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Bab 1 Chapter 1 Mikroorganisma dan Kesannya ke atas Hidupan Microorganisms and Their Effects on
Bab 1 Chapter 1 Mikroorganisma dan Kesannya ke atas Hidupan Microorganisms and Their Effects on
Bab 1
Chapter 1
Mikroorganisma
dan Kesannya
ke atas Hidupan
Microorganisms and
Their Effects on Living
Things
1BAB
ISTILAH!
WORD UP!
• Alga – Algae
• Algae – Alga
Konsep PENTING!
• Bakteria – Bacteria
• Bacteria – Bakteria
The BIG Picture!
• Proses pereputan – Decaying process
• Decaying process – Proses pereputan
• Pencernaan makanan – Food digestion
• Food digestion – Pencernaan makanan
Kulat – Fungi
Food digestion – Pencernaan makanan • Kulat – Fungi • Keimunan – Immunity • Jangkitan –
• Keimunan – Immunity • Jangkitan – Infection • Mikroorganisma – Microorganisms • Kurap –
• Keimunan – Immunity
• Jangkitan – Infection
• Mikroorganisma – Microorganisms
• Kurap – Ringworm
• Panau – Tinea
Soalan Tahun-tahun Lepas SPM
Kertas 2
Tahun
Kertas 1
Bhg. A
Bhg. B
Bhg. C
2005
S24–27
S2
2006
S24–28
S3
2007
S25–27
S3
2008
S23–27
S2
2009
S25–29
S2
1
11

FF5MR-ch1(1-28).indd5MR-ch1(1-28).indd

• Fungi – Kulat • Immunity – Keimunan • Infection – Jangkitan • Microorganisms –
Fungi – Kulat
• Immunity – Keimunan
• Infection – Jangkitan
• Microorganisms – Mikroorganisma
• Ringworm – Kurap
• Tinea – Panau
SPM Past-year Questions
Paper 2
Year
Paper 1
Sec. A
Sec. B
Sec. C
2005
Q24–27
Q2
2006
Q24–28
Q3
2007
Q25–27
Q3
2008
Q23–27
Q2
2009
Q25–29
Q2
1
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Chapter 1 Microorganisms and Their Effects on Living Things Objektif Pembelajaran Learning Objective 1.1 Memahami
Chapter 1
Microorganisms and Their
Effects on Living Things
Objektif Pembelajaran
Learning Objective
1.1 Memahami pengelasan mikroorganisma
1.1 Understanding the classification of microorganisms
Aktiviti
DISCUSSION
Pelbagai jenis mikroorganisma
Various types of microorganisms
1.1
PERBINCANGAN
Masteri
1.1
Activity
Mastery
Lengkapkan jadual di bawah tentang pengelasan mikroorganisma berdasarkan ciri-ciri sepunya.
Complete the table below on the classification of microorganisms based on their common characteristics.
parasit
saprofit
unisel
multisel
belahan dedua
mana-mana
parasites
saprophytes
unicellular
multicellular
binary fission
anywhere
pelbagai
sel hidup
gelap
kristal
klorofil
lembap
various
living cells
dark
crystal
chlorophyll
damp
menggandakan
elektron
filamen
pertunasan
pembentukan spora
sfera
duplicating
electron
filament
budding
spore formation
sphere
autotrof
fotosintesis
seni
mati
cahaya matahari
air tawar
autotrophs
photosynthesis
smallest
dead
sunlight
fresh water
CHAPTER
1
Saiz dan
Habitat
Type of microorganism
Size and brief
explanation
Method of
Jenis mikroorganisma
penerangan
Rupa bentuk
Cara pembiakan
Nutrisi
Shape
Nutrition
Habitat
reproduction
ringkas
(a)
Bakteria
– Pelbagai
Pelbagai
Membiak mela-
– Hidup sebagai
Boleh dijumpai
Various
Various
– Reproduce
Live as
– Can be found
(a)
Bacteria
through
saiz
bentuk
belahan
parasit
mana-
parasites
anywhere
lui
di
sizes
shapes
or
– Mikroorganisma
binary
Unicellular
dedua
saprofit
mana
saprophytes
atau
unisel
microorganisms
fission
(Memakan
(Feed on
kokus
coccus
organisma
dead
vibrio
vibrio
mati
)
organisms)
(b)
Virus
– Pelbagai
Mikroorganisma
Membiak dalam
– Hidup sebagai
Hanya dapat
(b)
Viruses
The
Various
smallest
yang paling
sel hidup
dijumpai di
– Reproduce in
living cells by
– Live as
– Can only be
found in
bentuk
parasit
shapes
parasites
dengan
dalam
microorganisms
seni
duplicating
living cells
menggandakan
sel hidup
– Hanya dapat
Only can be
seen through an
itself
– Can form
dilihat melalui
dirinya
Boleh memben-
crystals
electron
mikroskop
virus
kristal
tuk
virus
bacteriophage
outside the
bakteriofaj
microscope
elektron
sel
di
luar benda
living
living things
hidup
hidup
cell
(c)
Kulat
– – Mempunyai
Pelbagai
Membiak mela-
– Hidup sebagai
Boleh dijumpai
(c)
Fungi
Various
– Have
– Reproduce
– Live as
– Can be found in
di
tempat yang
through
pelbagai
saiz
pertunasan
parasit
various
sizes
parasites
dark
lui
and
Tumbuhan yang
gelap
sporangium
budding
sporangium
– bentuk seperti
(yis) atau
(kulat panau)
dan
Plants that do
not have
damp
tidak
spore
filamen
shapes such as
filament
(yeast) or
pembentukan
saprofit
lembap
(tinea fungi) or
saprophytes
spora
atau
places
mempunyai
chlorophyll
(mukor)
spore
(mucor)
sfera
spora
sphere
klorofil
dan
hypha
and
hifa
yeast
yis
formation
(mukor)
mucor
mukor
(mould)
(kulapok)
(mucor)
(d)
Protozoa
– Pelbagai
Pelbagai
– Membiak mela-
– Hidup sebagai
Boleh dijumpai
(d)
Protozoa
Various
Various
– Reproduce
– Live as
– Can be found
through
saiz
bentuk
belahan
saprofit
air tawar
sizes
saprophytes
fresh water
lui
di
shapes
in
– Haiwan
binary
(ameba dan
dan tempat
Unicellular
(Amoeba and
dedua
damp
and
unisel
paramesium)
Paramecium)
lembap
animals
fission
yang
places
parasit
parasites
Amoeba
Paramecium
dan
and
ameba
paramesium
(Plasmodium)
(Plasmodium)
(e)
Alga
– Pelbagai
Pelbagai
– Membiak mela-
– Boleh dijumpai
Hidup sebagai
(e)
Algae
Various
Various
– Reproduce
– Live as
– Can be found in
di
tempat
through
saiz
bentuk
belahan
autotrof
lui
sizes
shapes
autotrophs
damp
,
,
– Tumbuhan
lembap
binary
dedua
iaitu boleh mem-
buat makanan
melalui
yang
Unicellular
areas that
akuatik
menerima
receive
fission
multi-
spirogira
Spirogyra
or
unisel
that is, they can
make their own
food through
dan
cahaya
sunlight
klamidomonas
Chlamydomonas
cellular
fotosintesis
photosynthesis
multisel
matahari
aquatic plants
1.1 HP • Menyenaraikan ciri-ciri pelbagai jenis mikroorganisma
1.1 HP • Mengelaskan mikroorganisma kepada bakteria, kulat,
protozoa, virus dan alga
1.1 LO
• List the characteristics of various types of
microorganisms
1.1 LO
• Classify microorganisms into bacteria, fungi,
protozoa, viruses and algae
2
2
BAB
1
Chapter 1
Microorganisms and Their
Effects on Living Things

