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New York

State College of Agriculture

At Cornell University

' Ithaca, N.-Y.


Cornell University Library

TX 769.J24 1921

The technology of bread-makini .

3 1924 003 595 802

Cornell University


The original of tiiis book is in

tine Cornell University Library.

There are no known copyright restrictions in

the United States on the use of the text.




The Chemistry and Analytical and Practical Testing

of Wheat Flour, and Other Materials Employed in Bread -Making and Confectionery.



Of Lincoln's Inn, Barrister-al-Law:

Senior Examiner in Bread-Making and Confectionery to the City and Guilds

of London Institute for the Advancement of Technical Education;

Cantor Lecturer on "Modern Developments of Bread-Making"

and "Chemistry of Confectioners' Materials and Pro- cesses" to the Society of Arts, London, etc.



Food Manufacturing Chemist.








19 2 I,



All Rights Reserved


THE intervention of war conditions has sadly interfered with the

developments of .this book, which the Authors had hoped to in-

corporate in a new edition. In order to meet the insistent demands on the part of both

bakers and millers for its reappearance it has been decided to issue

a slightly abridged reprint of the previous edition, with certain cor-

rections and additions rendered necessary by advances in knowledge

during the past few years.

This has been rendered possible by the action of The Bakers'

Helper Company, which has thrown itself into the breach at a time

when the publication of a technical work is fraught with great diffi- culties and considerable risk. To that company in America, and

The Northern Publishing Company, Limited, of Liverpool, well known as the proprietors of "MILLING," the Authors are indebted

for the promise of every effort as publishers to bring the book to

the notice of the milling and baking trades.

The Authors wish to make every acknowledgment, with their

most sincere thanks, of the valuable help they have received from

Miss Morris, of the staff of The Bakers' Helper Company, who has

read the proofs and checked the passage of the book through the

press in a most efficient manner.

Hove, England, 1921.



THE volume now offered to the reader must be regarded as a

development of the writers' former works on the same subject, which appeared in 1886 and 1895. The general mode of treatment

is, therefore, to some extent governed by that of its predecessors.

It should be remembered that the requirements of the student of the technology of bread-making, whether miller or baker, have been

the first consideration; and accordingly the arrangement is that

which seems most likely to be of service and assistance to him. In




addition the authors have endeavoured to make the book as com-

plete a work of general reference as possible.

In the preparation of the present treatise the writer has had the

benefit of the assistance of his son, Mr. William C. Jago, whose

name, together with his own, appears on the title-page. Mr. William

C. Jago's wide experience of the practical application of chemical

methods in the mill and the factory has been of much advantage. So also has been his knowledge of the dairying industries gained

in Denmark, and of modern biology and bacteriology acquired in

the laboratories of Professor Jorgensen in Copenhagen.


writer is further indebted to him for the investigation and verifi- cation of many references in the original French, German and


Since 1895 much valuable original work has been done in this

country, and also in Europe and America, on bread-making and

cognate subjects. The authors have tried to place this as fully as

possible on record. In so doing they have adopted the method of

giving a resume of each investigator's work and conclusions, fol-

lowing the same where necessary by any comments of their own. In pursuance of this plan, new chapters have been written on the

Strength of Flour, the Bleaching of Flour, Wheat Flour and Bread

Improvers, the Nutritive Value and Digestibility of Bread, and the Weighing of Bread. Subjects such as "Standard" Bread, and the

use of additions to flour and bread, have been critically and ex-

haustively examined. The application of chemical and other tests

to routine mill practice has been dealt with in a special chapter.

Following on the inclusion of Confectionery in the programme of

the City and Guilds of London Institute for the Advancement of

Technical Education, a chapter has been added on the Chemistry

of the Confectioners' Raw Materials and Processes.

Again, the Authors desire to express their thanks to the number

of millers, bakers, and scientists who by personal communications

and in many other ways have rendered them so much assistance

in the preparation of this volume. The numerous instances of help

of this kind will be evident on a perusal of the following pages.

In a work of such magnitude, the Authors cannot hope to have

altogether avoided mistakes, and in such cases they confidently appeal to the generous consideration of their readers.

London, E.C., 1, Garden Court, Temple,

July, 1911.




I Introductory





II Description of the Principal Chemical Elements, and their Inor-

ganic Compounds

III Description of Organic Compounds

IV The Microscope and Polarisation of Light

V Constituents of Wheat and Flour Mineral and Fatty Matters .

