38 34 31 27 23 19 16 13 10 - - - - - - - -
17 >50 50 44 40 36 33 30 25 21 17 14 12 5 - - - - - - - -
19 >50 48 43 38 34 31 28 24 19 16 13 7 - - - - - - - - -
21 >50 47 41 37 33 29 26 22 18 14 11 - - - - - - - - - -
23 >50 45 40 35 31 28 25 21 16 13 6 - - - - - - - - - -
25 50 43 38 33 30 26 23 19 15 11 - - - - - - - - - - -
27 48 42 36 32 28 25 22 17 13 7 - - - - - - - - - - -
29 47 40 35 30 26 23 20 16 11 - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 45 39 33 29 25 21 18 14 10 - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 43 37 32 27 23 20 17 13 6 - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 42 35 30 25 22 18 15 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 40 34 28 24 20 17 14 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 39 32 27 22 18 15 12 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 37 31 25 21 17 13 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 35 29 24 19 15 12 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 34 27 22 17 14 10 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 32 26 20 16 12 9 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 31 24 19 14 10 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 29 23 17 13 9 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
144 Appendix B: Load span tables

400426
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Maximum Live Load - q [kN/m]
5 30 27 24 22 20 18 17 16 12 8 5 - - - - - - - - - -
7 28 25 23 20 18 17 15 12 7 - - - - - - - - - - - -
9 27 24 21 19 17 15 14 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
11 25 22 19 17 15 14 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
13 24 20 18 15 14 12 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
15 22 19 16 14 12 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
17 20 17 15 12 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
19 19 16 13 11 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
21 17 14 11 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
23 16 12 10 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 14 11 8 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 12 9 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 11 8 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 9 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

400486
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Maximum Live Load - q [kN/m]
5 37 33 30 27 25 23 21 20 18 16 13 9 6 - - - - - - - -
7 35 31 28 26 23 21 20 18 17 12 8 - - - - - - - - - -
9 34 30 27 24 22 20 18 16 13 7 - - - - - - - - - - -
11 32 28 25 22 20 18 16 15 8 - - - - - - - - - - - -
13 30 27 23 21 19 17 15 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
15 29 25 22 19 17 15 13 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
17 27 23 20 18 15 13 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
19 26 22 19 16 14 12 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
21 24 20 17 14 12 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
23 22 19 15 13 11 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 21 17 14 11 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 19 15 12 10 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 18 14 11 8 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 16 12 9 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 14 11 7 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 13 9 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 11 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 10 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

400526
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Maximum Live Load - q [kN/m]
5 41 37 34 31 28 26 24 22 21 19 17 14 11 8 5 - - - - - -
7 40 36 32 29 27 24 22 21 19 17 14 9 6 - - - - - - - -
9 38 34 31 28 25 23 21 19 18 15 9 - - - - - - - - - -
11 37 32 29 26 23 21 19 18 16 10 - - - - - - - - - - -
13 35 31 27 24 22 20 18 16 11 5 - - - - - - - - - - -
15 33 29 26 23 20 18 16 14 6 - - - - - - - - - - - -
17 32 28 24 21 19 16 14 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
19 30 26 23 20 17 15 13 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
21 29 24 21 18 15 13 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
23 27 23 19 16 14 12 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 25 21 18 15 12 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 24 20 16 13 11 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 22 18 15 12 9 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 21 16 13 10 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 19 15 11 8 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 17 13 10 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 16 12 8 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 14 10 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 13 8 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 11 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 9 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Appendix B: Load span tables 145

400586
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Maximum Live Load - q [kN/m]
5 48 44 40 36 33 31 28 26 25 23 20 18 16 14 11 8 6 - - - -
7 47 42 38 34 32 29 27 25 23 21 19 16 14 10 6 - - - - - -
9 45 40 36 33 30 27 25 23 21 20 17 14 9 5 - - - - - - -
11 44 39 35 31 28 26 24 22 20 18 15 9 - - - - - - - - -
13 42 37 33 30 27 24 22 20 18 17 10 - - - - - - - - - -
15 40 36 32 28 25 23 20 18 17 12 5 - - - - - - - - - -
17 39 34 30 26 24 21 19 17 15 7 - - - - - - - - - - -
19 37 32 28 25 22 19 17 15 11 - - - - - - - - - - - -
21 36 31 27 23 20 18 16 14 6 - - - - - - - - - - - -
23 34 29 25 22 19 16 14 12 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 32 28 24 20 17 15 12 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 31 26 22 18 16 13 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 29 24 20 17 14 11 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 28 23 19 15 12 10 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 26 21 17 14 11 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 24 20 16 12 9 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 23 18 14 10 8 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 21 16 12 9 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 20 15 11 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 18 13 9 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 16 12 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 15 10 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 13 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 12 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

400736
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Maximum Live Load - q [kN/m]
5 >50 >50 >50 49 46 42 39 37 34 32 30 27 24 21 19 17 16 14 13 11 9
7 >50 >50 >50 48 44 41 38 35 33 31 28 25 22 20 18 16 14 13 9 6 -
9 >50 >50 >50 46 42 39 36 33 31 29 27 23 21 18 16 14 12 8 - - -
11 >50 >50 49 45 41 37 34 32 29 27 25 22 19 17 14 11 7 - - - -
13 >50 >50 48 43 39 36 33 30 28 26 24 20 17 15 12 6 - - - - -
15 >50 >50 46 41 38 34 31 29 26 24 22 19 16 13 7 - - - - - -
17 >50 50 44 40 36 33 30 27 25 23 20 17 14 8 - - - - - - -
19 >50 48 43 38 34 31 28 25 23 21 19 15 10 - - - - - - - -
21 >50 47 41 37 33 29 26 24 21 19 17 14 5 - - - - - - - -
23 >50 45 40 35 31 28 25 22 20 18 16 9 - - - - - - - - -
25 50 43 38 33 30 26 23 21 18 16 14 - - - - - - - - - -
27 48 42 36 32 28 25 22 19 17 15 10 - - - - - - - - - -
29 47 40 35 30 26 23 20 17 15 13 5 - - - - - - - - - -
31 45 39 33 29 25 21 18 16 13 11 - - - - - - - - - - -
33 43 37 32 27 23 20 17 14 12 9 - - - - - - - - - - -
35 42 35 30 25 22 18 15 13 10 - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 40 34 28 24 20 17 14 11 9 - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 39 32 27 22 18 15 12 9 7 - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 37 31 25 21 17 13 10 8 5 - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 35 29 24 19 15 12 9 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 34 27 22 17 14 10 7 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 32 26 20 16 12 9 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 31 24 19 14 10 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 29 23 17 13 9 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
146 Appendix B: Load span tables

