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Osteoporosis is a disease where increased bone weakness increases the risk of a broken

bone. It is the most common reason for a broken bone among the elderly.[3] Bones that
commonly break include the back bones, the bones of the forearm, and the hip.[8] Until a
broken bone occurs there are typically no symptoms. Bones may weaken to such a degree
that a break may occur with minor stress or spontaneously. Chronic pain and a decreased
ability to carry out normal activities may occur following a broken bone.[3]

Osteoporosis
OsteoCutout.png
Elderly woman with osteoporosis showing a curved back from compression fractures of her
back bones.
Pronunciation
/stiopross, -p-/[1][2]
Specialty Rheumatology
Symptoms Increased risk of a broken bone[3]
Complications Chronic pain[3]
Usual onset Older age[3]
Risk factors Alcoholism, anorexia, hyperthyroidism, surgical removal of the ovaries, kidney
disease, smoking, certain medication[3]
Diagnostic method Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at the hip[4]
Treatment Good diet, exercise, fall prevention[3]
Medication Bisphosphonates[5][6]
Frequency 15% (50s year olds), 70% (over 80 years)[7]
[edit on Wikidata]
Osteoporosis may be due to lower than normal peak bone mass and greater than normal
bone loss. Bone loss increases after menopause due to lower levels of estrogen.
Osteoporosis may also occur due to a number of diseases or treatments including
alcoholism, anorexia, hyperthyroidism, surgical removal of the ovaries, and kidney disease.
Certain medications increase the rate of bone loss including some antiseizure medications,
chemotherapy, proton pump inhibitors, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and
glucocorticosteroids. Not enough exercise and smoking are also risk factors.[3] Osteoporosis
is defined as a bone density of 2.5 standard deviations below that of a young adult.[4] This is
typically measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at the hip.[4]

Prevention of osteoporosis includes a proper diet during childhood and efforts to avoid
medications that cause the condition. Efforts to prevent broken bones in those with
osteoporosis include a good diet, exercise, and fall prevention. Lifestyle changes such as
stopping smoking and not drinking alcohol may help.[3] Medication of the bisphosphonate
type are useful in those with previous broken bones due to osteoporosis.[5][6] In those with
osteoporosis but no previous broken bones they are less effective.[5][6][9] A number of other
medications may also be useful.[3][10]

Osteoporosis becomes more common with age.[3] About 15% of white people in their 50s
and 70% of those over 80 are affected.[7] It is more common in women than men.[3] In the
developed world, depending on the method of diagnosis, 2% to 8% of males and 9% to 38%
of females are affected.[11] Rates of disease in the developing world are unclear.[12] About
22 million women and 5.5 million men in the European Union had osteoporosis in 2010.[13]
In the United States in 2010 about eight million women and one to two million men had
osteoporosis.[11][14] White and Asian people are at greater risk.[3] The word osteoporosis is
from the Greek terms for "porous bones".[15]