VI The Carbohydrates


The Proteins

VIII Enzymes and Diastatic Action








IX Fermentation




Bacterial and Putrefactive Fermentations



Technical Researches on Fermentation



Manufacture of Yeasts



Physical Structure and Physiology of the Wheat Grain .





Chemical Composition of Wheat



The Strength of Flour


XVI Composition and Properties of Flour and Other Milling Products . 291

XVII Bread-making

XVIII Bakehouse Design

XIX The Machine Bakery and Its Management

XX Analytic Apparatus

XXI Commercial Testing of Wheats and Flours

XXII Determination of Mineral and Fatty Matters
















Soluble Ejctract, Acidity and Proteins



Estimation of Carbohydrates



Bread Analysis



Adulteration and Additions



Routine Mill Tests



Ojnfectioners' Raw Materials








1. General Scope of Work.—The object of the present Work is to

deal, in the first place, with those branches of knowledge which together constitute the scientific foundations of Bread-making as a science in

itself. Paramount among these is



With which is closely associated

Heat and its properties.

Fermentation and the Biology of Micro-organisms.

Vegetable Physiology in its relation to the Wheat Plant. Microscopy.

Next, viewing Bread-making as an Art or Industry, the design of

Bakeries and adaptation of Machinery for various purposes is discussed.

Following on this is a description of the various processes and operations

involved in the Commercial Manufacture of Bread, together with an

investigation of the many important practical problems connected there- with.

The more purely analytical section of the work includes detailed directions for the commercial testing and. valuation of flour, yeast, and

other bread-making materials ; in addition to which there are also given

approved methods for the commercial and complete chemical analysis

of such substances. A number of analyses and other chemical investi- gations have been recently made for the purpose of this book, and are

here published. The work concludes with a description of the chem-

istry of confectioners' raw materials.

It is not proposed to adhere to any very rigid classification, but so to

arrange the subject matter as seems most likely to meet the requirements

of the majority of readers.

2. Matter.The bodies with which we are surrounded present an

almost endless diversity of colour, appearance, and other characteristics. One property they however all possess in common, and that is the prop-

erty of weight. All bodies are attracted by the earth, and any substance

is said to be heavy because of the resistance which it offers to this earth- attraction or gravitation. Not only are solid bodies, such as iron and

wood, possessed of weight, but so likewise are liquids, such as water and

oil, and also gases, such as, for example, common air, or coal gas.

It. is

convenient to have one name for all bodies which possess weight, and for

this purpose, in English, the term Matter is employed. Matter, then, is

anything which possesses weight (i.e., is acted on by gravitation), and

exists in three distinct forms, namely, as solids, liquids, and gases.


3. Force.The definition of matter just given would seem at first

sight sufficiently comprehensive to embrace everything of which we can

take cognisance, but yet a moment's reflection shows the existence of

other things besides matter. An illustration best demonstrates this fact

A hammer-head is known to consist of matter because it possesses weight

but if with this hammer-head you give a series of blows to a small piece

of nail-rod, you have given the nail-rod something which is not matter.

The hammer-head is not lighter, nor is the nail-rod heavierstill the

blows are something, as otherwise they could produce no effect. For one

thing, the nail-rod will have been flattened and altered in shape ; further,

and which is of far more present importance, it will have become hot to

the touch. Again, to make use of another illustration, if a dry brick be carefully weighed and then made red-hot in a furnace, it will be found to

weigh when hot precisely the same as it did when cold. Further, this

brick, if allowed to become cold, imparts heat to surrounding objects, and

nevertheless remains unaltered in weight. Here, then, is something very

definite which a body can receive and again yield, and which is not mat-

ter. This something has, however, a very direct relation to matter; in

the first illustration the blows were struck by the moving hammer-

head, which consists of matter in motion. The more rapid the motiorf, the more violent would be the blows; in fact, the force of the blow

depends both on the quantity of matter and the rapidity of its motion.

A number of considerations lead to the belief that the hot iron of the

nail-rod and also the hot brick differ from the same substances in the

cold state, in that their component particles are in a state of movement;

as these substances cool, the particles once more enter into a condition of

comparative rest. This something beyond matter is closely associated

Force is defined as that which is

with motion, and is termed force.

capable of setting matter in motion, or of altering the direction or

velocity of matter already in motion. The motion of bodies may be

there is, first, that of the body as a whole, as

in the case of the moving hammer-head ; second, the internal movements

divided into two classes :

of the particles of a body, as when it becomes hot.

Elements op Heat.