9.2.2.2 Draped tendons


300426
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Maximum Live Load - q [kN/m]
5 41 37 34 31 27 23 20 17 15 13 12 10 9 8 7 6 6 5 - - -
7 40 36 33 30 26 22 19 17 14 12 11 9 8 7 6 5 5 - - - -
9 40 36 32 29 25 21 18 16 13 11 10 8 7 6 5 - - - - - -
11 39 35 32 29 24 20 17 15 12 10 9 7 6 5 - - - - - - -
13 38 34 31 28 23 19 16 14 11 10 8 7 5 - - - - - - - -
15 37 33 30 27 22 19 15 13 10 9 7 5 - - - - - - - - -
17 37 33 29 26 21 18 14 12 9 8 5 - - - - - - - - - -
19 36 32 29 25 21 17 13 11 9 6 - - - - - - - - - - -
21 35 31 28 24 20 16 12 10 7 - - - - - - - - - - - -
23 34 30 27 23 19 15 11 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 34 30 26 22 18 14 10 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 33 29 26 22 17 13 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 32 28 25 21 16 11 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 31 27 24 20 15 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 31 27 23 19 13 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 30 26 23 18 12 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 29 25 22 17 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 28 24 21 15 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 28 24 20 13 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 27 23 20 12 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 26 22 18 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 25 21 16 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 25 21 14 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 24 20 13 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]


g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Suggested Design Assumption: %dead; %live
5 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 - - -
7 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 - - - -
9 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 - - - - - -
11 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 - - - - - - -
13 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 - - - - - - - -
15 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 - - - - - - - - -
17 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 - - - - - - - - - -
19 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.1 - - - - - - - - - - -
21 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.1 - - - - - - - - - - - -
23 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Appendix B: Load span tables 147

300486
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Maximum Live Load - q [kN/m]
5 >50 45 41 38 34 29 26 22 20 17 15 14 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 6 5
7 49 44 40 37 33 29 25 21 19 16 14 13 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 5 -
9 48 43 40 36 32 28 24 20 18 15 13 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 - - -
11 47 43 39 35 31 27 23 19 17 14 12 11 9 8 7 6 5 - - - -
13 47 42 38 35 31 26 22 19 16 13 11 10 8 7 6 - - - - - -
15 46 41 37 34 30 25 21 18 15 13 11 9 7 6 - - - - - - -
17 45 40 37 33 29 24 20 17 14 12 10 8 6 - - - - - - - -
19 44 40 36 32 28 23 19 16 13 11 8 6 - - - - - - - - -
21 44 39 35 32 27 22 18 15 12 9 7 - - - - - - - - - -
23 43 38 34 31 26 21 17 14 11 8 - - - - - - - - - - -
25 42 37 34 30 25 20 16 13 9 5 - - - - - - - - - - -
27 41 37 33 29 24 19 15 11 8 - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 41 36 32 29 23 18 14 10 6 - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 40 35 31 28 22 17 12 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 39 35 31 27 21 16 11 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 39 34 30 26 20 14 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 38 33 29 25 19 13 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 37 32 28 24 17 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 36 32 28 23 16 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 36 31 27 22 14 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 35 30 26 21 13 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 34 29 25 19 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 33 29 25 18 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 33 28 24 16 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]


g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Suggested Design Assumption: %dead; %live
5 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2
7 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 -
9 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 - - -
11 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 - - - -
13 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 - - - - - -
15 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 - - - - - - -
17 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 - - - - - - - -
19 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - -
21 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 - - - - - - - - - -
23 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 - - - - - - - - - - -
25 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - -
27 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

300526
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Maximum Live Load - q [kN/m]
5 >50 50 46 42 39 34 29 26 23 20 18 16 14 13 11 10 9 8 7 6 5
7 >50 49 45 41 38 33 28 25 22 19 16 14 13 11 9 8 7 6 5 6 5
9 >50 49 44 41 37 32 28 24 20 17 15 13 11 9 8 7 7 6 6 5 -
11 >50 48 44 40 36 31 26 22 19 16 13 11 9 8 6 7 6 5 - - -
13 >50 47 43 39 36 29 24 20 17 14 12 12 10 9 8 6 5 - - - -
15 >50 47 42 38 33 28 22 19 16 13 13 11 9 8 6 - - - - - -
17 >50 46 41 38 32 26 22 20 17 14 12 10 8 6 - - - - - - -
19 50 45 41 35 31 25 23 19 16 13 11 9 7 - - - - - - - -
21 50 44 40 34 32 26 22 18 15 13 10 7 - - - - - - - - -
23 49 44 39 33 31 26 21 17 14 11 8 5 - - - - - - - - -
25 48 43 36 35 30 25 20 16 13 10 6 - - - - - - - - - -
27 47 42 38 34 29 24 19 16 11 8 5 - - - - - - - - - -
29 47 41 37 33 28 23 18 14 10 6 - - - - - - - - - - -
31 46 41 36 32 27 22 17 12 7 - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 45 40 35 32 26 21 16 11 7 - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 44 39 35 31 25 20 14 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 44 38 34 30 25 18 13 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 43 38 33 29 24 16 10 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 40 37 32 29 23 15 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 39 36 32 28 21 14 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 41 35 31 27 19 11 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 40 35 30 26 17 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 39 34 29 24 16 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 38 33 29 23 13 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
148 Appendix B: Load span tables

Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]


g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Suggested Design Assumption: %dead; %live
5 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.0
7 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2
9 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 -
11 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 - - -
13 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 - - - -
15 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.0 - - - - - -
17 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - -
19 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 - - - - - - - -
21 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - -
23 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - -
25 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - -
27 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - -
29 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - -
31 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

300586
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Maximum Live Load - q [kN/m]
5 >50 >50 >50 49 45 41 35 31 27 24 22 19 17 16 14 13 11 10 10 9 8
7 >50 >50 >50 48 44 40 34 30 26 23 21 18 16 15 13 12 11 10 9 8 7
9 >50 >50 >50 47 44 39 33 29 25 22 20 17 15 14 12 11 10 9 8 7 6
11 >50 >50 >50 47 43 38 33 28 25 21 19 17 15 13 11 10 9 8 7 6 5
13 >50 >50 50 46 42 37 32 27 24 21 18 16 14 12 10 9 8 6 5 - -
15 >50 >50 49 45 41 36 31 26 23 20 17 15 13 11 9 8 6 5 - - -
17 >50 >50 49 44 41 35 30 26 22 19 16 14 12 10 8 6 - - - - -
19 >50 >50 48 44 40 34 29 25 21 18 15 13 10 8 6 - - - - - -
21 >50 >50 47 43 39 33 28 24 20 17 14 11 9 7 - - - - - - -
23 >50 >50 46 42 38 32 27 23 19 16 13 10 7 5 - - - - - - -
25 >50 >50 46 41 38 32 26 22 18 15 11 8 6 - - - - - - - -
27 >50 50 45 41 37 31 25 21 17 13 10 6 - - - - - - - - -
29 >50 49 44 40 36 30 24 20 16 11 8 - - - - - - - - - -
31 >50 48 43 39 35 29 24 19 14 10 7 - - - - - - - - - -
33 >50 48 43 38 34 28 23 17 13 8 - - - - - - - - - - -
35 >50 47 42 38 33 27 22 16 10 6 - - - - - - - - - - -
37 >50 46 41 37 33 26 20 14 9 5 - - - - - - - - - - -
39 >50 45 40 36 32 25 18 13 6 - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 >50 45 40 35 31 23 16 10 6 - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 50 44 39 35 30 22 15 10 5 - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 49 43 38 34 29 20 12 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 49 42 37 33 27 19 11 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 48 42 37 32 26 17 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 47 41 36 32 24 14 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]


g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Suggested Design Assumption: %dead; %live
5 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4
7 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3
9 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3
11 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2
13 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.0 - -
15 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.0 - - -
17 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 - - - - -
19 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.0 - - - - - -
21 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - -
23 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - -
25 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - -
27 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - -
29 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - -
31 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - -
33 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - -
35 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - -
37 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - -
39 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Appendix B: Load span tables 149

