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Engineering, Procurement, Construction And Commissioning


(EPCC) Of Oil Gathering Facilities (Phase 1 Offsite 3) For
PETRONAS Carigali Iraq Holding B.V. Garraf Operations
Document No : GF-WP1-B-11-0753
Revision : 0
Page : Page 2 of 39

REVISION HISTORY

REV. DATE DESCRIPTION OF CHANGE

A 12-FEB-15 ISSUED FOR APPROVAL

0 03-MAR-15 ISSUED FOR IMPLEMENTATION


Engineering, Procurement, Construction And Commissioning
(EPCC) Of Oil Gathering Facilities (Phase 1 Offsite 3) For
PETRONAS Carigali Iraq Holding B.V. Garraf Operations
Document No : GF-WP1-B-11-0753
Revision : 0
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Contents

GENERAL ............................................................................................................................... 5
1.1. Introduction ................................................................................................................ 5
1.2. Definition ............................................................................................................... ..6
1.3. Abbreviation ............................................................................................................... 7
2. SCOPE ............................................................................................................................... 9
3. REFERENCE ...................................................................................................................... 9
3.1. Codes, Recommended Practices and Standards .................................................... 9
3.2. Other References .................................................................................................... 11
4. DESIGN BASIS ............................................................................................................... 12
4.1. General ..................................................................................................................... 12
4.2. Design Life ............................................................................................................... 12
4.3. Design Data ............................................................................................................. 12
4.3.1. Mishrif corrosion parameters ........................................................................... 12
4.3.2. Produced fluid ................................................................................................. 13
5. CORROSION INHIBITION ............................................................................................... 16
5.1. General ..................................................................................................................... 16
5.1.1. Concentration Calculation ............................................................................... 16
5.1.2. Factors that affect the Selection of Corrosion Inhibitor .................................... 17
5.1.2.1. Efficiency of Corrosion Inhibitor ........................................................... 17
5.1.2.2. Inhibitor Availability .............................................................................. 17
5.1.2.3. Solubility .............................................................................................. 18
5.1.2.4. Thermal & Hydrolytic Stability .............................................................. 18
5.1.3. Injection and Sampling Assemblies ................................................................. 18
5.1.3.1. Insert Components .............................................................................. 18
5.1.3.2. Injection Options .................................................................................. 18
5.1.3.3. Drip Feed Tubes & Quills .................................................................... 19
5.1.3.4. Atomizing Nozzles & Tubes ................................................................. 19
5.1.3.5. Sampling ............................................................................................. 19
5.1.3.6. External Components .......................................................................... 20
5.2. Corrosion Inhibition in Mishrif Facilities ............................................................... 20
5.3. Chemical Inhibition Skids ....................................................................................... 21
5.4. Access Fittings for Chemical Injection .................................................................. 22
Engineering, Procurement, Construction And Commissioning
(EPCC) Of Oil Gathering Facilities (Phase 1 Offsite 3) For
PETRONAS Carigali Iraq Holding B.V. Garraf Operations
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5.4.1. General Requirements .................................................................................... 22


5.4.2. Installation of Chemical Injection Access Fittings ............................................ 24
6. CORROSION MONITORING ........................................................................................... 25
6.1. Corrosion Coupons ................................................................................................. 26
6.2. Intelligent Pigging ................................................................................................... 27
6.3. Fluids, Solids and Gas Sampling ........................................................................... 27
6.4. Direct Assessment .................................................................................................. 28
7. METHODOLOGY FOR INSTALLATION OF NEW ACCESS FITTINGS .......................... 29
7.1. General Requirements ............................................................................................ 29
7.2. Access Fittings ........................................................................................................ 33
7.3. Installation an Access Fitting to a Pipe Spool ....................................................... 35
7.4. Installation an Access Fitting to an Existing Pipeline .......................................... 36
7.5. Completion of the Installation of an Access Fitting .............................................. 37
7.5.1. Detailed Finishing of the Access Fitting Installed to a Pipe Spool Piece .......... 37
7.5.2. Solid Plug Installation ...................................................................................... 38
7.5.3. External Thread Protection ............................................................................. 39
Engineering, Procurement, Construction And Commissioning
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1. GENERAL

1.1. Introduction

The Development and Production Service Contract (DPSC) for the Garraf Contract
Area was signed between South Oil Company (SOC), PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd,
Japan Petroleum Exploration Co. Ltd and North Oil Company. Garraf field takes its
name from the Shatt Al Garraf waterway, a tributary of the River Tigris. It is one of a
group of undeveloped fields sometimes referred to as the Garraf axis fields. The others
include Nasiriyah and Rafidain. Garraf Field is situated in the Southern part of Iraq, in
the ThiQar Governorate, some 5km Northwest of Al Refaei city and 85km North of
Nasiriyah. Garraf is an anticlinal structure aligned Northwest Southeast, about 31km
long and 10km wide.

Figure 1: Location of Garraf Field in Southern Iraq (Source: Public Domain)

Two proven formation in Garraf are being considered for development, namely Mishrif
and Yamama. Garraf Oil Field is expected to be developed in 2 phases;

i. Phase 1 - First Commercial Production (FCP), and

ii. Phase 2 - Final Field Development (FFD).

The Mishrif formation production capabilities will be enhanced in phases by


development of additional Wellpads and gathering facilities. This PROJECTs main
objective is to sustain the FCP production capacity of 100,000 BOPD till the field
reaches the PPT target in 2017 by phased development.
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The scope of this PROJECT consider development of WP-C, D and J which consists of
new production wells and tie-in to the existing facilities at Wellpad A, Wellpad F and
GIFT

1.2. Definition

For the purpose of this specification, the following definitions shall apply:

PROJECT : Oil Gathering Facilities (Phase 1 Offsite 3) For


PETRONAS Carigali Iraq Holding B.V. Garraf
Operations

COMPANY : PETRONAS Carigali Iraq Holdings BV (PCIHBV)

CONTRACTOR : GRAND ENERGY DEVELOPMENT LIMITED.

MANUFACTURER/ : Party/(s), which manufactures and/or supplies


SUPPLIER/VENDOR material, equipment and services to perform the
duties as specified by CONTRACTOR / COMPANY
in the scope of supply

SUBCONTRACTOR/ : The party(s) which carries out all or part of the


SUBVENDOR design, procurement, installation and testing of the
system(s) as specified by the CONTRACTOR

TECHNICAL NOTES : A Deviation requested by the SUBCONTRACTOR,


CONTRACTOR or MANUFACTURER, usually after
receiving the contract package or purchase order.
Often, it refers to an authorization to use, repair,
recondition, reclaim, or release materials,
components or equipment already in progress or
completely manufactured but which does not
comply with project requirements. TECHNICAL
NOTES are subject to COMPANY approval

ACCESS FITTING OR : A heavy duty metallic internally and externally


CORROSION threaded nipple attached at one end by flange or
MONITORING ACCESS welding to a pipeline or vessel to permit, whilst the
FITTING system is pressurized, insertion and removal of
injection fittings, corrosion monitoring coupons and
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probes through an orifice in the pipe or vessel


contained within the nipple.

CORROSION INHIBITOR : In addition to above it is a side tee attached to the


INJECTION FITTING fitting through which the corrosion inhibitor is
introduced to the injection fitting installed within the
access fitting.

: Fitting for sealing access fittings after installation


SOLID PLUG
: Fitting allowing insertion of corrosion monitoring
HOLLOW PLUG
probes

SOUR ENVIRONMENT/ : Sour environment or sour service is the term


SOUR SERVICE
traditionally used for environments containing water
and H2S in exploration and production services in oil
and gas industry. In these services ,sour
environments are defined as exposure to oil field
environments that contains H2S and can cause
cracking of material by the mechanisms addressed
by NACE MR 0175/ ISO15156 . By extension, the
term applies to all the fluids, the condition of which
falls into Regions 2 and 3 of EFC Publ.No.16
monograph.