FF5MR-ch1(1-28).indd5MR-ch1(1-28).indd

DISCUSSION 1.1 Activity
DISCUSSION
1.1 Activity

22

1.1 Understanding the classication of microorganisms

6

State the type of microorganism that can be cultured and crystallised outside living cells. (Virus)

7

State two examples of protozoa. (Amoeba and Paramecium)

8

State two examples of fungi. (Mucor and yeast)

9

State two examples of algae. (Spirogyra and Chlamydomonas)

10

State the microorganism that can make its own food through photosynthesis. Explain your answer. (Algae. Algae contains chlorophyll.)

1 State the tiny living things that can only be seen through a microscope. (Microorganisms)

2 State three types of microorganisms. (Viruses, bacteria and fungi/protozoa/algae)

3 State the smallest microorganism. (Virus)

4 State the microorganism that is classi ed as an animal cell. (Protozoa)

5 State the type of microorganism that can only live in living cells. (Virus)

2 2
2
2

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Chapter 1 Microorganisms and Their Effects on Living Things 1CHAPTER Aktiviti DISCUSSION Pengelasan bakteria
Chapter 1
Microorganisms and Their
Effects on Living Things
1CHAPTER
Aktiviti
DISCUSSION
Pengelasan bakteria
Classification of bacteria
1.2
PERBINCANGAN
Masteri
1.2
Activity
Mastery
A Kaji foto bakteria di bawah dan jawab soalan yang berikut.
A Study the photographs of the bacteria below and answer the following questions.
P
Q
R
S
P
Q
R
S
Kokus
Vibrio
Basilus
Spirilum
Coccus
Vibrio
Bacillus
Spirillum
1BAB
1 Apakah ciri bakteria yang boleh digunakan untuk pengelasannya?
Rupa bentuk
1 What is the characteristic of the bacteria that can be used for classification purpose?
shape
bakteria.
The
of the bacteria.
2 Nyatakan rupa bentuk bakteria di dalam foto P, Q, R dan S dengan perkataan yang berikut.
2 State the shape of the bacteria in photographs P, Q, R and S with the following words.
Vibrio
Basilus
Kokus
Spirilum
Vibrio
Bacillus
Coccus
Spirillum
B Refer to the website below for information on moulds:
B Rujuk laman web dibawah untuk maklumat mengenai kulapuk:
http://www.regentsprep.org/Regents/biology/units/reproduction/asexual.cfm
http://www.regentsprep.org/Regents/biology/units/reproduction/asexual.cfm
Spore
Sporangium
Y:
X:
Sporangium
Spora
X:
Y:
Z
Z
Mikroorganisma di atas boleh dijumpai di permukaan makanan seperti roti berkulat dan buah reput.
The above microorganism can be found on stale breads and rotting fruits.
Kulapuk/Mukor
Mould/Mucor
1 Apakah nama mikroorganisma yang ditunjukkan?
1 What is the name of the microorganism shown?
2 Label struktur-struktur X dan Y dalam rajah tersebut.
2 Label structures X and Y in the diagram.
Untuk pembiakan
For reproduction
3 Apakah fungsi Y?
3 What is the function of Y?
Secara saprofit
Saprophytic
4 Bagaimanakah mikroorganisma ini mendapatkan nutriennya?
4 How does this microorganism get its nutrient?
5 Namakan struktur Z yang membolehkan mikroorganisma tersebut menyerap nutriennya.
Hifa
5 Name structure Z that enables the microorganism to absorb its nutrient.
Hypha
1.2 HP • Menerangkan ciri-ciri bagi setiap kumpulan
mikroorganisma
1.2 LO
• Describe the characteristics of each group of
microorganisms
3
3
Chapter 1
Microorganisms and Their
Effects on Living Things

FF5MR-ch1(1-28).indd5MR-ch1(1-28).indd

DISCUSSION 1.2 Activity
DISCUSSION
1.2 Activity

33

11 State the method of reproduction for algae, protozoa and bacteria. (Binary ssion) 12 State the microorganisms that live as saprophytes. (Protozoa, fungi and bacteria) 13 State the microorganisms that live as parasites. (Viruses, protozoa, fungi and bacteria) 14 How can bacteria be classi ed? (Based on its shape)

15 State the possible shapes of bacteria. (Coccus, bacillus, vibrio and spirillum)

16 State the shape of the bacteria below.

(a)

(b)

16 State the shape of the bacteria below. (a) (b) (c) (d) (Vibrio) (Coccus) (Bacillus) (Spirillum)

(c)

(d)

16 State the shape of the bacteria below. (a) (b) (c) (d) (Vibrio) (Coccus) (Bacillus) (Spirillum)

(Vibrio)

(Coccus)

(Bacillus)

(Spirillum)