300736
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Maximum Live Load - q [kN/m]
5 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 46 40 36 32 29 26 24 21 19 18 16 15 14 13
7 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 45 39 35 31 28 25 23 20 19 17 15 14 13 12
9 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 50 44 39 34 30 27 24 22 20 18 16 15 13 12 11
11 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 49 43 38 33 29 26 23 21 19 17 15 14 12 11 10
13 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 48 42 37 32 29 25 23 20 18 16 14 13 11 10 9
15 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 47 41 36 31 28 24 22 19 17 15 13 12 10 8 7
17 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 47 40 35 31 27 24 21 18 16 14 12 10 8 7 5
19 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 46 39 34 30 26 23 20 17 15 13 10 9 6 5 -
21 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 50 45 39 33 29 25 22 19 17 14 11 9 7 5 - -
23 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 50 44 38 32 28 24 21 18 15 12 9 7 5 - - -
25 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 49 43 37 32 27 23 20 16 13 10 8 5 - - - -
27 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 48 42 36 31 26 22 18 15 11 8 6 - - - - -
29 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 47 41 35 30 25 20 17 13 9 6 5 - - - - -
31 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 47 40 34 29 25 20 15 11 9 5 - - - - - -
33 >50 >50 >50 >50 50 46 40 33 28 22 18 14 10 6 - - - - - - -
35 >50 >50 >50 >50 49 45 39 32 27 21 16 11 7 5 - - - - - - -
37 >50 >50 >50 >50 49 44 38 32 25 20 15 11 7 - - - - - - - -
39 >50 >50 >50 >50 48 44 37 31 24 18 12 8 - - - - - - - - -
41 >50 >50 >50 >50 47 43 36 28 22 17 12 7 - - - - - - - - -
43 >50 >50 >50 >50 46 42 35 27 20 14 9 - - - - - - - - - -
45 >50 >50 >50 >50 46 41 33 25 19 13 8 - - - - - - - - - -
47 >50 >50 >50 50 45 41 32 24 16 10 - - - - - - - - - - -
49 >50 >50 >50 49 44 40 31 23 15 9 - - - - - - - - - - -
51 >50 >50 >50 48 43 39 29 21 14 8 - - - - - - - - - - -

Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]


g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Suggested Design Assumption: %dead; %live
5 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4
7 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4
9 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4
11 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4
13 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3
15 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.0
17 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0
19 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 0.9;0.0 -
21 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - -
23 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - -
25 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - -
27 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - -
29 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - -
31 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - -
33 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - -
35 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - -
37 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - -
39 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - -
41 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - -
43 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - -
45 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - -
47 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - -
49 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - -
51 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - -

400426
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Maximum Live Load - q [kN/m]
5 41 37 34 31 29 26 25 23 20 17 15 14 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 6 5
7 40 36 33 30 28 26 24 22 19 16 14 13 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 - -
9 40 36 32 29 27 25 23 21 18 15 13 12 10 9 8 6 5 - - - -
11 39 35 32 29 26 24 22 20 17 14 12 11 9 8 6 - - - - - -
13 38 34 31 28 26 23 22 19 16 13 11 9 7 6 - - - - - - -
15 37 33 30 27 25 23 21 18 15 12 10 8 - - - - - - - - -
17 37 33 29 26 24 22 20 17 14 10 8 - - - - - - - - - -
19 36 32 29 26 23 21 19 16 12 9 - - - - - - - - - - -
21 35 31 28 25 23 20 18 14 10 6 - - - - - - - - - - -
23 34 30 27 24 22 20 16 12 8 - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 34 30 26 23 21 19 15 11 7 - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 33 29 26 23 20 17 13 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 32 28 25 22 20 16 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 31 27 24 21 18 14 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 31 27 23 20 16 11 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 30 26 23 20 15 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 29 25 22 18 13 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 28 24 21 16 11 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 28 24 20 15 10 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 27 23 20 13 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 26 22 18 10 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 25 21 16 10 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 25 21 14 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 24 20 13 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
150 Appendix B: Load span tables

Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]


g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Suggested Design Assumption: %dead; %live
5 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3
7 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 - -
9 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 - - - -
11 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 - - - - - -
13 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 - - - - - - -
15 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 - - - - - - - - -
17 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - -
19 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - -
21 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - -
23 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

400486
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Maximum Live Load - q [kN/m]
5 50 45 41 38 35 32 30 28 25 22 20 17 16 14 13 11 10 9 8 8 7
7 49 44 40 37 34 32 29 27 24 21 19 16 15 13 12 10 9 8 7 7 6
9 48 43 39 36 33 31 29 26 23 20 18 16 14 12 11 9 8 7 6 5 -
11 47 43 39 35 33 30 28 25 22 19 17 15 13 11 10 8 7 6 - - -
13 47 42 38 35 32 29 27 24 21 18 16 14 12 10 8 7 - - - - -
15 46 41 37 34 31 29 26 23 20 17 15 12 10 8 6 - - - - - -
17 45 40 37 33 30 28 26 22 19 16 13 11 9 5 - - - - - - -
19 44 40 36 32 30 27 25 22 18 15 12 9 6 - - - - - - - -
21 44 39 35 32 29 26 24 21 16 13 10 7 - - - - - - - - -
23 43 38 34 31 28 26 23 19 15 12 8 - - - - - - - - - -
25 42 37 34 30 27 25 23 18 13 9 - - - - - - - - - - -
27 41 37 33 29 27 24 21 16 12 8 - - - - - - - - - - -
29 41 36 32 29 26 23 19 15 10 - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 40 35 31 28 25 21 17 12 8 - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 39 34 31 27 24 20 16 11 6 - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 38 34 30 26 24 19 13 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 38 33 29 26 21 17 13 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 37 32 28 25 20 16 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 36 31 28 24 19 13 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 35 31 27 23 17 12 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 35 30 26 21 16 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 34 29 25 19 13 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 33 28 25 18 12 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 32 28 24 16 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]


g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Suggested Design Assumption: %dead; %live
5 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3
7 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3
9 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 -
11 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 - - -
13 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 - - - - -
15 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.0 - - - - - -
17 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - -
19 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - -
21 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - -
23 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - -
25 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - -
27 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - -
29 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Appendix B: Load span tables 151

400526
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Maximum Live Load - q [kN/m]
5 >50 50 46 42 39 36 34 32 28 25 22 20 18 16 15 13 12 11 10 9 8
7 >50 49 45 41 38 35 33 31 28 24 22 19 17 15 14 12 11 10 9 8 7
9 >50 49 44 41 37 35 32 30 27 23 21 18 16 14 13 11 10 9 8 7 6
11 >50 48 44 40 37 34 31 29 26 22 20 17 15 13 12 10 9 7 6 5 -
13 >50 47 43 39 36 33 31 28 25 21 19 16 14 12 10 9 7 6 - - -
15 >50 46 42 38 35 32 30 28 24 20 18 15 13 11 9 7 - - - - -
17 >50 46 41 38 34 32 29 27 23 19 17 14 11 9 6 - - - - - -
19 50 45 41 37 34 31 28 26 22 19 15 12 10 7 - - - - - - -
21 50 44 40 36 33 30 28 25 21 17 13 10 8 - - - - - - - -
23 49 43 39 35 32 29 27 24 19 15 12 9 - - - - - - - - -
25 48 43 38 35 31 29 26 22 17 14 10 5 - - - - - - - - -
27 47 42 38 34 31 28 25 21 16 12 9 - - - - - - - - - -
29 47 41 37 33 30 27 23 19 14 10 6 - - - - - - - - - -
31 46 40 36 32 29 26 23 17 12 8 - - - - - - - - - - -
33 45 40 35 32 28 26 21 16 11 7 - - - - - - - - - - -
35 44 39 35 31 28 23 19 14 9 - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 44 38 34 30 27 22 17 13 8 - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 43 38 33 29 26 21 15 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 42 37 32 29 24 19 14 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 41 36 32 28 23 17 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 41 35 31 27 21 15 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 40 35 30 26 19 14 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 39 34 29 24 18 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 38 33 29 23 15 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]


g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Suggested Design Assumption: %dead; %live
5 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3
7 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2
9 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2
11 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.0 -
13 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.0 - - -
15 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 - - - - -
17 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - -
19 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - -
21 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - -
23 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - -
25 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - -
27 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - -
29 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - -
31 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - -
33 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - -
35 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