Shall : Indicates a mandatory requirement

Should : Indicates a strong recommendation to comply with


the requirements of this document

1.3. Abbreviation

ANSI : American National Standards Institute

API : American Petroleum Institute

ASME : American Society of Mechanical Engineers

ASTM : American Society for Testing Materials

ATP : Adenosine Tri Phosphate

BS : British Standard
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CA : Corrosion allowance

CP : Cathodic Protection

CRAs : Corrosion Resistant Alloys

CSCC : Chloride Stress Corrosion Cracking

EOR : Enhanced Oil Recovery

dB (A) : Decibels

DBM : Design Basis Memorandum

DPSC : Development and Production Service Contract

FCP : First Commercial Production

FEED : Front End Engineering Design

GOR : Gas / Oil Ratio

GIFT : Garraf Integrated Facilities Terminal

HIC : Hydrogen induced cracking

ICR : Inhibited Corrosion Rate (mm/year)

IP : Intelligent Pigging

IMCS : Integrated Motor Control System KBOPD


Thousand Barrels of Oil per Day KBPD
Thousand Barrels per Day

MFL : Magnetic Flux Leakage

MIC : Microbiologically Induced Corrosion

NACE : National Association of Corrosion Engineers

NPT : National Pipe Thread

OSHA : Occupational, Safety & Health Organization

PCIHBV : PETRONAS Carigali Iraq Holding B.V PIB


Process Interface Building

PPT : Plateau Production Target

PSL : Product Specification Level (PSL)


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PWT : Produced Water Treatment

SARA Analysis : Saturate, Aromatic, Resin and Asphaltene Analysis

SCF
: Standard Cubic Foot when applied to gas means the
volume of gas that occupies one (1) cubic foot of space
measured dry under an absolute pressure of fourteen
point six nine six (14.696) pounds per square inch and
a temperature of sixty (60) degrees Fahrenheit.

SOC : Southern Oil Company. Iraqi state oil company under


Iraqi Ministry of Oil that oversees hydrocarbon
development in Southern Iraq

SOHIC : Stress Orientated Hydrogen Induced Cracking

SSCC : Sulphide stress corrosion cracking

SRB : Sulphate Reducing Bacteria

UCR : Uninhibited Corrosion Rate (mm/year)

UT : Ultrasonic

WOR : Water/Oil Ratio

2. SCOPE

This document contains guidelines for the control of internal corrosion, Corrosion
Inhibition, and Pigging for Well pads C, D, & J for Mishrif Oil Gathering Facilities.

This standard is only for the installation of new corrosion access fittings either into new
construction or into existing in-service pipelines and vessels. This standard does not
give instructions on the use of the corrosion monitoring fittings in service.

3. REFERENCES

3.1. Codes, Recommended Practices and Standards

API 610/ISO 13709 Centrifugal Pumps for Petroleum, Petrochemical and


Natural Gas Industries

ASTM A193 Standard Specification for Alloy-Steel and Stainless


Steel Bolting for High Temperature or High Pressure
Service and Other Special Purpose Applications

ASTM A 194 Standard Specification for Carbon and Alloy Steel


Nuts for Bolts for High Pressure or High
Temperature Service, or Both

ASTM G4 Standard Guide for Conducting Corrosion Tests in


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Field Applications

ASTM G 46 Practice for Examination and Evaluation of Pitting


Corrosion

ASTM G59 Practice for Conducting Potentiodynamic


Polarization Resistance Measurements

ASTM G96 Guide for On-line Monitoring of Corrosion in Plant


Equipment ( Electrical and Electrochemical
Methods)

ISO 9000/1/2/3 Quality Management and Quality Assurance


Standards

NACE MR0175/ Petroleum and Natural Gas Industries Materials for


ISO15156 use in H2S containing Environments in Oil and Gas
Production

NACE RP 0775 Preparation and Installation of Corrosion Coupons


and Interpretation of Test Data in
Oilfield Operations

NACE RP0192 Monitoring Corrosion in Oil and Gas Production with


Iron Counts

NACE SP0110 Wet Gas Internal Corrosion Direct Assessment


Methodology for Pipelines

NACE TM-0173 Methods for Determining Quality of Subsurface


Injection Water Using Membrane Filter

NACE TM 0194 Field Monitoring of Bacterial Growth in Oil & Gas


Systems

NACE RP 0198 The Control of Corrosion Under Thermal Insulation


and Fireproofing Materials A
Systems Approach

NORSOK M-501 Surface preparation and protective coating

NORSOK M-506 CO2 corrosion rate calculation model


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3.2. Other References

GF-WP1-G-10-0251 Design Basis Memorandum (General) for Garraf Final


Development Plan (GFDP)

GFDP-COM-52-MCI-RE-GE-003 Corrosion Management Philosophy

GFDP-204-52-PRS-RE-GE-007 Material Selection and Corrosion Mitigation Study


Report
Engineering, Procurement, Construction And Commissioning
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4. DESIGN BASIS

4.1. General

A corrosion inhibitor is a substance when added in a small concentration to an


environment reduces the corrosion rate of a metal exposed to that environment.
Generally the mechanism of the inhibitor is one or more of three that are cited below:
I. The inhibitor is chemically adsorbed on the surface of the metal and forms a
protective thin film with inhibitor effect or by combination between inhibitor ions
and metallic surface;
II. The inhibitor leads to a formation of a film by oxide protection of the base metal;
III. The inhibitor reacts with a potential corrosive component present in aqueous
media and the product is a complex.

The Injection System relies on an externally supplied pressure differential which is


greater than the pipeline or vessel operating pressure. The Sampling System is in effect
a reversal of the principals involved in the Injection System in that the external pressure
is atmospheric and lowers than that of the pipeline or vessel pressure.

Corrosion monitoring is required to ensure that the corrosion control procedures are
effective, the operating parameters are within the design envelop for the facility and the
design life will be achieved. Monitoring system must quantify trends in the corrosivity of
the fluids so that the Operator can adjust the corrosion control procedures before
significant corrosion occurs.

4.2. Design Life

Design life for the project facilities shall be 25 years.

4.3. Design Data

4.3.1. Mishrif Corrosion Parameters

The corrosion related parameters for the Mishrif Production Facilities are given in table
4.3.1:

Table 4.3.1: Mishrif Flowline Corrosion Parameters Values

Mishrif Corrosion related Parameters Units Value


Reservoir temperature C 77
Reservoir pressure barg 269
Flowing wellhead pressure barg 24-124
Flowing wellhead temperature C 46 - 70
Crude oil specific gravity --- 0.910
Density API 24.54
Crude oil viscosity cST @ C 6.301@ 88;
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Mishrif Corrosion related Parameters Units Value


Crude oil viscosity (Cont.) cST @ C 6.9 @ 80;
6.718 @ 78;
8.9 @ 60;
16.4 @ 40;
66.8 @ 15.6
Gas to Oil Ratio (GOR) SCF/SBO 550-940
Carbon dioxide concentration mol% 0.3
Sulphur content wt% 3.68
Water total dissolved solids mg/l Anticipated 177000
Water chloride mg/l Anticipated 110050
Water sulphate mg/l 535
Water pH --- 5.99
Table 4.3.1: Mishrif Flowline Corrosion Parameters Values (Cont.)

4.3.2. Produced Fluid

The Mishrif fluids do not contain H2S. There is a possibility that the reservoir may turn
sour and the design H2S concentration is considered as 100 ppm. The crude properties
for Mishrif facilities are given in table 4.3.2a.

Table 4.3.2a Mishrif Crude Properties

Mishrif Mishrif
Crude Oil Properties
(Ga-1) Year 1980s (Ga-4) Year 2012
Oil Gravity (API) 24 24.54
Sulphur Content, wt% 3.5 3.68
Sample1 34.7 (20)
6.301 (88) 16.4 (40)
66.8 (15.6) 8.9 (60)
Kinematic Viscosity, cSt (C) Sample 2 6.9 (80)
6.718 (78) 5.3 (105)
44.0 (15.6)

99 ppm 0 ppm
H2S
CO2 1% 0.3%

Wax, wt% 2.46 0.26

Asphaltene, wt% 8.3 1.6


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SARA Analysis

Saturates, wt% N/A 12.6

Aromatics N/A 71.4

Resins, wt% N/A 10.3

Asphaltene, wt% N/A 5.6

All facilities except the export pipelines will be designed for sour service as per NACE
MR0175/ISO 15156-2 requirements. Based on De Boer Plot and Saturate, Aromatic,
Resin and Asphaltene (SARA) data analysis, Asphaltene is stable in the reservoir and at
surface condition.