4. Heat, its Nature and Eflfects.-r-Among generally observed facts

with regard to heat, one of the first and most important is that it induces

the sensation of warmth. According to the character and degree of this sensation, a body is said to be cold, warm, or hot. The conditions which

produce this sensation of warmth also cause other well-marked changes in the physical condition of substances. The general effects of heat are to cause bodies as they get hot to expand in volume ; further, solids are

reduced to the liquid state; and, with still further increments of heat,

liquids are converted into gases. The opposite series of changes occur as

heat is abstracted from bodies. Prom the explanation of Force given

in the preceding paragraph, it will be understood that these changes are

not accompanied by any addition or diminution of weight. On the contrary. Heat is viewed as a form of Force, and is regarded as a mode or variety of internal motion of the particles of bodies ^the hotter they are, the more violent and energetic is this motion.

5. Measurement of Heat: Temperature.The earliest and most

accessible measure to be applied to heat is that of the sensation of warmth

before referred to, and according to whether a body 1;o the touch is hot

or cold, it is said to be of high or low temperature.

Temperature is, in



fact, the measure of what is popularly termed "how hot a body is"; it

will be seen on consideration that this depends ,on the power the body

has of imparting heat to another body.

Thus if, when the hand is

thrust into water, the water is able to yield heat to the hand, it is said

to be "hot," while if it robs the hand of heat it is said to be "cold."

The measure of this power is termed temperature, and is more exactly

embodied in the following definition : The temperature of a body is a

measure of the intensity of its heat, and is further defined as the

thermal state of a body considered with reference to its power of

communicating heat to other bodies.

6. The Thermometer.For scientific, and also for most technical,

purposes, the sensations are not sufficiently accurate methods of measur-

ing temperature ; accordingly temperature is usually measured by certain

of the effects 'which heat produces: the most convenient for this purpose

is the expansion of liquids with an elevation of temperature. For the

general purposes of temperature measurement, the metal mercury is the

most convenient substance.

This liquid, enclosed in a suitable vessel,

constitutes the temperature-measuring instrument termed a thermometer.

In constructing a thermometer, a bulb is blown at one end of a glass tube of very narrow bore; the bulb and tube are next filled with carefully purified mercury ; this is boiled, and thus all air and moisture are driven out of the tube ; the open end is then hermetically sealed by fusing the

glass itself.

At this stage the bulb and a portion of the tube are filled

with mercury, the remainder of the tube being a vacuum, save for the

presence of a minute quantity of mercury vapour. On heating the bulb of this instrument, the mercury expands and rises considerably in the

stem. Throughout any body, or series of' bodies in contact with each

other, heat has a tendency so to distribute itself that the whole series

shall be at the same temperature; consequently if the thermometer be placed in contact with the body whose temperature it is desired to

measure, a redistribution of heat occurs, until the two are at the same


That is to say, if the body be the hotter, it yields heat to

the thermometer ; and- if it be colder, it receives heat from the ther-

mometer, until the temperature of both is the same. The two being in

efficient contact, this stage is indicated by the mercury becoming sta-

tionary in the thermometer. Now the volume' of mercury is constant for

any one temperature ; therefore, to register temperature, it is only nec-

essary to have further a scale, or series of graduations, attached to the

stem of the instrument, by which the temperature may always be read.

7. The Pyrometer.The ordinary mercury thermometer is not well

adapted to the measurement of comparatively high temperatures, since

the mercury boils at a temperature considerably below that of a dull

red heat. In consequence other instruments have been devised for that

purpose, to which the name of pyrometers has been given. The pyrometer may therefore be regarded as a high temperature thermometer. The

/pyrometers used for measuring the temperature of some types of bakers'

ovens consist usually of a rod and casing constructed of materials which

expand at different rates with an increase of temperature. The differen-

tial expansion actuates a needle moving in front of a dial plate.

8. Thermometric Scales.Subject to certain precautions, the tem-

peratures of melting ice and of steam in contact with boiling water are

constant. The height at which the mercury stands when immersed in

each of these is marked on most thermometers; for the registration of

other temperatures some system of graduation must be devised. The one


most commonly employed in England is that of Fahrenheit, while for scientific purposes that of Celsius, or the Centigrade Scale, is almost

universally adopted. Fahrenheit divided the distance between the melt-

ing and boiling points of his thermometer into 180 degrees; degrees of

the same value were also set off on either side of these limits.

At 32

degrees below the melting point he fixed an arbitrary zero of tempera-

ture from which he reckoned. On this thermometer scale, the melting

point is 32°, while the boiling point is 32 -}- 180 = 212°. Degrees below

the zero are reckoned as (minus) degrees, thus means 8 degrees

below zero, or 40 degrees below the melting point f degrees above 212 simply reckon upwards, 213, 214° F., etc.