400586
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Maximum Live Load - q [kN/m]
5 >50 >50 >50 49 45 42 39 37 34 30 27 24 22 20 18 16 15 13 12 11 10
7 >50 >50 >50 48 44 41 38 36 33 29 26 23 21 19 17 15 14 12 11 10 9
9 >50 >50 >50 47 44 40 38 35 32 28 25 22 20 18 16 14 13 11 10 9 8
11 >50 >50 >50 47 43 40 37 34 31 27 24 21 19 17 15 13 12 10 9 8 6
13 >50 >50 50 46 42 39 36 34 30 26 23 20 18 16 14 12 10 9 7 6 -
15 >50 >50 49 45 41 38 35 33 29 25 22 19 17 15 12 10 9 7 5 - -
17 >50 >50 49 44 41 37 35 32 28 25 21 18 15 13 11 9 7 - - - -
19 >50 >50 48 44 40 37 34 31 27 24 20 17 14 11 9 7 - - - - -
21 >50 >50 47 43 39 36 33 31 26 23 18 15 12 10 8 - - - - - -
23 >50 >50 46 42 38 35 32 30 25 21 17 14 11 8 - - - - - - -
25 >50 >50 46 41 38 34 32 29 24 20 15 12 9 6 - - - - - - -
27 >50 50 45 41 37 34 31 28 22 18 14 10 7 - - - - - - - -
29 >50 49 44 40 36 33 30 26 21 16 12 8 - - - - - - - - -
31 >50 48 43 39 35 32 29 25 19 15 11 7 - - - - - - - - -
33 >50 48 43 38 35 31 27 23 18 13 9 - - - - - - - - - -
35 >50 47 42 38 34 31 26 21 15 11 8 - - - - - - - - - -
37 >50 46 41 37 33 30 24 20 14 10 - - - - - - - - - - -
39 >50 45 40 36 32 28 23 19 12 - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 >50 45 40 35 32 27 22 16 11 - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 50 44 39 35 31 25 20 15 10 - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 49 43 38 34 30 24 17 13 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 48 42 37 33 28 22 16 12 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 48 42 37 32 27 20 16 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 47 41 36 32 25 17 12 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
152 Appendix B: Load span tables

Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]


g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Suggested Design Assumption: %dead; %live
5 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3
7 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3
9 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2
11 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0
13 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.0 -
15 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 0.9;0.0 - -
17 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - -
19 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - -
21 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - -
23 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - -
25 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - -
27 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - -
29 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - -
31 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - -
33 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - -
35 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - -
37 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - -
39 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

400736
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Maximum Live Load - q [kN/m]
5 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 49 47 44 39 35 32 29 26 24 22 20 18 17 16
7 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 49 46 43 38 34 31 28 25 23 21 19 17 16 15
9 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 48 45 42 37 33 30 27 24 22 20 18 17 15 14
11 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 50 47 44 41 36 32 29 26 23 21 19 17 16 14 13
13 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 50 46 44 40 35 31 28 25 23 20 18 16 14 13 11
15 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 49 46 43 39 35 31 27 24 22 19 16 15 13 11 10
17 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 48 45 42 38 34 30 26 23 21 18 15 13 11 9 8
19 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 47 44 41 37 33 29 25 22 19 16 13 11 9 8 6
21 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 50 47 43 41 36 32 28 24 20 17 14 12 10 7 6 -
23 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 50 46 43 40 35 31 26 22 19 16 13 10 8 6 - -
25 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 49 45 42 39 35 30 25 21 17 14 11 8 7 - - -
27 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 48 44 41 38 34 28 23 19 16 12 9 7 - - - -
29 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 47 44 40 38 31 27 22 17 14 10 8 - - - - -
31 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 47 43 40 37 30 25 20 15 13 9 - - - - - -
33 >50 >50 >50 >50 50 46 42 39 34 28 23 19 14 10 - - - - - - -
35 >50 >50 >50 >50 49 45 41 38 33 27 22 16 12 10 - - - - - - -
37 >50 >50 >50 >50 49 44 41 36 31 25 20 15 11 - - - - - - - -
39 >50 >50 >50 >50 48 44 40 35 30 23 18 13 - - - - - - - - -
41 >50 >50 >50 >50 47 43 39 34 28 23 17 12 - - - - - - - - -
43 >50 >50 >50 >50 46 42 38 31 27 20 14 - - - - - - - - - -
45 >50 >50 >50 >50 46 41 36 31 25 19 13 - - - - - - - - - -
47 >50 >50 >50 50 45 41 35 28 22 16 - - - - - - - - - - -
49 >50 >50 >50 49 44 40 32 27 22 15 - - - - - - - - - - -
51 >50 >50 >50 48 43 39 32 26 21 14 - - - - - - - - - - -

Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]


g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Suggested Design Assumption: %dead; %live
5 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4
7 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4
9 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4
11 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4
13 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2
15 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1
17 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.9;0.0
19 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0
21 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 -
23 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 - -
25 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - -
27 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - -
29 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - -
31 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - -
33 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - -
35 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - -
37 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - -
39 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - -
41 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - -
43 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - -
45 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - -
47 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - -
49 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - -
51 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - -
Appendix B: Load span tables 153

9.2.3 Continuous beam 3 spans


9.2.3.1 No tendons
300426
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Maximum Live Load - q [kN/m]
5 31 28 25 23 21 14 9 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
7 30 27 24 21 16 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
9 28 25 22 20 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
11 27 23 21 15 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
13 25 22 19 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
15 23 20 16 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
17 22 19 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
19 20 17 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
21 19 15 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
23 17 13 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 15 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 14 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 12 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

300486
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Maximum Live Load - q [kN/m]
5 39 35 31 29 26 24 19 14 9 6 - - - - - - - - - - -
7 37 33 30 27 25 21 14 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
9 35 32 28 25 23 16 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
11 34 30 27 24 21 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
13 32 28 25 22 16 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
15 31 27 23 21 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
17 29 25 22 18 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
19 27 24 20 13 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
21 26 22 19 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
23 24 20 17 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 23 19 15 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 21 17 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 19 16 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 18 14 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 16 12 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 15 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 13 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
154 Appendix B: Load span tables

300526
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Maximum Live Load - q [kN/m]
5 43 39 35 32 30 27 25 20 15 10 7 - - - - - - - - - -
7 42 37 34 31 28 26 22 15 10 5 - - - - - - - - - - -
9 40 36 32 29 26 24 17 10 5 - - - - - - - - - - - -
11 39 34 31 28 25 21 12 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
13 37 33 29 26 23 16 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
15 35 31 27 24 22 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
17 34 29 26 23 17 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
19 32 28 24 21 12 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
21 31 26 23 20 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
23 29 25 21 17 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 27 23 19 12 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 26 21 18 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 24 20 16 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 23 18 15 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 21 17 13 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 19 15 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 18 13 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 16 12 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 15 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 13 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 11 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 10 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

