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COURSE SYLLABUS

Course Title: Biology Sapphire Course Number: SC300


Date: April 17, 2017 Status: Draft
Completed by: Marshall and Sipes
Frequency & Duration: Daily for a 60-minute block of time
Course Description: As it appears in the Course Catalog
SC300 Biology -- GRADE 9; 1 CREDIT; FULL YEAR; - During this course, all aspects
of general biology will be covered including; molecular, cellular, evolutionary,
organismal biology, ecology, genetics, biotechnology and systematics. Students will learn
through a combination of self-study, small group, cooperative learning and class
discussions. Lab techniques, methodologies and process skills will be emphasized. This
course is to be taken in preparation of the Biology Keystone Exam. This class will meet
for one (1) hour five (5) days per week.
Requirements for the Course: This is a freshman level course. Students are expected to have
completed 7th and 8th grade science.
Course Prepares one for: Chemistry, Environmental Science, Exercise Physiology, and
Anatomy
Graduation Requirement: This course is required for graduation.
Resources Used: Pearson Biology by Miller and Levine, 2014
USATestPrep.com
Keys Test Prep Services LLC Unlocking the Keystone Exam:
Biology by Ament, 2015
Various lab kits
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Topics of Study
a. Scientific Methods of Experimentation
b. Chemistry of Life
c. Cells and Homeostasis
d. Energy Transfer and Use
e. Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis
f. Cell Growth and Division
g. Genetics
h. Evolution, Diversity, and Classification
i. Ecology

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COURSE SYLLABUS

The fundamentals will be introduced through classroom discussions, lectures and exploratory
labs. There is a strong emphasis on problem solving as well as application of the principles to
real world examples.

Keystone Course: Students are expected to take the Biology Keystone Exam at the end of this
course. Students must pass the Biology Keystone Exam in order to graduate. In the event that a
student does not pass the Biology Keystone Exam, they will be expected to take Essentials of
Biology.

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COURSE SYLLABUS

Content: Scientific Methods of Experimentation Duration: August/September (2 weeks)


Assessment of Prior Knowledge: Students will describe the scientific process, identify
variables and be able to perform scientific measurement. They will be familiar with
proper sciences lab safety rules.

Essential Question: What role does science play in the study of life?

Skills: Students should be able to


1. State the goals of science
2. Describe the steps used in scientific methodology
3. Explain how scientific attitudes generate new ideas
4. Describe the importance of peer review
5. Explain what a scientific theory is
6. Explain the relationship between science and society

Assessment: Assessment number corresponds to skill number


1, 2, 3 Students will answer the follow questions using no less than two sentences per
question in their interactive science notebook.
Where does knowledge come from?
What does it mean to say that science is a process?
2 Students will write a sentence that uses two of the lesson vocabulary terms and
clearly shows the relationship between the two terms.
5 , 6 Students will discuss the difference between the everyday use of the word theory
and the scientific use of the word theory
Students will be asked to explain to a friend that a scientific theory is more than a hunch
or an idea.

Resources/Activities: Textbook, Wards Measurement in science lab kit, video clips

Standards:
3.1.B. A9
Compare and contrast scientific theories.

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COURSE SYLLABUS

Know that both direct and indirect observations are used by scientists to study the
natural world and universe.
Identify questions and concepts that guide scientific investigations.
Formulate and revise explanations and models using logic and evidence.
Recognize and analyze alternative explanations and models.
Explain the importance of accuracy and precision in making valid measurements.
Examine the status of existing theories.
Evaluate experimental information for relevance and adherence to science
processes.
Judge that conclusions are consistent and logical with experimental conditions.
Interpret results of experimental research to predict new information, propose
additional investigable questions, or advance a solution.
Communicate and defend a scientific argument.

Vocabulary:
Biology- The scientific study of life.
Hypothesis - A proposed, scientifically testable explanation for an observed
phenomenon
Law (Scientific) -A law that generalizes a body of observations. At the time it is
made, no exceptions have been found to a law. It explains things but does not
describe them; serves as the basis of scientific principles.
Principle (Scientific) -A concept based on scientific laws and axioms (rules
assumed to be present, true, and valid) where general agreement is present.
Science -A body of evidencebased knowledge gained through observation and
experimentation related to the natural world and technology.
Theory (Scientific) -An explanation of observable phenomena based on available
empirical data and guided by a system of logic that includes scientific laws;
provides a system of assumptions, accepted principles, and rules of procedure
devised to analyze, predict, or otherwise explain the nature or behavior of a
specific set of phenomena.

Technology: Online Textbook USATestPrep

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COURSE SYLLABUS

Content: Chemistry of Life Duration: September (3 weeks)


Assessment of Prior Knowledge: Students should have a basic understanding of the
periodic table, bonds, compounds, and water.

Essential Question: What are the basic chemical principles that affect living things?

Skills: Students should be able to


1. Identify three subatomic particles found in atoms
2. Explain how compounds are different from their component elements
3. Describe the two main types of chemical bonds
4. Discuss the unique properties of water
5. Describe the unique qualities of carbon
6. Describe the structure and functions of each of the four groups of
macromolecules.
7. Explain how chemical reactions affect chemical bonds
8. Explain why enzymes are important to living things

Assessment: Assessment number corresponds to skill number


1, 2, 3, 4 Given chemical formula of water H2O, students will be able to
Draw and label the atomic structure
Describe how the molecule is sticking together
Display the various attributes of water during lab.
4,5,6 Student will have to display their knowledge of macromolecule structures during
a practical in which they build a model of each macromolecule group
4,5,6 Students will work in groups to complete the following
Explain what a macromolecule is
List the four main groups of macromolecules
Describe the structure of each macromolecule
Identify the functions of each macromolecule group
7,8 Students will conduct their first formal lab based on enzymes
1-8 Students will take a unit test that is modeled after the keystone exam, during which
they will answer multiple choice questions and essay questions.