Mishrif Crude Oil Composition is given Table 4.3.2b below:

Table 4.3.2b Mishrif Crude Oil Composition

Component Liquid
Mole Crit. T Crit. P Acentric Normal Wtav Crit. V
Mol. Wt. Density
% 3 C bara factor Tb C Mol. cm/mol
g/cm
Wt.
N2 0.402 28.014 - -146.95 33.953103 0.04 -195.75 28.014 89.8
CO2 0.284 44.01 - 31.05 73.784138 0.225 -78.5 44.01 94
C1 33.15 16.043 - -82.55 46.013793 0.008 -161.55 16.043 99
C2 9.072 30.07 - 32.25 48.851724 0.098 -88.55 30.07 148
C3 5.931 44.097 - 96.65 42.466207 0.152 -42.05 44.097 203
iC4 1.012 58.124 - 134.95 36.486897 0.176 -11.75 58.124 263
nC4 3.294 58.124 - 152.05 38.006897 0.193 -0.45 58.124 255
iC5 1.509 72.151 - 187.25 33.851724 0.227 27.85 72.151 306
nC5 2.116 72.151 - 196.45 33.750345 0.251 36.05 72.151 304
C6 3.311 86.178 0.664 234.25 29.695862 0.296 68.75 86.178 370
C7 3.62 84 0.685 235.958 31.664828 0.2967 91.95 84 497.06
C8 3.585 96 0.722 262.074 30.837931 0.3373 116.75 96 496.4
C9 3.228 107 0.745 283.007 29.830345 0.3741 142.25 107 512.93
C10-C13 8.121 138.835 0.7822 335.099 26.922069 0.4805 196.66 140.418 613.65
C14-C17 5.165 196.252 0.8256 408.593 21.866897 0.6468 273.248 197.804 828.7
C18-C22 4.099 265.931 0.8585 483.013 18.809655 0.823 337.011 268.229 1133.88
C23-C28 3.174 349.662 0.8865 560.127 16.904828 0.9882 401.258 351.302 1521.44
C29-C35 2.525 441.077 0.9081 636.989 15.729655 1.1083 461.616 442.836 1970.5
C36-C40 2.141 525.809 0.9605 706.651 15.363448 1.1611 506.693 526.548 2417.11
C41-C46 1.673 601.808 1.0352 770.302 15.441379 1.1562 543.209 602.747 2881.9
C47-C55 1.409 702.737 1.1212 851.454 15.571034 1.0721 593.71 704.55 3563.83
C56-C80 1.18 894.234 1.2552 1001.02 15.856552 0.6584 672.617 903.73 5062.94
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The presence of water is the crucial factor in the assessment of corrosion risks to
hydrocarbon production systems. Hydrocarbons flows are noncorrosive towards carbon
steel and do not pose corrosion risk. However, if water is present in the liquid phase it
can dissolve CO2 and H2S contained in the produced fluids to form the acidic solutions
that then lead to the corrosion.

It may be present as produced water, produced along the hydrocarbons from the
reservoir itself and as condensation which will condense out from the water saturated
hydrocarbons.

Typical physical properties of Mishrif produced water are given in table 4.3.2c below:

Table 4.3.2c Mishrif Produced Water Analysis

Specification Units Ga-1 (MB2)


pH _ 5.99
TDS mg/l 160,225
Cations _
+ _
Sodium, Na 55,867
Potassium, K 323.1
2+
Calcium, Ca 8,400
2+
Magnesium, Mg 2,916
2+
Strontium, Sr 702.5
2+
Iron, Fe 0
Anions _
- _
Chloride, Cl mg/l 110050
Sulphates mg/l 535
Bi-Carbonates mg/l 122
Carbonate mg/l Nil
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5. CORROSION INHIBITION

5.1. General

When using an inhibitor it should be remembered that all the natural protection such as
iron oxide is removed and a protective film is put on the pipe or vessel surface. If this film
is removed by uninhibited products, the surface is very susceptible to the water and
oxygen in the product flow and their combination begins the corrosion process
immediately. It is very important that the film remain intact so this condition cannot exist.

Also, it is important to use the correct amount of inhibitor, since many inhibiting agents
can accelerate corrosion, particularly localized attack such as pitting, when present in
small concentrations. Too little inhibitor is less desirable than none at all. To avoid this
possibility, inhibitors should be added in excess and the concentration checked
periodically. When two or more inhibiting substances are added to a corrosive
environment, the inhibiting effect is sometimes greater than that which would be
achieved by either of the two (or more) substances alone.

Liquid inhibitors are usually preferred because of the ease with which they can be
transported, measured and dispersed. Organic inhibitors rarely have the optimum
characteristics of viscosity, freezing or boiling points and are therefore dissolved in an
appropriate solvent to achieve the desired properties. It is often desirable to blend the
inhibitor with a demulsifier, dispersant, surfactant, antifoaming agent or synergistic
agent.

Premixing or dilution of the inhibitor can improve handling and promote a more rapid
environment phase contact. Viscous inhibitors can be diluted with a compatible
hydrocarbon carrier to decrease viscosity thereby making pumping easier and metering
at the pump more accurate. Dilution of the inhibitor is sometimes necessary to achieve a
desired low dosage rate; i.e., gallons-per-minute, gallons-per-hour, etc.

The corrosion allowance, CA, is calculated from:

CA = [ (A/100 x ICR) + (100 -A) /100 x UCR) ] x design life

Where,

ICR is the inhibited corrosion rate (mm/year);

UCR is the uninhibited corrosion rate (mm/year);

A is the availability

5.1.1. Concentration Calculation

Inhibitor concentrations are expressed as parts per million (ppm); for liquid inhibitors,
volumes are used (e.g. liters of inhibitor per million liters of product to be inhibited) and
for solids the units are on a weight basis (e.g. kg of inhibitors per million kg of fluid). To
obtain the amount of inhibitor required for a given system, divide the amount of the
product flow to be inhibited by 1,000,000 and multiply by the ppm desired:
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Where,
Q = Quantity of inhibitor required.
V = Volume or amount of product flow to be inhibited.
ppm = Concentration of inhibitor in parts per million.

5.1.2. Factors that Affect the Selection of Corrosion Inhibitors

5.1.2.1. Efficiency of Corrosion Inhibitor

The efficiency of an inhibitor can be expressed as follow:

Where,
CR uninhibited = Corrosion Rate of the Uninhibited System
CR inhibited = Corrosion Rate of the Inhibited System

In general, the efficiency of an inhibitor increases with an increase in inhibitor


concentration; for example, a typically good inhibitor would give 95% inhibition at a
concentration of 0.008% and 90% at a concentration of 0.004%.

Conditions which affect inhibitor efficiency include:

Inhibitor concentration
Severity of corrosive environment
Service temperature
Solubility of inhibitor in aqueous phase
Phase behavior of inhibitor and carrier fluid in service environment
Persistence of inhibitor on metal surface
Deposit formation and removal
Partitioning behavior
Compatibility with other chemicals such as scale inhibitor and biocide

5.1.2.2. Inhibitor Availability

The factors that lead to inhibitor availability below 100% are:

Inhibitor injection equipment is not available on day 1 of operations


Inhibitor equipment requires maintenance and repairs
Operators set dose rate incorrectly
Chemical is not available when required
Chemical dose rate is less than optimum
Well simulation fluids, such as hydrochloric acid, are produced along with the
crude oil reduce corrosion inhibitor effectiveness
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The corrosion inhibitor injection facilities are used for delivery of other oilfield
chemicals i.e. demulsifiers or combined products such as scale & corrosion
inhibitors
All of these factors and others not listed may lead to less than optimal delivery of
corrosion inhibitor into production equipment. No asset is immune from such problems
and, therefore for piping system, the maximum inhibitor availability that should be
assumed normally is 95%.

5.1.2.3. Solubility

Solubility in a particular produced fluid can be considered a critical requirement.


Corrosion inhibitor partitioning behavior is an important factor which cannot be ignored
i.e. it may have to function through the aqueous phase by dissolving or dispersing in the
water to render it non-corrosive.

Alternatively, water may normally non-contacting to steel surfaces and the inhibitor
needs to function through the hydrocarbon phase by dissolving or dispersing in the gas
phase.