300586
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Maximum Live Load - q [kN/m]
5 >50 46 41 38 35 32 30 28 24 18 14 10 7 - - - - - - - -
7 49 44 40 36 33 31 28 26 19 13 9 5 - - - - - - - - -
9 48 42 38 35 32 29 27 21 14 8 - - - - - - - - - - -
11 46 41 37 33 30 27 25 16 9 - - - - - - - - - - - -
13 44 39 35 31 28 26 21 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
15 43 38 33 30 27 24 16 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
17 41 36 32 28 25 22 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
19 40 34 30 27 24 17 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
21 38 33 29 25 22 12 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
23 36 31 27 23 20 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 35 30 25 22 18 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 33 28 24 20 13 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 32 26 22 19 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 30 25 21 17 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 28 23 19 15 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 27 22 17 13 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 25 20 16 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 24 18 14 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 22 17 13 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 20 15 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 19 14 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 17 12 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 16 10 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 14 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

300736
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Maximum Live Load - q [kN/m]
5 >50 >50 >50 >50 48 44 41 38 36 34 31 28 24 19 15 12 9 6 - - -
7 >50 >50 >50 50 46 43 39 37 34 32 29 25 19 14 10 7 - - - - -
9 >50 >50 >50 49 44 41 38 35 33 31 27 20 14 9 5 - - - - - -
11 >50 >50 >50 47 43 39 36 34 31 29 22 15 9 - - - - - - - -
13 >50 >50 50 45 41 38 35 32 30 26 17 10 - - - - - - - - -
15 >50 >50 48 44 40 36 33 30 28 21 12 5 - - - - - - - - -
17 >50 >50 47 42 38 35 31 29 26 16 7 - - - - - - - - - -
19 >50 >50 45 41 36 33 30 27 22 11 - - - - - - - - - - -
21 >50 49 44 39 35 31 28 26 17 6 - - - - - - - - - - -
23 >50 48 42 37 33 30 27 24 12 - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 >50 46 40 36 32 28 25 20 7 - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 >50 44 39 34 30 27 23 15 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 50 43 37 33 28 25 22 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 48 41 36 31 27 23 20 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 46 40 34 29 25 22 17 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 45 38 32 28 24 20 12 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 43 36 31 26 22 19 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 42 35 29 25 20 17 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 40 33 28 23 19 15 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 38 32 26 21 17 13 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 37 30 24 20 16 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 35 28 23 18 14 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 34 27 21 17 12 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 32 25 20 15 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Appendix B: Load span tables 155

400426
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Maximum Live Load - q [kN/m]
5 31 28 25 23 21 19 15 11 7 - - - - - - - - - - - -
7 30 26 24 21 19 17 10 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
9 28 25 22 20 18 12 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
11 27 23 21 18 15 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
13 25 22 19 17 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
15 23 20 17 15 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
17 22 18 16 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
19 20 17 14 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
21 19 15 13 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
23 17 14 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 15 12 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 14 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 12 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 11 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 9 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

400486
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Maximum Live Load - q [kN/m]
5 39 35 31 29 26 24 22 21 15 11 7 - - - - - - - - - -
7 37 33 30 27 25 22 21 16 10 6 - - - - - - - - - - -
9 35 31 28 25 23 21 18 11 5 - - - - - - - - - - - -
11 34 30 27 24 21 19 13 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
13 32 28 25 22 20 16 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
15 31 27 23 21 18 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
17 29 25 22 19 17 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
19 27 23 20 17 13 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
21 26 22 19 16 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
23 24 20 17 14 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 23 19 15 13 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 21 17 14 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 19 15 12 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 18 14 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 16 12 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 15 11 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 13 9 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 11 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 10 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

400526
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Maximum Live Load - q [kN/m]
5 43 39 35 32 30 27 25 24 22 16 12 8 5 - - - - - - - -
7 42 37 34 31 28 26 24 22 17 11 7 - - - - - - - - - -
9 40 36 32 29 26 24 22 18 12 6 - - - - - - - - - - -
11 39 34 31 27 25 22 20 13 7 - - - - - - - - - - - -
13 37 33 29 26 23 21 17 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
15 35 31 27 24 22 19 12 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
17 34 29 26 23 20 18 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
19 32 28 24 21 18 13 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
21 31 26 23 19 17 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
23 29 25 21 18 15 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 27 23 19 16 12 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 26 21 18 15 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 24 20 16 13 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 23 18 15 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 21 17 13 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 19 15 11 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 18 13 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 16 12 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 15 10 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 13 9 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 11 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 10 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
156 Appendix B: Load span tables

400586
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Maximum Live Load - q [kN/m]
5 >50 46 41 38 35 32 30 28 26 24 20 16 12 8 6 - - - - - -
7 49 44 40 36 33 31 28 26 24 21 15 11 7 - - - - - - - -
9 47 42 38 35 32 29 27 25 23 16 10 6 - - - - - - - - -
11 46 41 37 33 30 27 25 23 18 11 5 - - - - - - - - - -
13 44 39 35 31 28 26 23 21 13 6 - - - - - - - - - - -
15 43 38 33 30 27 24 22 17 8 - - - - - - - - - - - -
17 41 36 32 28 25 23 20 12 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
19 39 34 30 27 24 21 19 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
21 38 33 29 25 22 19 14 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
23 36 31 27 23 20 18 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 35 30 25 22 19 16 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 33 28 24 20 17 13 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 31 26 22 19 16 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 30 25 21 17 14 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 28 23 19 15 12 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 27 22 17 14 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 25 20 16 12 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 23 18 14 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 22 17 13 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 20 15 11 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 19 14 9 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 17 12 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 15 10 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 14 9 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

400736
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Maximum Live Load - q [kN/m]
5 >50 >50 >50 >50 48 44 41 38 36 34 32 30 28 27 22 17 14 11 8 6 -
7 >50 >50 >50 50 46 43 39 37 34 32 30 28 27 22 17 12 9 6 - - -
9 >50 >50 >50 48 44 41 38 35 33 31 29 27 23 17 12 7 - - - - -
11 >50 >50 >50 47 43 39 36 34 31 29 27 25 18 12 7 - - - - - -
13 >50 >50 50 45 41 38 35 32 30 27 25 20 13 7 - - - - - - -
15 >50 >50 48 44 40 36 33 30 28 26 23 15 8 - - - - - - - -
17 >50 >50 47 42 38 35 31 29 26 24 18 10 - - - - - - - - -
19 >50 >50 45 40 36 33 30 27 25 23 13 5 - - - - - - - - -
21 >50 49 44 39 35 31 28 26 23 19 8 - - - - - - - - - -
23 >50 48 42 37 33 30 27 24 22 14 - - - - - - - - - - -
25 >50 46 40 36 32 28 25 22 20 9 - - - - - - - - - - -
27 >50 44 39 34 30 27 23 21 17 - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 50 43 37 32 28 25 22 19 12 - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 48 41 36 31 27 23 20 18 7 - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 46 40 34 29 25 22 19 16 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 45 38 32 28 24 20 17 13 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 43 36 31 26 22 19 15 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 42 35 29 24 20 17 14 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 40 33 28 23 19 15 12 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 38 32 26 21 17 14 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 37 30 24 20 16 12 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 35 28 23 18 14 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 34 27 21 16 12 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 32 25 20 15 11 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Appendix B: Load span tables 157

