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# In Machine Problem 1, we were able to utilize MatLab functions and commands to p

roduce different types of signals with the limit as user-input. The types of sig
nals produced in this activity are sine wave, unit step, unit ramp and exponenti
al functions. The limits for each parameters in each type of signals are user-in
put so that the signal being generated can be customized by the user of the prog
ram. In sine wave, it can be expressed as x(n)=A cos(2pfn-phi symbol). In this equ
ation, the n is the integer, A is the amplitude, 2pf is the frequency in radian
s per sample and the phi symbol is the phase in radians of the siganl. In unit s
tep, it is a signal whose value is one for n is greater than or equal to zero an
d zero for n is less than zero depending on the given length of a unit step. In
unit ramp, it is a signal that increases linearly with slope equal to one as the
given n (length) increases. In exponential signal, it is a sequence in the form
of x^n=a^nu(n) wherein the values for signal duration and scaling factor are ne
eded to produce this type of signal.
In Machine Problem 2, there are two parts that needs to create a program. The fi
rst part is to create a command that computes the convolution of the two user-in
put signals without using the built in command conv and stem plot its output. Sinc
e the conv command is not used in the program, we used the formula of the convol
ution instead to solve the given signals and stem plot its output. The second pa
rt is to create an M-file script that generates and subplots the given integrals
, generating a sinusoidal wave, determining its rate of decay towards the last c
ycle of the signal and the envelope amplitude is almost zero. The convolution ex
presses the amount of overlap of one signal as it is shifted over another signal
and therefore it blends one signal to another signal.
In Machine Problem 3, we were able to utilize MatLab commands and functi
ons in order to solve the end-effect corrected correlation sequence and the corr
elation coefficient of the two user-input signals. Since the xcorr command is not
used in the program, we used the formula of solving the end-effect corrected cor
relation sequence and the correlation coefficient instead. We were able to solve
also its delay between two input sequences. Strength of correlation is expresse
d by a correlation coefficient. The magnitude of the computed correlation coeffi
cient shows the degree of similarity between the signals. If the magnitude is la
rge, the two signals have a strong linear relationship. Alternatively, if the ma
gnitude is small, the two signals can be considered to have little or no linear
relationship. In end-effect correlation sequence, the magnitudes of the given si
gnal decrease as the time lag increases not because the correlation of
In Machine Problem 4, we were asked to estimate the periodic waveform of
a noisy signal using the correlation of the signal. Autocorrelation is a cross-
correlation of a signal itself. The autocorrelation of a random signal will have
its peak value at zero lag and will reduce to random fluctuation of small magni
tude about zero for lags greater than unity. The autocorrelation of a noisy sign
al emphasizes signal properties by reducing the noise content. A signal lost in
a noisy waveform may be estimated by autocorrelating the waveform to find the pe
riod of the signal and cross-correlate the waveform with a periodic impulse trai
n of the same period as the signal.
In Machine Problem 5, the DFT and the FFT computation of the given signa
l/samples is being compared with the use of MatLab commands tic , toc , or etime to dete
rmine the compute time of each function. Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) is dis
crete version of FT (Fourier Transform) which transforms a signal (discrete seq
uence) from Time Domain representation to it's Frequency Domain representation,
while Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is an efficient algorithm for calculation of
DFT. It can be observed in the table that DFT is the discrete general version th
at the calculation is slow while FFT is an accelerated version of the DFT algori
thm but it produces the same result.