Ideally the water should be made non-corrosive and the steel wall oil wet and these
largely determined by the partitioning characteristics of the inhibitor between gas and
water. The partitioning characteristics are in turn influenced by the molecular structure of
the corrosion inhibitor e.g. ethoxylation (attachment of oxide groups) improves the water
solubility of amine type corrosion inhibitor. Consequently some inhibitor formations
include both ethoxylated and non- ethoxylated species to achieve stable dispersibility in
both brine and gas phases.

Many corrosion inhibitors are mixture of several components and each of these will have
its own individual partition co-efficient dependent on the prevailing conditions.
Consequently, portioning should be regarded as a qualitative concept rather than the
numerical values obtained in the laboratory partition tests.

It is also important to consider the relative proportions of gas and water in the produced
water. For a preferentially water soluble component, the aqueous concentration will vary
inversely with the water cut. For a preferentially oil soluble component, the aqueous
concentration will vary directly with the water cut.

5.1.2.4. Thermal and Hydrolytic Stability

This information is required for both neat product and test fluids if the product is to be
used in high temperature/pressure systems. This is often combined with a high
temperature/pressure corrosion test. The fluid is examined for clarity, deposits and color
change to determine thermal and hydraulic stabilities after a set period at the specified
temperature and pressure.

5.1.3. Injection and Sampling Assemblies

Access fittings with a side tee allow the insert assembly to be serviced without
dismantling feeder pipework. The tee can be either an NPT thread, a welded plain nipple
(Nipolet) or a welded flange. Threaded tees are not always acceptable in sour service.
Tee fittings are available in all mounting styles: flarweld, buttweld and flanged. The
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inclusion of the tee often increases the fitting height which must be taken into account
when selecting the injection/sampling accessories.

5.1.3.1. Insert components

The insert assembly consists of the following:


A solid plug assembly
An injection nut
A tube or quill selected to meet the specific requirement

The injection nut is sized for the access fitting height and tube/quill diameter. The tube or
quill is mounted into the injection nut body and must be selected to deliver the necessary
volume of fluid to the selected point in the line.

5.1.3.2. Injection options

The injection fluid can be drip fed or atomized, though atomization is only useful for
injection into gas filled spaces or treating gas systems. Both methods of injection can be
either top or middle of line, usually referred to as perpendicular and parallel (to line flow)
injection respectively. Top of line can be specified as flush for piggable lines.

5.1.3.3. Drip Feed Tubes & Quills

For perpendicular drip feeds a plain end tube is used. This method relies on the natural
turbulence in the flow to disperse the feed and may not be suitable when complete
dispersal of a small volume of chemical is needed. Parallel injection uses a notched quill
design at the center of the line which creates an artificial turbulence in the fluid flow to
disperse the treatment chemical more effectively. As both designs may be used in fast
fluid flows it is necessary to take into account the strength and wake frequency of the
design. Quill and tube diameters are otherwise selected to suit the rate of injection.

5.1.3.4. Atomizing Nozzles & Tubes

Perpendicular atomizing nozzles are screwed into the end of an injection tube of the
required length. Parallel nozzles require a tube with a mounting block holder.

Nozzles are selected for the required flow rate at a given pressure difference across the
nozzle. The tube diameter must be capable of delivering the required flow and
withstanding the system pressures and forces.

5.1.3.5. Sampling

It is often necessary to obtain samples of the line fluid for laboratory analysis in support
of the system management. If there is a pressure drop across an open tube type
injection point and the outside pressure is the lower, the system will act as a siphon and
allow fluid to be sampled.

Plain end and quill end tubes can be used in this way, although quills are not notched as
the object is to sample the natural flow as accurately as possible.
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5.1.3.6. External Components

The outer end of a tee is fitted with pressure control equipment such as a check or shut-
off valve. Valves are attached to the tee by a threaded nipple, welding or a flange. The
plain nipple type tee can also be used with compression fittings.

All access points should be fitted with a protective cover that meets the requirements of
the location. The options range from simple dust caps to secondary barrier designs with
valve and gauge assemblies.

Figure 5.1: Chemical Injection Assemblies

5.2. Corrosion Inhibition in Mishrif Facilities

Potential carbonic acid corrosion rates in the Mishrif systems have been calculated using
the de Waard algorithm. The rates have been checked using the NORSOK M-506
model. The uninhibited corrosion rate will initially be 1.50 mm/year reducing to 1.13
mm/year. Inhibition is necessary to reduce this corrosion rate to an acceptable value.
For evaluation of inhibitor efficiency the uninhibited corrosion rate is taken as 1.13
mm/year. The inhibited corrosion rate should be controlled to be below 0.15 mm/year, an
inhibitor efficiency of 87%.
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One permanent Chemical Injection Package will be provided for maximum seven (7)
wells of each wellpad. Each injection package will consist of a Storage Tank and
Chemical Injection Pumps along with other accessories.

Following chemical injection packages are considered in wellpad design:

Corrosion Inhibitor is to be injected upstream of choke valve to prevent corrosion


in piping and flowlines. Chemical Injection Storage Tank will have minimum 7 days
hold up capacity.

Methanol injection is used as hydrate inhibitor and is to be injected upstream of


choke valve to mitigate hydrate formation due to low temperature. Because during
start-up, well tubing will be full of gas and contains the saturated water. It will flow
through choke valve with high differential pressure which leads to hydrate
formation. Mobile methanol injection will be used during start-up and mobile
methanol injection skid will be provided by COMPANY.

Permanent Anti-Foam Injection Skids will be provided at MPFM inlet and on


production trunkline near Pig Launcher in every wellpad area respectively.

Level inside the fixed chemical storage tank of corrosion & antifoam injection packages
will be made up with chemical filled portable Intermediate bulk containers supplied by
chemical vendor.

Figure 5.2: Installation of Injection Access Fitting to Flange on Flowlines

At the operating temperature it should be possible to achieve an inhibited corrosion rate


of 0.15 mm/year in the Mishrif systems [Shell EP-2001-5301] and the availability of
inhibitor will be 95% along the year; this level of availability would allow ~2 days per
month when the inhibition system would be non-operational.

Pitting corrosion rates cannot be reliably predicted. Inhibition should prevent pitting and
the effectiveness of the inhibition program will be evaluated by review of the condition of
the corrosion monitoring weight loss coupons.

5.3. Chemical Inhibition Skids

Chemical inhibition skids are mainly used to inject various chemicals into process piping
and wells, to facilitate well cleaning, improved pipeline flow and oil recovery. The
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injection of chemical requires precision and accuracy in amount of chemical used, the
pressure required and intervals of injection.

Inhibitor skids will include an inhibitor storage tank, sight glass for level detection, filters,
pumps, isolation and non-return valves and associated piping. To prevent blockage of
filters in delivery lines by corrosion products, it is recommended that the storage tanks
are constructed of stainless steel type 316L. The tanks should be externally coated to
prevent pitting corrosion. Pumps and valves will be fabricated in stainless steel type
316L and the delivery piping will be type 316.

5.4. Access fittings for Chemical Injection


5.4.1. General Requirements
5.4.1.1. Chemical injection points are used to inject corrosion inhibitors, biocides,
scale inhibitor, anti-foam and demulsifiers into pipelines and vessels. In this
report the principal use described is corrosion inhibitor injection. These
fittings are usually installed at areas of high turbulence to ensure that the
inhibitor will be adequately mixed into the fluid stream.

5.4.1.2. Chemical injection points should be installed on the top of the line
wherever possible.

5.4.1.3. The chemical injection access fittings differ from corrosion monitoring
access fittings in having tees attached. Figure 5.2 illustrates this type of
fitting. The fittings may be attached using flanges or by welding. Welded
fittings will always be used unless specified in writing by COMPANY.

Figure 5.3: Flanged Side Tee Access Fitting

5.4.1.4. The tee pipe to the access fitting must be of minimum 1-inch diameter
and fabricated in stainless steel type 316L. The schedule shall be adequate
for the design pressure of the system and the external mechanical and
thermal loads which may be imposed. Tee pipes shall be coated to provide
external protection.
5.4.1.5. The tee should be as short as is practicable but the length of the tee
should not be less than 4-inches (100 mm) to permit fitting of the isolation
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valve. Longer tees are acceptable but may require support to prevent
mechanical damage.