9.2.3.2 Draped tendon


300426
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Maximum Live Load - q [kN/m]
5 42 38 35 32 29 27 24 21 18 16 14 12 11 10 9 8 7 5 - - -
7 41 37 34 31 28 26 23 20 17 15 13 11 10 9 8 5 - - - - -
9 40 36 33 30 28 26 22 19 16 14 12 10 9 6 - - - - - - -
11 40 36 32 29 27 24 21 17 15 13 11 9 6 - - - - - - - -
13 39 35 31 28 26 23 19 16 14 11 10 6 - - - - - - - - -
15 38 34 31 28 25 22 18 15 13 10 7 - - - - - - - - - -
17 37 33 30 27 24 21 17 14 11 9 - - - - - - - - - - -
19 36 32 29 26 24 20 16 13 10 5 - - - - - - - - - - -
21 36 31 28 25 23 19 15 12 6 - - - - - - - - - - - -
23 35 31 27 24 22 18 14 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 34 30 26 24 21 16 12 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 33 29 26 23 20 15 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 32 28 25 22 19 14 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 32 27 24 21 18 12 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 31 27 23 20 16 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 30 26 22 20 14 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 29 25 22 19 13 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 28 24 21 17 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 27 23 20 15 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 27 23 19 14 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 26 22 18 13 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 25 21 17 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 24 20 15 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 23 19 14 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]


g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Suggested Design Assumption: %dead; %live
5 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - -
7 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - -
9 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - -
11 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - -
13 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - -
15 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - - -
17 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - - - -
19 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - - - -
21 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - - - - - - -
23 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
158 Appendix B: Load span tables

300486
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Maximum Live Load - q [kN/m]
5 >50 46 42 39 36 33 31 27 23 21 18 16 14 13 12 10 9 8 8 7 6
7 50 45 41 38 35 32 29 26 22 19 17 15 13 12 10 9 8 7 6 - -
9 49 44 40 37 34 31 28 24 21 18 16 14 12 11 9 8 7 5 - - -
11 49 44 40 36 33 31 27 23 20 17 15 13 11 10 8 7 - - - - -
13 48 43 39 35 32 30 26 22 19 16 14 12 10 8 6 - - - - - -
15 47 42 38 35 32 29 25 21 18 15 13 11 9 5 - - - - - - -
17 46 41 37 34 31 28 24 20 17 14 12 9 5 - - - - - - - -
19 45 40 36 33 30 27 23 19 16 13 10 5 - - - - - - - - -
21 44 40 36 32 29 26 22 18 14 11 6 - - - - - - - - - -
23 44 39 35 31 28 25 20 17 13 9 - - - - - - - - - - -
25 43 38 34 30 28 24 19 15 11 - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 42 37 33 30 27 23 18 14 8 - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 41 36 32 29 26 22 17 12 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 40 36 32 28 25 21 15 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 40 35 31 27 24 19 14 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 39 34 30 26 23 18 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 38 33 29 26 23 16 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 37 32 28 25 21 15 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 36 32 27 24 20 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 36 31 27 23 18 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 35 30 26 22 16 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 34 29 25 20 15 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 33 28 24 19 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 32 27 23 18 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]


g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Suggested Design Assumption: %dead; %live
5 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4
7 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - -
9 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - -
11 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - -
13 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - -
15 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - - - - -
17 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 - - - - - - - -
19 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 - - - - - - - - -
21 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 - - - - - - - - - -
23 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 - - - - - - - - - - -
25 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.1 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

300526
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Maximum Live Load - q [kN/m]
5 >50 >50 47 43 40 37 35 31 27 24 21 19 17 15 14 12 11 10 9 8 7
7 >50 >50 46 42 39 36 34 30 26 23 20 18 16 14 13 11 10 9 8 7 6
9 >50 50 45 42 38 35 33 28 25 22 19 17 15 13 11 10 9 8 7 6 -
11 >50 49 45 41 37 35 32 27 24 21 18 16 14 12 10 9 8 6 - - -
13 >50 48 44 40 37 34 31 26 23 19 17 14 12 11 9 7 - - - - -
15 >50 47 43 39 36 33 30 25 21 18 16 13 11 10 7 - - - - - -
17 >50 47 42 38 35 32 28 24 20 17 15 12 10 7 - - - - - - -
19 >50 46 41 37 34 31 27 23 19 16 13 11 7 - - - - - - - -
21 50 45 41 37 33 31 26 22 18 15 12 9 - - - - - - - - -
23 50 44 40 36 33 30 25 21 17 13 10 - - - - - - - - - -
25 49 43 39 35 32 29 24 20 16 12 6 - - - - - - - - - -
27 48 43 38 34 31 28 23 19 14 10 - - - - - - - - - - -
29 47 42 37 33 30 27 22 17 12 - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 46 41 36 33 29 26 21 15 10 - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 46 40 36 32 29 25 19 14 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 45 39 35 31 28 24 17 12 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 44 39 34 30 27 22 16 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 43 38 33 29 26 21 14 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 42 37 32 29 25 19 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 42 36 32 28 23 17 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 41 35 31 27 22 16 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 40 35 30 26 20 13 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 39 34 29 25 19 12 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 38 33 28 24 17 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Appendix B: Load span tables 159

Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]


g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Suggested Design Assumption: %dead; %live
5 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3
7 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4
9 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 -
11 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - -
13 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 - - - - -
15 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 - - - - - -
17 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 - - - - - - -
19 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 - - - - - - - -
21 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 - - - - - - - - -
23 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 - - - - - - - - - -
25 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - -
27 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 - - - - - - - - - - -
29 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

300586
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Maximum Live Load - q [kN/m]
5 >50 >50 >50 50 46 43 40 37 33 29 26 23 21 19 17 15 14 13 11 10 9
7 >50 >50 >50 49 45 42 39 36 32 28 25 22 20 18 16 14 13 11 10 9 8
9 >50 >50 >50 48 45 41 39 35 30 27 24 21 19 16 15 13 12 10 9 8 7
11 >50 >50 >50 48 44 41 38 34 29 26 22 20 17 15 14 12 11 9 8 7 5
13 >50 >50 >50 47 43 40 37 33 28 25 21 19 16 14 12 11 9 8 5 - -
15 >50 >50 50 46 42 39 36 32 27 23 20 18 15 13 11 9 7 - - - -
17 >50 >50 50 45 41 38 35 30 26 22 19 17 14 12 10 7 - - - - -
19 >50 >50 49 44 41 37 34 29 25 21 18 15 13 10 7 - - - - - -
21 >50 >50 48 44 40 37 34 28 24 20 17 14 11 8 - - - - - - -
23 >50 >50 47 43 39 36 32 27 23 19 15 12 10 - - - - - - - -
25 >50 >50 46 42 38 35 31 26 22 18 14 11 - - - - - - - - -
27 >50 >50 46 41 37 34 30 25 21 16 12 - - - - - - - - - -
29 >50 50 45 40 37 33 29 24 19 15 11 - - - - - - - - - -
31 >50 49 44 40 36 32 28 23 17 13 5 - - - - - - - - - -
33 >50 48 43 39 35 32 27 21 16 8 - - - - - - - - - - -
35 >50 47 42 38 34 31 26 19 14 6 - - - - - - - - - - -
37 >50 47 41 37 33 30 24 18 11 - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 >50 46 41 36 32 29 23 16 9 - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 >50 45 40 35 32 28 21 14 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 50 44 39 35 31 26 19 13 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 50 43 38 34 30 24 18 12 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 49 43 37 33 29 23 15 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 48 42 37 32 27 21 14 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 47 41 36 31 26 20 13 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]


g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Suggested Design Assumption: %dead; %live
5 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3
7 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3
9 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3
11 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3
13 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 - -
15 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 - - - -
17 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 - - - - -
19 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 - - - - - -
21 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 - - - - - - -
23 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 - - - - - - - -
25 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 - - - - - - - - -
27 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - -
29 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - -
31 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - -
33 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - -
35 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - -
37 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
160 Appendix B: Load span tables