3 3
3
3

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Chapter 1 Microorganisms and Their Effects on Living Things Objektif Pembelajaran Learning Objective 1.2
Chapter 1
Microorganisms and Their
Effects on Living Things
Objektif Pembelajaran
Learning Objective
1.2 Mensintesiskan idea tentang kesan faktor yang mempengaruhi pertumbuhan mikroorganisma
1.2 Synthesing ideas on the factors that affect the growth of microorganisms
Eksperimen PEKA
GUIDED
Kesan pH terhadap pertumbuhan mikroorganisma
Effect of pH on the growth of microorganisms
1.3
TERBIMBING
Inkuiri-penemuan
1.3
Experiment PEKA
Inquiry-discovery
1999
Sec. A, Q2
2007
Sec. A, Q3
1999
Bhg. A, S2
2007
Bhg. A, S3
Mengkaji kesan faktor pH terhadap aktiviti mikroorganisma
AIM
To study the effect of pH factor on the growth of microorganisms
C1P1
C1P1
neutral
neutral
Bakteria sesuai hidup dalam keadaan
berasid
tetapi tidak dalam keadaan yang
beralkali
Bacter i a thr i ve i n
acidic
cond i t i ons but not i n cond i t i ons that are very
alkaline
C1P2
sangat
atau
.
C1P2
CHAPTER
1
or
.
Kuantiti bakteria
Quantity of bacteria/Volume of nutrient agar
(a)
yang dimalarkan:
(a)
that is kept constant:
Nilai pH/Keadaan agar-agar nutrien
pH value/Condition of the nutrient agar
C1P3
C1P3
(b)
yang dimanipulasikan:
(b)
that is manipulated:
Bilangan koloni bakteria/Bilangan tompok putih
Number of bacterial colonies/Number of white spots
(c)
yang bergerak balas:
(c)
that responds:
Agar-agar nutrien yang steril, kultur bakteria (Bacillus subtilis), air suling, asid hidroklorik
1 mol dm –3 , larutan natrium hidroksida 1 mol dm –3
Ster i le nutr i ent agar, bacter i a culture (Bac i llus
subt i l i s), d i st i lled water, 1 mol dm –3
hydrochloric acid, 1 mol dm –3 sodium hydroxide solution
C1P4
C1P4
Piring Petri dan penutup steril, picagari, penitis, pita selofan
Sterile Petri dishes and lids, syringes, dropper, cellophane tape
agar-agar nutr i en
nutrient agar
C1
C1
+
+
P
kultur bakter i a
P
bacteria culture
1
1
2
A
BC
2
A
BC
3
3
4
p
i r i ng
Petr i
p
i r i ng Petr i
Petri dish
Petri dish
4
5
5
keadaan beras i d
keadaan beralkal i
(larutan natr i um hi droksi da)
keadaan neutral
(sebaga i kawalan)
(air sul ing)
acidic condition
S
S
(larutan as i d hi droklor ik)
(hydrochloric acid)
alkaline condition
(sodium hydroxide solution)
neutral condition
(acts as the control)
(distilled water)
C2P4
C2P4
1 Masukkan 5 cm 3 agar-agar nutrien panas ke dalam piring Petri A, B dan C.
1 Put 5 cm 3 of hot nutrient agar into Petri dish A, B and C .
2 Biarkan agar-agar menjadi pepejal sebelum menambah 1 cm 3 larutan kultur bakteria ke
atas permukaan agar-agar tersebut.
C2
C2
2 Let the agar solidify before adding 1 cm 3 of bacteria culture solution on the surface of the
solidified agar.
3 Masukkan 1 cm 3 asid hidroklorik dalam salah satu piring Petri, 1 cm 3 larutan natrium
P
P
3 Add 1 cm 3 of hydrochloric acid into one Petri dish, 1 cm 3 of sodium hydroxide solution
hidroksida dalam piring Petri kedua dan 1 cm 3 air suling dalam piring Petri ketiga dengan
1
1
into the second Petri dish, and 1 cm 3 of distilled water into the third Petri dish
menggunakan picagari.
2
2
using syringes.
4 Tutup piring Petri dengan penutup dan lekatkan penutup itu menggunakan pita selofan.
3
3
4 Cover the Petri dishes with lids and seal the lids using some cellophane tape.
5 Letakkan ketiga-tiga piring Petri A, B dan C secara terbalik dalam almari gelap selama
4
4
5 Place the three Petri dishes A, B and C inverted in a dark cupboard for two to three days.
S
dua hingga tiga hari.
S
6 Record your observation on the growth of bacteria at the end of the experiment.
6 Catatkan pemerhatian anda ke atas pertumbuhan bakteria pada akhir eksperimen.
1 5 cm 3 agar-agar nutrien panas dimasukkan ke dalam setiap piring Petri A, B dan C.
1 5 cm 3 of hot nutrient agar was put into Petri dish A, B and C.
2 Agar-agar dibiarkan menjadi pepejal sebelum 1 cm 3 larutan kultur bakteria
2 The agar was allowed to solidify before adding 1 cm 3 of bacteria culture
ditambahkan ke atas permukaan agar-agar tersebut.
solution onto the surface of the solidified agar.
1.3 HP • Mengenal pasti faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi
pertumbuhan mikroorganisma
• Mereka cipta satu eksper imen untuk mengkaji kesan
nilai pH terhadap pertumbuhan mikroorganisma
Rujuk kepada Essential Science Form 5, Eksper imen
1.1, hlm. 11; Essential Science SPM, Exper iment 9.1,
1.3 LO
4
hlm. 259
• Identify factors that affect the growth of microorganisms
• Design an experiment to study how pH affects the
growth of microorganisms
4
Refer to Essential Science Form 5, Experiment 1.1,
p. 11; Essential Science SPM, Experiment 9.1,
p. 259
BAB
1
Chapter 1
Microorganisms and Their
Effects on Living Things

FF5MR-ch1(1-28).indd5MR-ch1(1-28).indd

GUIDED 1.3 Experiment PEKA UNGUIDED 1,4 Experiment PEKA UNGUIDED 1,5 Experiment PEKA
GUIDED
1.3 Experiment PEKA
UNGUIDED
1,4
Experiment PEKA
UNGUIDED
1,5
Experiment PEKA

44

1.2 Synthesising ideas on the factors that affect the growth of microorganisms

3 What happens to microorganisms at temperatures of below –18 o C? (Microorganisms are still alive but do not grow or reproduce)

4 Explain why a temperature of 100 °C cannot kill off all the bacteria. (Bacterial spores can still live till 120°C)

5 State the conditions that are suitable for the growth of bacteria and fungi. (Dark and damp)

6 State the type of ray in sunlight that can kill microorganisms. (Ultraviolet ray)

7 Explain why Mucor cannot grow on dry bread. (Mucor needs water to grow)

1 State ve factors that affect the growth of microorganisms. (Nutrients, humidity, light, temperature and pH value)

2 What happens to microorganisms in conditions that are too acidic or too alkaline? (Microorganisms are killed.)

4 4
4
4

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PEMERHATIAN C3 P 1 2 3 S
PEMERHATIAN
C3
P
1
2
3
S

ANALISIS

C4 P 1 2 3 S
C4
P
1
2
3
S

KESIMPULAN

FF5MR-ch1(1-28).indd5MR-ch1(1-28).indd

55

3 1 cm 3 asid hidroklorik, 1 cm 3 larutan natrium hidroksida dan 1 cm 3 air suling

masing-masing dimasukkan dengan menggunakan picagari ke atas permukaan

agar-agar dalam piring Petri A, B dan C.