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COURSE SYLLABUS

Resources/Activities: Atomic structure kit, water penny lab, macromolecule modeling


kit, toothpick lab, Enzyme Lab, textbooks, web search, video clips

Standards:
BIO.A.2.1 Describe how the unique properties of water support life on Earth
BIO.A.2.2 Describe and interpret relationships between structure and function at
various levels of biochemical organization (i.e., atoms, molecules, and
macromolecules)
BIO.A.2.3 Explain how enzymes regulate biochemical reactions with a cell
3.1.B.A7 Analyze the importance of carbon to the structure of biological
macromolecules.
Compare and contrast the functions and structures of proteins, lipids,
carbohydrates, and nucleic acids.
Explain the consequences of extreme changes in pH and temperature on cell
proteins.

Vocabulary:
Adhesion -The intermolecular attraction between unlike molecules. Capillary
action results from the adhesive properties of water and the molecules that make
up plant cells.
Atom -The smallest unit of an element that retains the chemical and physical
properties of that element.
Biological Macromolecules -A group of bio macromolecules that interact with
biological systems and their environments
Carbohydrate - A macromolecule that contains atoms of carbon, hydrogen, and
oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio and serves as a major source of energy for living
organisms (E.G., Sugars, Starches, and Cellulose)
Catalyst -A substance that enables a chemical reaction to proceed at a usually
faster rate or under different conditions (e.g., lower temperature) than otherwise
possible without being changed by the reaction.
Cohesion -The intermolecular attraction between like molecules. Surface tension
results from the cohesive properties of water.
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) -A biological macromolecule that encodes the
genetic information for living organisms and is capable of selfreplication and the
synthesis of ribonucleic acid (RNA).
Enzyme - A protein that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without being
changed by the reaction; an organic catalyst.

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COURSE SYLLABUS

Lipids - A group of organic compounds composed mostly of carbon and hydrogen


including a proportionately smaller amount of oxygen; are insoluble in water,
serve as a source of stored energy, and are a component of cell membranes.
Macromolecule - A polymer with a high molecular mass. Within organisms there
are four main groups: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.
Molecule -The smallest particle of a substance that retains the chemical and
physical properties of the substance and is composed of two or more atoms held
together by chemical forces
Monomer -A molecule of any compound that can react with other molecules of
the same or different compound to form a polymer. Each biological
macromolecule has characteristic monomers.
Nucleic Acid -A biological macromolecule (DNA or RNA) composed of the
elements C, H, N, O, and P that carries genetic information.
pH - The measure of acidity or alkalinity (basicity) of an aqueous solution scaling
from 1 (highly acidic) to 14 (highly alkaline) with a midpoint of 7 (neutral).
Protein - A macromolecule that contains the principal components of organisms:
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; performs a variety of structural and
regulatory functions for cells.
Temperature - A measure of the average kinetic energy (energy of motion) of
particles in a sample of matter. This physical property can
determine the rate and extent to which chemical reactions can occur within living
systems. It is commonly measured in
degrees Celsius (C) or Fahrenheit (F).

Technology: Quizlet, USATestPrep, online textbook

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COURSE SYLLABUS

Content: Cells and Homeostasis Duration: October / November (6.5 weeks)

Assessment of Prior Knowledge: Students should be familiar with plants and animals
and what makes them different. Student should understand some organisms are more
complex than others at a cellular level. Students should have a rudimentary definition of
life.

Essential Question: How are cell structures adapted to their functions?

Skills: The students should be able to


1. List the characteristics of living things
2. Identify the central themes of biology
3. State the cell theory
4. Describe how the different types of microscopes work
5. Distinguish between prokaryotes and eukaryotes
6. Describe the structure and function of the cell nucleus
7. Describe the role of vacuoles, lysosomes, and cytoskeleton
8. Identify the role of ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi apparatus in
making proteins
9. Describe the function of the chloroplast and mitochondria in the cell
10. Describe the function of the cell membrane
11. Describe passive transport
12. Describe active transport
13. Explain how unicellular organisms maintain homeostasis
14. Explain how multicellular organisms maintain homeostasis

Assessment: Assessment number corresponds to skill number


1, 2 Students will be randomly called upon to identify and describe one of the
characteristics of life or one of the central themes of biology.
3 Students will create a time line of dates, people and events leading to the
development of the cell theory
5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 Students will complete a cell city project
5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 students will take a cell organelle practical, during which the student
must properly identify an organelle and describe its function
11, 12 Students will complete a formal lab report describe the osmosis lab

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COURSE SYLLABUS

11, 12 Students will conduct a discussion describing why endocytosis is an example


of active transport and not facilitated diffusion
11, 12 Students will write an essay distinguishing active transport from diffusion
1-14 Students will take a unit test that is modeled after the keystone exam, during
which they will answer multiple choice questions and essay questions.
Resources/Activities: Specimen, Cell Models, Transport lab, Textbooks, web search,
labs, video clips, etc.