300736
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Maximum Live Load - q [kN/m]
5 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 48 43 38 35 31 28 25 22 20 19 17 16 14
7 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 50 47 42 37 32 29 26 24 21 19 17 16 14 13
9 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 49 45 39 35 31 28 24 22 20 18 15 14 12 11
11 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 48 43 38 34 29 26 23 20 18 16 14 12 11 7
13 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 45 42 37 32 28 27 24 21 19 17 15 14 12 10
15 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 48 47 43 38 33 29 26 23 20 18 16 14 12 10 9
17 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 49 46 42 37 32 28 25 22 19 17 14 13 11 9 -
19 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 48 45 41 36 31 27 24 21 18 15 13 11 9 - -
21 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 48 44 40 35 30 26 23 20 17 14 11 9 - - -
23 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 47 43 39 33 29 25 22 18 15 12 7 5 - - -
25 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 50 46 43 38 32 28 24 20 16 13 9 6 - - - -
27 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 49 45 42 37 31 27 22 18 15 11 8 - - - - -
29 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 48 44 41 36 30 25 20 16 13 10 - - - - - -
31 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 47 44 40 35 29 24 19 15 11 - - - - - - -
33 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 47 43 39 34 27 22 18 13 5 - - - - - - -
35 >50 >50 >50 >50 50 46 42 39 32 26 20 16 12 - - - - - - - -
37 >50 >50 >50 >50 49 45 41 38 30 24 19 14 6 - - - - - - - -
39 >50 >50 >50 >50 48 44 40 37 29 22 16 13 - - - - - - - - -
41 >50 >50 >50 >50 48 43 40 34 27 21 15 8 - - - - - - - - -
43 >50 >50 >50 >50 47 42 39 33 25 20 14 7 - - - - - - - - -
45 >50 >50 >50 >50 46 42 38 31 24 17 12 - - - - - - - - - -
47 >50 >50 >50 50 45 41 35 30 22 16 10 - - - - - - - - - -
49 >50 >50 >50 49 44 40 34 28 20 14 - - - - - - - - - - -
51 >50 >50 >50 49 44 39 32 27 19 13 - - - - - - - - - - -

Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]


g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Suggested Design Assumption: %dead; %live
5 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2
7 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1
9 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.0
11 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0
13 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1
15 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1
17 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 -
19 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 - -
21 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.0 - - -
23 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - -
25 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - -
27 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - -
29 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - -
31 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - -
33 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - -
35 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - -
37 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - -
39 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - -
41 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - -
43 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - -
45 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - -
47 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - -
49 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - -
51 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - -

400426
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Maximum Live Load - q [kN/m]
5 42 38 35 32 29 27 25 24 22 21 18 16 15 13 12 10 9 8 8 7 5
7 41 37 34 31 28 26 24 23 21 20 17 15 13 12 10 9 8 7 5 - -
9 40 36 33 30 28 25 24 22 21 19 16 14 12 11 9 7 5 - - - -
11 40 36 32 29 27 25 23 21 20 17 15 13 11 8 5 - - - - - -
13 39 35 31 28 26 24 22 20 19 16 14 11 8 - - - - - - - -
15 38 34 31 28 25 23 21 20 18 15 12 7 - - - - - - - - -
17 37 33 30 27 24 22 20 19 16 13 8 - - - - - - - - - -
19 36 32 29 26 24 21 20 18 15 10 - - - - - - - - - - -
21 36 31 28 25 23 21 19 16 12 5 - - - - - - - - - - -
23 35 31 27 24 22 20 17 15 7 - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 34 30 26 24 21 19 16 12 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 33 29 26 23 20 17 14 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 32 28 25 22 20 16 12 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 31 27 24 21 19 15 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 31 27 23 20 17 13 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 30 26 22 20 15 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 29 25 22 19 14 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 28 24 21 17 12 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 27 23 20 15 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 27 23 19 14 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 26 22 18 12 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 25 21 17 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 24 20 15 9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 23 19 14 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Appendix B: Load span tables 161

Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]


g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Suggested Design Assumption: %dead; %live
5 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4
7 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - -
9 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 - - - -
11 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 - - - - - -
13 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 - - - - - - - -
15 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 - - - - - - - - -
17 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 - - - - - - - - - -
19 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 - - - - - - - - - - -
21 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - -
23 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - -
25 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
27 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.1 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

400486
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Maximum Live Load - q [kN/m]
5 >50 46 42 39 36 33 31 29 27 26 23 21 19 17 15 14 12 11 10 9 8
7 50 45 41 38 35 32 30 28 26 25 22 20 18 16 14 12 11 10 9 8 7
9 49 44 40 37 34 31 29 27 25 24 21 19 16 14 13 11 10 8 6 - -
11 49 44 40 36 33 31 28 26 25 23 20 17 15 13 11 10 7 - - - -
13 48 43 39 35 32 30 28 26 24 22 19 16 14 12 8 6 - - - - -
15 47 42 38 35 32 29 27 25 23 21 18 15 12 9 5 - - - - - -
17 46 41 37 34 31 28 26 24 22 19 16 13 8 - - - - - - - -
19 45 40 36 33 30 27 25 23 21 18 14 9 - - - - - - - - -
21 44 40 36 32 29 27 24 22 19 16 12 - - - - - - - - - -
23 44 39 35 31 28 26 24 21 18 14 - - - - - - - - - - -
25 43 38 34 30 28 25 23 20 16 11 - - - - - - - - - - -
27 42 37 33 30 27 24 22 18 14 - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 41 36 32 29 26 23 20 16 7 - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 40 36 31 28 25 23 18 15 6 - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 40 35 31 27 24 20 17 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 39 34 30 26 23 19 15 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 38 33 29 26 23 18 13 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 37 32 28 25 21 16 12 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 36 31 27 24 20 13 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 36 31 27 23 18 12 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 35 30 26 22 16 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 34 29 25 20 15 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 33 28 24 19 12 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 32 27 23 18 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]


g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Suggested Design Assumption: %dead; %live
5 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3
7 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4
9 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 - -
11 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 - - - -
13 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 - - - - -
15 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 - - - - - -
17 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 - - - - - - - -
19 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 - - - - - - - - -
21 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 - - - - - - - - - -
23 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 - - - - - - - - - - -
25 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - -
27 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - -
29 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - -
31 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - -
33 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
162 Appendix B: Load span tables

