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MIET2485 Virtual Validation, Documentation and Maintenance

2017

Project Plan
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Foldable Ski Bike

Authors
Axel Artur du Plessis (s3641595)
Farhan Mohammad Azhar (s3628519)
Ge Wu (s3636981)
Thomas Lapid (s3380138)

Supervisor
Dr Allen Tam
Contents

Abstract ...................................................................................................................................... 1

Introduction ................................................................................................................................ 2

I. Concept ................................................................................................................................... 2

1.1 Scope Statement ............................................................................................................... 2

1.2 Product Description .......................................................................................................... 3

II. Criteria, Quality and Performance ........................................................................................ 3

2.1 Standards .......................................................................................................................... 3

2.2 Market Research ............................................................................................................... 4

2.3 Cost Estimation ................................................................................................................ 4

2.4 Testing methods ............................................................................................................... 6

2.5 Production ........................................................................................................................ 7

III. Project Plan .......................................................................................................................... 8

3.1 Stakeholders ..................................................................................................................... 8

3.2 Timeline ........................................................................................................................... 8

3.3 Communication Plan ........................................................................................................ 9

3.4 Documentation Standards .............................................................................................. 10

3.4.1 Drawing Numbering Convention ......................................................................... 11

3.4.2 Part Numbering Convention ................................................................................. 13

3.5 Process of Change Request ............................................................................................ 13

References ................................................................................................................................ 17
Abstract

This report provides a detailed planning process for the design of a foldable ski bike, it is part
of the final assignment for MIET2485. Its content should help stakeholders and possible
investors to understand the baselines of the project. It will also be used to determine whether
the process in on track during execution. The scope statement, requirements, communication
methods, deadlines as well as the roles and responsibilities of the team members are all
described in details in this report. A process for change request is also included so that
adjustments can be made with as little disruption as possible.

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Introduction

The main objective of this project is to design and develop a foldable ski bike, including a
brake system and innovative mechanisms. Few designs are already available on the market;
they are, however, improvable. The aim is also to create the most cost efficient solution
available, assess its strengths, shortcomings and apply engineering knowledge to design an
effective, innovative and sustainable device.

The project will be carried out by identifying the key components that need to be addressed in
order to complete the task effectively and efficiently. A structural and mechanical analysis will
then be carried out on these components to develop a viable solution.

It is an interesting, motivating and challenging task which allows the team members to use their
knowledge and skills to come up with innovative solutions. The final design will be shaped
using CATIA V6, ABAQUS and Computer Aided Design supports.

I. Concept
1.1 Scope Statement

The team will design and test a downhill ski bike by the 1st May 2017.

The main features are listed below:

Safe (Able to support a user weighting 200kg)


Foldable frame (Maximum dimension of 1000mm x 800mm x 300mm when folded)
Light weight (Maximum of 13kg)
Affordable (Maximum selling price of $1000)
Brake System Included

3D Modelling software like CATIA & ABAQUS will be utilised in the design & test of the
ski bike. The team will not produce a physical prototype.

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1.2 Product Description

The Ski Bike final design will be based on a conventional BMX (Bicycle Motocross). The
pedals are only used by the user to stand or rest their feet, they are not linked to any cranking
mechanisms enabling the bike to move. The bike is only meant to go downhill on snow and it
is not motorised.

Below is a list of all the components:

Figure 1. Ski Bike Components

II. Criteria, Quality and Performance

2.1 Standards

To produce and commercialise a product, certain testing and manufacturing standards must
be met for quality assurance purposes. Since the system is basically a bike frame integrated
with skis rather than wheels, some standard testing and manufacturing methods of the bike
will carry over to ensure the highest quality of the product. The list below outlines relevant
standards to a bike frame:

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- ISO 4210 specifies safety and performance requirements for the design and testing of
bicycles and its sub-assemblies. For this hybrid design, part 6 of ISO 4210 would be
relevant as it outlines relevant testing methods for the frame and the fork for the bike [1].
- ASTM F2711-08 specifies the required standardised testing procedures to determine the
structural performance of bicycle frames. These include, frame fatigue in the horizontal
and vertical loading and also tests the impact strength of the frame [2].