Standards:
BIO.A.1.1 Explain the characteristics common to all organisms
BIO.A.1.2 Describe relationships between structure and function at biological
levels of organization
BIO.A.4.1 Identify and describe the cell structures involved in transport of
materials into, out of, and throughout a cell
BIO.A.4.2 Explain the mechanisms that permit organisms to maintain biological
balance between their internal and external environments

Vocabulary:
Active Transport -The movement of particles from an area of low concentration to
an area of high concentration that uses energy provided by ATP or a difference in
electrical charges across a cell membrane.
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) - A molecule that provides energy for cellular
reactions and processes. ATP releases energy when one of its
highenergy bonds is broken to release a phosphate group.
Carrier (Transport) Proteins - Proteins embedded in the plasma membrane
involved in the movement of ions, small molecules, and macromolecules into and
out of cells; also known as transport proteins.
Catalyst - A substance that enables a chemical reaction to proceed at a usually
faster rate or under different conditions (e.g., lower temperature) than otherwise
possible without being changed by the reaction.
Cell - The basic unit of structure and function for all living organisms. Cells have
three common components: genetic material, cytoplasm, and a cell membrane.
Eukaryotic cells also contain specialized organelles.
Concentration - The measure of the amount or proportion of a given substance
when combined with another substance
Concentration Gradient - The graduated difference in concentration of a solute per
unit distance through a solution.
Diffusion - The movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an
area of low concentration; a natural result of kinetic molecular energy.
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COURSE SYLLABUS

Endocytosis - A process in which a cell engulfs extracellular material through an


inward folding of its plasma membrane.
Endoplasmic Reticulum - An organelle, containing folded membranes and sacs,
responsible for the production, processing, and transportation of materials for use
inside and outside a eukaryotic cell. There are two forms of this organelle: rough
ER that has surface ribosomes and participates in the synthesis of proteins mostly
destined for export by the cell and smooth ER that has no ribosomes and
participates in the synthesis of lipids and steroids as well as the transport of
synthesized macromolecules
Eukaryote - A type of organism composed of one or more cells containing a
membranebound nucleus, specialized organelles in the cytoplasm, and a mitotic
nuclear division cycle.
Exocytosis - A process in which a cell releases substances to the extracellular
environment by fusing a vesicular membrane with the plasma membrane,
separating the membrane at the point of fusion and allowing the substance to be
released
Extracellular - Located outside a cell
Facilitated Diffusion - A process in which substances are transported across a
plasma membrane with the concentration gradient with the aid
of carrier (transport) proteins; does not require the use of energy.
Golgi Apparatus - An organelle found in eukaryotic cells responsible for the final
stages of processing proteins for release by the cell.
Homeostasis - The regulatory process in which an organism regulates its internal
environment
Homeostatic Mechanism - A regulatory mechanism that contributes to
maintaining a state of equilibrium (e.g., thermoregulation, water regulation,
and oxygen regulation).
Impermeable - Not permitting passage of a substance or substances
Intracellular - Located inside a cell
Mitochondrion - A membranebound organelle found in most eukaryotic cells;
site of cellular respiration
Multicellular - Made up of more than one cell
Organelle - A subunit within a cell that has a specialized function
Osmosis - The movement of water or another solvent through permeable
membranes from an area of higher water concentration (dilute) to an area of lower
water concentration (concentrated).
Passive Transport-The transportation of materials across a plasma membrane
without using energy.
Plasma Membrane - A thin, phospholipid and protein molecule bilayer that
encapsulates a cell and controls the movement of materials in and out of the cell
through active or passive transport.
Prokaryote -A singlecelled organism that lacks a membranebound nucleus and
specialized organelles.

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COURSE SYLLABUS

Pumps (ion or molecular) - Any of several molecular mechanisms in which ions


or molecules are transported across a cellular membrane requiring the use of an
energy source (e.g., glucose, sodium [Na+], calcium [Ca+], and potassium [K+]).
Ribosome - A cellular structure composed of RNA and proteins that is the site of
protein synthesis in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.

Technology: Quizlet, USATestPrep, online textbook, timeline app

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COURSE SYLLABUS

Content: Energy Transfer and Use Duration: November / December (3.5 weeks)

Assessment of Prior Knowledge: Students must understand the different organelles and
basic structure of cells. Students must understand a basic interaction between autotrophs
and heterotrophs

Essential Question: How do organisms obtain energy?

Skills: Students should be able to


1. Describe the role of ATP in cellular activities
2. Explain where plants get the energy they need to produce food
3. Explain the role of light and pigments in photosynthesis
4. State the overall equation for photosynthesis
5. Describe what happens during light independent reactions
6. Describe what happens during light dependent reactions
7. Identify factors that affect the rate at which photosynthesis occurs
8. Explain where organisms get the energy they need for life processes
9. Define cellular respiration
10. Compare photosynthesis and cellular respiration
11. Describe what happens during glycolysis
12. Describe what happens during the Krebs cycle
13. Explain how high-energy electrons are used by the electron transport chain
14. Identify how much ATP cellular respiration generates
15. Explain how organisms get energy in the absence of oxygen

Assessment: Assessment number corresponds to skill number


1 Students will perform a simple battery lab to simulate ATP
2 Students will do a round table discussion explaining and providing examples of
the difference between autotrophs and heterotrophs
3,4, 5,6 Students will complete Cornell styles notes in their interactive science
notebook
2-7 Students will observe the growth of two different plants in different
environments
8 Students will work in pairs to summarize cellular respiration. They will explain
why both animals and plants are producing ATP and heat.