4 Piring Petri ditutup dan penutup dilekat dengan menggunakan pita selofan.

5 Semua piring Petri A, B dan C diterbalikkan dan disimpan dalam almari gelap

selama dua hingga tiga hari.

6 Pemerhatian ke atas pertumbuhan bakteria dicatatkan pada akhir eksperimen.

C1P5
C1P5

Piring Petri

Keadaan agar-agar nutrien

Bilangan koloni bakteria

 

A

Berasid

Tiada

B

Beralkali

Tiada

C

Neutral

Banyak

 
C3P1
C3P1
C3P2
C3P2
C3P3
C3P3
OBSERVATION 1BAB C3 P 1 2 3 S
OBSERVATION
1BAB
C3
P
1
2
3
S

ANALYSIS

1 Daripada pemerhatian, nyatakan keadaan dan nilai pH yang sesuai dan yang tidak sesuai untuk pertumbuhan bakteria. Kemudian, berikan inferens bagi jawapan anda.

 

Keadaan

 

Nilai pH

Inferens

 

Sesuai untuk

   

7

Bakter i a dalam

 

terbunuh

 

pertumbuhan

Neutral

pH

 

bakteria

 

keadaan

yang

Tidak sesuai

   

terlalu

berasid

Berasid

pH kurang daripada 7

atau terlalu

 

untuk pertum-

buhan bakteria

Beralkali

pH

lebih daripada 7

beralkali

.

 

(a)

2 Ramalkan keadaan nutrien agar jika eksperimen diulang dengan menggunakan cuka . Ber i kan satu sebab.

Tiada

koloni bakteria. Cuka bersifat

asid

.

KBSB • Meramal
KBSB
• Meramal

(b)

Tandakan ‘’ dalam petak bagi kegunaan cuka berdasarkan sifatnya.

✓

Untuk mengawet

makanan seperti buah-buahan

Untuk menguatkan getah asli
Untuk menguatkan
getah asli

Untuk menambahkan warna kepada makanan dalam tin

3 Nyatakan definisi secara operasi bagi

(a)

(b)

KBSB • Mendefinisi secara operasi
KBSB
• Mendefinisi secara operasi

keadaan neutral

Keadaan neutral adalah suatu keadaan yang

pertumbuhan bakteria Pertumbuhan bakteria adalah satu proses yang menyebabkan

mempunyai banyak koloni bakteria

.

pertumbuhan

C4 P 1 2 3 S
C4
P
1
2
3
S

koloni bakteria yang paling banyak dalam keadaan neutral (atau pada pH 7 )

.

4 Bolehkah hipotesis yang dibuat dapat diterima? Ya

Apakah kesimpulan yang dapat dibuat daripada eksperimen ini? neutral

C4P2
C4P2

tetapi tidak dalam keadaan

.

C4P3
C4P3

Bakteria sesuai hidup dalam keadaan

yang sangat

beralkali

berasid

atau

CONCLUSION

3 1 cm 3 of hydrochloric acid, 1 cm 3 of sodium hydroxide solution, and 1 cm 3 of distilled

water were added using syringes, onto the surface of the agar in Petri dishes A, B and

C respectively.

4 The Petri dishes were covered and the lids were sealed using some cellophane tape.

5 All Petri dishes A, B and C were inverted and kept in a dark cupboard for

two to three days.

6 Observation on the growth of bacteria was recorded at the end of the experiment.

C1P5
C1P5

Petri dish

Condition of the nutrient agar

Number of bacterial colonies

A

Acidic

None

B

Alkaline

None

C

Neutral

Many

C3P1 C3P2 C3P3
C3P1
C3P2
C3P3

1 From the observations, state the conditions and pH values that are suitable and not suitable for bacterial growth. Then, give an inference for your answer.

 

Condition

 

pH value

Inference

Suitable for bacterial growth

Neutral

pH

7

Bacteria are

 
 

destroyed

 

Acidic

pH

less than 7

i n

cond i t i ons

that

are

Not suitable for

 

too

 

acidic

bacterial growth

     

Alkaline

pH

more than 7

or too

alkaline

 
     

.

(a)

2 Predict the condition of the nutrient agar if the experiment is repeated using vinegar. Give one reason.

No

bacterial colony. Vinegar is

acidic

.

C4P1 TSTS • Predicting
C4P1
TSTS
• Predicting

(b)

Tick ‘in the box for the use of vinegar based on its property.

✓

To preserve food such as fruit

To strengthen natural rubber
To strengthen
natural rubber
To add colour to canned food TSTS • Defining operationally
To add colour
to canned food
TSTS
• Defining operationally

3 Based on the experiment, state the operational definition of

(a)

(b)

neutral condition Neutral condition is the condition that

bacterial growth Bacterial growth is a process which causes the

has many bacterial colonies

growth of the most

.

bacteria colonies at neutral condition (or at pH 7).

.

4 Can the hypothesis that you formed earlier be accepted?

Yes

C4P2
C4P2

What conclusion can be made from this experiment? neutral

Bacteria thrive in

are too

conditions but will not survive in conditions that alkaline

.

C4P3
C4P3

or

acidic

5 5
5
5

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APLIKASI IDEA

REFLEKSI

asid lemah Larutan iodin ialah yang bertindak sebagai antiseptik untuk menghalang pertumbuhan bakteria pada bahagian
asid lemah
Larutan iodin ialah
yang
bertindak sebagai antiseptik untuk menghalang
pertumbuhan bakteria pada bahagian luka.
Makanan
seperti
buah-buahan
dan
sayur-sayuran
boleh
gula
garam
dan
pekat.
dan sayur-sayuran boleh gula garam dan pekat. pH 5.5 dan ke bawah tidak menggalakkan pertumbuhan bakteria
dan sayur-sayuran boleh gula garam dan pekat. pH 5.5 dan ke bawah tidak menggalakkan pertumbuhan bakteria
dan sayur-sayuran boleh gula garam dan pekat. pH 5.5 dan ke bawah tidak menggalakkan pertumbuhan bakteria
dan sayur-sayuran boleh gula garam dan pekat. pH 5.5 dan ke bawah tidak menggalakkan pertumbuhan bakteria
dan sayur-sayuran boleh gula garam dan pekat. pH 5.5 dan ke bawah tidak menggalakkan pertumbuhan bakteria

pH 5.5 dan ke bawah tidak menggalakkan pertumbuhan bakteria tetapi menggalakkan pertumbuhan dan pembiakan kulat.

diawet

dalam

larutan

Eksperimen PEKA Kesan suhu terhadap pertumbuhan mikroorganisma 1.4 TAKTERBIMBING Inkuiri-penemuan
Eksperimen PEKA
Kesan suhu terhadap pertumbuhan mikroorganisma
1.4
TAKTERBIMBING
Inkuiri-penemuan

TUJUAN

T UJUAN H IPOTESIS P EMBOLEH U BAH B AHAN R ADAS

HIPOTESIS

T UJUAN H IPOTESIS P EMBOLEH U BAH B AHAN R ADAS

PEMBOLEH

UBAH

T UJUAN H IPOTESIS P EMBOLEH U BAH B AHAN R ADAS

BAHAN

T UJUAN H IPOTESIS P EMBOLEH U BAH B AHAN R ADAS

RADAS

2000 Bhg. A, S3
2000 Bhg. A, S3
2003 Bhg. A, S4
2003 Bhg. A, S4

Mengkaji kesan mikroorganisma

suhu

terhadap pertumbuhan

C1P1
C1P1

Bakteria tumbuh dan membiak dengan pesat pada

tetapi tidak pada

suhu bilik

suhu yang sangat rendah atau sangat tinggi

.

