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Rizal Technological University

Brgy. Malamig, Boni Ave., Mandaluyong City

College of Engineering and Industrial Technology

Written Report in Work


Chapter 33
Human Factors

Richelle B. Padilla
TF 10:30 am 12:00pm
Chapter 33
Human Factors
Report Content:
Human Factors at Eastman Kodak Company
Application of Human Engineering Principles and Techniques in the Design of
Electronic Production Equipment

The terms Ergonomics and Human Factors are sometimes used

synonymously. Both describe the interaction between the operator and the
demands of the task being performed, and both are concerned with trying to
reduce unnecessary stress in these interactions.
Ergonomics, however, has traditionally focused on how work affects
people. This focus includes studies of, among other things, physiological
responses to physically demanding work; environmental stressor such as
heat, noise, and illumination; complex psychomotor assembly tasks; and
visual-monitoring tasks. The emphasis has been on methods to reduce
fatigue by designing tasks so that they fall within peoples work capacities.
In contrast, the field of Human Factors, as practiced in the United
States, has traditionally been more interested in the human-machine
interface, or human engineering. It has focused on peoples behavior as they
interact with equipment and their environment, as well as on human size and
strength capabilities relative to product and equipment design. The emphasis
of human factors is often on designs that reduce the potential for human
Human factors also known as comfort-design, functional design and
user-friendly system. Its also the influence fundamental knowledge of
human capabilities and limitations. Human factors are the environmental,
organizational and job factors, and individual characteristics which influence
behavior at work.
Human factors is a system concerned with the relationship between
human beings, machines, and the work environment. The object is to obtain
the optimum balance between the human capabilities and the demands of
the task.
Human factors directs its attention largely to complex systems, and
places greater emphasis on the results of research and less on past
experience and empirical information in solving problems.

McCormick approaches the definition of human factors in three

stages, as follows:

The central focus of human factors relates to the consideration of

human beings in the design of the man-made objects, facilities, and
environments that people use in the various aspects of their lives.

The objectives of human factors in the design of these man-made

objects, facilities, and environments are twofold, as follows; (1) to
enhance the functional effectiveness with which people can use them;
and (2) to maintain or enhance certain desirable human values in the
process (e.g., health, safety, and satisfaction); this second objective is
essentially one of human welfare.

The central approach of human factors is the systematic application of

relevant information about human characteristics and behavior to the
design of the man-made objects, facilities, and environments that
people use.

Worker-machine relationship is the central core of human factors. The

work-machine system, like any system, has an objective or purpose, and
consists of inputs and outputs: raw material is processed.

A person ordinarily does three things in performing any task:



1. RECEIVES INFORMATION through the sense organs: eyes, ears, touch,
2. MAKES DECISIONS acts on the information obtained and on the basis
of his or her own knowledge
3. TAKES ACTION action resulting from the decision that has been made.
The action may be purely physical, as such as operating a machine, or
it may involve communication, such as giving oral or written
Men and machines both have sensors. The simplest model of a man-
machine unit consists of an individual operator working with a single
machine. In any machine system, the human operator first has to sense what
is referred to as a machine display, a signal that tells him something about
the condition or the functioning of the machine.
Decision making or information processing by machine occurs through the
user of computers, electrical circuit, or mechanical means. The action
function is the accomplishment or the output resulting from the decisions
made. Both men and machines may store information and there is usually

McCormick makes the following generalizations about the relative

capabilities of human beings and of machines.
Humans are generally better in their abilities to:

Sense very low levels of certain kinds of stimuli; visual, auditory,

tactual, olfactory, and taste.
Detect stimuli against high - noise level background, such as blips
on cathode-ray-tube (CRT) displays with poor reception.
Recognize patterns of complex stimuli which may vary from situation
to situation, such as objects in aerial photographs and speech sounds.
Sense unusual and unexpected events in the environment.
Store (remember) large amounts of information over long periods of
time (better for remembering principles and strategies than masses of
detailed information).
Retrieve pertinent information from storage (recall), frequently
retrieving may related items of information; but reliability of recall is
Draw upon varied experience in making decision; adapt decisions to
situational requirements; act in emergencies. (Does not require
previous programming for all situations.
Select alternative modes of operation, if certain modes fail.
Reason inductively, generalizing from observations.
Apply principles to solutions of varied problems.
Make subjective estimates and evaluations.
Develop entirely new solutions.
Concentrate on most important activities, when overload conditions
Adapt physical response (within reason) to variations in operational

Machines are generally better in their abilities:

Sense stimuli that are outside mans normal range of sensitivity, such
as x-rays, radar wavelengths, and ultrasonic vibrations.
Apply deductive reasoning, such as recognizing stimuli as belonging to
a general class (but the characteristics of the class need to be
Monitor for prescribed events, especially when infrequent (but
machines cannot improvise in case of unanticipated types of events).
Store coded information quickly and in substantial quantity (for
example, large sets of numerical values can be stored very quickly).
Retrieve coded information quickly and accurately when specifically
requested (although specific instructions need to be provided on the
type of information that is to be recalled).
Process quantitative information following specified programs.
Make rapid and consistent responses to input signals.
Exert considerable physical force in a highly controlled manner.
Maintain performance over extended periods of time (machines
typically do not fatigue as rapidly as humans.)
Count or measure physical quantities.
Perform repetitive activities simultaneously.
Maintain efficient operations under conditions of heavy load (men have
relatively limited channel capacity).
Maintain efficient operations under distractions.
The number of people working in the human factors grew rapidly during
World War II. A most important contribution of this group was the solving of
complex man machine problems as assisting in the design of every
industry equipment.


At Eastman Kodak Company, there has been a group investigating and
applying the principles of ergonomics and human factors for almost half
In early 1957, Dr. Charles I. Miller and Harry L. Davis met with Dr. Lucien
Broucha, who was the head of Haskell Laboratory at E.I. DuPont de Nemours
& Co.
They began work physiology data collection on jobs at Kodak and formulated
ideas and plans for a broad-spec-trum human factors function within the
company. They developed a human factors group formed. It was a joint effort
of the Medical Department and the Industrial Engineering Division of the
Kodak Park Division in Rochester, New York. The group specialized in
workplace and job analysis, and design within a very large industrial complex
that manufactures a diversity of photographic products, papers, chemicals,
and hardware products.
The company encompasses a wide spectrum of businesses, manufacturing
environments, and service organization to organization, according to their
needs and their organizational structure and systems. The information
provided here is the basis or evaluating workplaces, equipment, or



The Human Engineering Group was asked to investigate a micro welding

operation considered by management to be critical problem area. The
operation, involving manual welding and trimming of wire grids, was
excessively demanding on human resources. In spite of hourly break periods,
the operators complained of excessive fatigue, back strain and leg pains. The
Human Engineering Group, in conjunction with the Industrial Design Group,
studied the problem and recommended a drastically revised work
environment. The rationale for developing design solutions is discussed,
followed by the translation of design into hardware definitions.