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COURSE SYLLABUS

9-13 students will create a compare and contrast table showing the location,
starting reactants, and end products the process of cellular respiration
1-15 Cellular respiration vs photosynthesis project
1-15 Students will take a unit test that is modeled after the keystone exam, during
which they will answer multiple choice questions and essay questions.

Resources/Activities: Textbooks, web search, labs, video clips, etc.

Standards:
BIO.A.3.1 Identify and describe the cell structures involved in processing energy
BIO.A.3.2 Identify and describe how organisms obtain and transform energy for
their life processes
BIO.A.4.2 Describe interactions and relationships in an ecosystem

Vocabulary:
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) - A molecule that provides energy for cellular
reactions and processes. ATP releases energy when one of its
highenergy bonds is broken to release a phosphate group.
Bioenergetics - The study of energy flow (energy transformations) into and within
living systems
Cellular Respiration - A complex set of chemical reactions involving an energy
transformation where potential chemical energy in the bonds of "food" molecules
is released and partially captured in the bonds of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
molecules.
Chloroplast - An organelle found in plant cells and the cells of other eukaryotic
photosynthetic organisms where photosynthesis occurs
Mitochondrion - A membranebound organelle found in most eukaryotic cells;
site of cellular respiration
Photosynthesis -A process in which solar radiation is chemically captured by
chlorophyll molecules and through a set of controlled chemical reactions resulting
in the potential chemical energy in the bonds of carbohydrate molecules.

Technology: Quizlet, USATestPrep, online textbook

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COURSE SYLLABUS

Content: Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis Duration: January (3 weeks)

Assessment of Prior Knowledge: Students should be familiar with macromolecules and


their monomers. Students should have a good understanding of cell organelles and how
they work together.

Essential Question: What is the structure of DNA, and how does it function in genetic
inheritance? How does information flow from DNA to RNA to direct the synthesis of
proteins?

Skills: Students should be able to


1. Identify the role of DNA in heredity
2. Identify the chemical components of DNA
3. Discuss the experiments leading to the identification of DNA as the molecule
that carries the genetic code
4. Describe the steps leading to the development of the double-helix model of
DNA
5. Summarize the events of DNA replication
6. Compare DNA replication in prokaryotes with that of eukaryotes
7. Contrast RNA and DNA
8. Explain the process of transcription
9. Identify the genetic code and explain how it is read
10. Summarize the process of translation
11. Describe the central dogma of molecular biology
12. Define mutation and describe the different types of mutations
13. Describe the effects mutations can have on genes

Assessment: Assessment number corresponds to skill number


1, students will examine figure 12-4 and discover 3 ways DNA is like a book
2, students will create models of DNA using the model building kit
3, 4 after watching NOVAs DNA movie, students will create a Fakebook to describe
each scientists contribution to the discovery of DNA
5, 6 Students will write a short paragraph explaining the process of DNA replication.
1-6 Students will take a unit test that is modeled after the keystone exam, during which
they will answer multiple choice questions and essay questions.

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COURSE SYLLABUS

7,8,9 Students will write sentences using lesson vocabulary terms. The sentences should
show what the terms mean, once completed, they will exchange their complete sentences
with a partner and edit each others paragraph for factual errors.
10 Students will create their own foldable based upon the steps of translation
11 Students will perform each step of the central dogma of biology using the protein
synthesis manipulative kit. They will first do this as a group, and will later demonstrate
their knowledge during a practical
12 Each student will be given seven index cards, they will be instructed to write down an
example of one type of mutation and its name on the card. Students with then exchange
cards with a partner and try to identify the mutations from the examples.
7-13 Students will take a unit test that is modeled after the keystone exam, during which
they will answer multiple choice questions and essay questions.

Resources/Activities: DNA model building kit, Protein synthesis manipulative kit,


textbooks, web search, labs, video clips, etc.

Standards:
BIO.B.2.1 Explain the process of protein synthesis (i.e., transcription, translation,
protein modification)

Vocabulary:
Chromosomes - A single piece of coiled DNA and associated proteins found in
linear forms in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells and circular forms in the cytoplasm
of prokaryotic cells; contains genes that encode traits. Each species has a
characteristic number of chromosomes.
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) - A biological macromolecule that encodes the
genetic information for living organisms and is capable of selfreplication and the
synthesis of ribonucleic acid (RNA).
DNA Replication - The process in which DNA makes a duplicate copy of itself.
Gene - A sequence of nucleotides composing a segment of DNA that provides a
blueprint for a specific hereditary trait.
Gene Expression - The process in which a nucleotide sequence of a gene is used
to make a functional product such as protein or RNA.
Protein - A macromolecule that contains the principal components of organisms:
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; performs a variety of structural and
regulatory functions for cells.

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COURSE SYLLABUS

Protein Synthesis - The process in which amino acids are arranged in a linear
sequence through the processes of transcription of DNA and to RNA and the
translation of RNA to a polypeptide chain.

Technology: Quizlet, USATestPrep, online textbook

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COURSE SYLLABUS

Content: Cell Growth and Division Duration: February (4 weeks)

Assessment of Prior Knowledge: Students should have a firm grasp of all the organelles as well
as what they do and how they work together. Students should know about some topics such as
cancer and have a mild understand of what cancer is and how it affects the human body.