C1P2
C1P2

(a)

yang dimalarkan:

Kuantiti bakteria/Jenis Bakteria

(b)

yang dimanipulasikan:

Suhu

(c)

yang bergerak balas:

dimanipulasikan: Suhu (c) yang bergerak balas: Pertumbuhan dan pembiakan mikroorganisma dipengaruhi oleh
dimanipulasikan: Suhu (c) yang bergerak balas: Pertumbuhan dan pembiakan mikroorganisma dipengaruhi oleh
dimanipulasikan: Suhu (c) yang bergerak balas: Pertumbuhan dan pembiakan mikroorganisma dipengaruhi oleh
dimanipulasikan: Suhu (c) yang bergerak balas: Pertumbuhan dan pembiakan mikroorganisma dipengaruhi oleh
dimanipulasikan: Suhu (c) yang bergerak balas: Pertumbuhan dan pembiakan mikroorganisma dipengaruhi oleh

Pertumbuhan dan pembiakan mikroorganisma dipengaruhi oleh suhu. Makanan yang disimpan dalam peti sejuk tahan dengan lebih lama kerana suhunya rendah. Lauk-pauk yang dibiarkan semalaman tanpa dididihkan lagi biasanya akan menjadi basi pada keesokan hari.

 

Bilangan koloni bakteria/Bilangan tompok putih

C1P3
C1P3

Agar-agar nutrien steril, kultur bakteria (Bacillus subtilis), kertas label

 

Piring Petri dan penutup steril, picagari, pita selofan, peti sejuk, ketuhar

C1P4
C1P4
Sebelum Anda Mulakan

Sebelum Anda Mulakan

Sebelum Anda Mulakan
Sebelum Anda Mulakan
Sebelum Anda Mulakan

C1

 

P

1

 

2

 

3

 

4

 

5

 

S

 
MERANCANG MERANCANG EKSPERIMEN EKSPERIMEN

MERANCANGMERANCANG EKSPERIMENEKSPERIMEN MERANCANG MERANCANG EKSPERIMEN

1 Pelajar-pelajar dibahagikan kepada beberapa kumpulan.

2 Setiap kumpulan dikehendaki merancang prosedur eksperimen bagi menunjukkan kesan suhu terhadap pertumbuhan bakteria dengan berpandukan rajah yang berikut.

C2P4
C2P4

agar nutrien lembap

A B 5 °C suhu bilik 37 °C
A
B
5 °C
suhu bilik
37 °C

piring

Petri

(30 °C)

CD

agar nutrien lembap A B 5 °C suhu bilik 37 °C piring Petri (30 °C) CD

70 °C

piring

Petri

C2P4
C2P4

1.4 HP Mengenal pasti faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi pertumbuhan mikroorganisma Mereka cipta satu eksper imen untuk mengkaji kesan suhu terhadap pertumbuhan mikroorganisma

FF5MR-ch1(1-28).indd5MR-ch1(1-28).indd

66

6
6

Rujuk kepada Essential Science Form 5, Eksper imen 1.1, hlm. 11; Essential Science SPM, Exper iment 9.1, hlm. 259

APPLICATION

oF IDEA

A PPLICATION o F I DEA R EFLECTION

REFLECTION

weak acid Iodine solution is a that acts as an ant i sept i c
weak acid
Iodine solution is a
that acts
as an ant i sept i c to prevent the growth of
bacteria in body wounds.
pH 5.5 and below are not suitable for the growth of bacteria but encourage the
pH 5.5 and below are not
suitable for the growth of
bacteria but encourage
the growth and
reproduction of fungi.

Food such as fruits and vegetables can be preserved in concentrated

sugar

salt and solutions. UNGUIDED Effect of temperature on the growth of microorganisms Inquiry-discovery 1.4 Experiment
salt
and
solutions.
UNGUIDED
Effect of temperature on the growth of microorganisms Inquiry-discovery
1.4 Experiment
PEKA

AIM

A IM H YPOTHESIS V ARIABLE M ATERIALS A PPARATUS

HYPOTHESIS

A IM H YPOTHESIS V ARIABLE M ATERIALS A PPARATUS

VARIABLE

A IM H YPOTHESIS V ARIABLE M ATERIALS A PPARATUS

MATERIALS

A IM H YPOTHESIS V ARIABLE M ATERIALS A PPARATUS

APPARATUS

2000 Sec. A, Q3
2000 Sec. A, Q3
2003 Sec. A, Q4 C1P1
2003 Sec. A, Q4
C1P1

but

C1P2
C1P2
The growth and cultivation of microorganisms are influenced by temperature. Food that is kept in
The growth and cultivation
of microorganisms are
influenced by
temperature. Food that is
kept in the fridge lasts
longer because of the low
temperature. Dishes that
are left overnight without
being reheated will
normally turn bad on the
following day.

To study the effect of of microorganisms

temperature

on the growth

Bacteria grow and reproduce quickly at very low or high temperatures.

not at

(a)

room temperature

that is kept constant:

Quantity of bacteria/Type of bacteria

that is manipulated:

Temperature

(b)

(c)

that responds:

 

Number of bacterial colonies/Number of white spots

C1P3
C1P3

Sterile nutrient agar, bacteria culture (Bacillus subtilis), labels

 

Sterile Petri dish and lid, syringes, cellophane tape, refrigerator, oven

C1P4
C1P4

Before You Begin

C1

 

P

1

 

2

 

3

 

4

 

5

 

S

 
PLANNING PLANNING THE THE EXPERIMENT EXPERIMENT

PLANNINGPLANNING THETHE EXPERIMENTEXPERIMENT PLANNING PLANNING THE THE EXPERIMENT

1 Students are divided into several groups.

2 Each group is required to plan the procedures of the experiment to show the effect

of temperature on bacterial growth based on the following diagram.