2.2 Market Research

Skiing and snowboarding are common winter sports that require the user to be standing. These
sports are sometimes called extreme sports due to the high danger of certain stunts. Ski bopping
or snow-skiing is another type of winter sport that uses a bike frame to ski down slopes. The
sport and the related market have been growing continuously in the past decade.

However, these frames are not easily portable and do not possess systematic brake systems. It
requires certain skills to angle the bike to its side to slow down or stop.

2.3 Cost Estimation

This part of the report outlines the proposed production process for the snow bike:

Our factory will mostly likely assemble the snow bike and manufacture the snow
blades in house. Manufacturing snow blades is relatively simple and will reduce
outsourcing costs.
Handle bars, seats and bike forks are standardised parts, they can be provided by
suppliers.
The manufacturing method of die casting the frame, brackets and the locking
mechanisms can be outsourced by manufacturers.

The table below outlines a rough estimation for the cost of production of one ski bike. The
fixed cost was acquired from a study of estimating die casting costs [3]. This figure is high as
it includes equipment and manufacturing investments. The mass production of the bike would
lower the cost per unit considerably.

Fixed cost (Base cost + Mold Machining Cost) = $13,154.00

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Table 1. Material Cost

Materials QTY Cost Total

Die cast parts 1 50 $20.00

Fibreglass 1 $20.00 $1.00

Epoxy 1 $1.00 $40.00

Fork (Standard) 1 $40.00 $25.00

Seats (standard) 1 $25.00 $6.88

Indirect Cost (8% of all material) 8% $92.88

Table 2. Labor & proposed Selling Cost

Run
Set up
Labour (# of Cost/Hour Total
(# of Min)
Min
Assembly 10 60 20 66.66667
Machining 0 0 0 0
Welding 10 30 15 18.75
Lay-up process 30 45 20 150
Surface treatment 2 30 12 2.4
Labor 237.8167
Additional Overhead 25% $90.77

Cost price per bike $453.87


25% Profit 0.75
proposed selling cost $605.16

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2.4 Testing methods

The final design will be based on BMX models (Bicycle Motocross), components and
mechanisms will be modelled using CATIA V6 and Abaqus CAE. These programs are
available at RMIT and outside the campus using myDesktop, a free platform available to the
team members.

It will then be possible to compare alternative designs, mechanisms and materials using
CAD/CAE. Precise technical requirements will be set based on the scope statement. These are
criteria and figures that must be matched to reach a satisfactory outcome and finalise the
project. The testing process will start following the allocated timeline (Table. 3). At that stage,
FEA will be used by the team to come up with a suitable concept.

The result of this research will be a virtual prototype; if the final product is validated, the next
stage of the product development would then reach the manufacturing phase. Physical testing
procedures will then need to be implemented to confirm the results obtained with FEA.
Laboratory equipment will be necessary for testing mechanical property parameters such as
tensile, compression, tearing, shearing, pierce, fatigue and bending deformation [4].

The fork, seat & post, stem as well as the handle bars will be sourced from suppliers for
financial reasons. The appropriate components will be chosen depending on the corresponding
technical data given from suppliers; these data must match the technical requirements set in the
scope statement.

Components that are not outsourced will be tested using FEA simulating a user weighting
200kg in specified critical situations. Important features such as testing methodology,
temperature, failure severity and risk analysis will be taken into account.

Chemical analysis should also be considered, the material must be react adequately to low
temperatures and corrosion. Material used should also be safe to manufacture and use (no
Phthalates, Organotin, PAHs, etc).

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2.5 Production

The team will adopt a design for manufacture approach while 3D modelling the components
of the Ski Bike.

The materials & processes detailed in this chapter are part of a preliminary proposal, pending
the next stage of the project development.