5.4.1.6. Only access fittings with welded tees are approved. Threaded tee fittings
are not accepted.

5.4.1.7. It is critically important that there is adequate space for the installation of
the retriever isolation valve. This valve is installed temporarily when an
internal fittings, e.g. the injection quill, is removed from the operating
pipeline. Often the bolts or studs and nuts are used to fix the permanent
isolating valve with installation of the retriever valve and prevent retrieval of
the injection device in the access fitting. The length of the tee and studs and
nuts should be such that there is a clear 3.25-inch between the body of the
access fitting and the upper bolts/studs/nuts. The area of concern is shown
in Figure 5.3.

5.4.1.8. The internal injection fittings should be for tee-type fittings able to be
removed using a retriever and ball valve assembly.

5.4.1.9. Most hydrocarbon production is sour and all fittings should be assumed
to be required for sour service and all parts which will be exposed to process
fluids and welding and other operations associated should conform to the
requirements of NACE MR-0175 / ISO 15156.

5.4.1.10. The tee pipe will terminate in an RF flange rated to the line pressure and
fabricated in the same material as the tee pipe.

5.4.1.11. A corrosion resistant alloy isolation valve and a non-return valve will be
fitted to the RF flange to isolate the injection line from the system. In high
pressure systems (above 1,500 psig) double isolation valves are required.

5.4.1.12. The tee pipe of the chemical injection fitting should be orientated along
the length of the spool piece or pipeline to reduce the risk of accidental
mechanical damage.

5.4.1.13. Where necessary, provision must be made in the design for support of
the tee pipe, flange and associated valve assembly to prevent damage to
the tee pipe and access fitting by dead-weight, vibration or other mechanical
effect. The support must not interfere with installation of the retriever
isolation valve.

5.4.1.14. If the injection point is installed in a spool piece for later introduction into
the pipeline or pipework then the design should provide support for the tee
branch and flange to prevent damage in transit and installation.

5.4.1.15. No chemical injection fitting should be within 300 mm of any other


weldment.

5.4.1.16. Adequate access is required for insertion and removal of internal fittings
into injection points. The space needed to install and remove the retriever is
6 ft. (1830 mm) measured from the surface of the pipeline. Clear access to
one side of the pipe of a minimum of 40 inches (1020 mm) is also required.
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5.4.1.17. Note that if center-of-the-line quills or atomizers are used, the spatial
access required may be greater for large diameter pipes than the access
required for corrosion coupons and probes.

5.4.2. Installation of Chemical Injection Access Fittings

5.4.2.1. The attachment of the chemical injection access fitting should follow the
guidelines for the standard corrosion access fittings given in the relevant
Sections of this Standard.

5.4.2.2. The finishing of the installation and the installation of the solid plug and
external thread protection cover should follow the guidelines given in the
relevant Sections of this Standard.

5.4.2.3. During installation and finishing, including making good coatings, the tee
pipe and flange face should be protected. It is important that dirt, grit and
debris do not enter the tee pipe as this could cause blockage of the injection
valve in service or damage to the internal threads of the access fitting.

5.4.2.4. Prior to hydrotesting the chemical injection isolation valve or a blanking


plate should be fitted to the tee pipe flange. The line pressure will be
retained by the solid plug but the valve and/or blanking flange prevent dirt
entry and damage to the flange face prior to connection to the chemical
supply line. The blanking flange and bolts may be carbon steel.

Reporting

When the chemical injection access point is installed details of the installation, date of
installation should be forwarded to the Field Corrosion Engineer. Relevant drawings
should be modified as necessary to reflect the as-built status.
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6.0 CORROSION MONITORING

Corrosion monitoring is required for the production and process facilities, pipelines and
associated piping and equipment and is intended to:

Measure and evaluate corrosion damage rate of pipelines and associated piping;
Field test chemicals to be used for corrosion control;
Optimize the dosage rate of the chemicals used for corrosion control;
Provide early warning of changes in pipeline from corrosion processes;
Aid planning of maintenance procedures to minimize/prevent unscheduled
shutdowns.

Corrosion monitoring is part of the corrosion control strategy and use of the monitoring
techniques and interpretation of data requires operators who are trained, technically
experienced and aware of the importance of the work. Correct and timely interpretation
and reporting of results can reduce planned downtime and emergency shutdowns and
reduce costs by optimizing inhibitor injection. Incorrect reporting and interpretation can
result in costly over-dosing of inhibitor or under-dosing leading to significant equipment
corrosion and unscheduled shut downs for repair and consequent loss of production and
revenue.

Corrosion monitoring fittings are required on the flowlines to check the effectiveness of
the corrosion inhibitor. The fittings should be placed on individual flowlines upstream of
the production headers. The fittings should be top of the line and the coupons installed
using long reach holders to ensure that the coupons and probes are in contact with the
water phase.

At each location two access fittings shall be installed 100 cm apart at 12 oclock position
for top access with bottom of line monitoring for horizontal lines and on one accessible
side for vertical pipe.

Before pipeline commissioning one access fitting shall be fitted with an electric
resistance probe and the second fitting with a solid plug to seal the fitting. The corrosion
rate will be monitored over a monthly period and subsequently over a longer term a
three monthly period to identify corrosion that occurred during pipeline commissioning
and to identify the base line corrosion rates.

For the electric resistance probes a suitable data logging device, which is compatible for
downloading to the Operators Corrosion Management and Information System, shall be
installed.

Monitoring will be by use of weight loss coupons supplemented with electrical resistance
probes. Weight loss coupons should be installed before or at commissioning to allow a
check on the corrosion that occurs during the commissioning process. Corrosion is often
high because it is necessary to fine tune inhibition to ensure control.

Initial target concentration of inhibitor will be 10 ppm based on total liquids. The pumps
for each wellpad should be set to achieve this concentration depending on the actual
flowrate in the flowline.
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The required concentration may be decided by an inhibitor field test program. The use of
induction resistance probes is recommended to achieve corrosion rates in an acceptable
time frame. Evaluation of the optimum concentration of inhibitor will only be required to
be confirmed for one wellpad provided the crude oil and produced water properties are
the same in the other wellpads.

To retrieve the probes from pressurized system, access fittings that accommodate the
VENDOR specified retrieval tools shall be used. For each location a hazard identification
and risk assessment shall be conducted.

6.1. Corrosion Coupons

Industry accepted standards for the use of coupons covering coupon preparation,
cleaning and inspection, and reporting of information include ASTM G4, ASTM G31,
ASTM G46, ASTM G81, and NACE RP0775.

The average corrosion rate can be determined using the following equations:

Average Corrosion Rate in millimeter per year

Average Corrosion Rate in mills per year

Where,
CR= Average Corrosion Rate (mm/y or mpy)
W= Mass loss, grams (g)
A= Initial exposed surface area of coupon, square millimeters (mm2)
T= Exposure time, days (t)
D= Density of coupon metal, grams per cubic centimeter (g/cm3)

The maximum pitting rate can be calculated using the following equations:

Maximum Pitting Rate in millimeter per year

Maximum Pitting Rate in mils per year


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Pits depth may be measured with a depth gauge or a micrometer caliper with needle-
point anvils.

6.2. Intelligent Pigging

Despite best efforts some corrosion will occur in the pipelines. Intelligent pigging (IP) is
required periodically to check that excessive corrosion has not occurred. Client may
require a base line IP within the first year of service. Thereafter pig runs will be done
based on results from corrosion monitoring except in the case that there has been a
prolonged failure of the inhibition system and it is a suspect that corrosion has occurred.

Intelligent pigs use either magnetic flux leakage or ultrasonic signals to measure metal
loss. These are not fixed and are considered an intrusive form of monitoring. The pig is
inserted into the pipeline through a pig launcher and is transported along the pipeline to
the pig receiver by the fluid flow.

As a magnetic flux leakage pig progresses along the pipeline it saturates the pipe wall
with magnetic flux. Sensors around the pig body detect changes in magnetic flux at the
pipe wall caused by metal loss. The data is recorded together with the elapsed distance.
Data analysis produces a metal loss map that includes details of general and localized
corrosion along the length of the line. In line inspection is almost the only method of
locating and identifying the type and magnitude of corrosion processes in buried
pipelines. Some validation of the defect geometry is generally required to allow fine
tuning of the bulk data. This validation is done using external automatic ultrasonic
examination.