C2P4
C2P4
moist nutrient agar A BC Petri dish 5 °C room 37 °C
moist nutrient agar
A
BC
Petri
dish
5 °C
room
37 °C

temperature

(30 °C)

D

moist nutrient agar A BC Petri dish 5 °C room 37 °C temperature (30 ° C)

70 °C

Petri

dish

C2P4
C2P4

1.4 LO

• Identify the factors that affect the growth of microorganisms • Design an experiment to study how temperature affects the growth of microorganisms

6
6

Refer to Essential Science Form 5, Experiment 1.1, p. 11; Essential Science SPM, Experiment 9.1, p. 259

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Form 5, Experiment 1.1, p. 11; Essential Science SPM, Experiment 9.1, p. 259 7 7/23/10 /23/10
C ARA K ERJA C2 P 1 2 3 4 S PEMERHATIAN C3 P 1

CARA KERJA

C2

P

1

2

3

4

S

PEMERHATIAN C3 P 1 2 3 S
PEMERHATIAN
C3
P
1
2
3
S

ANALISIS

FF5MR-ch1(1-28).indd5MR-ch1(1-28).indd

77

 
   
 

MEMERIKSAMEMERIKSA RANCANGANRANCANGANEKSPERIMENEKSPERIMEN

 
 
 

1 Pelajar-pelajar dalam kumpulan dikehendaki mengkaji semula sama ada rancangan yang dibuat boleh dijalankan untuk menguji hipotesis.

2 Tunjukkan rancangan eksperimen kepada guru anda untuk mendapat persetujuan sebelum memulakan eksperimen.

2 Tunjukkan rancangan eksperimen kepada guru anda untuk mendapat persetujuan sebelum memulakan eksperimen.

   

MENJALANKANMENJALANKANEKSPERIMENEKSPERIMEN

 
MENJALANKAN MENJALANKAN EKSPERIMEN EKSPERIMEN     1 Jalankan eksperimen seperti yang dirancang.
 

1 Jalankan eksperimen seperti yang dirancang.

 

2 Catat pemerhatian dalam jadual yang disediakan.

1 Empat piring Petri steril yang mengandungi agar-agar nutrien steril dilabel sebagai

A, B, C and D masing-masing.

2 Dengan menggunakan picagari, 1 cm 3 larutan kultur bakteria ditambah ke atas

permukaan agar-agar pada setiap piring Petri.

3 Piring Petri ditutup dengan penutup dan penutup dilekatkan kepada piring Petri

CHECKINGCHECKING THROUGHTHROUGHTHETHE PLANPLAN CARRYINGCARRYING OUTOUT THETHE EXPERIMENTEXPERIMENT
CHECKINGCHECKING THROUGHTHROUGHTHETHE PLANPLAN
CARRYINGCARRYING OUTOUT THETHE EXPERIMENTEXPERIMENT

1 Students in the group are required to check through their planning to determine whether the experiment can be used to test the hypothesis.

2 Show the plan to your teacher for approval before carrying out the experiment.

1 Carry out the experiment as planned.

2 Record and tabulate your observation.

STEPS

1 Four sterile Petri dishes containing sterile nutrient agar were labelled as A, B, C and D

respectively.

2 Using a syringe, 1 cm 3 of bacteria culture solution was added onto the agar surface

in each Petri dish.

3 The Petri dishes were covered with lids and sealed using cellophane tape.

4 The Petri dishes were inverted and placed in various places as stated below:

dengan pita selofan.

4 Piring Petri diterbalikkan dan diletakkan pada tempat yang berlainan seperti yang

dinyatakan di bawah:

(a)

Piring Petri A dalam peti sejuk pada suhu 5 °C.

(b)

Piring Petri B dalam makmal pada suhu bilik kira-kira 30 °C.

(c)

Piring Petri C dalam ketuhar dengan suhu yang ditetapkan pada 37 °C.

(d)

Piring Petri D dalam ketuhar dengan suhu yang ditetapkan pada 70 °C.

5 Kesemua piring Petri dibiarkan selama dua hari.

6 Bilangan koloni bakteria diperhatikan dan dicatat.

 
C1P5
C1P5

Piring Petri

Suhu (°C)

Bilangan koloni bakteria

 

A

5

Tiada

B

30

Banyak

C

37

Paling banyak

D

70

Tiada

 
C3P1
C3P1
C3P2
C3P2
C3P3
C3P3

1 Daripada pemerhatian, nyatakan suhu yang sesuai dan yang tidak sesuai untuk pertumbuhan bakteria. Kemudian, berikan inferens kepada jawapan anda.

KBSB • Membuat inferens
KBSB
• Membuat inferens
 

Suhu

Inferens

Paling sesuai untuk pertumbuhan bakteria

37

°C

Bakteria menjadi tidak aktif

Sesuai untuk pertumbuhan bakteria

30

°C

dalam

keadaan sejuk. terbunuh

Bakteria

Tidak sesuai untuk pertumbuhan bakteria

 

5 °C dan 70 °C

dalam keadaan panas.

C2

P

1

2

3

4

S

(a)

Petri dish A in a refrigerator set at 5 °C.

(b)

Petri dish B in the laboratory at room temperature which was approximately 30 °C.

(c)

Petri dish C in an oven set at 37 °C.

(d)

Petri dish D in an oven set at 70 °C.

5 The Petri dishes were left for two days.

6 The number of bacterial colonies were observed and recorded.

C1P5
C1P5
OBSERVATION C3 P 1 2 3 S
OBSERVATION
C3
P
1
2
3
S

ANALYSIS

Petri dish

Temperature (°C)

Number of bacterial colonies

A

5

None

B

30

Many

C

37

The most

D

70

None

C3P1
C3P1
C3P2 C3P3 TSTS • Making inference
C3P2
C3P3
TSTS
• Making inference

1 From the observations, state the temperatures that are suitable and not suitable for bacterial growth. Then, give inferences for your answer.

 

Temperature

Inference

Most suitable for bacterial growth

37

°C

Bacteria become inactive

under

Suitable for bacterial growth

30

°C

cool conditions. killed

Bacter i a are

Not suitable for bacterial growth

5 °C and 70 °C

under hot conditions.

C4P1
C4P1
C4P1 7 7
C4P1
7
7

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C4 P 1 2 3 S BAB 1
C4
P
1
2
3
S
BAB
1

KESIMPULAN

K ESIMPULAN A PLIKASI I DEA R EFLEKSI

APLIKASI IDEA

K ESIMPULAN A PLIKASI I DEA R EFLEKSI

REFLEKSI

FF5MR-ch1(1-28).indd5MR-ch1(1-28).indd

88

2 (a) Ramalkan suhu optimum bagi bakteria parasitik yang hidup dalam badan manusia.