Material & Machining Process of Frame

After careful consideration of common materials used on bicycle frames, the proposed material
to be used for the frame & folding hinge should be grade 6061 aluminium alloy. Components
of the frame should be die casted, followed by assembly welding (TIG) to form the complete
frame assembly. Finally, the assembly will undergo surface treatment & painting.

Material & Machining Process of Ski & Bracket

Skis should be made from composites.


Brackets should be made from steel alloy.

Off the Shelf Components

The following components will be purchased from reliable suppliers for the final assembly:

1. Bicycle fork
2. Stem
3. Handlebars
4. Saddle with post

Assembly

The assembly of the Ski Bike involves the following process:

1. Frame
i. Welding of frame components & folding mechanism
ii. Surface treatment & painting
iii. Insert & secure fork
2. Skis
i. Fastening skis to bracket
3. Align & fasten brackets (with skis) to the frame & fork

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4. Insert & secure seat post
5. Insert, align & secure stem to fork
6. Insert, align & secure handlebars to stem

III. Project Plan


3.1 Stakeholders

All 4 designers in this project are current students enrolled in the Masters of Engineering
(Computer Aided Engineering & Design).

Axel: Bachelor Degree in Mechanical Engineering with Solid Works/FEA expertise.

Farhan: Bachelor Degree in Mechanical Engineering with 6 years industry experience.

Thomas: Bachelor Degree in Aerospace Engineering with experience in 3D software and


FEA

Wu Ge: Bachelor of Mechanical Engineering

3.2 Timeline

A Gantt chart will be used as a production control tool. Table show the project management
timeline for the design process.

Table 3. Gantt Chart

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Conception
The design process will start following the allocated timeline. The project members will come
up with preliminary concepts, early designs that will be used to study the pros and cons of
different alternatives. The best design will then be selected upon a number of criteria set by the
team. Relevant testings will be done along this period to come up with suitable solutions and
projected results. Final adjustments will be made if necessary until the completion of a fully
designed product.

Testing
The testing process will be aligned with the conception. A testing plan must be elaborated
followed by the elaboration of technical requirements. These are criteria and figures that
must be matched to reach a satisfactory outcome and finalise the project. The use of FEA will
allow the team to test their designs. After documenting existing issues, if any, adjustments
will be made to come up with a final product that met the standards set by the group.

Brochure Elaboration

The conception of the brochure will start early on with the elaboration of the catalogue
structure. The catalogue will then be shaped along the conception and testing process. Once
the brochure is finalised, the team will prepare an oral presentation to present their final
product.

3.3 Communication Plan

The team will rely on a shared folder in Google Drive for information sharing. A chat group
on Whatsapp has been created for updates, impromptu discussions & appointments.

Regular weekly meetings will be conducted in RMIT Building 57 Caf every Thursday
from1630h 1830h. Agenda of each meeting is detailed in the table below:

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Table 4: Weekly Meeting Agenda

1. Verification of previous meetings minutes.

2. Master Drawing List Update

3. BOM Update

4. Interfacing

5. Testing & Results

6. Reports & other documentation

7. Any other business.

3.4 Documentation Standards

The figure below shows how the ski bike is sub-divided. All drawings & part numbering
conventions will follow this general breakdown.

Figure 2. Ski Bike Breakdown

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3.4.1 Drawing Numbering Convention

All engineering drawings shall follow the convention below:

Figure. 3 Drawing Numbering Standards

A Master Drawing List (MDL) will be generated & updated weekly. This is to ensure that
updates & revisions of all drawings are communicated amongst team members.