Essential Question: How and why does a cell need to divide? How does cancer occur?

Skills: Students should be able to:


1. Understand the correct order of the cell cycle.
2. Determine what each stage of the cell cycle does.
3. Compare and contrast how prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells undergo the cell cycle.
4. Determine which types of cell do not undergo the cell cycle, and are stuck in their own
stage of the cell cycle.
5. Determine how mitosis and meiosis fit into the cell cycle.
6. Determine the 4 stages of mitosis.
7. Understand that mitosis creates 2 cells that are genetically identical.
8. Understand that meiosis creates 4 cells that genetically unique.
9. Compare and contrast the stages and cell output of mitosis versus meiosis.
10. Determine the ploidy of a cell.
11. Explain how cancer is a mistake during the cell cycle.
12. Determine how cancer can affect the body.
13. Compare and contrast a cancerous cell versus a normal cell.

Assessment: Assessment number corresponds to skill number


1, 2, 3, 4, 5 - The students will color coordinate the stages of the cell cycle, mitosis and
cytokinesis.
1, 2, 3, 4, 5 - The students will complete a time line that describes the length of the cell cycle as
well as the timeline consequences of possible genetic mutations.
11, 12, 13 - The students will receive a case study of a person who has cancer. They will discover
the type of cancer, the possible causes for those types, the problems resulting from the cancer, as
well as survivability probabilities.
5, 6, 7 - The students will complete a lab that show the stages of mitosis through onion root tip
cells. The students will need to find the stage of mitosis and then sketch what it looks like when
viewed through a microscope.
5, 9, 10 - The students will look at how different types of cells can vary the number of
chromosomes even though they are from the same organism.
5, 9, 10 - The students complete a lab that will compare cells from mitotic cell division to meiotic
cell division.

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COURSE SYLLABUS

Resources/Activities: Textbook, USA Test Prep, Foldable, Mitosis and Meiosis Bead lab, Cancer
Balloon Lab.

Standards:

BIO.B.1.1 Describe the three stages of the cell cycle: interphase, nuclear division,
cytokinesis
BIO.B.1.2.2 Explain the functional relationships among DNA, genes, alleles, and
chromosomes and their roles in inheritance.
BIO.B.2.3.1- Describe how genetic mutations alter the DNA sequence and may or may
not affect phenotype (e.g., silent, nonsense, frame-shirt).

Vocabulary:

Crossing-over An exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes


during anaphase 1 of meiosis; contributes to the genetic variability in gametes and
ultimately in offspring.
Endosymbiosis A theorized process in which early eukaryotic cells were formed from
simpler prokaryotes.
Mutation A permanent transmissible change of genetic material. (e.g., chromosomal
mutations and gene mutations)
Nucleus A membrane-bound organelle in eukaryotic cells functioning to maintain the
integrity of the genetic material and, through the expression of that material, controlling
and regulating cellular activities.
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) A biological macromolecule that encodes the genetic
information for living organisms and is capable of self-replication and the synthesis of
Ribonucleic Acid (RNA).
Gene Therapy The intentional insertion, alteration, or deletion of genes within an
individuals cells and tissues for the purpose of treating a disease.
Mitosis A nuclear division resulting in the production of two somatic sells having the
same genetic complement as the original cell.
Nondisjunction The process in which sister chromatids fail to separate during and after
mitosis or meiosis.
Chromosomal Mutation A change in the structure of a chromosome (e.g. Deletion, the
loss of a segment of a chromosome and thus the loss of segment containing genes;
Duplication, when a segment of a chromosome is duplicated and thus displayed more
than once on the chromosome; Inversion, when a segment of a chromosome breaks off
and reattaches in reverse order; and Translocation, when a segment of one chromosome
breaks off and attaches to a nonhomologous chromosome)
Cytokinesis The final phase of a cell cycle resulting in the division of the cytoplasm.
Eukaryote A type of organism composed of one or more cells containing a membrane-
bound nucleus, specialized organelles in the cytoplasm, and a mitotic nuclear division
cycle.

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COURSE SYLLABUS

Interphase The longest-lasting phase of the cell cycle in which a cell performs the
majority of its functions, such as preparing for nuclear division and cytokinesis.
Plasma Membrane A thin, phospholipid and protein molecule bilayer that encapsulates
a cell and controls the movement of materials in and out of the cell through active or
passive transport.
Cell Cycle The series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and
duplication. The main phases of the cell cycle are interphase, nuclear division, and
cytokinesis.
DNA Replication The process in which DNA makes a duplicate copy of itself.
Gene Recombination A natural process in which a nucleic acid molecule (usually DNA,
but can be RNA) is broken and then joined to a different molecule; a result of crossing-
over
Meiosis A two-phase nuclear division that results in the eventual production of gametes
with half the normal number of chromosomes.
Prokaryote A single-celled organisms that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus and
specialized organelles.
Semi-conservative Replication The process in which DNA molecule uncoils and
separates into two strands. Each original strand becomes a template on which a new
strand is constructed, resulting in two DNA molecules identical to the original DNA
molecules.
Chromosomes A single piece of coiled DNA and associated proteins found in linear
forms in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells and circular forms in the cytoplasm of
prokaryotic cells.
Translocation The process in which a segment of a chromosome breaks off and attaches
to another chromosome.
Gamete A specialized cell (egg or sperm) used in sexual reproduction containing half
the normal number of chromosomes of a somatic cell.