37

°C

KBSB • Meramalkan
KBSB
• Meramalkan

2 Predict the optimum temperature for parasitic bacteria that live inside the human body.

(a)

37

°C

TSTS • Predicting
TSTS
• Predicting

(b) Berikan inferens kepada jawapan anda.

37 °C

merupakan

suhu badan

manusia.

3 Bagaimanakah agar-agar nutrien disterilkan?

autoklaf/

Dengan memanaskan agar-agar nutrien dalam periuk tekanan

pada suhu 120 °C selama 20 minit.

4 Tandakan bagi suhu yang bakteria masih hidup tetapi tidak membiak.

Di atas 40 °C 0 – 5 °C ✓
Di atas 40 °C
0 – 5 °C

Di bawah –18 °C

KBSB • Membuat inferens KBSB • Membuat keputusan KBSB • Meramalkan
KBSB
• Membuat inferens
KBSB
• Membuat keputusan
KBSB
• Meramalkan

5 Berdasarkan eksperimen, nyatakan definisi secara operasi bagi pertumbuhan bakteria. pertumbuhan

Pertumbuhan bakteria adalah satu proses yang menyebabkan

koloni bakteria yang paling banyak pada 37 °C/ paling kurang koloni bakteria

pada 5 °C (atau 70 °C).

KBSB • Mendefinisi secara operasi
KBSB
• Mendefinisi secara operasi

6 Nyatakan dua langkah berhati-hati dalam eksperimen ini. sebelum

(a) Membasuh

tangan

dan

selepas

menjalankan

CHAPTER 1
CHAPTER
1
C4 P 1 2 3 S
C4
P
1
2
3
S

(b)

Give an inference to your answer.

37 °C

body temperature

is the human

.

3 How should the nutrient agar be sterilised?

By heating the nutrient agar in

an autoclave/

a pressure cooker

at 120 °C for 20 minutes.

TSTS • Making inference TSTS • Making decision
TSTS
• Making inference
TSTS
• Making decision

4 Tick the temperature in which the bacteria are still alive but do not reproduce.

Above 40 °C 0–5 °C ✓
Above 40 °C
0–5 °C

Below –18 °C

5 Based on the experiment, state the operational definition for the bacterial growth. growth of the most bacteria

Bacterial growth is a process which causes the

colonies at 37 °C/the least bacteria colonies at 5 °C (or 70 °C)

TSTS • Defining operationally carrying out the
TSTS
• Defining operationally
carrying out the

after

6 State two precautionary steps taken in this experiment. before

(a)

Washing hands experiment.

and

(b) Do not

touch

the nutrient agar in the Petri dish.

eksperimen.

Jangan

(b)

sentuh

agar-agar nutrien di dalam piring Petri. Ya

7 Bolehkah hipotesis yang dibuat dapat diterima?

7 Can the hypothesis made be accepted?

Yes

C4P2 C4P2
C4P2
C4P2

Apakah kesimpulan yang dapat dibuat daripada eksperimen ini?

Bakteria tumbuh dan membiak dengan pesat pada suhu bilik tetapi menjadi tidak aktif

pada suhu yang sangat rendah atau sangat tinggi. Makanan yang d i s i mpan
pada suhu yang sangat rendah atau sangat tinggi.
Makanan
yang
d i s i mpan
d i
dalam bahag i an
pendingin beku
peti sejuk tahan lebih lama
jika dibandingkan dengan apabila makanan ini dikeluarkan
daripada peti sejuk. Ini adalah kerana makanan itu masih
mikroorganisma hidup
mengandungi
.
Autoklaf
d i gunakan
untuk
menster i l
bahan
dengan
st i m
tinggi
di bawah tekanan
pada 130 °C. Cara ini
dapat
membunuh
semua
termasuk
sporanya
m i kroorgan i sma
120 °C
(dapat hidup sehingga
).
8

CONCLUSION

C ONCLUSION A PPLICATION o F I DEA

APPLICATION

oF IDEA

REFLECTION

What conclusion can be made from this experiment? Bacteria grow and reproduce quickly at room temperature but become inactive at a

very low or high temperature. freezer Food that is kept in the can last longer
very low or high temperature.
freezer
Food that is kept in the
can last longer
compared with food that is taken out from the fridge. This is
microorganisms alive
because there are still
in the food.
Autoclave is used to sterilise materials using steam under
high
pressure at 130 °C . Autoclav i ng can k i ll all
spores
microorganisms including their
120 °C
(can still live
till
).
8
spores microorganisms including their 120 °C (can still live till ). 8 7 7/23/10 /23/10 1

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111:02:361:02:36 AAMM

spores microorganisms including their 120 °C (can still live till ). 8 7 7/23/10 /23/10 1
Eksperimen PEKA Kesan cahaya terhadap pertumbuhan mikroorganisma 1.5 TAKTERBIMBING Inkuiri-penemuan UNGUIDED Effect
Eksperimen PEKA Kesan cahaya terhadap pertumbuhan mikroorganisma 1.5 TAKTERBIMBING Inkuiri-penemuan
Eksperimen PEKA
Kesan cahaya terhadap pertumbuhan mikroorganisma
1.5
TAKTERBIMBING
Inkuiri-penemuan
UNGUIDED Effect of light on the growth of microorganisms 1.5 Experiment PEKA Inquiry-discovery
UNGUIDED
Effect of light on the growth of microorganisms
1.5 Experiment
PEKA
Inquiry-discovery
   
   
   
   
   
   

Mengkaji

kesan cahaya

terhadap pertumbuhan mikroorganisma

   
 

Cahaya mempengaruhi

 
 
C1P1
C1P1

pertumbuhan dan

 
 

pembiakan

 

Bakteria

tumbuh

dan

membiak

dengan

pesat

dalam

keadaan

mikroorganisma.

 

gelap

tetapi menjadi tidak aktif dalam keadaan

 

Mikroorganisma seperti bakteria dan kulat

 

cahaya terang

C1P2
C1P2

membiak dengan cepat dalam keadaan malap. Sinaran ultraungu dalam cahaya terang dapat membunuh mikroorganisma.

 

(a) yang dimalarkan:

 

.

Kuantiti bakteria

 

(b)

yang dimanipulasikan: Cahaya

 
 
 

(c)

yang bergerak balas:

Keadaan bubur nutrien

 
C1P3
C1P3
 

Kultur bakteria (Bacillus subtilis), kertas label, kapas steril, bubur nutrien steril

 

Tabung uji steril, silinder penyukat 10 ml,

 

lampu elektrik

 

.