It is necessary to ensure a pipeline is clean before an in line inspection and this and the
pigging run may interfere with production. The technique is used only at long intervals.
The technique is limited to pipe wall thicknesses that can be fully magnetically saturated
which may limit use in small diameter heavy schedule pipes used for gas re-injection.

Ultrasonic pigs include a large array of ultrasonic emitter/receivers that scan the entire
pipe surface as the pig travels along the pipeline. The signals that are reflected from the
internal and external surface of the pipe are stored for later interpretation. The ultrasonic
signal is attenuated in air or gas and the sensors must be immersed in a homogeneous,
bubble-free liquid that will act as a coupling medium between the sensors and the pipe
wall. UT pigs can be used in liquid lines but not in gas pipelines unless they are
transported through the pipeline in a liquid slug trapped between leads and trail pigs.

The pig identifies external and internal metal loss, including corrosion, and its location,
extend and depth. Data are displayed as topographical mappings showing the depth of
corrosion using contouring or colour representations similar to the presentations
provided by magnetic flux leakage (MFL) pigs. Main oil pipelines will be regularly
inspected.

6.3. Fluid, Solids and Gas Sampling

Manual sampling of corrosion products, metallic material and fluids is frequently required
in the course of developing a more complete picture of corrosion events. Manual
sampling will be a standard practice within the facilities.
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Liquid samples can be drawn from sampling points at locations along the process
stream. Samples for analysis should be collected into clean stoppered borosilicate
vessels, usually bottles. For safety these should be plastic coated or the vessels
transported in sealed containers.

Concentrations of dissolved ionic species can be measured by colorimetric,


spectrophotometric and gravimetric analytical methods. The species of general interest
related to corrosion are total dissolved solids, solids, chloride, bicarbonate, iron and
possible manganese, and planktonic bacteria.

Total dissolved solids (TDS) are measured following the practice given in ASTM D5907.
Total suspended solids (TSS) are measured using a sequence of filters of different pore
size and measurement should follow the practice given in ASTM D5907 though NACE
TM-0173 may be relevant for water to be used for subsurface injection (filtration, turbidity
meter, Coulter counter). Chloride is measured by an electrochemical procedure or in
accord with ASTM D512. Bicarbonate is measured gravimetrically in accord with ASTM
D513.

Total iron in water extracted from fluids streams is commonly termed the iron count. It
can often be used to evaluate corrosion in a system or part of a system provided
allowance is made for the incoming iron content from upstream. On its own the iron
count is of little value and must be combined with knowledge of the water flow rate and
the wetted area to derive a corrosion rate. The iron count and the water flow give the
total iron loss and this can be used in conjunction with inspection data that provides the
corroded area to calculate a corrosion rate. Some iron will be combined in corrosion
product which will introduce errors in the estimate. The total iron in suspension is
generally much lower when hydrogen sulphide is present than in sweet corrosion service
because of the very low solubility product for iron sulphide precipitation.

As an adjunct to iron counts a dissolved manganese determination can also be carried


out. Pipe and vessel steel contains 1.4 1.8% manganese. This analysis is used to
establish that the iron/manganese ratio is the correct ratio for corrosion of steel.

Extractive techniques will be used for the oil pipelines, water pipelines.

Samples for dissolved gas determination from low pressure systems need to be
collected in borosilicate vessels that are completely filled to the top and stoppered. The
dissolved gases of interest to corrosion evaluations are oxygen, carbon dioxide and
hydrogen sulphide.

Dissolved oxygen is assessed by immediate analysis using Chemetrics type comparator


systems for non-turbid aqueous samples or by polarography using a special oxygen
probe and meter. On-line and sidestream analysis may be done with permanent in place
oxygen probes.

Dissolved carbon dioxide may be assessed by standard water analysis means (ASTM
D513), while dissolved hydrogen sulphide may be assessed by use of titration or by
using a comparator system (ASTM D4658).

6.4. Direct Assessment

Some flowlines are not fitted with pig launchers and receivers and consequently direct
inspection is not possible. These pipelines may corrode and require to be assessed
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periodically for confidence or when an upset has occurred. Direct assessment may be
required to detect external corrosion and the procedures given in NACE RP-0502 shall
be followed.

7.0 METHODOLOGY FOR INSTALLATION OF NEW ACCESS FITTINGS

7.1. General Requirements

7.1.1. Access fittings are used to allow corrosion coupons and probes to be installed in
and retrieved from pressurized operational pipelines and vessels. An illustration of
the types of corrosion access fittings available is given in Figure 7.1a. Only
welded and flanged access fittings are acceptable to COMPANY as illustrated in
Figure 7.1b.

Figure 7.1a: Standard Corrosion Access Fittings


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Figure 7.1b: Corrosion Access Fittings Acceptable To Company

7.1.2. Access fittings are also used for inhibitor injection. These are of greater length
and incorporate a flanged side tee welded to the access fitting. An illustration of
an access fitting with a side tee pipe is given in Figure 5.3. COMPANY use API
ring type joint (RF) flanges to ASME B16.5. For installation of these access fittings
see the appropriate Section of this Standard.

7.1.3. Access fittings are installed at locations in the pipeline or pipework at areas of
worst case corrosion or where the fluid characteristics or operational conditions
change and where there is sufficient space to use and retrieve the corrosion
monitoring coupons and probes safely and reliably using the heavy and
cumbersome retrieval equipment. The locations shall be accessible from floor
level or special provision made so that scaffolding for access is not required.

7.1.4. Where combined corrosion inhibition injection points and corrosion monitoring
are to be installed corrosion monitoring fittings should be installed downstream of
the injection point. The downstream access fitting should be situated sufficiently
downstream that adequate dispersion of the corrosion inhibitor will have occurred
by the time the treated fluid reaches the corrosion monitoring location. This is
typically 5 - 10 pipeline diameters. Installation of monitoring fittings upstream of
the injection point may be useful to allow the uninhibited corrosion rate to be
measured which can aid evaluation of inhibitor efficiency.

7.1.5. On new oil pipelines two access fittings must always be installed. This will allow
both weight loss coupons and an alternative monitoring technique to be used and,
if one fitting is damaged or unusable, will ensure some monitoring is possible.
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7.1.6. On new water pipelines the access fittings must be in triplicates. This provides
an additional access point for the installation of bioprobes.

7.1.7. When top of the line access fittings on existing pipelines are replaced with
bottom of the line fittings only a one-for-one replacement is necessary on the
wellhead platforms. When access fittings on existing pipelines on the super
complexes are replaced, the guidelines for new pipelines should be observed
whenever possible, exceptions must be approved by the COMPANY Field
Technical Authority.

7.1.8. Access fittings may be installed as flanged or welded items. In all cases unless
specifically identified in writing new access fittings will be of the flareweld
attachment type. Access fittings used on COMPANY systems are 2-inch fittings
rated at 6,000 psig though isolation valves may be limited to 3,600 psig. Lower
pressure fittings are not accepted unless otherwise specified in writing.

7.1.9. Experience in COMPANY systems indicates that worst case corrosion in


pipelines is usually at the bottom of the line where water and debris collect. All
new corrosion monitoring access fitting must therefore be installed at the 6 oclock
position in pipelines and piping. Engineering Drawings should clearly indicate the
location of the fittings.

7.1.10. Installation of access fittings to vessels is uncommon. It is COMPANY policy to


minimize intrusions into vessels and vessels may require heat treatment
subsequent to welding. This Standard should be used as a guide to installation of
access fittings in vessels in conjunction with appropriate drawings provided to
identify the fitting location. The number of access fittings will also be detailed on
the drawings.

7.1.11. The access fitting contains the system pressure through a sequence of
elastomeric seals comprising a primary chevron-type seal and a secondary O-ring
seal. The materials for these seals must be suitable for the local temperature of
the proposed service. This is particularly important in gas systems which may
operate at high temperature.

7.1.12. When a new fitting is installed it will be sealed with a solid plug to prevent
damage to internal threads and sealing faces and permit hydrotesting of the
system. Installation of the solid plug does not require use of PTFE tape, sealing
compound or other thread sealing adjuncts. Fittings are designed to seal at low
torque and recommended torque values must not be exceeded as this would
damage the primary seals and may damage the access fitting rendering it unfit for
purpose.