400526
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Maximum Live Load - q [kN/m]
5 >50 >50 47 43 40 37 35 32 30 29 27 24 22 19 18 16 14 13 12 11 10
7 >50 >50 46 42 39 36 34 32 30 28 26 23 20 18 16 15 13 12 11 10 9
9 >50 50 45 42 38 35 33 31 29 27 25 22 19 17 15 14 12 11 9 8 6
11 >50 49 45 41 37 35 32 30 28 26 23 21 18 16 14 12 11 8 6 - -
13 >50 48 44 40 37 34 31 29 27 25 22 19 17 15 12 10 8 - - - -
15 >50 47 43 39 36 33 30 28 26 24 21 18 15 13 11 6 - - - - -
17 >50 47 42 38 35 32 30 27 26 23 20 17 14 10 6 - - - - - -
19 >50 46 41 37 34 31 29 27 25 22 18 15 12 7 - - - - - - -
21 50 45 40 37 33 31 28 26 24 20 17 13 - - - - - - - - -
23 50 44 40 36 33 30 27 25 22 19 15 6 - - - - - - - - -
25 49 43 39 35 32 29 26 24 21 17 13 - - - - - - - - - -
27 48 43 38 34 31 28 26 22 19 15 6 - - - - - - - - - -
29 47 42 37 33 30 27 25 20 18 9 - - - - - - - - - - -
31 46 41 36 33 29 26 23 19 16 8 - - - - - - - - - - -
33 46 40 36 32 29 26 22 18 12 - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 45 39 35 31 28 25 20 16 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 44 39 34 30 27 23 18 14 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 43 38 33 29 26 21 17 13 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 42 37 32 29 25 20 14 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 42 36 32 28 23 18 13 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 41 35 31 27 22 17 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 40 34 30 26 20 14 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 39 34 29 25 19 13 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 38 33 28 24 17 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]


g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Suggested Design Assumption: %dead; %live
5 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3
7 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4
9 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3
11 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 - -
13 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 - - - -
15 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 - - - - -
17 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 - - - - - -
19 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - -
21 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 - - - - - - - - -
23 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - -
25 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - -
27 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - -
29 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - -
31 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - -
33 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - -
35 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
37 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
41 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

400586
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Maximum Live Load - q [kN/m]
5 >50 >50 >50 50 46 43 40 38 35 33 32 29 26 23 21 19 18 16 15 13 12
7 >50 >50 >50 49 45 42 39 37 35 33 31 28 25 22 20 18 16 15 13 12 11
9 >50 >50 >50 48 45 41 38 36 34 32 30 27 24 21 19 17 15 14 12 11 10
11 >50 >50 >50 48 44 41 38 35 33 31 29 25 23 20 18 16 14 12 11 9 7
13 >50 >50 >50 47 43 40 37 34 32 30 28 24 21 19 17 14 13 11 8 5 -
15 >50 >50 50 46 42 39 36 34 31 29 27 23 20 17 15 13 10 7 - - -
17 >50 >50 50 45 41 38 35 33 30 28 25 22 19 16 13 11 7 - - - -
19 >50 >50 49 44 41 37 34 32 30 28 24 20 17 14 10 - - - - - -
21 >50 >50 48 44 40 36 34 31 29 27 22 18 15 12 5 - - - - - -
23 >50 >50 47 43 39 36 33 30 28 25 21 17 14 6 - - - - - - -
25 >50 >50 46 42 38 35 32 29 27 24 19 15 8 - - - - - - - -
27 >50 >50 45 41 37 34 31 29 25 22 18 11 - - - - - - - - -
29 >50 50 45 40 37 33 30 28 23 20 16 9 - - - - - - - - -
31 >50 49 44 39 36 32 30 26 22 18 13 - - - - - - - - - -
33 >50 48 43 39 35 32 29 25 20 16 5 - - - - - - - - - -
35 >50 47 42 38 34 31 27 23 19 15 - - - - - - - - - - -
37 >50 47 41 37 33 30 26 21 16 7 - - - - - - - - - - -
39 >50 46 41 36 32 29 24 19 16 5 - - - - - - - - - - -
41 >50 45 40 35 32 28 23 17 11 - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 50 44 39 35 31 26 21 16 9 - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 50 43 38 34 30 24 19 15 7 - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 49 43 37 33 29 23 16 12 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 48 42 37 32 27 21 16 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 47 41 36 31 26 20 13 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Appendix B: Load span tables 163

Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]


g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Suggested Design Assumption: %dead; %live
5 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3
7 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3
9 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3
11 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2
13 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 -
15 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 - - -
17 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 - - - -
19 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 - - - - - -
21 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - -
23 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - -
25 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - -
27 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - -
29 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - -
31 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - -
33 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - -
35 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - -
37 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - -
39 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - -
41 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - -
43 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - -
45 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - -
47 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
51 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

400736
Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]
g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Maximum Live Load - q [kN/m]
5 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 48 45 42 38 36 33 30 28 25 22 20 19 17
7 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 50 47 43 40 37 36 31 28 26 23 21 19 17 16
9 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 49 45 41 39 35 33 30 27 24 22 20 18 16 14
11 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 48 43 43 40 38 35 31 28 25 23 21 19 17 15
13 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 45 42 42 39 37 34 30 27 24 22 19 17 15 13
15 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 48 47 44 41 39 36 32 29 26 23 20 18 15 14 12
17 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 49 46 43 40 38 35 31 28 24 21 18 16 14 12 7
19 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 48 45 42 39 37 34 30 26 23 19 17 15 12 8 -
21 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 48 44 41 39 36 33 28 25 21 18 16 12 9 - -
23 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 47 43 40 38 35 31 27 23 19 16 13 10 - - -
25 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 50 46 43 40 37 34 30 25 21 18 14 12 - - - -
27 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 49 45 42 39 36 32 28 24 20 16 13 5 - - - -
29 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 48 44 41 38 34 31 27 22 18 15 7 - - - - -
31 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 47 44 40 37 33 29 25 21 17 10 - - - - - -
33 >50 >50 >50 >50 >50 46 43 39 36 32 28 23 19 13 8 - - - - - -
35 >50 >50 >50 >50 50 46 42 39 34 29 26 22 18 11 - - - - - - -
37 >50 >50 >50 >50 49 45 41 38 33 29 24 20 15 - - - - - - - -
39 >50 >50 >50 >50 48 44 40 36 30 27 22 18 14 - - - - - - - -
41 >50 >50 >50 >50 48 43 39 34 30 25 21 17 - - - - - - - - -
43 >50 >50 >50 >50 47 42 39 33 27 22 20 16 - - - - - - - - -
45 >50 >50 >50 >50 46 42 38 31 27 21 17 - - - - - - - - - -
47 >50 >50 >50 50 45 41 35 30 25 20 16 - - - - - - - - - -
49 >50 >50 >50 49 44 40 34 28 22 17 - - - - - - - - - - -
51 >50 >50 >50 49 44 39 32 27 21 17 - - - - - - - - - - -

Beam Span (Lbeam) [m]


g [kN/m] 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0
Suggested Design Assumption: %dead; %live
5 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1
7 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.1
9 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0
11 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3
13 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1
15 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1
17 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0
19 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 -
21 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 0.9;0.0 - -
23 0.8;0.0 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - -
25 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.9;0.0 - - - -
27 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - -
29 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - -
31 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - -
33 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - -
35 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - -
37 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - -
39 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - -
41 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - -
43 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - -
45 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - -
47 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.0 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.0 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - -
49 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - -
51 0.9;0.0 1.0;0.1 1.0;0.3 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.4 1.0;0.2 1.0;0.1 0.9;0.0 0.8;0.0 - - - - - - - - - - -
164 Appendix B: Load span tables