C1P4
C1P4
 
Sebelum Anda Mulakan

Sebelum Anda Mulakan

Sebelum Anda Mulakan
Sebelum Anda Mulakan
Sebelum Anda Mulakan
MERANCANGMERANCANG EKSPERIMENEKSPERIMEN 1 Berdasarkan bahan dan radas yang dibekalkan oleh guru anda dan susunan radas
MERANCANGMERANCANG EKSPERIMENEKSPERIMEN
1 Berdasarkan bahan dan radas yang
dibekalkan oleh guru anda dan
susunan radas bagi eksperimen ini,
anda dikehendaki berbincang
secara kumpulan untuk merancang
eksperimen.
A
BC
di dalam
di bawah
di dalam makmal
almari gelap
cahaya matahari
kapas steril
kapas
steril
2 Senaraikan langkah-langkah untuk
menguji hipotesis anda.
5 cm 3 bubur nutrien
+
MENJALANKANMENJALANKANEKSPERIMENEKSPERIMEN
1 cm 3 kultur bakteria
C2P4
1 Jalankan eksperimen seperti yang dirancang.
2 Catat pemerhatian anda dalam jadual yang disediakan. (Guru hanya memainkan
peranan sebagai fasilitator.)

1 5 cm 3 bubur nutrien steril dan 1 cm 3 larutan kultur bakteria dimasukkan ke dalam

tiga tabung uji steril yang berlabel A, B, dan C seperti yang ditunjukkan pada rajah.

2 Setiap mulut tabung uji disumbat dengan kapas steril.

3 Tiga tabung uji itu dieram dalam keadaan yang berlainan seperti yang berikut:

(a)

Tabung uji A diletakkan di dalam almari gelap.

(b)

Tabung uji B diletakkan di dalam makmal.

(c)

Tabung uji C diletakkan di bawah cahaya terang (di luar makmal pada waktu

siang dan di bawah lampu terang pada waktu malam).

4 Keadaan bubur nutrien diperhatikan selepas dua atau tiga hari.

9
9

Rujuk kepada Essential Science Form 5, Eksperimen 1.1, hlm. 11; Essential Science SPM, Experiment 9.1, hlm. 259

AIM

A IM H YPOTHESIS V ARIABLE M ATERIALS A PPARATUS

HYPOTHESIS

A IM H YPOTHESIS V ARIABLE M ATERIALS A PPARATUS

VARIABLE

A IM H YPOTHESIS V ARIABLE M ATERIALS A PPARATUS

MATERIALS

A IM H YPOTHESIS V ARIABLE M ATERIALS A PPARATUS

APPARATUS

effect of light

The intensity of light affects the growth of microorganisms. Microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi
The intensity of light
affects the growth of
microorganisms.
Microorganisms such as
bacteria and fungi have a
high growth rate in dim
light. The ultraviolet rays
from sunlight can kill
these microorganisms.

TUJUAN

T UJUAN H IPOTESIS P EMBOLEH U BAH B AHAN R ADAS

HIPOTESIS

T UJUAN H IPOTESIS P EMBOLEH U BAH B AHAN R ADAS

PEMBOLEH

UBAH

T UJUAN H IPOTESIS P EMBOLEH U BAH B AHAN R ADAS

BAHAN

T UJUAN H IPOTESIS P EMBOLEH U BAH B AHAN R ADAS

RADAS

To study the

on the growth of microorganisms

dark

C1P1 but become C1P2
C1P1
but
become
C1P2
1CHAPTER
1CHAPTER

Bacteria grow quickly in the bright light

inactive under the

.

(a)

(b)

that is kept constant: Quantity of bacteria

that is manipulated:

Light

Condition of nutrient broth C1P3 (b) that responds: Bacteria culture (Bacillus subtilis), label, sterile cotton
Condition of nutrient broth
C1P3
(b)
that responds:
Bacteria culture (Bacillus subtilis), label, sterile cotton wool, sterile nutrient broth
electric lamp
Sterile test tubes, 10 ml measuring cylinder,
.
C1P4

Before You Begin

PLANNINGPLANNING THETHE EXPERIMENTEXPERIMENT A BC 1 Based on the materials and apparatus supplied by your
PLANNINGPLANNING THETHE EXPERIMENTEXPERIMENT
A
BC
1 Based on the materials and
apparatus supplied by your
teacher and the arrangement of
apparatus for the experiment, you
are required to discuss in groups
on how to plan the experiment.
inside a closed
under the
in the laboratory
cupboard
sterile cotton
sunlight
sterile
cotton
2 List the steps to test your
5 cm 3 nutrient broth
hypothesis.
+
1 cm 3 bacteria culture
CARRYINGCARRYING OUTOUT THETHE EXPERIMENTEXPERIMENT
C2P4
1 Carry out the experiment as planned.
2 Record your observations in the table prepared. (Your teacher only acts as a facilitator.)

1 5 cm 3 of sterile nutrient broth and 1 cm 3 of bacteria culture solution were added into

three sterile test tubes labelled A, B and C respectively as shown in the diagram.

2 The mouth of all the test tubes were stuffed with some sterile cotton wool.

3 Each test tube was incubated differently as shown below:

(a)

Test tube A was placed inside a closed cupboard.

(b)

Test tube B was left in the laboratory.

(c)

Test tube C was left under the bright light (outside the laboratory during the daytime

and under the light of an electric lamp at night).

4 The condition of the nutrient broth was observed after two or three days.

C1

 
 

P

1

 

2

 

3

 

4

 

5

 

S

 
 

STEPS

C2

 
 

P

1

 

2

 

3

 

4

 

S

 

C1

 

P

1

 

2

 

3

 

4

 

5

 

S

 

CARA KERJA

C2

P

1

2

3

4

S

C1P5 C1P5
C1P5
C1P5

1.5 LO

• Identify factors that affect the growth of microorganisms • Design an experiment to study how light affects the growth of microorganisms

9
9

Refer to Essential Science Form 5, Experiment 1.1, p. 11; Essential Science SPM, Experiment 9.1, p. 259

77/23/10/23/10

1.5 HP • Mengenal pasti faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi pertumbuhan mikroorganisma • Mereka cipta satu eksperimen untuk mengkaji kesan cahaya terhadap pertumbuhan mikroorganisma

99

FF5MR-ch1(1-28).indd5MR-ch1(1-28).indd

111:02:361:02:36 AAMM

BAB 1
BAB
1
PEMERHATIAN C3 P 1 2 3 S
PEMERHATIAN
C3
P
1
2
3
S

ANALISIS

C4 P 1 2 3 S
C4
P
1
2
3
S

KESIMPULAN

K ESIMPULAN A PLIKASI I DEA R EFLEKSI

APLIKASI IDEA