Table 5. MDL Example


Ski Bike Master Drawing List

Date:

Drawing
Component Document Description Remarks
Number

0.00.xx Ski Bike Ski Bike Assembly

0.01.xx FEM Test Results

0.02.xx CFD Test Results

0.03.xx Sales Brochures

0.04.xx Maintenance Instructions

1.00.00 Frame Frame Assembly

1.01.00 Frame Sub-component 1

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1.02.00 Frame Sub-component 2

1.xx.00 Frame Sub-component x

2.00.00 Skis Skis Assembly

2.01.00 Skis Sub-component 1

2.02.00 Skis Sub-component 2

2.xx.00 Skis Sub-component x

3.00.00 Braking Braking System Assembly


System
3.01.00 Braking System Sub-component 1

3.02.00 Braking System Sub-component 2

3.xx.00 Braking System Sub-component x

4.00.00 Steering Steering Assembly

4.01.00 Steering Sub-component 1

4.02.00 Steering Sub-component 2

4.xx.00 Steering Sub-component x

5.00.00 Seat Riders Interface Assembly

5.01.00 Riders Interface Sub-component 1

5.02.00 Riders Interface Sub-component 2

5.xx.00 Riders Interface Sub-component x

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3.4.2 Part Numbering Convention

All part numbering shall follow the convention below:

Figure 4. Part Numbering Standards

A Bill of Material (BOM) will be generated & updated weekly. This is to ensure that updates
of all components are communicated amongst team members.

Table 6. Example of BOM


S/N Part Description Material Weight Reference Remarks Illustration
Number Document

3.5 Process of Change Request

A system has been formalised to manage the expected design changes. This will streamline the
flow of information and trigger a subsequent action plan, from the initiator of the change to the
rest of the group members. Figure 4. Shows the flowchart of the change process and Table 6.
is a template of the change request form.

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Figure 4. Flowchart of Change Process

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Table 6. Change Form

Project Change Request Form

A) Requesters General Information

1. Name:

2. Date Submitted:

3. Date Required By:

B) Change Description

1. Title:

2. Reason for Change:

3. Description:

4. Attachments:

5. References:

C) Impact Assessment

1. What is Affected?

0. Ski Bike Assembly

1. Frame

2. Skis

3. Braking System

4. Steering

5. Riders Interface

A) Master Drawing List

B) Bill of Material

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C) FEM Testing

D) CFD Testing

E) Brochures

F) Manuals

i) Others

2. Estimated Added Time:

3. Estimated Added Cost:

D) Teams Decision

1. To Implement Change?

2. Reason for decision:

3. Date of Decision Made:

E) Follow Up Action

1. Axel

2. Farhan

3. TJ

4. Wu

F) Attachments

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References

[1] ASTM, ASTM F22711, in Standard Test Methods for Bicycle Frames 2008, IHS
London.

[2] Schaik, J.W.v., New ISO standard for Bicycles Implemented. 2015.

[3] William Lovejoy, S.F., Shaun Jackson, Product Costing Guidlines. 2010, University of
Michigan: Michigan.

[4] Lpine, J., Champoux, Y. and Drouet, J. (2016). Test Protocol for In-situ Bicycle Wheel
Dynamic Comfort Comparison. Procedia Engineering, 147, pp.568-572.

[5] Buy SR SUNTOUR Mountain Bike Disc Fork XCT 26" 80mm | CD . 2017. Buy SR
SUNTOUR Mountain Bike Disc Fork XCT 26" 80mm | CD . [ONLINE] Available
at: https://www.cyclingdeal.com.au/buy/sr-suntour-mountain-bike-disc-fork-xct-26-
80mm/XCT-80BLK. [Accessed 05 April 2017].

[6] Fibreglass Chopped Strand Mat (450gram) - 5mtr pack (FREE FREIGHT) | eBay. 2017.
Fibreglass Chopped Strand Mat (450gram) - 5mtr pack (FREE FREIGHT) | eBay. [ONLINE]
Available at:http://www.ebay.com.au/itm/like/131022058567?chn=ps. [Accessed 05 April
2017]..

[7] Solid Solutions - Fibreglass Materials. 2017. Solid Solutions - Fibreglass Materials.
[ONLINE] Available at: http://www.solidsolutions.com.au/view_products.php?cat=26.
[Accessed 05 April 2017].

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