Technology: Quizlet, USATestPrep, online textbook

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COURSE SYLLABUS

Content: Genetics Duration: March (4 weeks)

Assessment of Prior Knowledge: The students should understand that certain traits are
able to be inherited while other traits are acquired during ones lifetime and cannot.

Essential Question: How can a particular trait be passed down from generation to
generation?

Skills: Student should be able to:


1. Determine the correct usage of Mendelian genetics.
2. Differentiate the 3 overlying types of genetic inheritance (i.e., Complete
Dominance, Incomplete Dominance, and Co-Dominance).
3. Determine the probability that a specific trait will be given to an offspring based
off the characteristics of the parents through the use of a punnett square.
4. Determine the probability of two or more traits being passed onto an offspring.
This process is also known as dihybrid crosses.
5. Understand that some traits are found on the sex chromosome and determine the
mechanisms and likelihood that these traits will be passed on to a male or female
offspring.

Assessment: Assessment number corresponds to skill number


1,2,3,4,5 - The students will complete punnett square practice problems to determine the
likelihood that a specific trait will be passed down from parent to offspring. These
punnett squares will be used to determine probabilities of all types of genetics including
complete dominance, incomplete dominance, co-dominance, and sex-linked traits. Each
type of inheritance will require a slightly different usage of the punnett square.

Resources/Activities: Textbooks, web search, labs, video clips, etc.

Standards:
BIO.A.1.1.1 Describe the characteristics of life shared by all prokaryotic and
eukaryotic organisms.
BIO.A.1.2.1 Compare and contrast cellular structures and their functions in
prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

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COURSE SYLLABUS

BIO.B.2.4.1 Explain how genetic engineering has impacted the fields of


medicine, forensics, and agriculture (e.g., selective breeding, gene splicing,
cloning, genetically modified organisms, gene therapy).
BIO.B.3.1.3 Explain how genetic mutations may result in genotypic and
phenotypic variations within a population.
Vocabulary:
Chromosomes A single piece of coiled DNA and associated proteins found in linear
forms in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells and circular forms in the cytoplasm of
prokaryotic cells.
Translocation The process in which a segment of a chromosome breaks off and attaches
to another chromosome.
Dominant Inheritance A pattern of inheritance in which the phenotypic effect of
one allele is completely expressed within a homozygous and heterozygous
genotype.
Genetic Engineering A technology that includes the process of manipulating or
altering the genetic material of a cell resulting in desirable functions or outcomes
that would not occur naturally.
Genotype The genetic composition of an organism with reference to a single
trait, a set of traits, or the entire complement of traits of an organism.
Incomplete Dominance A pattern of inheritance in which two alleles, inherited
from the parents, are neither dominant nor recessive. The resulting offspring have
a phenotype that is a blending of the parental traits.
Allele Frequency The measure of the relative frequency of an allele at a genetic
locus in a population; expressed as a proportion or percentage.
Co-Dominance A pattern of inheritance in which the phenotypic effect of two
alleles in a heterozygous genotype express each phenotype of each allele fully and
equally; a phenotype which would not be expressed in any other genotypic
combination.
Polygenic Trait A trait in which the phenotype is controlled by two or more
genes at different loci on different chromosomes.
Gene Expression The process in which a nucleotide sequence of a gene is used
to make a functional product such as protein or RNA.
Gene A sequence of nucleotides composing a segment of DNA that provides a
blueprint for a specific hereditary trait.
Genetics The scientific study of inheritance.
Migration (Genetics) The permanent movement of genes into or out of a
population resulting in a change in allele frequencies.
Multiple Alleles More than two forms of a gene controlling the expression of a
trait.
Alleles A variation of a genes nucleotide sequence (an alternative form of a
gene)
Phenotype The observable expression of a genotype
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COURSE SYLLABUS

Sex-Linked Traits A trait, associated with a gene that is carried by either the
male or female parent (e.g., color blindness and sickle-cell anemia)
Gamete A specialized cell (egg or sperm) used in sexual reproduction containing
half the normal number of chromosomes of a somatic cell.
Inheritance The process in which genetic material is passed from parents to their
offspring.
Genetically Modified Organism An organism whose genetic material has been
altered through some genetic engineering technology or technique.
Frame-Shift Mutation The addition (insertion mutation) or removal (deletion
mutation) of one or more nucleotides that is not indivisible by three, therefore
resulting in a completely different amino acid sequence than would be normal.
The earlier in the sequence nucleotides are added or removed, the more altered the
protein will be.
Point Mutation A single-base substitution causing the replacement of a single-
base nucleotide with another nucleotide (e.g., silent mutation, in which there is no
change in an amino acid; missense mutation, in which there is a different amino
acid; and nonsense mutation, in which there is an insertion of a stop codon in the
amino acid which stops protein synthesis).
Cloning A process in which a cell, cell product, or organism is copied from an
original source.
DNA Cloning The transfer of a DNA fragment from one organism to a self-
replicating genetic element such as a bacterial plasmid.
Reproductive Cloning The transfer of genetic material from the nucleus of a
donor adult cell to an egg cell that has had its nucleus removed for the purpose of
creating an embryo that can produce an exact genetic copy of the donor organism.
Therapeutic Cloning the process of taking undifferentiated embryonic cells
(STEM cells) for use in medical research.
Gene Splicing A type of gene recombination in which the DNA is intentionally
broken and recombined using laboratory techniques.