The Centigrade Scale is much simpler, the melting point is taken as

or zero, and the boiling point as 100° ; temperatures below the melting

point are reckoned as degrees.



The conversion from one to the other of the Centigrade and Fahren-

heit Scales may be easily performed.

180 Fahrenheit degrees = 100 Centigrade degrees,





degree =5/9






There is this important difference between the two scalesCentigrade

degrees count from the melting point, while Fahrenheit degrees are

reckoned from 32 below the melting point.

30° C. = 30 X 9/5 = 54 Fahrenheit degrees.

Therefore 30° C. are equivalent to 54 Fahrenheit degrees above the melt-

ing point, but as the melting point is 32, that number must be added on

to 54; temperature Fahrenheit equal to 30° C. is 86°.

By the reverse

operation, Fahrenheit degrees are converted into degrees Centigrade. The following formulae represent the two operations :

C°-X9 , oo_i^o




The following table gives the equivalent readings on the two thermo-

metric scales for some of the most important temperatures :

^0° C.=r


9, Quantity of Heat.Temperature is not a measure of quantity of

heat, for a thermometer would indicate the same temperature both in a

vessel containing a pint, and one containing a gallon of boiling water, although it is evident that one must contain eight times as much heat as

the other ; further, to raise the gallon of water to the boiling point, eight

times the amount of heat necessary to similarly raise the pint is required.

This leads to the mode of measuring and registering quantity of heat.

Quantity of heat is measured by the amount necessary to raise a cer-

tain weight of some body from one to another fixed temperature. The

amount of heat necessary to raise 1 gram of water from to C. is

termed a Unit of Heat. For the phrase Unit of Heat, a distinctive term,

"Calorie," is now frequently employed. From this it follows that to

raise 2 grams of water from to C. will require 2 Units of heat, or 2 H.Uv or 2 Calories. Between the freezing and the boiling points, approx-

imately the same amount of heat is necessary to raise 1 gram of water through any 1 degree of temperature, so that to raise 1 gram through 2

degrees will require approximately 2 H.U. For practipally all purposes,

it may be taken that the weight of water in grams X degrees of tem-

perature through which it must be raised = the number of H.U. or Calories required.

10. Specific Heat.The quantity of heat necessary to raise the same weight of different substances through 1 degree of temperature varies very considerably. The quantity of heat necessary to raise 1 gram of any substance through 1 degree of temperature is termed its

Specific Heat. From this definition it follows that the specific heat of

water at C. is 1.00, or unity.

heat of various substances :








The following table gives the specific

Specific Heat.








If equal w.eights of water at different temperatures are mixed to-

gether, the result is a mixture having a temperature the mean of the two

thus a gallon of water at 20° C. mixed with a gallon at 50° C. will pro-

duce a mixture at the temperature of 35° C.

But if equal weights of

two substances of different specific heats be thus mixed, the temperature

of .the mixture of the two will not be a mean of those of the substances,

but will be nearer that of the substance having the higher specific heat.

The most important mixture with which the baker has to do is that of flour with water, as the temperature of the resultant dough is a matter

of vital concern to him. The results are complicated- by the presence of other ingredients, as salt and yeast, and also in practice by loss of heat

through absorption by the surroundings of the dough, and heat generated

chemical action among the ingredients. The following are the results



laboratory experiments made by mixing flour and water only, and

carefully taking the temperatures, but not allowing for loss of heat

absorbed by containing vessels.

specific Heat.




500 grams of flour at






water at

flour at

water at

flour at

water at





1000 at 118° F.

at 93° F.


104° f:|= 1000

67° F.

86° F.

= 1000 at 80.5° F.



The specific heats are calculated from the above experimeuts in the

following manner:in the first experiment 500 grams of water have

fallen from 145° to 118°, that is 27°, during which they must have

afforded 500 X 27 =13,500 H.U. At the same time 500 grams of flour

have been raised from 67° to 118°, that is through 51°, which is equal

to 500 X 51 = 25,500 grams through 1°, and to do this 13,500 H. U. have

been utilised ; then to raise 1 gram through there has been taken

therefore 0.53 is the specific heat of flour as derived from this experiment.

A number of observations have also been made on the temperature^ of mixtures made in the bakehouse on the large scale for manufacturing

purposes. The doughs were machine-mixed, and no allowance is made

for the salt and compressed yeast, quantities of which were the same in

all cases. The quantities, temperatures, and calculated specific heats are given in the following tab