7.1.13. A retriever and ball valve is used to install and withdraw corrosion probes
through the access fitting.

7.1.14. The retrieval tool is an extendible tool for service at high pressures and as such
is large, long and heavy. Figure 7.3 gives a schematic of a retrieval tool.
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Figure 7.3: Retrieval Tool

To provide awareness of the need for clear access to the access fitting an
abbreviated sequence of operations needed to remove a probe is given below:

Removal of the access fitting thread protector cap.


Installation onto the access fitting of the valve and retriever.
Pressurization of valve and retrieval tool and removal of probe.
Depressurization of retriever, removal of retriever and replacement of
probe.
Repeat of operations 2 & 3 above and replacement of corrosion probe.
Depressurization and removal of retriever and valve.
Replacement of the access fitting thread protector cap.

7.1.15. It is vital that unhindered access to the fitting is provided to allow for safe
retrieval operations. This generally requires a 6 feet (1830 mm) clearance in a
direct line along the axis of the access fitting from the bottom of the pipe and
adequate room for manoeuvre on at least one side of a pipe, a minimum of 1000
mm should be allowed. Installation and removal of the isolation valve also
demands a reasonable access around the fitting. These dimensions should be
regarded as minimum and outline only and should be confirmed in writing with
the access fitting manufacturer before the installation locations and procedures
are finalized to allow for any changes resulting from the type of fitting and style of
coupon or probe to be removed.
Engineering, Procurement, Construction And Commissioning
(EPCC) Of Oil Gathering Facilities (Phase 1 Offsite 3) For
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Page : Page 33 of 39

7.1.16. Access requirements may vary according to the pipeline diameter and the type
of retrieval tool being used. In all cases the access requirements must be
investigated for each fitting installation. Access to the fittings may require provision
of detachable sections of gratings, provision of local step ladders, modification to
pipework or walkways. An assumption that scaffolding can be provided is not
acceptable for new plant design.

7.2. Access Fittings

7.2.1. Access fittings must be sourced for the specific pressure requirement and
diameter of pipe or vessel and must be installed in complete accord with
manufacturers recommendations. For each access fitting the following items are
required:

Access fitting with correct pressure rating and flareweld radius for the diameter
of pipe to which it will be installed.

Solid plug for sealing the access fitting after installation.

One red plastic pipe plug.

One steel external thread protector cap with hole and colour coded to BS 4800
Shade 12 E 51 or equivalent. Plastic caps are not permitted as they confer no
mechanical protection to the external threads.

Spare solid plug primary packing and O-ring.

Protective grease/lubricant for threads and caps.

Appropriate spanners, keys and screwdrivers and a brass headed hammer


necessary to avoid sparks.

7.2.2. The grease used for lubricating the internal threads should be compatible with
the stainless steel internal fittings. Proprietary and silicon based greases are
acceptable. Graphite grease and copper slip are not acceptable.

7.2.3. For the external threads of the access fitting proprietary, silicon-based and
copper slip greases are acceptable. Graphite grease is not acceptable.

7.2.4. Figure 7.4 illustrates the principal items above and the constituent parts
mentioned.
Engineering, Procurement, Construction And Commissioning
(EPCC) Of Oil Gathering Facilities (Phase 1 Offsite 3) For
PETRONAS Carigali Iraq Holding B.V. Garraf Operations
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Figure 7.4: Exploded View of a Corrosion Access Fitting and Solid Plug
(Terminology of Components)

7.2.5. COMPANY requires flareweld type fittings unless otherwise specified. The
flareweld access fittings are rated to 6,000 psig and are purpose constructed for a
particular diameter of pipeline and are attached to pipe spool, pipe or vessel by
welding.

7.2.6. The weld procedures must conform to the requirements of the manufacturers
and to NACE MR-0175 / ISO 15156 if the access fittings are to be installed onto a
sour service system. All systems in COMPANY should be regarded as sour
service unless specifically designated otherwise All fittings, equipment and
associated items which will be exposed to the process fluids should conform to
sour service requirements.

7.2.7. Only welders with appropriate qualification for the weld procedure shall install
access fittings. Welder qualifications should be made available for review and
approval by COMPANY.

7.2.8. Access into the pipe for the corrosion monitoring coupons or probes is afforded
by trepanning a hole through the pipe wall within the access fitting. It is most
important that this hole is of the correct dimensions to permit installation of the 2-
inch probes and fittings. Whatever the installation method the hole shall be post
reamed with a 1.375-inch (35 mm) tool after the fitting is installed.

7.2.9. If the hole is cut before the access fitting is installed, it is most important that the
fitting is accurately aligned and that the weld bead does not protrude such that it
will prevent unhindered installation of probes and fittings. The access hole shall be
post reamed with a 1.375-inch (35 mm) tool after the fitting is installed.
Engineering, Procurement, Construction And Commissioning
(EPCC) Of Oil Gathering Facilities (Phase 1 Offsite 3) For
PETRONAS Carigali Iraq Holding B.V. Garraf Operations
Document No : GF-WP1-B-11-0753
Revision : 0
Page : Page 35 of 39

7.3. Installing an Access Fitting to a Pipe Spool Piece

7.3.1. For new installations it is often convenient to install the fitting onto a short spool
of pipe and to later install this spool piece into the piping or pipeline.

7.3.2. The spool piece must be of equal quality, grade and schedule as the main
pipeline or piping and appropriate documentation of the spool material should be
retained for review and approval by COMPANY.

7.3.3. Spool pieces containing circumferential welds are not acceptable. The spool
piece must be of a sufficient length such that the access fitting is not within 300
mm of any other weldment.

7.3.4. Before installation of the access fitting the spool piece should be inspected
using ultrasonic equipment for integrity (e.g. absence of laminations) and correct
wall thickness. The internal and external threads should also be inspected and
only accepted if clear and undamaged.

7.3.5. The access fittings are purpose constructed for the design pressure of the
system and are to be welded to the pipe. COMPANY pipelines may transport sour
fluids in which case all fittings, welding procedures and all other operations must
conform to the requirements of NACE MR-0175 / ISO 15156. It should be
assumed that a system is sour unless otherwise stated in writing by COMPANY.

7.3.6. If the fitting is purchased with the solid plug inserted, the solid plug must be
removed before welding. All grease and other materials within the fitting must be
removed. Baked on grease will make installation and retrieval of coupons and
probes difficult in service.

7.3.7. The access fitting should be checked by magnetic particle inspection or dye
penetrant inspection to ensure that there are no defects in the weld area.

7.3.8. The access fitting may be installed around a 1.375-inch diameter hole or the
hole may be trepanned later through the fitting. If the hole is pre-drilled, then it is
most important that the fitting is concentric with the hole. Pre-cut holes must be
mechanically cut, flame cut holes are not acceptable.

7.3.9. During installation the internal and external threads must be protected with a
suitable non-combustible material to prevent damage or weld spatter on the
threads and sealing surfaces. When welding around a pre-cut hole, an alternative
is to fit a steel external thread protector but the internal threads will still require
protection.

7.3.10. Welding quality must conform to the general requirements for the pipeline or
pipework and only welders qualified for the specific welding procedure shall install
access fittings. Welder qualifications should be available for review and approval
by COMPANY before work commences.

7.3.11. The corrosion monitoring access fitting must be located at the 12 oclock
position with the sensor part located at 6 oclock position in the section of line
detailed in the drawings. The access fitting must be in a position such that access
Engineering, Procurement, Construction And Commissioning
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Page : Page 36 of 39

with the retrieval tool is both possible and safe. This may reflect on the size of the
spool piece to be used. If this installation is not possible then other locations
should be reviewed and proposals submitted to COMPANY for approval.

7.3.12. The spool piece should be hydrotested prior to installation into the pipework or
pipeline in conformance with the Code relating to the target pipework or pipeline.

7.3.13. The spool piece will require to be clearly numbered and marked to ensure that
the access fitting is with the correct orientation and the correct location when
installed into the pipeline or pipework.

7.3.14. The spool piece should be coated either before installation into the pipeline or
pipework or subsequent to installation. The coating should accord with
Specification of Painting and Coating (Doc. No. GF-WP1-J-12-1002). The access
fitting requires to be coated and should be fitted with a protective cap to prevent
damage and/or coating of the external and internal threads. Any coating on
external or internal threads should be removed. Any damaged access fittings shall
be replaced.