Technology: Quizlet, USATestPrep, Online Textbook

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COURSE SYLLABUS

Content: Evolution, Diversity, and Classification Duration: March / April (3


weeks)

Assessment of Prior Knowledge: The students will need to know how certain traits are
passed down from generation to generation. The students will also need to understand
that a species is different from every other species because of certain characteristics that
the species has.
Essential Question: How and why do species change over time to become new species?

Skills: Students should be able to:


1. Define the scientific term of evolution, and compare that to the popular term for
evolution by todays media outlets.
2. Determine how evolution effects populations, but natural selection effects
individuals.
3. Determine the importance of Charles Darwin to todays understanding of
evolution.
4. Determine the mechanisms that cause evolution to occur.
5. Determine how scientists use binomial nomenclature to give a species a scientific
name.
6. Determine the types of evolution (i.e., Microevolution, and Macroevolution)

Assessment: Assessment number corresponds to skill number


1 - The students will discover the scientific definition of Evolution and how todays
media portrays evolution.
2, 3, 4, 6- The students will discover Darwins Theory of Natural Selection and how
certain characteristics can either be favorable or not in the environment that they are in.
2, 3, 4, 6 - The students will discover how some traits that are favorable can become
unfavorable in the event of a change in the environment.
2, 3, 4, 6 - The students will discover the evidences that scientists use to support the
Theory of Evolution (i.e., Fossil Records, Comparative Anatomy, Genetics, and
Embryology)
2, 3, 4, 6 - The students will complete a lab that describes how organisms that are better
adapted to their environment and therefore have better fitness will be able to survive and
then pass on the traits that they have.
5 - The students will discover how scientists name a species based off of a system that
categorizes the species on the characteristics that they have. They will use this

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COURSE SYLLABUS

understanding to understand that every species has its own specific name with the use of
a system called Binomial Nomenclature.

Resources/Activities: Textbooks, labs, video clips, etc.

Standards:
BIO.B.3.1.1 Explain how natural selection can impact allele frequencies of a
population.
BIO.B.3.2.1 Interpret evidence supporting the theory of evolution (i.e., fossil,
anatomical, physiological, embryological, biochemical, and universal genetic
code).

Vocabulary:
Founder Effect A decrease in genetic variation caused by the formation of a new
population by a small number of individuals from a larger population.
Isolating Mechanisms Features of behaviors, morphology, or genetics which
serve to prevent mating or breeding between two different species (e.g., temporal
isolation, in which individuals are active at different times of the day, seasons, or
mating periods; ecological isolation, in which individuals only mate in their
specific habitat; behavioral, when there are no sexual cues between
representatives of the species; mechanical isolation, when there is no sperm
transfer during an attempted mating; and gametic incompatibility, when there is
sperm transfer without fertilization occurring).
Species The lowest taxonomic level of biological classification consisting of
organisms capable of reproduction that results in fertile offspring.
Evolution A process in which new species develop from preexisting species
(biological evolution or macroevolution); a change in the allele frequencies of a
population of organisms from generation to generation (genetic evolution or
microevolution)
Selective Breeding The process of breeding organisms that results on offspring
with desired genetic traits.
Speciation A process typically caused by the genetic isolation from a main
population resulting in a new genetically distinct species.
Vestigial Structure A physical characteristic in organisms that appear to have
lost its original function as a species has changed over time.
Genetic Drift A change in the allele frequency of a population as a result of
chance events rather than natural selection.
Gradualism A proposed explanation in evolutionary biology stating that new
species arise from the result of slight modification (mutations and resulting
phenotypic changes) over many generations.
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COURSE SYLLABUS

Embryology The branch of zoology studying the early development of living


things.
Homologous Structure A physical characteristic in different organisms that is
similar because it was inherited from a common ancestor.
Fossils The preserved remains or traces of organisms that once lived on Earth.
Analogous Structure A physical structure, present in multiple species, that is
similar in function but different in form and inheritance.
Extinction A term that typically describes a species that no longer has any
known living individuals.

Technology: Quizlet, USATestPrep, Online Textbook

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COURSE SYLLABUS

Content: Ecology Duration: April / May (5


weeks)

Assessment of Prior Knowledge: The students should understand how species change
over time to better adapt to their environment. The students should understand how
energy is transferred through an ecosystem through photosynthesis and cellular
respiration. The students should also understand that organisms will evolve to better
adapt to their environment or else they will become extinct.

Essential Question: How do organisms interact with the biotic and abiotic factors
surrounding them?

Skills: Students should be able to:


1. Describe the ecological levels of organization
2. Describe the difference between biotic and abiotic factors as well as autotrophic
and heterotrophic organisms.
3. Compare and contrast the uses of food webs and food chains.
4. Understand how scientists use dichotomous keys in order to determine the name
of a known or unknown organism.
5. Determine the two types of population graphs. (logistic growth curves and
exponential growth curves)
6. Determine what a limiting factor is and how this stops a population from growing
to an infinite amount.
7. Determine the differences between density-dependent and density-independent
limiting factors.
8. Determine the relationship that occurs between organisms (competition,
mutualism, commensalism, amensalism, predation/parasitism).
9. Determine bioaccumulation and biomagnification and how these terms can be
used to affect the ecosystems for organisms.
10. Determine which stage of succession an ecosystem is in and the steps of the two
major types of ecological succession.
Assessment: Assessment number corresponds to skill number
1 - The students will determine the ecological levels or organization and what
separates each of the levels.
4 - The students will classify organisms the same way that a scientist does using the
biological classification as well as using binomial nomenclature.
4 - The students will determine how to use a dichotomous key to find an unknown
species or how to find the scientific name of a known species.
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COURSE SYLLABUS

