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BoundaryLayer

BoundaryLayerTheory
Whenarealfluidflowsoverasolidbody,thevelocityoffluidatthe
boundarywillbezero.Ifboundaryisstationary.Aswemoveawayfrom
boundaryinperpendiculardirectionvelocityincreasestothefreestream
velocity.Itmeansvelocitygradient

willexist.
Note:velocitygradient

doesnotexistoutsidetheboundarylayerasoutsidetheboundarylayer
velocityisconstantandequaltofreestreamvelocity.
DevelopmentofBoundaryLayer:Developmentofboundarylayercanbe
dividedinthreeregions:laminar,transition,turbulent.
Reynoldsnumber

Forlaminarboundarylayer
(Re) x <510 5 (Forflatplate)andif(Re) x >510 5
whereR e =Reynoldnumber
Then,flowisturbulent.
Here,xisdistancefromleadingedgeinhorizontaldirection.
BoundaryLayerThickness():Itisthedistancefromtheboundarytothe
pointwherevelocityoffluidisapproximatelyequalto99%offreestream
velocity.Itisrepresentedby.
DisplacementThickness(*):Itisobservedthatinsidetheboundary
layervelocityoffluidislessthanfreestreamvelocityhence,dischargeis
lessinthisregion.Tocompensateforreductionindischargethe
boundaryisdisplacedoutwardinperpendiculardirectionbysome
distance.Thisdistanceiscalleddisplacementthickness(*).

MomentumThickness():Asduetoboundarylayerreductioninvelocity
occursso,momentumalsodecreases.Momentumthicknessisdefined
asthedistancemeasurednormaltoboundaryofsolidbodybywhichthe
boundaryshouldbedisplacedtocompensateforthereductionin
momentumofflowingfluid.

EnergyThickness(**):Itisdefinedasdistancemeasuredperpendicular
totheboundaryofsolidbodybywhichtheboundaryshouldbedisplaced
tocompensateforreductioninkineticenergyofflowingfluid(KE
decreasesduetoformationofboundarylayer)

BoundaryConditionsfortheVelocityProfile:Boundaryconditionsareas

LaminarFlow:Aflowinwhichfluidflowsinlayerandnointermixingwith
eachotherisknownaslaminarflow.Forcircularpipe,flowwillbe
laminar.

Where,=Densityoffluid,v=Velocityoffluid,D=Diameterofpipe,=
Viscosityoffluid.
Forflatplateflowwillbelaminar.

WhereLislengthofplate.
TurbulentFlow:Inthisflow,adjacentlayeroffluidcrosseachother
(particlesoffluidmoverandomlyinsteadofmovinginstreamlinepath),
forflowinsidepipe.IfRe>4000,theflowisconsideredturbulent,forflat
plate,Re>510 5 .
VonKarmanMomentumIntegralEquation

where,=momentumthickness
Shearstress:

Where,U=Freestreamvelocity=Densityoffluid.
LocalCoefficientofDrag(C* D ):
Itisdefinedastheratiooftheshearstress 0 tothequantity

Itisdenotedby

AverageCoefficientofDrag(C D ):
Itisdefinedastheratioofthetotaldragforceto
Where,A=Areaofsurface,U=Freestreamvelocity,=Massdensity
offluid.
BlassiusExperimentResults
Forlaminarflow,

Coefficientofdrag

Averagecoefficientofdrag

Forturbulentflow,

wherex=DistancefromleadingedgeRe x =Reynoldnumberforlength
x.
Re x =Reyonoldnumberatendofplane
Coefficientofdrag

Averagecoefficientofdrag
Forlaminarflow

f=Boundarylayerthickness,

0 =Shearstressatsolidsurface
x=Distancefromwheresolidsurfacestarts.
Velocityprofileforturbulentboundarylayeris

ConditionsforBoundaryLayerSeparation:Letustakecurvesurface
ABCSDwherefluidflowseparationprintSisdeterminedfromthe
condition

.
If

theflowisseparated

If

theflowisontheaverageofseparation

If
theflowwillnotseparateorflowwillremainattained

MethodsofPreventingSeparationofBoundaryLayer:Suctionofslow
movingfluidbyasuctionslot.

Supplyingadditionalenergyfromablower.
Providingabypassintheslotted
Rotatingboundaryinthedirectionofflow.
Providingsmalldivergenceinadiffuser.
Providingguidebladesinabend.
Providingatripwireringinthelaminarregionfortheflowovera
sphere.