7.4. Installing an Access Fitting to an Existing Pipeline

7.4.1. The area for installation of the access fitting should be ultrasonically inspected
to ensure that it is sound and integral and free of defects which would prejudice
the use of the access fitting, and to determine the wall thickness.

7.4.2. Some systems might require a drainage permit prior the welding process. In
other cases the flow rate of the fluids must be controlled within limits related to the
heat input during welding. Appropriate planning and notification must be made and
written COMPANY approval obtained. COMPANY Safety Regulations must be
strictly observed.

7.4.3. The corrosion monitoring access fitting must be located at the 12 oclock
position with the sensor part located at 6 oclock position in the section of line
detailed in the drawings. The access fitting must be in a position such that access
with the retrieval tool is both possible and safe.

7.4.4. If the fitting is purchased with the solid plug inserted then the solid plug must be
removed before welding. All grease and other materials must also be removed as
baked on grease and lubricant will prejudice use of the fitting in service.

7.4.5. The access fitting should be checked by magnetic particle inspection or dye
penetrant inspection to ensure that there are no defects in the weld area. The
internal and external threads should be inspected and accepted only if they are
clear and undamaged.

7.4.6. The access fittings are purposely constructed for the design pressure of the
system and are to be welded to the pipe. COMPANY pipelines may transport sour
fluids and fittings and welding and all other operations must conform to the
requirements of NACE MR 0175. It should be assumed that the system is sour
service unless otherwise informed in writing by COMPANY.
Engineering, Procurement, Construction And Commissioning
(EPCC) Of Oil Gathering Facilities (Phase 1 Offsite 3) For
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Page : Page 37 of 39

7.4.7. Welding quality must conform to the general requirements for the pipeline or
pipework and only welders qualified for the specific welding procedure shall install
access fittings.

7.4.8. During installation the internal and external threads must be protected with a
suitable non-combustible material to prevent damage or weld spatter on the
threads and sealing surfaces. It is generally not possible to use a solid steel
external thread protector because of pressure build up within the fitting during the
welding.

7.4.9. After welding of the access fitting to the pipe it will require pressure testing. The
test pressure should be to 20% above design pressure of the system. Only proven
proprietary pressure test equipment should be used.

7.4.10. Operators must take account of COMPANY Safety Regulations. For all oil and
gas systems the operators must assume that the system they are working on
contains sour product and take appropriate safety precautions.

7.4.11. Good protective paintwork around the fitting will be required. Coating should
conform to the requirements of Painting and Coating Specification (Doc. No. GF-
WP1-J-12-1002). The access fitting require a coating and should be fitted with a
protective cap to prevent damage and/or coating of the external and internal
threads. Any coating on external or internal threads should be removed. Any
damaged access fittings shall be replaced.

7.5. Completion of the installation of an Access Fitting


7.5.1. Detailed Finishing of the Access Fitting Installed in a Pipe Spool Piece

7.5.1.1. After welding installation, the fittings must be inspected and the weld
radiographed and/or checked for integrity with magnetic particle inspection
or dye penetrant inspection.

7.5.1.2. The inner bore, seat and threads and the outer threads should be
inspected and be free of weld spatter. Concentricity of the bore must also be
checked.

7.5.1.3. Minor repair is acceptable for bore chasing and repair of internal and
external threads using appropriate thread cutters and chasers. Final
cleaning of threads should be done with a magnetic swab rotated counter-
clockwise to draw any debris out of the fitting.

7.5.1.4. If severe damage to the fitting has occurred then the spool and fitting
should be scrapped and replaced.

7.5.1.5. The access hole in the pipe wall shall be reamed with a 1.375-inch (35
mm) tool to ensure that there will be unhindered access for corrosion
monitoring coupons and probes.

7.5.1.6. When blasting for cleaning and recoating, the fitting should be protected
to avoid entry or damage from grit or other blasting medium and from
application of paint to sealing or threaded surfaces.
Engineering, Procurement, Construction And Commissioning
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Page : Page 38 of 39

7.5.1.7. A solid plug will be installed into the access fitting to provide a seal ready
for the hydrotesting of the completed system. The installation of this plug
must adhere strictly to the requirements of this standard.

7.5.2. Solid Plug Installation

7.5.2.1. A solid plug should be provided with the access fitting. A schematic of a
typical solid plug and the terminology used to describe the component parts
are given in Figure 7.4.

7.5.2.2. Hollow plugs shall not be installed in new installations; solid plugs will be
replaced with hollow plugs for use with probes when the corrosion monitoring
system is commissioned.

7.5.2.3. Before assembly of the solid plug into the access fitting the threads
should be checked for cleanliness and appropriate action taken if they
require cleaning. The primary seal and secondary seal O-ring should be
inspected and replaced if there are any cuts or nicks present in either. The
packing screw should be checked and should be tightened followed by
tightening of the packing nut lock screw. Do not over tighten.

7.5.2.4. Remove the pipe plug in the solid plug and grease the solid plug threads,
packing and O-ring. Only approved greases and lubricants should be used.

7.5.2.5. PTFE tape or any other thread sealing adjunct must not be used.

7.5.2.6. If the access fitting is in a spool piece then the solid plug may be inserted
and tightened by hand. Only 14 full turns or 28 half-turns should be required.
Do not over tighten as this will damage the primary seal leading to leakage of
the plug under pressure.

7.5.2.7. For access fittings in operational pipelines the retriever will be used to
insert the solid plug into the access fitting. Only 14 full turns or 28 half turns
should be required. Use moderate torque only and do not over tighten as this
will damage the primary seal leading to leakage of the plug under pressure.

7.5.2.8. If relevant, remove the retriever and isolation valve. Check for leaks on
the plug.

7.5.2.9. Clean off the top of the solid plug and tighten, usually one-quarter turn is
required. Do not over tighten as this may make the fitting unusable in service.
Recall that the seal is affected by the packer primary seal and O-ring
secondary seal.

7.5.2.10. Grease the threads and insert the red plastic pipe plug and hand tighten.
In service this plug will be replaced with a stainless steel pipe plug. For new
fittings only plastic pipe plugs are acceptable as these will leak if the solid
plug has been incorrectly fitted into the access fitting, giving warning that the
access fitting may be insecure. These red plastic and stainless steel pipe
plugs are used to protect the plug internal threads from damage and are not
Engineering, Procurement, Construction And Commissioning
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Page : Page 39 of 39

pressure retaining items. They should not be tightened using a spanner.

7.5.2.11. Check the external threads of the access fitting are clean and clean if
required and grease. Only approved grease should be used.

7.5.2.12. Check the threads of the external thread protector are clean and install
the external plastic thread protector. Hand tightens only. Refer to appropriate
Section of this Standard.

7.5.3. External Thread Protection

7.5.3.1. The external thread protector is important as it prevents corrosion of the


outside threads on the access fitting. These threads are needed to secure
the isolation valve and retriever for installation and removal of corrosion
coupons and probes.

7.5.3.2. External thread protectors may be plastic or metallic. For new access
fitting installations steel thread protector caps with hole shall be used to
protect the external threads during transport and installation of spool pieces
and later during final completion of new works. Heavy protective covers are
not required.

7.5.3.3. These caps should be painted to BS 4800 shade 12 E 51 or equivalent.


These caps are not intended to, and do not, retain pressure. They are
provided with a sequence of holes to permit tightening with a C-spanner. The
caps should not be over tightened.

7.5.3.4. For new access fittings which are at the bottom of the line it will be
necessary to make a small hole in the top of the thread protector cover to
allow fluids and condensed water to drain out from the cap.

7.5.3.5. For horizontal and vertical fittings the large drain hole in the side of the
cap should be arranged to allow draining of fluid and condensed water from
the cap.

7.5.3.6. Before assembly of the thread protection cap onto the access fitting the
fitting should be dried and greased.

Reporting

When the installation and finishing off of the access fitting are completed the Field
Corrosion Engineer should be notified of the date of installation, the location of the
access fitting including the unique identification number (Works Identification Number or
similar) and the measured wall thickness of the pipeline or pipework. The wall thickness
is required to aid selection of internal fittings for corrosion coupons and probes. The
drawings of the plant should be modified as necessary to reflect the as built status.