5, 6, 7 - The students will interact with growth curves and population dynamics and
understand how populations can grow exponentially until the population begins to
reach a carrying capacity and then it will grow logistically.
5, 6, 7 - The students will determine if a factor that limits a population growth is
either density-dependent or density-independent and what the difference between
the two forms of limiting factors are.
8 - The students will look at the 5 types of ecological interaction
1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8 - The students will complete a project that that will utilize the
information learned thus far. They will be required to describe a food web,
human interactions, biotic and abiotic factors, ecological levels or organization,
etc.
9 - The students will discover how biomagnification and bioaccumulation can
negatively affect an ecosystem.
10 - The students will discover how an ecosystem transforms from bare rock to the
climax community for that area. They will learn about the 2 types of ecological
succession and how they are different.
Resources/Activities: Textbooks, ecology project, web search, labs, video clips, etc.

Standards:
BIO.B.4.1.1 Describe the levels of ecological organization (i.e., organism,
population, community, ecosystem, biome, biosphere).
BIO.B.4.1.2 Describe characteristic biotic and abiotic components of aquatic
and terrestrial ecosystems.
BIO.B.4.2.1 Describe how energy flows through an ecosystem (e.g., food
chains, food webs, energy pyramids).
BIO.B.4.2.2 Describe biotic interactions in an ecosystem (e.g., competition,
predation, symbiosis)
BIO.B.4.2.4 Describe how ecosystems change in response to natural and human
disturbances (e.g., climate changes, introduction of nonnative species, pollution,
fires).
BIO.B.4.2.5 Describe the effects of limiting factors on population dynamics and
potential species extinction.

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COURSE SYLLABUS

Vocabulary:
Population Dynamics The study of short- and long-term changes in the number
of individuals for a given population, as affected by birth, death, immigration, and
emigration.
Symbiotic Relationship A relationship between two organisms (i.e., mutualisms
in which both organisms benefit; parasitism, in which one organism benefits and
the other organism is harmed; commensalism, in which one organism benefits and
the other organism in neither helped nor harmed; amensalism, in which one
organism is harmed and the other organism in neither helped nor harmed;
competition, in which both organisms are harmed.
Biosphere The zone of life on Earth; sum total of all ecosystems on Earth.
Consumer An organism that obtains energy by feeding on other organisms or
their remains.
Energy Transformation A process in which energy changes from one form to
another form while some of the energy is lost to the environment.
Agriculture The artificial cultivation of food, fiber, and other goods by the
systematic growing and harvesting of various organisms.
Species The lowest taxonomic level of biological classification consisting of
organisms capable of reproduction that results in fertile offspring.
Biochemical Cycles The movement of abiotic factors between the living and
nonliving components within ecosystems; also known as nutrient cycles (i.e.,
water cycle, carbon cycle, oxygen cycle, nitrogen cycle, and phosphorus cycle).
Concentration The measure of the amount or proportion of a given substance
when combined with another substance.
Limiting Factor Chemical or physical factor that limits the existence, growth,
abundance, or distribution of an individual organism or population.
Biome A large area or geographical region with distinct plant and animal groups
adapted to that environment.
Community (Ecological) Different populations or organisms interacting in a
shared environment.
System A set of interacting or interdependent components, real or abstract, that
form an integrated whole. An open system is able to interact with its
environment. A closed system is isolated from its environment.
Aquatic A term that describes an organism associated with a water environment.
Biotic A term that describes a living or once-living organism in an ecosystem.
Competition When individuals or groups of organisms compete for similar
resources such as territory, mates, water, and food in the same environment.
Endemic Species A species that is found in its originating location and is
generally restricted to that geographic area.
Environment The total surroundings of an organism or a group of organisms.
Producer (Ecological) An organism that uses a primary energy source to
conduct photosynthesis or chemosynthesis.
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COURSE SYLLABUS

Terrestrial A term that describes an organism associated with a land


environment.
Ecosystem A system composed of organisms and nonliving components of an
environment.
Food Web A complex arrangement of interrelated food chains illustrating the
flow of energy between interdependent organisms.
Nonnative Species A species normally living outside a distribution range the has
been introduced through either deliberate or accidental human activity; also can
be known as introduced, invasive, alien, nonindigenous, or exotic.
Organism A form of life; an animal, plant, fungus, protist, or bacterium.
Succession A series of predictable and orderly changes within an ecosystem
over time.
Trophic Level The position of an organism in relation to the flow of energy and
inorganic nutrients through an ecosystem (e.g., producer, consumer, decomposer).
Energy Pyramid A model that illustrates the biomass productivity at multiple
trophic levels in a given ecosystem.
Food Chain A simplified path illustrating the passing of potential chemical
energy (food) from one organism to another organism.
Population A group of individuals of the same species living in a specific
geographical area and reproducing.
Abiotic A term that describes a nonliving factor in an ecosystem.
Decomposer An organism that obtains nutrients by consuming dead and
decaying organic matter which allows nutrients to be accessible to other
organisms.
Ecology The study of relationships between organisms and their interactions
with the environment.
An area that provides an organism with its basic needs for survival.

Technology: Quizlet, USATestPrep, Online Textbook

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